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Intimate Relationship In Police Work, Its Effects And Control Measures

Almost half of the population in the United States of America has been proved to be meeting their lifetime partners from their respective placed of work. That population also includes the hardworking police officers of the nation. In most cases, not all the employees would be happy for such a thing to take place in their various organizations. There are some employers who even go to the extent of issuing requirements that requires such workmates to sign a love contract that shows that they will abide by the rules and regulations of the company. The only problem with most of the companies as well as the police departments is that they do not have stipulated laws either formal or informal. Therefore such relations normally are left to blossom at the risk of the company’s prosperity. The same does apply to our police department that has a number of patrol units.

Read also Why Operational Police Officers Should Reflect Demographic Diversity of the Communities in Which they Work

One of the night patrol units in our department has been significantly affected by the intimate relationship that is alleged to be brewing between two professional officers. One of the most notable negative influences that such a relation has had is that the busiest sector unit is experiencing a massive drop in its productivity. The intimate relation is alleged to be taking place between one of the married police officers and a single young female. According to the investigations that have been conducted over a period of two months, we have been able to establish that the two are indeed lovebirds. As a department, we have noted the ongoing relation between the two officer and abrupt actions have to be taken in order to save the department from problems in the future. We all know that relationships normally tend to be very romantic and interesting at their beginning points. However, when they get to the levels where the partners want to separate, it normally becomes worse because the two may not even work together. In order to avoid such embarrassments and difficulties in the future, the department has to come up with policies that govern such relations within the unit.

Read also Entrapment and Legitimate use of Lies by Police

The intimate relations between the two officers can indeed affect the culture of the patrol units of the police. If they are left to continue with their romantic relations, the rest of the unit members may take it to be a normal tradition within that unit. What will then happen is that the rest of the officers will also start adopting the same behavior pattern (Yarmey, 1990).

Read also Cases Related to Entrapment by the Police

The number of romantic relations between the officers will be on the rise in the near future. Ultimately what will happen is that the patrol duties will be turned in to romantic dates where officers will only focus on getting their sexual desires satisfied at the expense of keeping their regions safe. In the event that no patrol work takes place especially at night, the number of burglaries within the cities will be on the rise. Additionally, the public might as well lose its confidence on the police unit. There is nothing as dangerous as the public losing its confidence on the police officers because if that happens then there is no way that the police will ever get vital intelligence information (Yarmey, 1990). Apart from that, those who get into the intimate relation may start giving one another certain undeserving favors to one another within the work environments.  For instance, if one of the partners needs to be absent from work without a valid reason, the other partner can easily guarantee the other partner. In case of division of police resources, one of the partners may get a favor to be one of those who get the resources even in the event where their names could be missing as one of the beneficiaries.

Read also Case of Jesse James Arrested for Killing Police Officer

Finally, such relations do affect the cultures of the police patrol units because it will eventually lead to a reduction in productivity by a margin of approximately 22 %. Moreover, the relations will have a negative effect on the working relation with the other team members. The more serious consequence is that it will damage the entire working relation environment by a margin close to 28 %. The romantic relations will in the long run have a way of disrupting the dynamics of the teams. When such relations turn sour, the ultimate effect is the two officers will no longer be able to work effectively as a team.

Read also Police Mission – Fighting Crime or Public Service

The above mentioned dangers could then trigger stress to the other officers apart from the one who gets affected directly. An officer who is paired to work with a colleague whom they once had a romantic relation may not give his all to his duties. The stress of having to work with an ex partner may not only affect such an officer but also affect the families of that officer (Borum and Philpot, 1993). One of the most notable effects is the inability for an officer to regulate their emotions which may lead to massive destructions. If such high levels of stress are not controlled in good time, it may lead to depression. Eventually such a person may get himself or herself getting into post-traumatic stress disorder (Haisch, D., & Meyers, L. (2004).

Read also Communication Barriers between Police and Community

Policies measures include prohibiting romantic relations between workmates either within or outside their areas of jurisdiction. Secondly it should be a policy that any two individuals found to be taking part in a romantic affair while on duty will be suspended for an indefinite period. Finally, it should be a law that during such period when an officer is suspended, they do not receive their payments.

Human Resource Management Terms

Taft-Hartley Act

The Taft-Hartley Act which is also known as the Labour Management Relations Act of 1947 came about after there was a great number of large-scale strikes which had nearly disabled the steel, automobile, as well as the packaging industries. It is an amendment of the Wagner Act and was designed so as to benefit all the parties involved to a common labour agreement-the employees, the employer and the labour union. This act bases on the right of the labour force to refrain themselves from the union activities(Groves, 1951). The Human Resource Management is shaped and influenced by the law. This thus helps an organization to control the inclusion of their employees in unions that might be available for them. It can be applied in HR when preventing its employees from joining national unions by set of rules and implementation of the act.

The Act is important as it provides for an avenue to make inquiry into investigating unions’ disputes when it is believed the strike would endanger national health or safety. The act is used in areas of collective bargain approach. An interesting part of the Taft-Hartley Act is the consideration of “unfair” labor practices within different backgrounds worldwide (Abraham, 2012).

Read also The Right-to-Work in the US

Employee Referrals

The concept is instrumental in human resource management as it involves a recruitment strategy with all-inclusive approach for engaging the organization’s workforce and streamlining its recruitment by saving on effort, money and time (Society for Human Resource Management (U.S.), (2011). Employee referrals are used in speedy hires as the employees sell the company to the candidates even before the actual interview. The interesting aspect of this concept is the substantiality of hiring the referred versus non-referred applicants.

Read also Recent Legislation That Helps to Protect Employees From Workplace Discrimination

Organization goal setting

This concept is significant in formulating a framework upon which the organization operates in terms of resource and human capital allocation into the company’s processes. It is used in a situation where an organization wants to meet a specific target of operation. The interesting part about organization goal setting is the involvement of the relevant stakeholders as they are critical in propelling the entire goal achievement process.

Read also Mission , Vision , Goals , Strategy In An Organization

360 Degrees

The 360 performance appraisal is an essential human resource management aspect in which the appraisal is incorporated with a feedback from every individual who are part of the organization or are affected by such performances. Generally, the tool is used for the middle and senior level category of employees. The interesting thing about 360 degrees appraisal is the broad range of stakeholders involved. This could make the process cumbersome.

Assessment centers

This another tool of human resource management which is essential in achieving more accuracy than conducting a standard recruitment process since the centers allow for a wider range of selection methods to be applied during the recruitment process. The selection centers are used as recruitment platforms in which different exercise are designed for the assessment of full range of personal attributes and skills for a job. An interesting area in assessment centers is how it helps the employer to build an employer brand because even the candidates who have been through the assessment centers but were not picked still feel impressed with the organization.

Profit Sharing

Profit sharing is important as it gets groups of employee to pursue a common goal through working together. An example of the usage of profit sharing concept at work is a situation in which a company contributes a proportion of its pre-tax profits into a pool which is distributed amongst its eligible employees. An interesting aspect of this HR management terminology is the evaluation of the common method for determining every participant’s allocation within a profit-sharing plan.


The Convenient Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) is important to human resource management as the individual entitled to elect COBRA continuation coverage at a time when he would otherwise lose group health coverage under a group health plan has the opportunity to consider every option he/she has to get other health coverage before he/she decides. COBRA is used in all the group health plans which are maintained by the private-sector employers having an employee base of 20 and more individuals. It is an interesting area in COBRA to analyze who is a qualified beneficiary to the plan. This is because only specific individuals can be qualified beneficiaries as a result of a qualifying event, with the kind of qualification event determining who is considered a qualified beneficiary when it happens.

Job Description

Job description is an important tool for HR management which helps in increasing organizational and individual effectiveness through development of job profiles for the different key positions in terms of duties and responsibilities. This HR management tool is used in recruitment campaigns in which there is an explicit articulation of duties and qualifications for a particular position. An interesting aspect of job description is the application of the organization’s work plan and job description in monitoring the entire organizational performance.

Read also Marketing Assistant Job Description

Read also How To Write Accurate and Effective Job Position Descriptions

Workforce Diversity

Workforce diversity is important as it portrays a positive reputation of a working environment since it is evident that the organization practices no employment discrimination. Workforce diversity is used at work to inculcate a culture of nurturing creative ideas to the mix as a result of incorporating heterogeneous groups in the organizations workforce (Scott & Byrd, 2012). One interesting fact about workforce diversity is that the business world is embracing economic globalization era in which a company’s global look is an inevitable factor.

Read also Diversity, Higher Productivity, Job Satisfaction and Workforce

Read also Managing Diversity and Promoting Multi-Cultural Competency in Healthcare Workforce

Performance Evaluation

It is important for an organization to conduct a performance evaluation of its employees in order to ensure that organization’s and the individual’s needs are met through assessing and job performance status to subordinate employees and make suggestions on the needed changes in skills, attitude, job knowledge and behavior. An example of an area at work in which performance evaluation is used is where a senior personnel has the obligation to indicate strengths and weaknesses of the subordinate for an informed changes making. An interesting area in performance evaluation is the variations in the key steps involves in the preparations of conducting performance appraisal. These variation create a huge gap in having a standardized performance appraisal criterion (Grote, 2009).


Outsourcing is an important aspect in business arena in a scenario where the organization wants to focus on its core, activities that are value-adding with no distraction of running support services. This is because support services can soak up the organization’s financial resources and management time as these would usually enable the business to use its resources and competences in gaining competitive advantage. Secondly, outsourcing is equally important in cost restructuring, for instance, outsourcing for component manufacturing ensure that the organization incurs lower fixed cost and higher variable costs.  Making the components in-house, ensures that they would be inevitably associated with substantial fixed overheads. Lastly, outsourcing is considerably significant in a scenario that the business wants to transfer risk. To outsource a particular process which is perceived to be risky transfers some degree of risk to another company.

Read also Outsourcing – Best Practices, Methodologies, Factors To Consider and Pitfalls

An example of where outsourcing is used is where the one seeks catering facilities. Secondly, a company would need to keep its files and documents safe by assigning a company handle its documents.

Read also Performance Objectives in Outsourcing Decision Making – A Case Study of Costa Coffee

An interesting fact about it is that usually there is no clear mechanism to compare the capabilities and services which are provided by third party organizations and the ones provided in-house. This is because, if there is no standardization of the processes, it’s difficult for the companies to make a decision on whether outsourcing  provides money and to do a comparison of the different potential suppliers.

Boeing Inc SWOT Analysis and How it is Impacted By The Five Forces of Competition

How the Five (5) Forces of Competition Impact Boeing Inc

Boeing, Inc. like any other corporate organization is affected by the five (5) forces of competition. According to Sheehan (2013), the five forces of competitions are: (1) threat of substitutes; (2) threat of new entrants; (3) Buyers’ bargaining power; (4) suppliers’ bargaining power; and (5) Competitive rivalry. These are Michael Porter’s five competitive forces that influence the strategy of the business. It is upon this five force model that economists consider when it comes to industry analysis.

Read also Functions of Operations Management and How they Affected Failure of Boeing 737 Max

Threat of substitutes

            According to (Sheehan, 2013), many people from various parts of the globe prefer Boeing aircrafts and, therefore, this is a sure indication that the threat of substitution is mild. This implies that the number of substitutes is limited making it a little hard for customers to find another aircraft manufacturing company that can satisfy their expectations as Boeing. However, considering the current technological development in cars, bullet trains and many others, there is likelihood that the trend may have adverse effects on the business of manufacturing aircrafts in the future.  

Read also Boeing Competitive and Industrial Environments Assessment

Threat of new entrants

In the case of Boeing, Inc., there is low threat of new entrants. This is mainly attributed to huge amounts of funds required as fixed cost in order to join the industry and compete. There are various factors that require consideration before new entrants can join the industry: they include: all-encompassing level of activities and R&D budget, high level technology required, enormous sums of capital required for investment among other factors (Sheehan, 2013). Other factors that limit entry include strong networks of distribution, huge sunk costs that reduce competition, economies of scale requirement and patents.  These factors are significant for creating extreme entry barriers leading to minimal success for new entrants. Nonetheless, there are a few companies that have conducted their operations in regional levels. For instance, China’s aircraft manufacturers do take advantage of the niche market due to the preferential benefit that a specific nation state arranges.     

Read also Public Policy Development, Enactment, Implementation, and Impact – Boeing Scenario       

Buyers’ bargaining power

            According to Sheehan (2013), buyers generally have mild bargaining power. In most cases, buyers can only have high bargaining power if the product is common. There is also high switching cost for the buyer. This is because of long-term contracts and technological factors involved as well as low bargaining power. It is worth noting that purchasing an aircraft is capital intensive investment, and that the buyer and the seller require engaging in a long-term contract, which limits the buyer’s bargaining power. There are also limited buyer choices, most customers cherish Boeing services, and limited information is available to buyers and this limits their ability to negotiate with sellers (Sheehan, 2013). All these factors have a positive impact on Boeing, Inc.     

Read also Pricing Model for Boeing 502 Small Satellite

Supplier’s bargaining power

            In the case of aircraft manufacturing, suppliers usually have low bargaining power. Boeing, Inc., for instance, makes outsourcing arrangements with many suppliers around the world. There are over a hundred companies around the world supplying Boeing, Inc. with aircraft parts. These huge numbers of suppliers limits their bargaining power, and this has positive effects on the aircraft company (Sheehan, 2013).

Read also BUS618 – Solving Compensation and Benefits Challenges In Boeing Company

Competitive rivalry

            According to Sheehan (2013), there is high competitive rivalry. This is because of high barriers preventing exit, undifferentiated strategies and lack of a clear market leader, and slow industry growth are some of the factors that drive competitive rivalry in the aircraft manufacturing industry. This market phenomenon happens as a result of the market being extremely duopoly in the sense that players do realize minimal profit margin in the industry. This is the reason for continuous competitive rivalry between Airbus and Boeing for more industrial share.        

SWOT Analysis for Boeing, Inc.


            One of the greatest strengths of Boeing, Inc. is their ability to meet the huge customer demand by ensuring that they produce their products in different varieties. Having a well-recognized global image is also great strength for the company. It is worth noting that the company can comfortably provide customers with various products and services that include: integrated defense system, commercial airplanes, space and communication, and military and missile system (Magretta & Porter, 2014). Boeing also delights in the quality of the products that they create. So far, it is the best aircraft manufacturing company in the world and this has enabled it to have competitive financial performance. The company has the capacity to manufacture highly advanced aircrafts that are able to satisfy the expectations of customers in the modern society.

Read also Impact of Boeing Inc’s Mission, Vision, and Primary Stakeholders on its Success


            High pension costs have continually become one of the greatest weaknesses of the company. The company’s latest financial report indicates that it has a pension load of more than $75 billion dollars, a figure that is almost higher than the value of the assets of its plan (Magretta & Porter, 2014). The second weakness of the company is the high R&D spending. In 2012; for instance, the company’s R&D expenditures stood at $3.3 dollars, a phenomenon that negative effects on its profit margins. During other times, the company has had problems with execution especially during the implementation of the essential 787 program.


            One of the greatest opportunities for the company is the 787 Dreamliner. On rare occasions in the past few years, this company’s platform has had problems related to delays and even execution (Magretta & Porter, 2014). However, being the first ever fuel efficient, revolutionary long-range jet airliner that utilizes composite materials, it has opportunities of becoming the most profitable program in the coming years. The second opportunity is industry fundamentals. In the recent years, the airline industry has exhibited powerful recovery after the recession financial crisis period that had caused it to crash (Magretta & Porter, 2014). In this regard, opportunities for company include enhanced microeconomic backdrop, stable fuel prices and increasing demand for the products and services.


One of the greatest threats the company continues experiencing is defense spending (Magretta & Porter, 2014). There has been reduction defense spending by the U.S. federal government and this negatively affects results across space and security division, and defense. The problem is that this situation may not reverse in the near future. Increasing competition is also another threat that the company faces. China’s Comac and Canada’s Bombardier Aerospace are the greatest threats to Boeing, Inc.   

Based on the SWOT analysis, the best strategy for the company, which can help it capitalize on its strengths and opportunities and minimize its weaknesses and threats, is globalization strategy. Considering that there are only a few players in the industry due to huge capital investment and stiff competition, the company requires emphasizing globalization strategy in order to tap into all the available markets (Shaw, 2011). Besides, globalization strategy is effective for optimizing the company’s financial performance on a short-term basis. It should also be clear that there are various strategies that Boeing, Inc. can embrace to maximize its competitiveness and profitability in the industry. The first one is embracing union leadership. The company should have policies that drive the management to work in collaboration with all employees. The second strategy is development and initiation of programs and processes in such a way that the company continuously makes improvement in its manufacturing aspect and guarantee safety for all employees. The following is an outline of the communication plan that Boeing, Inc. can embrace to inform all stakeholder about the above mentioned strategies. The plan may include: employee special events, bulletin board messages, employee annual report, electronic email messages, newsletters, letters sent shareholders through their mail boxes, and annual meetings Sheehan, J. (2013).       

The five forces of competition affecting Boeing are: threat of substitutes; threat of new entrants; Buyers’ bargaining power; suppliers’ bargaining power; and Competitive rivalry. Based on the SWOT analysis, the best strategy for the company, which can help it capitalize on its strengths and opportunities and minimize its weaknesses and threats, is globalization strategy.

Obama Care And Affordable Care Act

What is Obama Care ?

The concept behind Obama Care was an individual mandate to couple with subsidies for private insurance. The concept was first put forth by The Heritage Foundation, a politically conservative think tank. Their idea was that this was an acceptable alternative to the single-payer initiative, “Medicare for All,” being proposed by the Clinton Administration. Since that time health care reform was proposed and expanded upon by both parties until it was implemented in Massachusetts by then-Governor Romney. During the 2008 elections, health care reform became a major plank on the platform of the Democratic Party. When Barack Obama became president he started trying to pass the 2009 with the Affordable Health Care for America Act. This was followed by the Patient Protection Act, which culminated in to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act 2010 (PPACA), or for short, “the Affordable Care Act” (ACA). After several changes, President Barak Obama signed the Affordable Care Act into law on March 23, 2010.

Read also The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) And How It has Impacted American Government and Society

What is the Affordable Care Act?

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act(PPACA) 2010, or Affordable Care Act (ACA) for short, is the new health care reform law in America and is often called by its nick-name Obamacare. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is made up of theAffordable Health Care for America Act,the Patient Protection Act, and the health care related sections of theHealth Care and Education Reconciliation Actand theStudent Aid and Fiscal Responsibility Act. It also includes amendments to other laws like the Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act and the Health and Public Services Act. Since being signed into law additional rules and regulations have expanded upon the law, we have attempted to update our summaries with those changes.

Read also Individual Mandate Included in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

Read also Politics and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

What Does the Affordable Care Act Do?

The Affordable Care Act is a long, complex piece of legislation that attempts to reform the health care system by providing more Americans with affordable quality health insurance and by curbing the growth in healthcare spending in the U.S. Reforms include new benefits, rights and protections, rules for insurance companies, taxes, tax breaks, funding, spending, the creation of committees, education, new job creation and more. Please note that the law, in many cases, gives power to ongoing efforts by Health and Human Services and other Government programs to reform health care. So healthcare reform doesn’t start and end with the Act itself. Make sure to check out the official HHS site for more information on healthcare reform outside of the ACA.

Read also Public Opinion And The Affordable Care Act

Read also Want To Know More About Affordable Care Act – Must Read Resources

Want To Know More About Affordable Care Act – Must Read Resources

Must Read

Medicaid.  (n.d.). Affordable Care Act. Retrieved from <>

This sit gives an overview of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). It gives more information specific aspects addressed by the ACA policy including the kind of reforms it brings, and its influence in Medicaid and Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP). The site gives information on who are eligibility, who or how it is financed, benefits it bring to American peoples, and premium paid by those seeking individual coverage.

Read also Politics and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

Rosenbaum, S. (2011). The patient protection and affordable care act: Implications for public health policy and practice. Public Health Rep, 126(1), 130-135. Retrieved from <>

This journal article gives a review of the ACA amendment and anticipated changes when the policy would be implemented fully as from 2014. The article gives an overview of this act and its chief elements. It also gives detailed information on reforms made in the health insurance coverage and how the ACA has improved health-care quality, accountability and efficiency. The article also discusses the consequences the policy has on public health practice and policy.

Read also The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) And How It has Impacted American Government and Society

Obama, B. (2016). United States health care reform progress to date and next steps. JAMA, 316(5), 525-532.

The article provides a brief history of what transpired from the time President Obama got into the office for the first time to kind of achievements that had been recorded by the time he was leaving the office as two-term president of the U.S. The article give progress experienced after full implementation of ACA in 2014 especially in terms of coverage and what policy makers may need to do in the future to enhance health care reforms.

Read also Individual Mandate Included in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

Hansler, J. (2017, Sep 13). A short American history: from Medicare to Obamacare to …. Berniecare? CNN Politics. Retrieved from <>

This news report traces the history of Affordable Care Act from the day it was introduced in the American Congress in 1960s to the enactment of Obamacare and other changes or development that have taken place after its enactment. The article narrates the introduction of Medicare for all bill in early 1960, enactment of Social Security Amendments by President Lyndon in 1965, failed attempt to reform health care bill during President Bill Clinton’s time, the development noted during President George W. Bush time and changes attained during President Obama’s time.

Read also Role of Paradigm Shift Under Affordable Care Act and How Transparency Role in Pricing of Health Care

Sanger-Katz, M. (2017, Feb 5). Grading Obamacare: Successes, failures and ‘incompletes.’ The New York Times. Retrieved from <>

This article analyses Affordable Care Act commonly known as Obamacare, highlighting its success and failures and the future anticipations. The analysis is clearly based on changes that Obamacare have introduced in the healthcare sectors and in the social and economic life of special groups in the country and how it has affected others in the country.

Read also Public Opinion And The Affordable Care Act

Editorial Board. (2013, 13 Dec). Design flaws in the affordable care act. The Washington Post. Retrieved from <>

This article cites Affordable Care Act design flaw. The flaw is said to be the cause of the gap between the anticipated level of enrollment and the current level of enrollment. This article will help in understand why the ACA is highly flawed by most of its critics

Read also Evaluating Potential Effects of Affordable Care Act Nationwide

Supplement Readings

Cannan, J. (2013). A legislative history of the affordable care act: How legislative procedure shapes legislative history. Law Library Journal, 105(1), 131-173. Retrieved from <>

This journal article gives detailed history of the Affordable Care Act during the Obama era. The article provide detailed information regarding how the bill was reintroduced in the congress, how it was treated in the two houses and how reconciliation was reached to be able to ensure the bill passed despite having been rejected in the past. The article also covers information on the court cases that have been experienced regarding this act since it was enacted in 2010 by President Obama.

National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius567 U.S. 519 (2012). Retrieved from <>

This is a landmark case where the Supreme Court of the United States made a decision in which it upheld the power of Congress to enact the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act provision. The court on this case upheld personal mandate to purchase health insurance as a congress taxing power constitutional exercise.

The White House. (2016, March 02). Fact sheet: The affordable care act: Healthy communities six years later. Retrieved from <>

This article gives overview of what has been achieved or changes recorded since the enactment of Affordable Care Act by the president Barack Obama on 23rd March 2010 to 2nd March 2016. The article gives statistics of number of individuals enrolled to various ACA programs in the country.

Enterprise Systems, How it Works and Its Uses

What is an Enterprise System?

Enterprise systems (ES) are referred to as large-scale application software packages which reinforce business processes, reporting, information inflows, as well as data analytics within the complex organizations. Whereas ES are generally packaged enterprise application software (PEAS) systems, they are considered as bespoke, custom advanced systems established to support particular organizational requirements. The enterprise systems falls under various categories including enterprise planning systems, customer relationship management software, and enterprise resources planning (ERP) systems. Even if business intelligence and data warehousing systems are enterprise-broad package application software commonly sold by ES retailers, they don’t directly support implementation of business processes, but they instead exclude from this terminology. Otherwise, this assignment is aimed at providing essential and sufficient explanation and information concerning enterprise systems (Seddon, Calvert & Yang, 2010).

Read also Success Criteria for Implementation of Enterprise Systems

How the Enterprise Systems Work

The enterprise system operates in a variety of ways. In several countries, for example, the US, the enterprise system operates in accordance to some five main principles. These include; the profit motive, right to private property, the right to choose a business, customer sovereignty and competition. These principles can be explained individually in the way they operate.

  • Profit motive

The main reason to start an enterprise company is basically to make money. This can be done by earning more money than is spent. The amount of money that is left after the subtraction of the expenses from the business income is thus referred to as the profit. Organizations basically try hard to keep their costs down and increase the income from the business (Vernadat, 2007).

  • Right to private property

A private property is basically a home, a piece of land, a family, a car owned by the individual or a group. It is different from public property, public building and many more which make provision of the government services for the citizens. In the U.S economic system, for example, the people’s right to own or sell property is guaranteed by the law. In the setting up of the computer systems for the customers, one has no right to make an interference with the telephone, electrical or the computer systems of other persons.

  • Right to choose a business

In many countries, it is up to a person to make a decision as to whether or not they venture into computer services or even other types of businesses.They as well make a decision of the amount of fees they need to charge and the working hours as well. They are however controlled by the law which prevents the business owner from harming or cheating their consumers and employees(Vernadat, 2007). They will however be left to feel free to run their business as they deem fit.

  • Customer sovereignty

At the end, it is consumers who make a determination as to whether a business will succeed or fail. The consumers have the final say. The consumers have the right to choose whether they can spend their money on either product X or Y. If they prefer one over the other, then the owner has no right to stand in their way.

  • Competition

Just as one is free to start a particular business, so is someone else. The rivalry that exists between the sellers who are in the same field is termed as competition. If your business is profitable, there are chances that another person may enter into the same field. Thus, the competition will exist for the same product (Vernadat, 2007).

Read also Codifying Processes Into Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems

Current Use of Enterprise Systems

            Enterprise systems (ES) are confirmed to be industry-specific and customizable software package which integrate business and information process within an organization. Based on this, ES has attracted the interest of explorers hence resulting to a proliferation concerning implementation of literature. Recently, ES has been employed in various firms thus leading to great transparency and accountability. For instance, this software has promised the seamless integration of the entire information circulating within the company’s accounting and financial information, supply chain information, human resource information as well as customers’ details (Hendricks, Singhal & Stratman, 2007).

Read also Enterprise Resource Planning Implementation at Hershey

To be specific, the application of SE has lead to increase of sales in the largest vendor, Germany’s SAP through making it to score from 500 million dollars to 3.3 billion dollars from 2013 to 2014, hence making it emerge as the fastest growing software firm in global view. This is due to the fact that it has aided various management tasks within the organization including planning, controlling, and directing immense daily activities. For instance, SE employs an integrated database hence being able to bring about resolutions concerning multi-module application model in the general information system. Afar from point elucidation that depend on multiple databases which stresses IT resources, ES explanations standardizes usage of single application during the process of monitoring the whole business (Seethamraju, 2007).

Common Attitudes and Personal Attitudes towards Enterprise Systems

            Generally, it has been confirmed that almost all individuals are endowed with common attitude concerning enterprise attitudes. At this juncture, implementation and management of Enterprise systems is considered being expensive particularly when used by small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs). Accordingly, these miniature firms are unable to gather enough money and resources for facilitating effectual and effective performance of this software. Exemplarily, companies require the right individuals to ensure that their information is secured, hence subjecting majority of companies to pressure since they cannot afford to recruits consultants who dedicate themselves to this area (Shang & Seddon, 2002).

Moreover, the cost of installing the ES for various corporations and the expense associated with getting license are extremely high. The firms also face cost particularly when the enterprise systems are unable to integrate with organizational legacy systems. This is a situation where the legacy systems are older that computer or applications systems that the enterprise has been employing for a long duration. Since the initial applications and computer systems are contained with essential information, then for the enterprise system to work with inheritance application, the company shall be forced to buy new servers, applications or computers (Seddon, Calvert & Yang, 2010).

Personally, I also consider ES to be contained with some assaults which will affect efficiency and effectiveness of the organization primarily in the long-tem view. Indeed, ES are confirmed to have a lifespan of 10-20 years where they can be effectual, after which they require to be upgraded. Despite this appearing as a longer duration, organizational data usually accumulates exponentially and this may prove some difficulties during management and storage predominantly while using single software system. To be specific, information overflow and succeeding slowdown within a single department shall certainly be comprised with ripple impact in other tasks of the company (Hendricks, Singhal & Stratman, 2007).

Fundamental Advantages and Disadvantages of Enterprise System

The Enterprise systems plays significant role in large companies hence leading to productivity and also heightening efficiency of the organization. Foremost, these systems are confirmed to aid companies to conduct crucial tasks, including determining the best means of manufacturing products, tracking orders, and also supporting incorporation of revenues, costs and profits. Secondly, they also act as large-scale application facilitating the companies to incorporate and organize their business operations.  Actually, these systems can ascertain that all the company’s departments are able to share crucial information with each other.

Moreover, the organizations are chanced to implement enterprise systems with purpose of synchronizing the tasks of various departments (Hendricks, Singhal & Stratman, 2007). At this point, an integrated system helps in reduction of the time employed while processing documents including payrolls as well as external documents. Additionally, managers’ tasks for overseeing operations are being eased since the system ensures that major business goals are attained through ES. Since the managers are able to get information from centralized server, then the process of making decision becomes more informed thus yielding better outcomes (Seddon, Calvert & Yang, 2010).

On the other hand, the ES is also considered to be affected by various challenges. Firstly, the tailoring of the ES based on the organizational preferences can be tricky. It is very unusual that firms shall accept enterprise systems the way they are. Eventually, consultants or employees can spend a huge amount of time while programming or conversing to the enterprise system’s technical support so as to satisfy the clients’ needs. Moreover, the company needs to encounter extra costs so as to provide comprehensive training to employees who are using ES. Similarly, this system requires the company to change policies and operations that are not in line with ES hence leading to complication of company’s activities and also subjecting the firm to higher expenses (Soja, 2008).

Experts Views Concerning Likely Future of Enterprise Systems

            There are various technology based experts who have indicated that enterprise systems are backed with great future. Foremost, Siddhesh Bhobe, a special gamification and social media-centered client’s engagement platform has proved that the ES is endowed with longer span. During his exploration of application of enterprise systems, he stated that advancement of big data explorer and social tools is heightening engagement betwixt managers, workers and customers (Seethamraju, 2007). Moreover, Andrew Osborn, the system management expert has also backed the idea that ES is emerging as amongst applications which have eased management practices within the organization.

In particular, this gentleman has confirmed that the managers are capable of accessing all information concerning the entire company through the servers hence leading to improvement of transparency and accountability within the organization. While summing up, James Cox, a solution architect in Allstate has also provided confidential information backing stability of the ES. In his argument, James state that this software is capable of securing the organization’s data since it is contained with sufficient space and it is hard to be hacked or interfered with by strangers (Sedera, Gable & Chan, 2004).

Have Modern Presidents Exceeded their Constitutionally Granted Powers – Donald Trump

For decades, both Republicans and Democrats have expressed worry about the increase of presidential powers, some of which Congress has relinquished out of political necessity and much of which the White House has interpreted constitutionally ambiguous areas to justify its own power grabs. According to Pazzanese (2020), since Richard Nixon, leaders have primarily remained in check, adhering to long-established informal rules and traditions, despite the Oval Office now wielding more power. Then Trump came along. As a self-described rule-breaker, Trump has broken with history and standards of presidential decorum while challenging the boundaries of the office, legal scholars say. Impeachment and reelection are two options available under the Constitution to rein in presidents who refuse to follow the rules. In the past four years, particularly the weeks leading up to the inauguration of President-elect Joe Biden, these correctives have not always worked as planned. They also have little power to regularly restrain a president who engages in questionable, but not unlawful, behavior (Pazzanese, 2020).

Read also Critical Analysis of a Political Campaign – Donald Trump’s 2016 Presidential Campaigns

More than a few presidents have abused the executive branch’s authority to further their personal political ambitions. Before Trump, there were legal and norm infractions. But he has acted in a way that has made all of the problems already on the radar screen worse. We are concerned that Trump has revealed a slew of loopholes that a future president will use to abuse the office of President and circumvent established norms and regulations. Donald Trump’s view of executive authority is unusual, but it isn’t just because he wants to expand it (Graham, 2018). In the modern period, a president’s job description includes the responsibility of broadening presidential powers. This week, when Trump flirted with a self-pardon, many of those concerns were misdirected because the President’s use of executive power was already being questioned.

Read also Does Donald Trump Pay Taxes? Here’s What We Know – Article Summary

The President’s choice to flex his muscles During their tenures as presidents, past presidents have repeatedly pushed the boundaries of their authority and the Constitution’s protections for the people. On the other hand, Trump appears to be going to great lengths to circumvent the restrictions of his office to protect his own interests. He abuses the office of President for his gain (Graham, 2018). He does so more aggressively when he uses it to defend himself and those close to him. That’s where he’s the most confident. Even though the Office of Legal Counsel (OLC) said he couldn’t do it, Richard Nixon explored the notion late in the Watergate controversy and never tried. As a result, he instead resigned and was pardoned by his successor, Gerald Ford. The limitations of Trump’s executive authority will not be revealed until the President tries to pardon himself, refuses to comply with an investigation, or shoots a former official while trying to evade arrest. Accordingly, this suggests that President Trump clearly illustrates recent presidents who have strayed from their legally authorized powers (Graham, 2018).

Read also Donald Trump’s Call to Monitor Polls Raises Fears of Intimidation – Article Summary

Because the administration likes to stay quiet about it, it’s conceivable that Trump is enhancing presidential power in the area of greater monitoring. However, there are grounds to be skeptical of it. When it comes to dealings with intelligence agencies, President Trump has had the most tumultuous of any president. Over the Russia investigation, they have had a taut relationship with him. His repeated and debunked assertions that he was illegally wiretapped during the campaign have sparked a personal distrust of intelligence collection. Aides apparently talked him out of opposing an intelligence law that his administration had backed temporarily.

Read also Donald Trump’s Regulation of Birth Control

Graham (2018) argues that there have been instances where Trump has exploited Obama’s strategies to destroy some of Obama’s policies by using the same tactics he used to get Congress to act. Suppose you want to know how serious the White House is about this new policy. In that case, As a result of Trump’s lack of vigor in dealing with Congress, his legislative record is among the barest. He appears to have given Congress more authority than he did himself in some instances. As James Hohmann noted in August of last year, the Senate’s vote to impose sanctions on Russia against Trump’s objections demonstrated that Congress was reclaiming some authority. Neither has he attempted to resist or alter the courts in the way of Nixon, Roosevelt, or Andrew Jackson, despite his frequently thundering and startling statements regarding the federal judiciary.

Read also Your View On Donald Trump Presidential Race

According to Whiteford (2018), Lyndon B. Johnson’s Great Society was a collection of policies, laws, and programs that aimed to eliminate poverty, reduce crime, abolish inequality and improve the environment in the United States. President Lyndon B. Johnson articulated his vision for a “Great Society” in a speech to the University of Michigan in May 1964. That year, Johnson launched the Great Society, the most significant social reform effort in modern history, with the objective of reelection at the forefront. Johnson first announced the creation of the Office of Economic Opportunity and the Economic Opportunity Act in his March 1964 special statement to Congress. To help those in need break the cycle of poverty, he set out to aid them in learning new job skills, obtaining higher education, and finding work (Whiteford, 2018).

Read also Similarities Between Hitler’s Third Reich and the Trump Presidency

To accomplish this, he established a Job Corps for 100,000 disadvantaged men. Half of the group would be involved in conservation initiatives, while the other half would receive education and training in job training facilities. The elderly and the needy were the two groups of Americans most likely to be uninsured before Johnson’s presidency. Kennedy advocated for universal health care throughout his presidential campaign in 1960 and afterward. Still, despite widespread public support and Republican and Democratic support in Congress, early Medicare and Medicaid legislation was shot down. Medicare and Medicaid were signed into law in 1964 when President Johnson assumed office, and the Democrats took control of the House and Senate. Medicare provided healthcare coverage for the elderly who met the criteria, while Medicaid provided healthcare coverage to those receiving government monetary assistance. For the most disadvantaged Americans, both programs provided a safety net.

Read also President Trump’s State of the Union Address

Politicians in the United States frequently lament the dominance of “special interests.” On the other hand, interest groups engage closely with lawmakers and the executive branch to develop legislation and policy initiatives, supply the government and the public with information on a wide range of current issues, and make considerable contributions to electoral campaigns. A bill or issue can be used as a means of influencing politicians. They meet with the government privately to propose laws and make arguments supporting their ideas. Interest organizations provide expert witnesses at committee hearings (, 2022). Supporting and pushing candidates to sponsor legislation that they support. Some lawmakers may be targeted because of their position or prominence. Interest groups use “scorecards” to track how consistently members of Congress vote on specific subjects to influence the President (, 2022).

Read also Crises That Presidents Bush, Obama, and Trump Faced And Their Responses

Signing statements gives the agency the capacity to affect the likelihood that a policy will be selected in the bureaucracy. Unlike vetoes, there are no legal consequences or legislative processes affected by signatures. Whiteford (2018) shows that signed legislation remains a law, irrespective of what the President says in a companion signing statement. In 1972, a federal district court ruled that no executive declaration, even by a President, “denying efficacy to the statute could have either validity or effect.”

The Development of the Two Party System in the US

The two major political parties in the U.S. today, the Democratic Party and the Republican Party, did not exist at the time the Constitution was drafted and ratified. Various issues led to the development of these political parties, some of which are pertinent to politics, even today.

In this assignment, you will examine the development of the two-party system. You will have the opportunity to analyze the American need and desire to have opposing views.

Based on your research and analysis of the readings for this module, respond to the following:

  • What issues led to the rise of the Jefferson-Republican party in the 1790s?
  • What mistakes were made by the Federalists that allowed the Republican Party to succeed?
  • What issues that were controversial in the 1790s remain controversial today?
  • Do you think partisan politics is a good method for solving the nation’s problems and advancing the nation’s interests? In the present two-party system, what impact do minor parties have on specific issues in recent elections?
  • How have the Democratic and Republican Parties implemented these issues into their party platform?

Read also Differences between Republican and Democratic Parties that may Have Ethical Impact on American People

The Rise of The Two Major Political Parties In The U.S.

The Republican Party’s early 1800s political theory of “Jeffersonian Republicanism,” which advocated for a small national government and lower federal spending, was known as Jeffersonian Republicanism. There were both costs and benefits to this political philosophy, as there are too many others. Political parties began to arise during the fight over the ratification of the federal Constitution in 1787. As the debate shifted from the formation of a new federal government to the matter of its power, it became increasingly numerous (Library of Congress, 2022).

Read also Reasons Why The United States Needs A Third Party

Rea also How Argument Over Abandoning Articles Of Confederation And Adopting Constitution Contribute To Shaping First Party System Of Federalists And Republicans?

By highlighting the problems of the North, the federalists contributed to a rise in neo-Semitism. Because of this, the anti-federalists became a Southern political force. Last but not least, they were unable to unite their fans. This resulted in the formation of new parties.

Read also Rise and Decline of the Whig Party

According to the Library of Congress (2022), the Hamilton financial plan, which had long-term aspirations of making the United States a significant commercial and military force, was contentious in the 1790s and remains controversial today. There were five essential aspects to Hamilton’s financial plan: creating creditworthiness by accepting state debt, establishing new national debt, setting up a bank of the U.S., and taxing whiskey manufacturers. Financers, manufacturers, and retailers were all on board with this strategy. This alarmed many who felt that the new nation’s future depended on establishing itself on a new course of development altogether. This sowed discord among political parties in the United States due to the country’s military debt. By substituting deflated war bonds for interest-bearing bonds, Federalists claimed that the government would solve the problem. There was a strong desire for a national bank and army among the Federalist Party’s more radical members. The concept of tight vs. broad interpretation of the Constitution.

Read also Evolution From Jeffersonian Democracy To Jacksonian Democracy

According to the Federalists, freedom was dangerous in the hands of the “common people,” and that power should be reserved for the few, and the United States should realign itself with Britain. When it came to self-governance, Republicans were more confident in their abilities, and they thought it would be in everyone’s best interest to form links with France. Farmers in Pennsylvania attempted to end a new tax on distilled spirits during the Whiskey Rebellion, beginning a rebellion. When George Washington led 13,000 men to end any insurrection, the rebels offered no opposition, and the crisis was quickly resolved. Modern politics also included discussions of women’s rights (Library of Congress, 2022).

Read also What changes in the North explain why the Republicans abandoned the battle for Reconstruction?

Partisan politics, I believe, is an effective strategy for resolving national issues and furthering national objectives since it has produced Government stability is attributed to the two-party system, in which a single party can achieve a majority in the parliament and take control of the government. On the other hand, Multiparty countries necessitate a coalition of parties strong enough to create a majority in the House of Representatives to form a government (Eldersveld & Walton, 2018). The stability of a government in power may be jeopardized if the links that hold it together become weak. It has been argued that the strength of the United States government does not just owe to its party system but rather because of the president’s set term and powerful constitutional position.

Read also American Constitution as an Evolutionary rather than a Revolutionary Document

Read also Political Reasons Why a Third Party Candidate Has Never Won Presidential Election

These concerns were incorporated into the platforms of both the Democratic and Republican parties by reducing the abuse of political rivalry. If a party wants to win over a majority of the electorate, it must propose a platform in line with most people’s political preferences. An effort must be made to create such a program to reconcile the conflicting interests of diverse population sectors. As a result, if necessary, the party may fend off demands that it unconditionally support the policies advocated by any given radical faction. When it comes to running for office, the party is effectively a political partnership.

Rea also Relationship Between Political Parties and the Electoral Process

Types of Local Governments and the Most Effective and Why

Types of Local Governments

There are different forms of local governments that a region can adopt to enhance its general operations. These forms of governance differ based on the approach given to the management of the government operation. This paper focuses on differentiating different forms of local government, proposing the best form of government that can easily result to great performance in its jurisdiction. There are two types of local government which are Council-Manager Local Government and Council-Mayor Local Government.

Read also Importance Of Balanced Budget And Preparations For Economic Downturns To State and Local Governments

Council-Manager Local Government

Council-manager is a form of municipal structure that involves the interaction of the administrators and council members in both administration and policy. In this form of governance, the council is voted in by the public while the manager is employed by the council to implement policies established by the council. The council comprises of less than ten members elected by public in the city as defined by the charter of the city. The council members have the role of policy setting, budget approval and tax rate determination. The manager serves as chief advisor, and conduct administrative duties (McGuire & Carr, 2015).

Read also Establishing Local Governance Structures in Post-Conflict Settings – Yemen Case Study

While doing so, Nicholson-Crotty et al. (2014) insist that they should show high level of innovation and focus on ensuring that the policies made will cater for the social issues facing the public in their municipality. The policy should also define the best approach to handle the problem in a unique, innovative and cost effective way. In this form of governance, the county or city manager has the executive functions obligation, although some roles are shared occasionally with other officials. Council-manager has the entire responsibility of council and assists to guarantee both a focus on and transparency to the public interest instead of the single elected official political interests (McGuire & Carr, 2015).  In this form of governance, the mayor is regarded as the head of the council, though he does not have the authority to sanction legislative actions.  

Council-Mayor Local Government

Mayor-council is kind of municipal-structure that generates powers structure separation as in federal government by allocating administrative power to the mayor and policy power to the council. Similar to council-manager, a high level of innovativeness is needed to define policies that can address the social issues facing the municipality or county in an effective and more manageable way. The elected executive of the mayor is designated as the county or city head of government. Executive function roles in this municipal structure are conducted under mayor authority, with her or his authority extending from purely ceremonial duties to full scale obligation for daily activities. The mayor in this case contains veto power over legislature acts. Other duties include firing and firing department heads, as well as administration and preparation of budget.  Although a central coordinating position (CAO) can be established, the roles of the CAO are defined by the mayor. Thus, the mayor remains the most top authority in this form of governance.  Mayor normally have the upper hand in the council, and the duty of terminating the manager, this association significantly creates a CAO that will probably serve the interests of mayor instead of that of the council (McGuire & Carr, 2015).

The most preferred form of Local Governance

The best form of local governance can be measured based on the performance. Between the two forms of governance, the council-manager seems to be more favorable compared to the council-mayor. According to Rivernbark, Fasiello and Adamo (2016), the local government performance needs to be measured using management tools. Using data of performance is making decisions on management is a fundamental infrastructure for creating meaningful, reliable, and accurate performance information. This kind of approach is likely adopted in council-manager where the administrative operations are given to a qualified manager and not just to an elected politician. Council-manager governments appear to favor extra inclusive policy solution which is highly favorable in the governance of a municipality. This form of governance also experience reduced conflict among top officials, and are more prepared to adopt innovative practices and policies compared to mayor-council form of municipal structure. Thus, council-manager governance is more favorable compared to council-manager form of governance. 

Recent Information Technology Failure In a Healthcare Organization

Healthcare Information Governance Assignment Instructions

Research health care organizations / providers that have recently had a significant information technology failure, and complete this assignment. Write a seven to eight (7-8) page paper in which you:

  • Determine the key factors contributing to the failure in question. Next, analyze how the failure impacted both the organization’s operations and patient information protection and privacy.
  • Analyze the leadership team’s reaction to the failure, and indicate whether the leadership took sufficient measures to deal with various stakeholder groups impacted by the failure. Provide support for the rationale.
  • Take a position on whether the health care provider that you identified should either develop a custom application or select a proprietary system. Provide support for the rationale.
  • Recommend at least three (3) best practices that any organization could adopt in order to avoid such a failure in the future.
  • Provide support for the recommendation. Suggest how health care leaders can use project metrics and portfolio management to ensure operational efficiency and effectiveness. Provide specific examples to support the response. Analyze a government intervention into health care businesses, meant to ensure that health care and patient information is secure and thus to minimize information breaches and technology failures.

Read also Developing An Information Assurance Policy

Health Care Organizations That Had a Significant Information Technology Failure – Sample Paper

Information Governance

            Good information technology must enhance cognitive function, provide user experience, can be customized easily and effectively to the needs of the subspecialists and specialists, must effortlessly put the essential information to the hands of the physicians, should keep eHealth information securely, help facilitate better practice of medicine and outcomes and protect patient privacy. All these attributes point to the importance of maintaining an effective information technology in the healthcare setting. The information technology with no doubt has brought improvements in the healthcare setting and has improved the level of outcomes.

Read also Issues Surrounding Personal Health Information (PHI) Ownership

However, a poorly designed information technology can bring huge loss of patient data and sometimes can cause patient data breaches as witnessed in the Health Net, which lost a hard drive that had information of close to 1.5 million members. Numerous healthcare providers have experienced information technology breakdowns in the United States.

Read also Health Information Technology In Mayo Clinic

Health Care Organizations That Had a Significant Information Technology Failure

Network Glitch at Florida Health System

            In 2014, IT network failure at Florida Health system paralyzed health operations in its MHS facilities (Stuart, 2014). According to the hospital officials, the failure in the hospital hardware system paralyzed operations for about two days. A hardware failure in the three-hospital Martin Hospital in Stuart caused an unexpected downtime in the hospital’s Epic EMR and other applications. In fact, the breakdown affected thirteen of the hospital MHS facilities.

Read also Capital one Bank Data Breach – Article Analysis

            Although the breakdown occurred in the evening of Wednesday, the hospital officials reported that the IT department resolved the problem and restored the services by Friday (Stuart, 2014). The hospital officials asserted that although the problem affected the Epic EMR, the cause was attributed to the hardware breakdown. The hospital spokesperson, Scott Samples asserted that the hospital had to resort to manual patient documentation and charting system, as the patient care was their priority. In the same hospital during the launch of its Epic MRC in 2011, Samples had asserted the development of proper processes to ensure patient safety and proper documentation in such processes of downtime. He pointed that the health system would follow due processes in order to ascertain the causes of the glitch and prevent such events in future.

Read also How to Address Employees to Report Privacy and Security Breaches

Sutter-Health in Northern California

            As more hospitals ditch paper work for electronic record systems, more downtime glitches are reported in the United States. The other recent occurrence of a downtime on patient care is the Sutter Health in Northern California that occurred in August 2014, (Stuart, 2014). In an event similar to that of the Florida Health system, the hospital’s $1 billion Epic EMR experienced downtime that paralyzed hospital operations for a whole day. According to a press response from Sutter nurses, the glitch caused a compromise on the patient care.

            The problem extended to the hospital patient data backup system and when the hospital nurses resorted to printing the patient data using the hospital’s Pyxis system, the data print out was outdated by two to three days. According to a RN at Alta Sates Summit Medical Center and California Nurses Union representative for the hospital, the patients were concerned for failure to receive their medications for a whole day. Although the downtimes were from Citrix glitch, the hospital officials denied naming the vendor (Stuart, 2014). However, they issued a statement to regret the inconvenience that was caused to the patients.

How the Failures Impacted Both the Organization’s Operations and Patient Information Protection and Privacy

            The failure of the hardware in the Florida Health system paralyzed operations in its MHS. Although the hospital was able to resort to manual chart and documentation of patient data, there was likelihood that it caused many patient inconveniences due to time taken to offer medication. In addition, given that the glitch took two days to rectify, explains the extent of inconvenience and the risks it exposed the electronic medical data.

Read also A Violation of Ethical Principles Related To Managing Healthcare Information

            According to (Johnson & Willey, 2011), healthcare data loses can result in social stigma and privacy violations. The failures of the Epic EMR in Florida Health system opened an avenue for consequential changes in the patient medical information. For example, changes in information such as blood type or allergies can affect patient health. Therefore, the downtime in Florida Health system exposed patient data to possible privacy breaches and improper diagnosis.

            The Sutter Health in Northern California case caused a lot of patient inconvenience, although it just occurred for a day. The fact that the retrieval of patient data from hospital backup system produced data that was outdated by two to three days, meant the system failure exposed the patients to wrong diagnosis. In addition, the system opened up loopholes for data loss in the hospital electronic data storage. The reliance of the Sutter Health in Northern California in its Epic EMR meant that many of the patients were not able to receive their medications for most of the day and almost paralyzed the operations in the hospital.

Read also Impacts of Electronic Health information on Nursing Process – Presentation

The Leadership Team’s Reaction to the Failures

            The reactions of the leadership in the failures that affected Florida Health system and Sutter Health in Northern California were almost similar. Both leaderships failed to own responsibility for the failures. In addition, the hospitals response failed to give comprehensive information regarding the steps the hospitals took in order to secure patient information during the time of the failures. The spokesperson for Sutter Health in Northern California just issued a statement expressing the regret for the inconvenience caused by the downtime in the hospital EMR. In addition, the hospital leadership declined to name the vendor of the Epic EMR, only for the medical representative to name it.

            However, the leadership of the Florida Health system reacted by ensuring the patient care experienced minimum inconvenience, when it resorted to the manual patient data documentation and charting. The numbers of the patients in both hospitals, whose data was exposed was huge and it could easily have led to a breach of the HIPAA regulations. According to (Gamble, 2012), a number of regulations govern the Electronic Medical Records. The first legal aspect covers the risks of medical malpractice. The Florida Health system in the case above was concerned with patient care and the hospital leadership worked to ensure that minimum inconvenience was caused and that patient care was not compromised due to the failure of its Epic EMR. Its use of the manual system worked and patient care experienced minimal inconveniences.

            However, the Sutter Health in Northern California use of the Pyxis system produced outdated data, which would have exposed the hospital to the breach of the HIPAA regulations governing EMR. The reactions of the Sutter Health in Northern California to resort to Pyxis system exposed the physicians against risks of medical malpractice claims, likelihood of medical errors and vulnerability to fraud claims.  In addition, the failure of the hospital leadership to provide detailed information of the cause of the downtime and the steps it took to secure patient data as well as ensure patient care was not compromised, was insufficient.

Position on Whether the Health Care Providers Should either Develop a Custom Application or Select a Proprietary System

            As the healthcare system in the United States adopts more electronic healthcare records (EHRs), the numbers of vendors have narrowed. In 2013, about ten EHRs vendors accounted about 90% of the HER market in the hospital sector in the country. These vendors include Epic, Cerner, Healthland, MEDITECH, Siemens, CPSI, McKesson, NextGen Healthcare, Allscripts and Healthcare Management Systems (Gregg, 2014). However, only three of the ten vendors expanded their market in 2013. These vendors include Epic, MEDITECH and Cerner. Although there are national efforts to improve safety, effectiveness and quality, there is need for the healthcare organizations to be prepared for the failures that occasionally come up with the adoption of the EHRs applications.

            In regard to the failures that occurred in the Epic EMRs in Sutter Health in Northern California and Florida Health system, there is need to adopt custom applications. When an organization adopts proprietary system, there is likelihood of the laxity from the supplier company and this poses great risk in the event of any system failure. Most of the proprietary applications are one company owned and once the companies sell the copies of its software to cover its development costs, every other unit sold generates pure profit and this reduces company emphasis on innovation or efficiency (Muir, 2011). As seen in the case of Sutter Health in Northern California, the presence of the Pyxis system would provide an alternative when the Epic system failed. Therefore, there is need for Sutter Health in Northern California and Florida Health system to integrate multiple disparate systems in order to have comprehensive custom applications for their EMRs (Vest & Gamm, 2010).

Recommendation of Best Practices That Any Organization Could Adopt In Order To Avoid Such a Failure In The Future

            The failures of hospital EHRs causes inconveniences to the patients and can hinder patient care (Terry, 2013). In order to avoid such occurrences as witnessed in the Sutter Health in Northern California and Florida Health system, there is need for healthcare organizations to adopt a number of strategies. The following are the recommendations, which when adopted, can help in avoiding such failures in future.

Read also NR-512 – Safeguarding Health Information and Systems

            First, avoid proprietary and adopt custom applications in order to ensure the healthcare information system is interfaced with the available information technology infrastructure. As witnessed in the case of the Florida Health system, there was no backup for the healthcare records, due to dependence on the proprietary Epic application in its EMRs. The presence of backup system in Sutter Health in North California allowed an access of patient data. However, lack of interfacing with the existent hospital information technology, led to retrieval of out dated data. Therefore, there is need to interface the HIT with the existing hospital information technology in order to ensure continuity of patient care in case of a glitch.

            Second, identify and mitigate risks before they occur. The hospital information and technology department should conduct system updates and regular checks in order to troubleshoot and prevent major downtimes that can derail the operations in the hospitals. The regular checks should also take into consideration the security checks in order to ensure that appropriate measures are in place in order to prevent any data loss in case of any system failure. As noted in the case of the Sutter Health in North California, the hospital patient information is very vital and it goes a long way in enhancing the work of the physicians. Making such information available all the time is very important in ensuring the continuity of patient care.

            Third, exercise good governance, learn from others and past events in order to benchmark on the best practices. There is need for the senior management should ensure the organizational mission and vision are focused on efficiency, increasing quality and delivery of services in organized and cost effective way. It is with no doubt that EMRs play a critical role in enhancing vision and mission. However, there is need for the top management to support the EMR in order to realize successful implementation (Cellucci, Wiggins, & Trimmer, 2011). Most EMR failures result from its poor implementations.

How Health Care Leaders Can Use Project Metrics and Portfolio Management to Ensure Operational Efficiency and Effectiveness

            The project portfolio involves the maximization of use of the available resources and organizational capabilities in order to ensure the meeting of the desired outcomes, within the constraints of technology, finance, vision and mission (van Angeren, Blijleven, & Batenburg, 2014).  The project metrics are data that give a measurement of the projects. The healthcare organizations can use a combination of shrewd resource allocation and project metrics in ensuring that its operations are effective.

            An organization in analysis the costs of project, selecting the project that is cost effective and providing good control measures, it can ensure a project that is efficient and affordable. In addition, the evaluation and controls in portfolio management help in prevention of inconveniences caused by failures in projects. Besides, the use of metrics ensures that the right projects are selection and implemented.

Government Intervention into Health Care Businesses, Meant To Ensure That Health Care and Patient Information Is Secure and Thus To Minimize Information Breaches and Technology Failures

            The federal government through the HIPAA act has enacted a number of regulations that govern the safety of patient data (DesRoches & Miralles, 2010). The federal government through its federal stimulus package of 2009, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act 2009 has a number of provisions as drafted in the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act provide an encouragement for the hospitals to adopt electronic medical records. It is evident that as much as the government provides framework for adoption of the EMR, it exercises also it other core responsibility of regulation.          

The most important aspect of the healthcare security is the security of the patient information, which includes the medical information. Any lose of the patient information is not like lose of a financial card, which can be re-issued and another one issued. When patient data is lost, it can be used for impersonation or to solicit for money. Therefore, the government through the HIPAA has provided a number of regulations that protects the patient against risks associated with loss of their medical information in case of security breaches or system failures.