Author: UniqueWritersBay

Open-Book Management Style

There is an endless list of the number of human resource best practices that are applied in different companies. Although many best practices are shared among many organizations, there are some practices that are found in a select few organizations. Some of these practices include open-book management styles. As the phrase implies, it is a style that, loosely defined, ensures that there are mechanisms through which all the company information is available to all employees. Some of these best practices that are not universally employed by all companies are referred to as contemporary practices. This paper elaborates on the open-book management style and how it may be applied by HR professionals in the current business environment.

Open-book management is a style that helps employees to understand the overall position of the company. This has many positive consequences on the productivity of employees at the workplace. This management style plays a role in improving the effectiveness of the company’s staff. The increased effectiveness arises from the employees’ desire to improve the condition of the organization, which they are already aware of. The primary purpose of this type of management style is to ensure that the staff feels that they are part of the company (Axelsson et al., 2017). This style of management furnishes the employees with all the relevant information, especially the financial aspect of the organization. This motivates them to make the soundest decisions in their daily practice.

A big part of this practice is that it encourages the sharing of knowledge within an organization. Sharing of knowledge in the workplace is an essential aspect of prudent decision-making by the staff. The professionals in the human resource department typically focus on techniques through which they can encourage the sharing of knowledge and the transfer of the same to new and younger employees (Nnaji & Agbaeze, 2017). Open-book management also makes it possible for employees to make new innovations that can enable the company to achieve its targets. In the practice of open-book management, the company is also motivated to come up with new ways through which it can share all the relevant information with its entire staff. Proper understanding of the company’s position by the employees makes it possible for them to go out of their way to ensure that the organization succeeds in business, as well as meets its intended targets and objectives.

Today’s human resource professionals should consider incorporating the open-book style of management for their organizations. This is because this style plays an integral part in the success of an organization. This approach enables the employees to move the relevant numbers in a direction that steers the company forward. Additionally, the fact that open-book management informs the employees on the standing of the organization it enables them to share in the prosperity of the company. This creates a sense of belonging to them, and, therefore, motivates them to seek the best for the company. Finally, teaching the employees the principles on how the success of the business is measured makes them capable of evaluating their own contribution.

In conclusion, it is clear that open-book management style is an important human resource practice. It enhances the sharing of knowledge and improves learning in the work environment. The sharing of the position of the company with the employees empowers them to make the right decisions for the benefit organization. Today’s human resource professionals should consider integrating this management style in their organizations.

Utilization of Telehealth on a Global Scale

Telehealth represents a relatively recent development in healthcare delivery capable of being implemented globally. It incorporates the application of telecommunications in healthcare which then allows providers to deliver services remotely to persons in need (Maeder et al., 2016). It is worth noting that telehealth represents a promising innovation which can be applied globally on a worldwide scale. This would be done through the use of virtual technology in the treatment of patients outside traditional healthcare facilities and also by guiding physicians in routine care procedures.

Read also Difference between Telehealth and Telemedicine

The global telehealth market is expected to be worth USD 55.6 billion by 2025 which is primarily why policymakers have encouraged the full-scale amalgamation of this development into the healthcare system (Markets and Markets, 2019). In the past decade, leading firms within the sector, such as Doctor on Demand, have seized this unique opportunity to promote the application of virtual technology in healthcare. It is now regarded as one of the most acclaimed telehealth companies which relies on house calls from patients in need before connecting them to specialists. Physicians then proceed to provide healthcare advice through this nascent virtual system of exchange while solely relying on video conferences to attend to patient’s needs.

Read also Medical Technological Advances Unique to Care of Women and Children

Likewise, telehealth allows practitioners to consult with experts in the field when in need of guidance or faced with challenges in the implementation of best practices. Telehealth also allows patients to reduce high cost associated with long commutes to healthcare facilities and in-hospital charges for consultations while also receiving much-need advice. Furthermore, it allows medical practitioners to remain in contact with patients, therefore, allowing them to conduct necessary follow-up checks to determine progress (ConferenceSeries, 2017).

Read also How Clinicians Develop A Therapeutic Relationship And Maintain A Caring Environment With Patients, Utilizing Telemedicine/Tele-Health Technology

However, telehealth faces a myriad of barriers when seeking to realize its objectives. For instance, variation in state regulations, misdiagnosis, and a need for specified sophisticated equipment hinders complete adoption of this recent innovation.

Medical Technological Advances Unique to Care of Women and Children

Please research medical technological advances that may be unique to the care of women and children. Discuss how this technology will improve care to women and children. (ideas may be: genetic screening, public health initiatives, mammography, cervical screening, Fetal monitoring, Electronic medical records, telemedicine). Which technological advances have been utilized in your local hospital? How has it impacted the care of women and children?

Genetic screening and Telemedicine – Medical Technological Advances Unique to Care of Women and Children

Recent technological interventions represent renewed progress in child and maternal health with the chief aim of reducing disparities while significantly improving the quality of care provided. The expediency of such innovations has not escaped the notice of governments in different jurisdictions globally. Policymakers are now increasingly making political and financial commitments towards this cause with the intent of expanding access to new technological innovations with the capability of improving health outcomes. Improvements, particularly those introduced by innovations in child and maternal health, endeavor to provide feasible interventions to common problems facing at-risk populations. One such intervention is the dependence on genetic screening, hailed for its usefulness in improving health and wellbeing. It is, thus, fundamental to review its propensity to improving care provided to women and children. Additionally, a discussion of technological innovations utilized in my local hospital will also be provided and its impact on this particular population.

Read also Biosensors and Wearable Health Trackers

            Genetic screening is a relatively recent innovation in healthcare introduced with the primary aim of identifying developmental anomalies and hereditary disorders in fetuses. It is routinely administered during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy to review the development of the fetus and potential problems. A routine genetic screening test identifies specific predisposing factors such as genetic disorders within a family and the probability of their expression in a fetus. Genetic screening tests have been instrumental in aiding couples in calculating the odds of a fetus being born with debilitating conditions such as cystic fibrosis and Down syndrome. Furthermore, it has also proven effective in the identification of birth defects which are likely to affect 1 in every 34 babies in the United States (R. Aro & Jallinoja, 2017). It is worth noting that birth defects may occur unexpectedly during any given stage during a pregnancy and the primary reason why genetic screening has been steadily gaining traction. Genetic testing is typically offered as an option during formative prenatal visits where specialists weigh in on its importance in reducing risks associated with pregnancies.

Read also Emerging Health Care Technology with Potential to Overcome Current or Emerging Barriers to Care

            Genetic screening tests amalgamate procedures crucial in the identification of the proclivity to developing specific disorders using test samples. Amniocentesis and Chorionic Villus sampling are two of the most common genetic screening tests currently in use. Both are invasive and rely solely on an in-depth analysis of fetus cells. It is through this procedure that a concise determination of the number of chromosomes is made and possible damage. Chorionic Villus sampling is the most common method of genetic screening due to its cost-effectiveness and relative availability. It is conducted during the first trimester using test samples collected from the placenta. Placenta tissue is similar to the fetus’s genetic makeup and, therefore useful when seeking to conduct an evaluation of chromosomal abnormalities (Medicine et al., 2016).

It is conducted after careful extraction of tissue samples to avoid compromising the expectant mother and fetus’s wellbeing. Amniocentesis, on the other hand, is a popular prenatal genetic screening test which relies on samples drawn from the amniotic fluid.  Samples are then reviewed to assess genetic material for any anomalies which may be evident during this particular stage. Both tests are optional and only conducted after gaining approval from the expectant mother. Nevertheless, medical practitioners underscore their importance in determining the presence genetic disorders and abnormalities while informing decisions regarding the possible termination of a pregnancy. Positive genetic screening tests can also aid expectant parents in planning for children with special needs while reducing the uncertainty and anxiety commonly associated with pregnancies.   

Read also How Tele-Health Technology Impact Outcomes Of Population Health Management         

Telemedicine is also a recent technological innovation currently applied at Lenox Hill Hospital, a local healthcare facility in New York City. It involves providing medical care and advice remotely. Telemedicine requires laptops, personal computers (PCs), and tablet devices with a steady internet connection during routine consultations. It creates a system where medical practitioners are accountable for patient outcomes by providing timely interventions which ultimately aid in preventing emergency room (ER) visits (Khandpur, 2017, p. 23).

Read also How Clinicians Develop A Therapeutic Relationship And Maintain A Caring Environment With Patients, Utilizing Telemedicine/Tele-Health Technology

Patients are also accorded a unique opportunity to lower healthcare costs while providers strive to improve the efficiency of services provided through this system. Telemedicine is convenient since patients enjoy perks of virtual care such as its relative affordability in comparison to in-person visits. Homebound individuals also benefit from this innovation and are now able to consult medical practitioners through video conferencing without having to leave work. Reduced service costs also cut expenses traditionally associated with hospital visits.

Read also Difference between Telehealth and Telemedicine

Telemedicine also allows specialists to become accessible to patients residing in remote regions, thus reducing the stress associated with long commutes during appointments. Telemedicine is particularly crucial in the promotion of child and maternal health. It increases the engagement of expectant mothers, which ensures that they commit to a specific set of healthcare goals. Engagement initiatives also ensure that they receive crucial healthcare information which goes a long way in improving their overall wellbeing. Telemedicine is also proving useful during this precarious period associated with the spread of the novel COVID-19 virus. Remote consultations and telephonic evaluations now play a major role in reducing the rate of new infections while keeping both expectant mothers and health providers safe within the greater New York City area.

Read also Implementing a Telemedicine Solution – Grand Hospital Case Study

Thomas Paine, Thomas Jefferson, and Benjamin Franklin Writing, Ideas, and Beliefs Depart From Puritan / Christian Beliefs

The Puritan intellectual and spiritual energies were so decisive in laying down the patterns of
American intellectual and spiritual (Christian) life. Though Thomas Paine, Thomas Jefferson, and
Benjamin Franklin make clear their belief in God, discuss how their writing, ideas, and beliefs depart
from the firmly established Puritan/Christian beliefs?

How Thomas Paine, Thomas Jefferson, and Benjamin Franklin Writing, Ideas, and Beliefs Depart From Puritan / Christian Beliefs

The Age of Reason is credited for transforming the American psyche by establishing elaborate patters of intellectual and spiritual life. This epoch also saw the rise of influential public figures such as Thomas Paine, Thomas Jefferson, and Benjamin Franklin. In particular, Paine and Franklin were prolific writers in an attempt to demystify enlightenment and gain an in-depth understanding of this emerging phenomenon. Both sought to apply key concepts developing from enlightenment to scientific, political and religious matters. The aforementioned individuals demonstrated a singleness of purpose when seeking to realize their goals and are regarded as some of the most ambitious figures in history. They are also remembered for questioning and critiquing long-standing notions in an attempt to innovate and introduce new ideas. Paine and Franklin painstakingly worked to promote and create an open-minded society where liberal ideas were easily accepted by the masses (Mills, 2018). For instance, Paine was an ardent supporter of human rights and firmly believed that it was an inalienable right given by the creator. Similarly, Franklin was concerned with humanity and believed in individual’s ability to better their current state through small incremental gains which would eventually result in self-improvement. Paine and Franklin’s ideas, writing, and beliefs departed from the established Puritan beliefs to form the foundation for a new emerging society.

Read also Difference Between the Draft and the Original Product of Thomas Jefferson on Declaration of Independence – Annotated Bibliography

            Paine is typically regarded as one of the most important figures during the American Revolution. He contributed to this period through his highly emotive writings which he hoped would influence sentiments within the colony. Paine was among the first authors to question and critique the divine rights of kings and the role of this particular belief in the subjugation of subjects. He, therefore, saw it fit to clamor for revolution within the United States to avoid living in servitude and being controlled by a tyrannical regime. It was for this very reason that Paine urged colonialists to strive for the creation of a new nation where every individual would now have a unique opportunity to enjoy the freedom of expression, religion, and association (Paine, 2015). Furthermore, he firmly believed that it was America’s right to be free and to make important choices with regard to its future. Paine expected former colonialists to be at the forefront of creating a new government, which differed from fundamental Puritan beliefs.

Read also Lives, Attitudes and Presidencies of Thomas Jefferson and Andrew Jackson

            Franklin was also among the first individuals to espouse the integral nature of responding appropriate during a particular moment in history with the intent of effecting change while avoiding time wastage. He led by example and toiled tirelessly to ensure that all his goals were realized, in addition to living a prosperous life. Franklin is also hailed for his role in the development of American values through a foundation of Protestant Christianity (Wilson, 2016). Puritans were especially known for their hard work, dedication, discipline, and education which would be essential when seeking to create a new nation. As an offshoot of a Puritan family, Franklin believed that human beings were inherently good and naturally innocent. It was this belief that guided his assumption that education was critical in transforming the lives of Americans and creating new perspectives which would ultimately improve the status quo. It would then free them from the yoke of religion and authority, eventually enabling them to lead a life of their own choosing.

Read also American Revolution War

            During the revolutionary period, Paine acknowledged the tough moral battles that individuals in the American colonies had to wage. It was a choice between obedience during a time of servitude or revolt with the ultimate aim of achieving independence. Paine inspired fellow colonialists through his incendiary writings that urged them to make this difficult choice and act bravely to secure their future. His stance differed from that of Franklin in the sense that he believed that individuals were born to transform their current condition and circumstances which would ultimately create indestructible rights. It was these very rights that eventually formed the basis for human rights and freedoms. Paine’s reliance on common sense ultimately convinced many colonialists to rebel, eventually resulting in the American Revolution.

Read also Why the British lost the American Revolution

            It is also worth noting that Franklin and Paine both shared similar opinions on specific topical issues that were of particular concern during the American Revolution. They both believed in individual’s right to elect representatives in an attempt to avert tyrannical rule. Furthermore, piety also guided their writings especially when seeking to gain a deeper understanding of man and the creation of institutions. Franklin and Paine opined that authority figures such as the Crown were preoccupied with monopolizing power in society with the primary purpose being profit. They viewed such institutions as unnecessary creations since human beings were capable of creating systems to manage their relations to each other. Human liberty and freedom was, therefore, necessary to enable individuals lead fulfilling lives built on a firm foundation of truth. The discerning nature of the human mind would ultimately seek a condition of freedom and liberty.       

Read also The Elements Of American Democracy With The Critiques Or Support Of Democracy Presented By Ancient And Classical Political Theorists   

In conclusion, Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Paine were leading figures who established patterns of American intellectual and spiritual life. They believed in self-government through liberty, human rights and freedoms. Their focus on humanity also resulted in social reforms, departing traditional Puritan beliefs.

Block Grants, Categorical Grants, and Unfunded Mandates

There are three general forms of federal grants to local and state governments. They include the unfunded mandate, block grants, and categorical grants. Block grants are huge grants offered by the federal government to local or state governments for general purpose use. Block grants can be utilized just for a uniquely aided program set and they are normally unlimited to activities that are narrowly defined. An unfunded mandate is the federal obligations requiring the others to do tasks for state or local government for which they do not have funds for. Categorical grants can be employed just for an explicitly aided program and they are normally limited to activities that are narrowly defined.

Read also State and Federal Government Funding of Non-Profits with a Religious Mission

Categorical grants can be further categorized into four groups that include open-end reimbursement, project, formula-project, and formula categorical grants. Project categorical grants are given on a competitive basis via an application process detailed by the federal agency creating the grant. Formula categorical grants are distributed among recipients based on factors identified in enabling administrative or legislation regulations such as poverty, population, per capita income, and median household income. Formula-project categorical grants employ a mixture of means of fund allocation, characteristically involving the employment of a formula definite in permitting administrative or legislation regulations to assign accessible funds among states. Open-end reimbursement categorical grants offer reimbursement of a unique recipient program costs proportion, eliminating recipients’ competition and the essential for allocation formula (FAS, 2019). Federalism refers to a power division between the individual state government and the federal government. Fiscal federalism implies that federal funding is assigned to the state with unique conditions attached. Block grant demonstrates fiscal federalism by being implemented toward a specific goal.  Categorical grans ensure fiscal federalism by assigning federal grant to a specific activity based on set criteria. Unfunded mandate demonstrates fiscal federalism by adhering to the set conditions.

Read also Federalism And How It Relates to National and State Sovereignty

Preferred State and Federal Funding Mechanism

The preferred state funding mechanism is block grants funding mechanism. This is because the mechanism involves the release of a huge amount of money without narrowly defined obligations. This means the state has the obligation of allocating the money to a specific purpose. With this freedom, the state can choose the issues it wishes to address first or to allocate more funds, unlike in other mechanisms where the money is released for the specific operation and a follow up is done to ensure the money was only used for that specific purpose. On the other hand, the federal government prefers categorical grants. This is because these are grants allocated for a specific task and must be used to accomplish the designated obligation. In this regard, it is easy for the federal government to monitor their use and to demand accountability from the state government. The amount used on each purpose is known and the chances of diverting the money to other activities are nil. Therefore, the federal government prefers this form of funding than block funding where it is hard to dictate on the use (Tollestrup, 2016).

Difference between Telehealth and Telemedicine

Telehealth and telemedicine represent a remarkable development in the intersection between nascent technology and medicine. Their relative newness often means that they are bound to be used interchangeably and interpreted inconsistently by policymakers, which is primarily why understanding the differences between both terms is fundamental. Telehealth typically refers to a subgroup of E-health that uses a wide variety of services and new technologies to bolster healthcare delivery through improved patient care (Edelman et al., 2018).

Read also How Clinicians Develop A Therapeutic Relationship And Maintain A Caring Environment With Patients, Utilizing Telemedicine/Tele-Health Technology

An extensive range of remote care services serve as the main difference between telehealth and telemedicine. Telehealth also amalgamates care provider training, managerial services, capacity building, and non-clinical services that are offered remotely. The main objective of telehealth is health promotion through the introduction of innovative approaches to enhance public health functions. This service-at-a-distant approach can be offered efficiently through telecommunications. Telemedicine, on the other hand, is grouped under telehealth and refers to the provision of much-needed healthcare knowledge and care services using electronic communication and software (Gott, 2018, p. 19). It is applied within a clinical setting to manage protracted conditions, arrange follow-up visits, and offers an imitable opportunity for individuals with health concerns to consult specialists.

Read also Implementing a Telemedicine Solution – Grand Hospital Case Study

Telehealth relies upon confidential audio and video connections to connect physicians to patients during routine consultations. While telemedicine involves harnessing technology to care remotely for patients, telehealth espouses virtual medical services to promote health outcomes. Although telehealth and telemedicine have been hailed as significant developments, both have benefits and limitations. Telehealth is convenient, efficient, affordable, and confidential. Telehealth also minimizes the risk of healthcare providers transmitting highly infectious diseases such as COVID-19 through prearranged tele-consulations.

Read also How Tele-Health Technology Impact Outcomes Of Population Health Management

Nevertheless, telehealth is not applicable in all scenarios, may encounter technological glitches, and is not offered by every physician. The benefits of telemedicine are that it allows patients to easily access specialists, permits efficient exchange of integral information and knowledge. However, telemedicine is not always readily available and is costly to set up and maintain.

Components Beneficial to Successful Training and Return on Investment of Training Programs

Evaluating the Components Beneficial to Successful Training

The first option would be hiring the best facilitator. This is because the facilitator plays a major role in developing training design, effective application of technology and utilization of other resources to ensure successful training. Facilitators carry the greatest weight in training such that with the right facilitators who can employ different training techniques and designs based on the learners’ needs, it is easy to engage learners and to enhance their level of understanding, participation, and skills building in the training.

Read also Role of Knowledge Management in Training and Development

The second in the rank is presentation technology that includes projectors and smart-boards. Presentation technology is an important training resource that eases illustration and enhances learners’ ability to follow a lecture. It can act as a good complement of the best facilitator and hence it is ranked second. On the third rank is the environment. Having the right learning environment motivates learners to participate in learning and to enjoy learning. This can also act as a complement for the best facilitator. The fourth in the rank is time. After ensuring there is a training facilitator, right training resources and a good training environment, then the HR needs to devise time for workers to attend the training. This can be enhanced by organizing training to happen during weekends or paying casual workers to release the permanent workers to attend the training.

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The fifth option would be perks that include incentives given to learners to encourage a high number of attendants in the training session. Perks should also be given to reduce time waste looking for lunch and snacks at different times and places. The last option would be mentoring that involves follow-up hands-on sessions on a one-to-one basis. Mentoring can only happen after one has the basic knowledge. It is a follow-up to the training. Thus learners must gather enough knowledge and information in the training, for mentorship to use this knowledge to build learners skills. Thus options that contribute to facilitating effective learning should precede mentorship.  

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Evaluating the Return on Investment of Training Programs

Return on investment is computed by subtracting training costs from training monetary benefits then dividing the result with the training cost. Monetary benefits of training can be computed by determining how training influences operation efficiency. In this case, the monetary benefit is the saved cost. It can also be measured by determining improved in individual performance may be in the quality of services and quality of goods and how this improves sales. Improved performance can be measured based on the level of revenue increase. This can also be measured on results where the general outcome of an operation which includes reduced or minimized errors can be measured based on the cost saved from errors.

Read also Developing a Sales Training Program

In this particular case, the training cost will include the cost of hiring the best facilitator, cost of purchasing presentation technology, cost of paying temporal workers, cost of hiring off-site facility, cost of incentives given during training and cost of investing in the mentorship program. All these costs should be added together and subtracted from the anticipated benefits of a successful training session. These benefits include saved cost due to an increase in operation efficiency, saved cost due to the elimination of errors, the extra amount earned from increased sales due to quality improvement. This should be divided into the total training cost.

Read also Reflection Essay on the Use of Virtual Reality in Employee Training Programs

To measure the ROI of hiring the best facilitator, then the training cost will be the cost of the facilitator. The earned benefits can vary from skills enhancement which improves on individual operational efficiency and output quality. The efficiency saves on the cost while quality increases on the level of sales. The saved cost plus the extra sales can be termed as the benefits of hiring the best facilitator. The ROI, in this case, would be the total monetary benefits of hiring the best facilitator, subtract the cost of hiring the facilitator, and then divided the result with the training cost. The ROI, in this case, is likely to be high (Noe, 2013).

To my Dear and Loving Husband – Literary Analysis

A literary analysis of “to my dear and loving husband”by Anna Bradstreet

Anna Bradstreet (1612-72) is still remembered as one of the most outstanding New World woman poet. Born to an affluent Puritan family in England, Bradstreet took up reading at a relatively young age and was inspired by scholars such Du Bartas. Bradstreet’s family later settled in Massachusetts Bay Colony where she was married and started a family. It was here that she began writing poetry to document her experience in the colony and issues relating to her Puritan faith (Gale, 2016). As a direct product of the Elizabethan custom of valuing female education, Bradstreet penned some of the most remarkable works of poetry, chief among them being “To My Dear and Loving Husband” for which she is still remembered. This essay will, therefore, discuss the theme of this particular work, major characteristics of the period evident in the poem, and major narrative devices used by Bradstreet to communicate her message.

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            The main theme of “To My Dear and Loving Husband” is that of love. The author professes her boundless and undying love for her husband.  It is apparent, from the author’s unreserved expression of love, that she values him and is satisfied with their union. Bradstreet underscores this point by emphasizing the joy she derives from her marriage:

“this union in marriage is more harmonious and passionate than all others across all of time” (Bradstreet, 2012).

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The author also acknowledges the passage of time as a reality that she now has to contend with in her quest for eternal love. Additionally, the author applies a unique approach when discussing her love for her husband. Her discourse is presented as a philosophical truth which is remarkable considering the fact that this technique was initially thought to be the preserve of male scholars.  Bradstreet further ensures that she lays particular emphasis to the theme of love using repetition throughout the poem as a subtle reminder to the reader of her feelings for her husband. She also does this to elucidate the veracity of her claims and further convince her audience of the authentic nature of her sentiments at the time. In essence, she endeavors to persuade them to also strive for this type of passionate union which she regards as the zenith of life. 

Read also The Perks of Being a Wallflower Literary Analysis

            Anna Bradstreet lived between 1612 and 1672 during one of the most significant periods in history. As a Puritan, Bradstreet’s family faced persecution back in England owing to misunderstandings.  Many adherents had already immigrated to Flanders, but still felt unsafe. King James I (1603-25) was determined to pursue them and particularly why many resorted to migrating to the New World to start a new life devoid of religious persecution. Bradstreet’s family settled in Massachusetts Bay Colony during one of the first waves of migration from England in 1930. Here, they would now be free to practice their Puritan religion as opposed to the tyrannical Roman Catholic doctrine that led many to their deaths (Vickers, 2018, p. 56). It is worth noting that religious tolerance was not readily applied during this historic period. Authorities would routinely clamp down on this particular band of religious misfits to avert their growing influence within England. The Puritans were among the first religious groups in history to espouse the importance of religious tolerance in society as the glue that would eventually hold it together.  It was also during this period that Puritans became pioneers in New World, contending with emerging challenges such as conflict with fellow settlers, witch trials, and continuous skirmishes with Native American tribes.

Read also The Perks of Being a Wallflower Literary Analysis

            Bradstreet relies on elaborate imagery, alliteration, symbolism, and tone as major narrative devices throughout the poem. She expertly exploits imagery by relying on figurative language bound to appeal to her readers. Furthermore, her language is visually descriptive to create vivid mental pictures to bolster her message of love. Bradstreet refers to her love as one that cannot be quenched by rivers in line ten to express her deep-seated feelings for her husband (Bradstreet, 2012). Her simple, yet profound, words aim to create a sense of appeal bound to attract her audience. Bradstreet also employs alliteration by repeating consonants at the beginning of stressed syllables. The main objective of applying this narrative device is to create a sense of rhythm by repeating the “w” sound in “woman” and “we”. This creates a poetic feel to the piece which eventually improves its readability. Bradstreet also uses symbolism to express her passion and current state of mind. She particularly harnesses the power of symbolism to express the eternal love she has for her husband and even claims to place value on it more than “whole mines of gold” (Bradstreet, 2012). Additionally, Bradstreet uses a loving tone to describe her adoration and fondness towards her husband. This, eventually, allows the reader to gain a deeper comprehension of Bradstreet’s love for her husband and her level of contentment.       

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In conclusion Anne Bradstreet was among one of the most celebrated female poets in the New World. Her poem, “To My Dear and Loving Husband”, is a masterpiece in which she expresses her love and affection for her spouse during the colonial era. Readers now appreciate her work, given the historical context in which it is set in, her theme of love and the use of major narrative devices used to communicate her message.

John Grisham Influence on American Literary History

John Grisham, an author I believe had the most significant influence on American literary history, is widely considered one of the most influential figures in American history. Grisham was born in 1955 at Jonesboro to a working class Arkansas family. From a young age, Grisham displayed his singleness of purpose in life and set his eyes squarely on numerous dreams his father had been incapable of realizing. Grisham’s scholarly nature soon saw him enroll in a law program at the prestigious Mississippi State University (MSU). He later graduated in 1981, after which he began his private practice focusing on criminal cases and personal injury litigation.  Grisham soon seized the moment to expand his professional horizons when he was elected a member of Mississippi’s House of Representatives in 1983 where he served for seven years. It was during his stint as a legislator that he began exploring the art of novel writing based on his experience working in the legal arena. Grisham went on to author international bestsellers such as The Firm, The Pelican Brief, The Chamber and A Time to Kill among many others. Grisham had the most significant influence on American literary history through his authentic unsullied focus on race, social disparities and prejudices rife in his society.

            Grisham’s contributes and informs American literary history by highlighting the prevalence of racism in the United States.  For instance, the legal thriller A Time to Kill explores racism and its influence on the criminal justice system. The fictional town of Clanton, Mississippi where the story is set is in the American South where racial tensions still exist. African Americans, descendants of former plantation slaves, live in constant fear albeit forming a sizeable majority in the region (Pringle 23).  Although the Civil Rights Movement had succeeded in forcing the federal government to introduce sweeping changes through affirmative action, these variations were yet to be realized by many of the blacks residing in the South. Grisham inadvertently explores the loss of influence by white plantation owners after the Civil Way (1861-65) and accompanying Jim Crow laws. These abrasive sentiments were carried well into the second half of the 20th century where Grisham’s members of the black community in Clanton are constantly terrorized by their white counterparts. Grisham also delves deep into controversial issues such as White Supremacy and the sense of privilege espoused by individuals who identify as Caucasians. Additionally, Grisham exposes segregation in the South and the dire consequences of blacks have to contend with for falling on the wrong side of the Ku Klux Klan.

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            Social inequality have, for decades, existed in the United States but rarely highlighted in American literary. This aspect of life often takes different dimensions but mostly informed by race and class. Social inequalities in the United States are characterized by limited influence in society and ostracism. For instance, Grisham’s black characters always remain aware of their environment and the rules informing every single decision made in society. In A Time to Kill, a young black girl is raped by two white perpetrators who are later apprehended after continued public outcry over the incident. Many Southern blacks, including the victim’s father, view this as nothing more than a public relations which will end with the suspects being acquitted by the jury. It is for this reason that he decides to take drastic measures and resorts to implementing his own version of justice by accosting and killing both men. Grisham’s depiction also rings true in American history where white offenders have traditionally been thought to receive preferential treatment by the justice system (Wagner-Martin). Offenders from minority communities are more likely to end be tried and convicted for crimes committed compared to their white counterparts. Grisham contributes to this narrative by exposing intricate longstanding machinations that have plagued the American criminal justice system.

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            Grisham also bolsters American literary history by underscoring prejudices such as sexism. According to Manne (2017), sexism is a form of discrimination based on individual’s gender which primarily affects women and girls. It is characterized by feelings of intrinsic superiority which typically goes on to introduce numerous negative impacts on vulnerable individuals in society. It is noteworthy to acknowledge the fact that the United States has grappled with sexism over the past century and sought to exponentially reduces such incidences. The Women Suffrage movement particularly sought to introduce a new dawn in the United States where sexism and gender related discrimination became a thing of the past. The federal government even participated directly in these efforts by stress the importance of women in society and their contribution in the manufacturing industry during the Second World War (WW2). In, A Time to Kill explores the United States’ long history with sexism when a female attorney attempts to offer legal services to the father of the ten-year-old girl raped by white aggressors. Members of the Klu Klux Klan painstakingly endeavor to discredit her work using sexist innuendos and her capability to take up the case. She is later kidnapped in an attempt to inhibit her from protecting the integrity of the case.

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In conclusion, John Grisham is one of the most noteworthy contributors to American literary history. His works feature profound themes such as racism, social inequality and sexism which are at the root of American society. Through his works, one gets an unadulterated view of crucial elements in American literary history and their influence on the genre.

Case Brief – Mistretta v. United States, 488 U.S. 361 (1989)

A U.S. Supreme Court case where the court interpreted delegation of power (constitutional delegation clause) – Mistretta v. United States, 488 U.S. 361 (1989).

Facts of the Case

             The appellant, John Mistretta, was indicted on three separate counts for his role in the sale and distribution of cocaine by a District Court in Western Missouri (JUSTIA US Supreme Court, 2017). He sought to challenge guidelines introduced by the United States Sentencing Commission and moved to have them deemed unconstitutional based on the argument that their enactment went against the non-delegation doctrine.

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Issues

In 1984, Congress assented to the Sentencing Reform Act with the primary aim of addressing prevalent discrepancies noted in the justice system’s punitive measures in criminal cases. This legislation also created provisions for the creation of the United States Sentencing Commission tasked with outlining new guidelines for criminal sentencing. The petitioner challenged this as contempt of the non-delegation doctrine and unconstitutional.

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Decisions (Holdings)

            The Supreme Court found the federal sentencing policy valid since it was well within the precincts of the constitution. This is because the constitutional delegation clause does not inhibit Congress from seeking support from coordinate Branches.

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 Reasoning

            The rationale of the ruling was based on the fact that Congress established the “intelligible principle” in delegating authority tothe United States Sentencing Commission (Fruchtman, 2016). Furthermore, the delegation met all requirements which ceded authority to the commission to create guidelines for criminal punishment informed by a classification pecking order for federal crimes.  

Separate Opinions

            It is noteworthy to acknowledge that the Supreme Court ruling also attracted dissenting voices. For instance, Justice Antonin Scalia viewed these apparent “guidelines” as influential in a criminal case since they are backed by law enforcement officers and the law. Thus, judges have no option other than to adhere to the stipulations provided.

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Analysis 

            Over the past century, Congress has participated actively in the creating a scope for judicial sentencing.  The Petitioner’s first argument was that Congress had violated the non-delegation doctrine by according excess discretion to the United States Sentencing Commission. In its ruling, the Supreme Court held that this was well within the bounds of the constitution since Congress can be backed by other branches of government while applying the “intelligible test” for validity.