Author: UniqueWritersBay

Increasing Energy Efficiency in 5G-Enabled Mobile Computing Networks


As the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry makes rapid progress towards integrated mobile computing, there is a need to consider the impact of the envisaged 5G network system on the carbon footprint. 5G systems are expected to consume enormous amounts of energy to operate compared to the current LTE networks. Fortunately, there is a range of technologies that can be applied either consecutively or concurrently. This paper reviews the following possible solutions: Lean carrier design, dynamic beamforming, dynamic energy saving for small cells, densification with very small cells, advanced network sharing and network virtualization.

Keywords: Mobile computing, 5G technologies, Energy Efficiency, MIMO

Read also Modern Trends in Information Technology


The era of the fifth generation (5G) networks has dawned. This means that various pertinent issues related to capacity, security, heterogeneity of improvements, end-to-end-delay, throughput, and scalability must be addressed in order to achieve a unified 5G infrastructure and efficient communications system [5] [6] [7]. As the electronics and communication industry spearheads the world towards this goal, it is important to consider how 5G technologies will play a part in the environmental sustainability of future societies, as is happening with other initiatives and frameworks like smart grids and smart cities [8]. Energy efficiency is no doubt a central issue in the transformation of mobile computing networks.

Read also Mobile Computing and its Business Implications

One major goal of attaining energy efficiency, with the exception of ecological value, is the reduction of costs in the operation of mobile networks in addition to increasing customer satisfaction with improved battery life. At the moment, it is not clear how 5G networks will contribute to power efficiency in the mobile computing arena as most agencies are only focused on amplifying bandwidths as an overlay on top of current networks. Energy efficiency should be considered as an integral part wireless systems.

In an effort to unravel the issue of energy consumption in the context of 5G networks and mobile computing, this paper attempts to review technologies and setups that can serve as potential solutions. It also reviews a growing body of research on energy savings in 5G while focusing on recent advances in technologies that could bring energy efficiency in 5G and mobile computing domains.

Read also Wireless and Mobile Technologies In Amazon and Delta Airlines

Problem Statement

The 5G concept adopts more sophisticated networks, denser deployment, and an almost anytime-anywhere goal. These complex features pose six main challenges: higher data rates, higher capacity, lower end-to-end latency, massive device connectivity, reduced cost, and quality of experience provisioning.

Within the 5G concept, wireless and mobile traffic volume will skyrocket by a thousand-fold in the next ten years due to the 50 billion devices presumed to be connected to the cloud by the year 2020 based on the anytime-anywhere goal [12]. Such a large number of devices will present challenges which should be countered by enhancing capacity, spectrum utilization, cost efficiency, and, most importantly, energy efficiency [12]. It is important to note that the 5G cellular framework is heterogeneous in nature as it blends microcells, microcells, small cells, and relays in its architecture. The reason behind this is the interconnectivity capabilities for emerging technologies such as Massive MIMO network, mobile and static small-cell networks, and cognitive Radio network. It also explains the incorporation of function virtualization (NFV) cloud, small cell access points, Device to Device (DVD) communication, and the Internet of things (IOT) in the 5G concept. The mobile small cell concept is an important part of the 5G cellular system which consists of small cell concepts and mobile relay.

                The expected exponential growth in data traffic volume, the number of connected devices, and diverse requirements means that power consumption is a central issue. 5G networks will have much demanding power requirement than their LTE and HSPA counterparts and battery operations are anticipated to be short-lived and much more expensive. In the 5G architecture, the Active Antenna Unit (AAU) [13] has now replaced the Remote Radio unit (RRU) since it is a MIMO with multiple integrated transmitters and antennas that are capable of steering the RF beam at all users on real time. This calls for the installation of many transmitters which are under the control of a BaseBand Unit (BBU) that calculates a mathematical beam to create a solution for every user relative to their movement while processing gigabyte of internet traffic at the same time. This requires massive processing power which means the BBU will consume energy akin to a space heater. Additionally, many transmitters translate to more power requirements. Energy efficiency is, thus, the key to achieving the 5G network goal.


The research process commenced with a question: What solutions are viable in reducing power consumption in 5G networks? The researcher used grounded theory to methodically gather and analyze data in the topic of interest. As empirical data were reviewed, repeated ideas, elements and concepts became apparent. These represented unique codes in the data. The codes were then grouped into main concepts and categories and later used as the basis for the discussion section. The researcher’s choice of grounded theory was backed by the methods ability to improve a method before application. As the realization of 5G networks instigates, a new theory in the subject of energy efficiency can be grounded on current possible solutions in order to rate the effectiveness of each solution scientifically.


Lean Carrier Design

A lean carrier design is a radio frame with limited signals that are not always active like cell-specific signals [11]. This approach minimizes overall transmission by cutting back on transmissions that do not contribute to direct user data transfer. In non-lean designs, not all signals that are sent and received through a network are directly related to data transmission. Therefore, 5G networks can reduce non-data transmissions such as synchronization signals and control and system signals to save energy. With the use of DTX technology, a Base Station (BS) can enter sleep mode when there are no transmissions to reduce idle time energy consumption [10]. The operation behind this model relies on disabling some unneeded power-hungry components. Because the cell is not completely switched off in DTX technology, the sleeping capacity of a system is associated with its empty transmission duration, which is normally denoted as DTX duration.

Dynamic Beamforming

 Dynamic beamforming refers to the application of MIMO and advanced beamforming techniques to enable the utilization of transit energy in a specific receiver or for localized transmission, which sequentially improves energy efficiency by reducing the amount of energy dissipated in an area with few or no users. In a typical Massive MIMO (MM) configuration, a BS equipped with many antennas (M >> K) serves single-antenna equipment (UEs) [9].

The deployment of many antennas in at the BS produces an interesting phenomena known as a favorable configuration in which the channel becomes almost deterministic because the radio links between the BS and the UE are nearly orthogonal relative to each other. This results from the asymptotic disappearance of uncorrelated noise and intra-cell interference. Thus, an MM system can achieve massive energy efficiency gains due to favorable configuration since multiple orders of array and multiplexing can also be achieved. Specifically, mmWave MIMO systems can benefit immensely from hybrid beamforming which reduces uplink and downlink transmit power via coherent combination as well as increased apertures in antennas. In such a network, hybrid transceivers combine lower-dimensional digital signal processing units with power amplifiers and analog phase shifters.

Dynamic Energy Saving for Small Cells 

Dynamic energy saving schemes employ the concept of transmission based on needs where network nodes transmit only to users who need the transmissions [4]. This enables energy saving in occasions where no users are available as well as when no needs exist in the system. Real-time measurements have demonstrated that most cells are usually ‘empty’ when it comes to needs for a significant part of the way. Hence, it is possible to achieve high energy efficiency with this technique. A case in point is a system with two levels of sleep modes wherein the first is deep sleep with no possibility of synchronization while the second is light sleep with a possibility of cell discovery and access. In the latter, the cell can transmit necessary signals. When the cell is not in sleep mode, it will enter operation mode, enabling normal transmission of data to users. In addition, in this Composable Control function (CP)/ Programmable control function (UP) split may be used where control plane connectivity is provided by macro sires while small cells function as pure UP modes – data/capacity boosters that can switch on or off depending on needs.

Densification with very Small Cells 

Densification involves bringing many nodes to the network and reducing the distance and ISD to the user by deploying them below rooftop heights [3]. Densification reduces path-loss and, consequently, the power needed to reach a user over long distances. This reduces energy consumption on the side of the UE as well as at the network node.

 Network sharing and Network Virtualization

This refers to the utilization of one piece of infrastructure by multiple mobile operators, especially for networks that have been densified as discussed above [2]. With many cells deployed, operators can share costs of one system instead of deploying additional infrastructure which would lead to massive consumption of energy. Small cells are a revolutionary solution not only for energy consumption but also for the Heterogenous Network Strategy (HetNet) [1]. Though low-powered and compact, small cells can have coverage of several hundred feet and can be placed in already existing infrastructure such as utility poles. Moreover, this network slicing technique creates the potential for utilizing only the required functions that are optimized and designed for specific applications. The functions can be assigned in a flexible manner to each processing node, thus employing them in the most efficient locations with regard to energy efficiency. Finally, operators can utilize hardware more efficiently by pooling gains.


As the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry makes rapid progress towards 5G networks and integrated mobile computing, there is a need to consider the impact of the envisaged system on the carbon footprint. 5G systems are expected to consume enormous amounts of energy to operate compared to the current LTE networks. Fortunately, there is a range of technologies that can be applied either consecutively or concurrently. This paper has reviewed the following possible solutions: Lean carrier design, dynamic beamforming, dynamic energy saving for small cells, densification with very small cells, advanced network sharing and network virtualization

Juvenile Delinquency Prevention – Research Paper


Juvenile delinquency prevention is a concept that focuses in safeguarding children and teenagers from being involved in crime before they consider engaging in crime. According to Greenwood (2008), there are various reasons to prevent young people from being involved in crime or from continuing to be involved in delinquent behavior. One of the most apparent reasons is that delinquency subjects a youth at risk for injury, drug dependency and use, early pregnancy, school drop-out, adult criminality and incarceration. Redeeming youths from crime saves them from wasting their life. In addition to this, it has been established that majority of adult criminals start their criminal career as children. Thus, preventing delinquency blocks the adult criminal career onset and thus, lowering the crime burden on society and on crime victims.

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Both adult and delinquent offenders take a hefty toll both emotionally and financially on taxpayers and victims who have to share the costs. To fight this cost, most criminal justice systems have been working hard to define the most effective delinquency prevention and treatment programs, after high level of inefficiency in the past programs such as DARE among others. The prevention programs focus on addressing biological and environmental factors that influence youths’ tendency to engage in crime. The treatment programs try on addressing acquired or/and biological behaviors and traits to prevent past offenders from reoffending. The main challenges experienced by most of these programs is that some of these factors are hard to change or control, especially without community support (Greenwood, 2008). This paper reviews fundamental principles in delinquency prevention and treatment. It also assesses different delinquency prevention and treatment programs, evaluating their level of effectiveness.

Juvenile Delinquency Prevention

Delinquency prevention can take place in two levels which include primary and secondary delinquency prevention. Primary delinquency prevention is based on the principle of identifying environments or individuals at danger for delinquent activity prior to the occurrence of the behavior and then either strengthening the risk factor resistance or removing risk factors. The effect of this kind of an approach is established by the accuracy of risk factors identification process and the choice of where and when to direct the intervention. The primary delinquency prevention programs target the youth general population and they include efforts to prevent teen pregnancy, drug use and smoking. The program application in this case need to determine at what stage of life of the targeted individual will be the prevention program is likely to be more viable and hence successful. To establish high level of accuracy, one needs to balance the accessible knowledge regarding the extant approaches efficacy, the practical constraints of specific intervention strategies, and the policy and ethical constraints of centering on specific social institutions or groups (May, Osmond & Billick, 2014).

Read also Recent Trends in Juvenile Delinquency

The secondary prevention are programs which try to rehabilitate youth that have demonstrated early behavioral problems indications, though they have not been formally grouped as delinquent yet, or those who have not demonstrated a longstanding antisocial behavior pattern. In most situations, youths who have had a single or more encounters with the police though have not yet been arbitrated by the juvenile court.  These programs also target teenagers at high risk for a specific outcome such as violence or delinquency, a group which may include individuals in disadvantaged neighborhood, those who are experiencing violence and abuse at home, and those struggling in class (Greenwood, 2008). Rather than being troubled by the early risk predictors for later delinquency, secondary prevention programs normally rely on a comprehension of factors which distinguish between children that show temporary behavior issues and those who are probable to persist in taking part in antisocial behavior. The programs stress on changing the current behavior issues before resulting to more grave criminal behaviors (Mulvey, Arthur & Reppucci, 1993).    

Different forms of Delinquency Prevention Programs and their Efficiency

There are a number of delinquency prevention programs in both primary and secondary levels, but with different levels of efficiency. This section reviews a few examples and their level of efficiency.

Perry Preschool Program

This is an early childhood intervention program that helps in protecting children at high risk of delinquency from becoming criminals in the future. The program involved 1 to 4 years old children from low socioeconomic families, majority being black Americans. Every child participant was offered about 12 hours of per week of preschool education for a period of seven and half months every year for two years. The educators were in addition needed to carry out weekly home visits which would last 90 minutes (May, Osmond & Billick, 2014). The home visits focuses on both the child and their parents, especially mothers. The participants were then given a follow-up at different ages in life which included 40, 27, 19 and 14 years. When contrasted with those who did not take part in the program, participants of Perry Preschool Program demonstrated a substantial reduction in life time and adult criminality at all-time based on the research results. The follow up at the age of 40 demonstrated that just 28% of the program participants had been jailed compared to 52% of the control group. The model of Perry Preschool Program thus became the base model for developing curriculums targeting low-income families by Head Start programs. The Perry Preschool program was also found to be cost effective. The individual cost in this program is $14716, resulting to $ 105000 saving per participant (May, Osmond & Billick, 2014).

Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions

Cognitive-behavior interventions (CBI) are founded on the notion that behavioral disorder that include substance abuse and juvenile delinquency can yield from an inability to maintain and develop positive social associations as a result of social skills deficits. CBI can either be described as behavioral social-skills-training (BSST) and interpersonal cognitive problem solving (ICPS) programs. ICPS programs center on processes that include social cues interpretation and intentions of others, creating alternate solutions to situations of social problems, and assessing the possible results of various solutions, as well as means-end thinking. BSST programs center on teaching a particular behaviors that include fighting peer pressure joining a peer group, giving compliments and accepting criticism. However, majority of programs integrate both aspects of BSST and ICCPS. The two are introduced in school curriculums and offered in small groups of students ( Mulvey, Arthur & Reppucci, 1993). With regard to efficiency cognitive behavioral intervention or therapy has been approved after demonstrating exceptional performance in around 58 studies conducted to investigate its effectiveness.  CBI has been found to lower the rate of offending for the participants by 25% which is significantly high compared to other methods (Greenwood, 2008).

Family Support Intervention

One of the delinquency risk factor is unstable family where the child is subjected to violence and abuse, or in a family with very poor socioeconomic status. In such situation, a child is likely to develop emotional and behavioral problems due to psychological distress and life pressure. In this regard, family based intervention is one of the most effective measures that can be employed to prevent delinquency. Family support intervention entails offering an extensive range of social support services that include counseling, medical care, day care, referrals to other agencies of social services and family needs assessment. Family intervention program may start at birth up to 30 months of growth for children born of low income families. This includes 30 months of psychological services to the mothers especially those who get their first born in a low income families, child care pediatric care and social work (Mulvey, Arthur & Reppucci, 1993). A follow up program for children taken in from birth up to 30 months five and 10 years after demonstrated positive effect on both children and parents involve, in contrast to a matched comparison group. The program boys at age 12.5 were less probable to demonstrate pre-delinquent behavior issues such as truancy and negative teacher rating, compared to other boys.  Family based intervention and therapy programs are said to reduce the rate of committing crime by 12.2%.  This implies their application is highly significant (Greenwood, 2008)

Juvenile Delinquency Treatment

Juvenile delinquency treatment focuses on teenage who have already had an encounter with the police and been convicted from ever going back to the criminal justice system. The main aim is to try and change their behaviors, their perspective of the world, and their ability to survive in the community without thinking of criminal ways to survive. The main principle behind juvenile treatment the character, behavior or whatever reason propagated committing of crime in the first place and focus on neutralizing it to ensure that this does not push released youths into reoffending. The program thus range from anger management for those in jails or probation to reduce working in impulse, behavioral control, feeling the painful consequences of own act among other thing. Below is a review of some of the measures employed to treat juvenile who are already engaged in crime for the first time to avoid reoffending.

Read also Difference Between Female And Male Delinquency

Multisystemic Therapy (MST)

MST is an intensive community- and family-based intervention for notorious juvenile offenders wherein young offenders get to have weekly meeting with two to four therapists, together with their families at school or home for three to five months. MST centers on community, individual, school, family and peer risk factors which contribute to development and growth of youth antisocial behaviors. MST needs measurable, concrete effort from both families and youths, and builds on strengths of youths in lives while changing problematic interaction with peers and family. The program keeps the serious juvenile offenders in the community but under strict supervision. Based on the research, MST is one of the most effective programs in treatment of juvenile offenders (Henggeler, Clingempeel, Brondino & Pickrel, 2002). A research conducted to assess the rate of recidivism among juvenile offenders four years after being treated using MST demonstrated that low rate of reoffending, around 22.1%. This is regarded to be significant especially when compared to individual therapy group of participants who were said to have 71.4% rate of recidivism. The most interesting part about MST is that even participants who were engage in a practical program were able to reduce their recidivism rate to 46.6% which is still lower than those who went through individual therapy program. Based on these results, it is thus more effective to initiate MST intervention to juvenile offenders while still in the community than incarcerating them. In addition MST is found to be cost effective where by the net MST program cost was $4743 per participant, saving a total of $131 918 for every participants. Its level of efficiency is thus considerably high (May, Osmond & Billick, 2014).

Restorative Justice

Restorative justice is a program used to treat juvenile delinquency. The program in based on two competing juvenile delinquent treatment theories; restoration and punishment.  One of the main goals of this program is to reinstate justice to the community and victim by confronting or punishing the offender to make him or her feel the consequence of his or her actions. The structure permits for some therapeutic measures for juvenile delinquent, which includes talking responsibility for committed crime and accountability (Weatherburn & Macadam, 2013). Nevertheless, the approach is said to be single-dimensional, to be short with each participant only being offered just a single session with facilitator of the program.

Read also Concept and Purpose of Restorative Justice and Restitution

As a result, juvenile delinquent learns very little regarding being pro-social. The program only focuses on the crime, giving higher priority to the victim rather than focusing on addressing delinquent behavior. The main critique of this program is that it might fail to reduce the rate of reoffending in all kind of crimes and hence it does not play any tangible role in reducing the rate of crimes in the society. RJ program is only said to result to a significant future criminality reduction amongst first-time, male offenders who were below 14 years of age. Chances of reoffending were highly influencing on the initial age an offender was while being introduced to RJ.  This means older children will likely reoffend even after taking RJ program. Nevertheless, the program is said to be much better compared to detention (Weatherburn & Macadam, 2013).

Community-Based Treatment       

Community based treatment is one of the most effective and feasible juvenile delinquency treatment approach discovered in the last few decades. Juvenile offenders’ community based programs has increased since the development of juvenile delinquency prevention act and initiatives.  Some of community based treatment approaches include different degrees of community probation, which can range from residential placements to minimal supervision and which may slightly differ with regards to community access from placements institution and atmosphere. A dispositional alternative is restitution which has become popular recently. Restitution entails either the accused young offender paying directly to the victim as a way of compensating the victim for the loss, or carrying out an equivalent measure of public service.  Restitution programs sometimes entail direct mediation between victim and the offender. The restitution popularity mirrors three main justice systems trends which include centering on personal responsibility for the crime, a developing concern on victim’s right and obscuring of variation between civil and criminal law (Araki, Braunschweig, Conant & Dabel, 2003). Restitution program are regarded to be effective since they leave a victim more satisfied for the punishment given or compensation received. The research also shows that two of four restitution programs lower recidivism by two to three years following the treatment as contrasted to control group. However, research has revealed other important data such as lack of any significant difference between restitution conditions with counseling and without. Those who refuse restitution to probation were also found to have same rate of recidivism compared to restitution offenders.  The performance of community based in terms of efficiency can thus be regarded as fair.

Aspect of Prevention and Treatment are Similar and Different

The main similarity between prevention and treatment of juvenile delinquency is that they are both driven by similar goals. The two aim at streamlining the life of the probable juvenile offender or an offender to prevent them from being entangled to crime and destroying their life. They both also focus on reducing the cost burden of supporting a youth offender in the criminal justice and correction center to adulthood, which is quite expensive. However, prevention does so by preventing those at risk from being vulnerable while treatment does so by trying to ensure that those who have already been in the crime trap do not reoffend (OJJDP, 2000). The two programs center on similar approaches which are based on individual, families and community intervention measures and they are all defined based on identified risk factors.

The main difference between delinquent treatment and prevention deprograms is that, prevention can target children even in their early childhood, while treatment normally focuses on older children, who have the strength and courage to commit a crime. While prevention can take place at the targeted audience own setting, treatment may be restricted by the laws of criminal justice, and the mostly happen at an authorized place, sometimes with supervision or restriction of the delinquent youth. Justice system laws and restrictions must be considered and they highly guide on the measure to employ.  Another major difference is that the efficiency in prevention program is measured based on the rate of first involvement with police while treatment efficiency is measured based on the chances of re-involvement with the police or justice system.

General Importance of Prevention and Treatment, why they are necessary and their Level of Inter-Relation The research has identified that there are risk factors which increase chances of children being involved with justice system today or in the future. These factors mostly include things beyond a child control for instance abusive family, poor socioeconomic status, birth characters, and the neighborhood. This simply means the rate of crime would reduce if all children are born in a good, stable home environment, with enough income to cater for all child’s needs and rights. However, this is not possible and as a result most of children involved in crime are forced by their current or previous life situation. It is therefore logical to help such children from wasting their life as prisoners in criminal justice system, by helping them to cope with their situation and acquire skills to help them survive without engaging in crime. It is also important to ensure children with emotional and behavioral issues associated to their birth or history are able to control them so ensure that they live well with others and to protect them from encountering with police. Thus prevention and treatment are important since they help disadvantaged children from being dominated by their circumstance and offer them a way to have a better future. They also help in preventing losses in the government revenue due to high maintenance of people in the justice system and also in developing a crime free society. The juvenile delinquency prevention and treatment program are interrelated in that they both aim at correcting youths with intention of protecting them from crime.

Culture and Symbols at Ford Motors

Organizational symbols can convey powerful meanings that represent underlying values, philosophies, meanings, and expectations within a company. They influence awareness of an organization’s expectations and, as such, captures meanings that integrate cognition, behavior, and emotion into shared codes. Symbols influence behavior through eliciting organizational values and norms, therefore, undergirds corporate culture. Notably, symbols are integral to organizational life as they shape employees’ active construction of behavior, sense, and knowledge. This paper explores the corporate culture of Ford Motors, as conveyed by symbols to identify strengths and weaknesses from a cultural perspective.

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Organizational Culture and the Symbols

Company Logo

            One of the most distinctive symbols in Ford’s offices is the company’s logo. A flattened oval figure designed in several shades of blue and white colors with the name “Ford” inscribed in the middle represents Ford Motors’ logo. The embedded name in the middle of the logo is the famous stylish Henry Ford’s signature. The blue color symbolizes strength and excellence, while the white color depicts purity and nobility (“Ford Logo Meaning”, 2020). The logo is incorporated in almost all items that employees interact with on a daily basis, including pens, mugs, journals, et cetera. According to Ravasi (2016), a logo is a symbol of a company’s identity.

Read also Strategic Management and Strategic Competitiveness – Ford Motor Company

The strength and excellence component (blue color) in Ford’s logo serves as a constant reminder to the employees that they must strive for excellence and remain strong even in the face of challenges and adversity. The nobility and purity aspects of the logo (white color) can be interpreted to urge employees to uphold emotional intelligence (“Ford Logo Meaning”, 2020). Concerning Ford’s organizational culture, the logo relates to two components incorporated in the company’s corporate culture guideline dubbed “Our Truths” (“Our Culture”, 2020). Firstly, the emphasis on strength and excellence relates to how Ford urges its employees to play to win, and its famous slogan ‘built ford tough.’ Secondly, the nobility and purity part relates to the company emphasizing that employees always do the right thing and live as a family (‘One Ford’), whereby members can rely on, care, and respect each other.

Office Outlook

 The second symbol is the company’s working spaces. After Jim Hackett was named Ford’s CEO in May 2017, he announced his plans to transform the company. The first order of business was to change the office working spaces’ outlook. For instance, in the Detroit campus have collaborative work areas as well as support areas such as gyms and cafeterias (“Hackett sought to ‘push the edges’ of automaker’s office design”, 2018). The team spaces are a symbol of Ford’s corporate culture. Ford has always strived to remain innovative as it understands that in the automotive industry, a company must be undergirded by innovation to stay ahead of the competition. In “Our Truths” under the truth named “Be Curious” Ford insists that the company approaches the world with a sense of interest and wonder (“Our Culture”, 2020). The open spaces also encourage teamwork and collaboration among the employees. The open spaces influences employees’ awareness regarding the expectation to remain creative and innovative.

            The recreational spaces, including gyms and cafeterias, can be interpreted to symbolize Ford values its employees. In “Our Truths,” Ford states that it puts people first as it is driven by purpose. Whether employees, customers, or partners, the needs and wants of people are Ford’s primary priority (“Our Culture”, 2020). Such efforts by an organization make employees feel appreciated and valued, thereby serving as motivators. The recreational spaces also allow employees to form meaningful relations, integral to team works and collaborations. Therefore, the recreational areas symbolize a culture of team work and collaboration and a place where employees are valued.


Lastly, slogans mostly put up on the company’s walls serve as important symbols of Ford’s corporate culture. Ford uses two slogans; (1) “Go Further” and (2) “Built Ford Tough” (“Our Culture”, 2020). Regarding the former, it sends the message that Ford employees must always strive to improve. “Go Further” is a reminder that one should never be comfortable with the status quo but should strive to achieve something better. It can also be translated to mean a desire for excellence as one can only excel by pushing the limits. The slogan represents Ford’s culture of always striving to be the best and striving for excellence. In relation to employees, it symbolizes a culture of always seeking to improve knowledge and skills as well as improving in terms of productivity and quality of work.

The second slogan, “Built Ford Tough,” symbolizes Ford’s fighting spirit. It conveys the message that Ford’s employees accept challenges and tackle them with confidence, courage, and optimism. In “Our Truths,” Ford confesses that as an organization, it embraces disruption as an opportunity to evolve and become something better (“Our Culture”, 2020). The slogan, therefore, symbolizes a culture of never giving up or in and a shared belief that in the face of challenges and adversity Ford will continue thriving. Thus, it suggests a strong winning mentality firmly established in Ford’s corporate culture.

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Organization from a Cultural Perspective


            The above-discussed organizational symbols point out several strengths associated with Ford’s corporate culture. Firstly, the culture gives Ford an identity as communicated by its logo. Secondly, the symbols exhibit that Ford’s corporate culture clearly conveys the company’s core values. Thirdly, as demonstrated by the symbols, the corporate culture of Ford has the power to transform employees. The culture emphasizes on continuous improvements and having a growth mindset. Fourthly, the culture is strong enough to retain the best talents as it incorporates both intrinsic and extrinsic motivators. For instance, it emphasizes treating employees as valued members of the Ford family and investing in providing a conducive working environment such as the 2017 office renovations. Fifthly, the culture is well established to transform the employees into a team and promote corporate citizenship. This is evident in the core values that the culture emphasizes, such as respect, care, and satisfying other employees’ needs.

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            On the downside, as deciphered from its organizational symbols, Ford’s corporate culture does not appear strong enough to attract the best talents from the job market. As this evaluation has demonstrated, Ford’s symbols are mostly confined within the offices and working spaces, so they only influence the behavior of those within the premises. According to Ravasi (2016), a robust corporate culture capable of attracting the best talents from the job market needs to have a powerful external impact.


From the strengths and weaknesses analysis, it is evident that Ford’s organizational culture’s strengths outweigh the weakness. Thus, Ford should retain its current organizational corporate culture. However, there is an urgent need for the company to address the above-identified weakness. One way to do this is by building a great employer brand on social media. In today’s world, social media has established itself as a powerful medium in the corporate world that corporations can utilize to attract new talents. Therefore, Ford needs to strategically display symbols that hint to it being a great employer on its social media platforms.

How Communication Flows in a Department in My Current Organization

Companies with strong cultures have a strong flow of communication that moves in every direction. The four types of communication flows are

  • Downward: communication flows from top management down to employees.
  • Upward: communication flows from employees up to management.
  • Lateral: communication flows between employees at the same level.
  • Diagonal: communication flows across different work areas or organizational levels.

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How Communication Flows in a Department in my Organization

Communication flow in my department follows can be described using downward and lateral communication flow. This communication form is used because the company has adopted a hierarchical organization structure, where orders and instruction run from the top management down-ward to the department managers, to the supervisors, and then to workers. Sometimes, department managers can decide to make a follow-up by directly communicating with workers, especially when there is a significant issue. Downward communication helps eliminate tensions and ensure a clear explanation of the department procedures and policies (Kwateng, Osei & Abban, 2014).

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It also aids in providing departmental procedures, individual evaluation and expectations, and training. This form of communication helps create a procedural work culture where workers wait for the guidance of those in authority. The department also uses lateral communication to enhance communication among workers of equal level. This mostly focuses on the sharing of knowledge, ideas, and solving work-related issues. It also ensures proper division and management of tasks within the department.  This form of communication is also used during informal conversations and structured meetings. This form of communication is likely to promote collaborative or cooperative culture in an organization, especially among workers at the same work level. It enhances problems in solving good personal relations in a department (Kwateng, Osei & Abban, 2014).

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Lateral communication also makes it possible for workers in a department to gain collective bargain when speaking against the unwanted practice of unwanted working conditions. The collaborative culture created by lateral communication makes it possible for the department workers to work as a team even when advocating for improved working conditions.

Top Three Trends in National Security Sector

Top Three Trends in the National Security Sector

The National Security Sector is arguably one of the most important industries in the United States. It is, therefore, no wonder that changes and the introduction of new trends is archetypally witnessed here owing to an abrupt increase in the number of challenges facing the country. Code 928110 of North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) currently identifies cyber-security, space defense, and big data analytics as noteworthy trends within the sector which may eventually present numerous implications.

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Cyber Defense

            The cyberspace is currently regarded as one of the most important areas of focus in the United States. This has prompted numerous efforts by experts and state agencies to keep it secure and free from the influence of adversaries. The rapidly transformative nature of this domain now calls for vigilance among users to ensure that they do not fall victim to unknown vulnerabilities which may occasion irreparable harm (Dillow, 2017). This is particularly so for the military since cyber-attacks are top in the list of immediate potential threats to nuclear submarines and satellites thus posing a security challenge. Furthermore, claims of blatant cyber intrusion by hackers with links to the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Russian Federation (RF) has further amplified calls for immediate action by the federal government to boost cyber defense in the United States (Hernandez, 2015). Hackers have even gone as far as targeting the US Office of Personnel Management with the aim of compromising the nation’s operational capability this impacting its position as a world leader (Office of Press Secretary, 2016).  The precarious presence of security clearance data also calls for an immediate improvement in cyber defense to mitigate any vulnerability which may emerge during periods of crisis in the future. The ultimate aim is to develop a revamped contingency protocol to serve the United States against state-sanctioned cyber terrorists seeking to compromise national security while waging a cyber-proxy war. This will also solidify the importance of cyber security to the United States hence the relevance of the modernization fund to equip the military with the appropriate knowledge.

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Space Defense

            The United States has long regarded space defense as a major aspect of its national security policy. This interest can be traced back to the Cold War era when the Soviet space program made history by being the first nation to launch a human being into space in the person of cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin in early 1961. The United States was immediately alarmed by this new development especially since the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) had successfully tested its R-7 intercontinental ballistic missile and the subsequent introduction of the first satellite. These developments later lay the foundation for space defense as a new domain of the famed United States Air Force (USAF) and the subsequent formation of the United States Space Force (USSF). The main objective of this particular space defense program is to first gain a considerable measure of control over this domain and protect satellites from malicious attacks orchestrated by adversaries. Space satellites such as Minotaur, Delta II, and Falcon 9 Full Thrust play a critical role in relaying important military correspondence, triangulation, and surveillance. Given the current contested state of space as unchartered territory, the United States has moved to reassert its dominance. The military currently partners with private companies such as SpaceX to improve its capabilities and actively working towards the realization of its space defense objectives. This has proven economical for the federal government, especially since the only focus now is on improving existing technology rather than having to develop it altogether (Bennet, 2017). Additionally, such efforts also go a long way in protecting the United States from cyber-attacks capable of crippling its military capabilities.

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Big Data Analytics

            Over the course the past decade, big data emerged as one of the most noticeable hallmarks of technological innovation. This has now evolved into a growing need for the introduction of machine-learning algorithms to improve overall efficiency. Big data analytics has also been an existential force behind developments made by Google and Intel in the quest of realizing their dream of applying artificial intelligence (AI) across the board in the next decade. These particular algorithms have been instrumental to national security owing to their ability to triangulate terrorists and messages shared in private chat rooms. The near real-time (NRT) aspect of big data has been hailed for its accuracy and the primary reason why security experts now look to it to solve some of the challenges being faced currently. Through the meticulous application of analytical tools, experts are able to evaluate a treasure trove of data which may ultimately serve an important role in national defense.

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Additionally, data analytics now harnessed using a predictive framework to track the online activity of suspicious individuals with links to illegal outfits and terrorist organizations. Homeland security agents will then evaluate the information gathered to gauge the level of threat identified using semantic patterning and triangulation based on the data provided (Lozda, 2014). It is for this very reason that investors now regard big data analytics as one of the most influential trends yet with numerous benefits for those who may choose to implement it.  Nevertheless, data analytics is still plagued by detractor’s criticisms of the manner in which it threatens privacy and confidentially in society.

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The Rise of Big Data Analytics

            The gathering of relevant data as a precondition for national security still remains a priority for most nation-states globally. This practice has prevailed over the past seven decades and was epitomized by the Allies’ single action of breaking the code for the “Enigma” machine. Although the Allies were faced with a seemingly insurmountable task, fabled Bletchley Park mathematician and code-breaker Allan Turing was able to prevail and ultimately ending Nazi dominance in the European theatre of war (Lycett, 2015). Intelligence gathering has since morphed into a significant part of the military particularly in the United States and the primary reason why big data analytics has been embraced across the board.  Although it may seem innovative, big data analytics has always been a common feature of the digital age. It is, now more than ever, regarded as one of the most important elements of national security in contemporary times given the nature of emerging challenges present. This has prompted the United States to focus keenly on cyber security and space exploration as exemplified in the recent formation of the United States Space Force (USSF).  Thus, cyber-security, space defense, and big data analytics have emerged as new developments in the field and with far-reaching consequences for the nation.  The following is an in-depth assessment of the aforementioned trends and concerns raised over the prevalence of big data analytics and loss of confidentiality.

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 Emerging issue in Big Data Analytics

            The intelligence community in the United States displays an indefatigable attitude to keeping the nation safe from both internal and external threats. After the tragic outcome of the September 11th terrorist attack, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has changed tact and now seeks to prevent such acts from being committed on American soil and its insular territories. Mitigation is now the primary mode of operation with the ultimate aim of preventing attacks and minimizing their impact by acting in time to reduce their impact. Big data analytics has, therefore, played an important role in the gathering and interpretation of information for intelligence purposes.

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            Yet, big data analytics is dogged by privacy concerns in the United States. The full application of big data analytics is now linked to numerous violations and on the basic rights and liberties of citizens across the country making it a source of anxiety for many. The National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) had initially intended to create a workable framework to review the demeanor of American citizens and flag suspicious activity (Howard, 2013). This was viewed as a novel development which would now allow law enforcement agents to pinpoint and identify persons of interest in order to avert unforeseen circumstances. It was through this strategy that the United States sought to introduce its counterterrorism plan seeking to attain success by any necessary. Preventing potential terrorist attacks soon took precedence in the eyes of law enforcement as a feasible perspective to adopt when seeking to safeguard the general population. However, this approach is now regarded as a double-edged sword exposing citizens to possible negative impacts. The National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC)’s framework now overrides the Federal Privacy Act of 1974 giving it the power to investigate individuals even if it meant violating their constitutional rights (Chi, 2017). Recently, it has emerged that law enforcement agencies rarely apply predictive analysis and could possibly be conducting random evaluations of individuals based on their data. This change in tact now means that a considerable population of America is subject to covert probes which may be in direct violation of their civil liberties. Big data analytics, therefore, present a slippery slope in the United States’ quest of protecting its citizens (Mariani & Loubert, 2015).  Instead, the federal government should strive to establish a workable framework that creates a healthy balance between civil liberties and national security. Government policies on national security should also reflect public protection as key in instilling public confidence.

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Governments across the globe are tasked with guaranteeing their citizens of national security. Thus, the application of novel strategies aims to introduce a workable framework to guarantee public wellbeing. Cyber defense, space defense, and data analytics have emerged as top trends within the national security sector. However, the latter poses a string of privacy-related issues which infringe upon civil liberties. Addressing these concerns is, thus, key as a prerequisite to national security while building public confidence in the said initiative.

President Obama had the Authority to Execute Operation Geronimo

Almost ten years after the killing of Osama bin Laden, Operation Geronimo still raises concerns regarding its legality. Firstly, there is the concern about if the operation violated Pakistan’s sovereignty per international law. The second concern involves the permissibility of targeted killing – that is, whether ‘kill’ as a default option was lawful. Lastly, if burying bin Laden at sea violated the Geneva Conventions regarding burial procedures for an enemy killed in war. The concerns impel the question if President Obama had the authority to order Operation Geronimo. The answer to this question is, yes, he had the legal authority to order the operation. This paper will elucidate that the president did not infringe on Pakistan’s sovereignty, kill as a default option was permissible, and he did not violate the Geneva Conventions.

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Pakistan’s Sovereignty

            The concern regarding the violation of Pakistan’s sovereignty stems from the fact that the US did inform the Pakistani government about the operation. Notably, international law forbids a country from using force on another’s soil without its consent if the two countries are not at war (Fleury, 2019). However, it is worth noting that President Obama had enough justification the decision. According to Mantoan (2017), the Obama administration had reasons to believe that the Pakistani intelligence service might have sanctioned bin Laden’s presence in the country. If these fears were real, then asking for Pakistan’s help in the matter would have enabled bin Laden’s escape. As such, the unilateral military incursion used in Operation Geronimo was lawful as there exists an exception to sovereignty, particularly in cases where a government is unwilling to suppress a threat to another country arising from its soil. Even though Pakistan did not state that it was reluctant to aid in the operation, the fear of a “tip-off” sufficed as unwillingness to aid (Jabko & Luhman, 2019). Being a notorious terrorist, Osama bin Laden posed a significant threat to the world. Therefore, by not seeking consent to use force in Pakistan, President Obama acted within his authority since there was evidence that the Pakistani government was unwilling to suppress bin Laden.

“Kill” as a Default Option

            The second concern regarding “kill” as the default option results from the fact that the law of war requires accepting the enemy’s surrender, which is in conformity with international human rights law regarding unalienable rights. When bin Laden was killed, he was unarmed but did not offer to surrender. According to Mantoan (2017), the SEAL team reported that bin Laden was not armed, but neither was he surrendering. However, even though he was not armed, several militants in the compound were firing at the SEAL team. Military rules of engagement delineating when, where, how, and against whom a soldier can use force justifies the SEAL team’s action. Montoan (2017) explains that when the enemy is armed or exhibiting resistance, then soldiers are authorized to use military force. In Operation Geronimo, even though bin Laden was not resisting, his militants were fighting, and, as such, the SEAL team could not risk trying taking him alive in as it would put them in danger. Crane (2011) illuminates that decision was arrived at after considering all possible alternative. The most viable option was to eliminate the threat. Thus, “kill” as a default option was justifiable.

Burial Procedure per the Geneva Conventions

            The third and last concern involves if President Obama violated the Geneva Conventions by ordering bin Laden to be buried at sea. The concern stems from the argument that being a Muslim leader, bin Laden deserved to be buried in a shrine per the Islam religion. Islamist shrine entails swift interment in soil, facing the holy Mecca and marked grave. However, Islamic writings also permit burial at sea, specifically during voyages. Besides, the US took the initiative to ask Saudi Arabia, Osama bin Laden’s home, if they wanted his remains for burial. Saudi Arabia declined the offer, which renders the burial permissible (Mantoan, 2017). Hence, by authorizing bin Laden to be buried at sea, the President Obama did not violate the Geneva Conventions.

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To sum up, as demonstrated, President Obama did not violate Pakistan’s sovereignty when he ordered the Operation Geronimo without asking for consent from the Pakistani’s government as there was fear of a “tip-off.” He also did violate international human rights by ordering “kill” as a default option since it was the most viable option. Moreover, by burying bin Laden remains at sea, he did not infringe the Geneva Conventions because Islamic writings permit burial at sea and, besides, the US request by the US to Saudi Arabia asking them to bury the remains of bin Laden was declined. Bottom line, President Obama had the legal authority to order Operation Geronimo.

Harms of Imprisonment With Reference to Australian ‘Prison Estate’

The Australian “prison estate” is archetypally represented in imprisonment as the foremost type of punishment espoused by the criminal justice system. However, imprisonment has been routinely been criticized as a counterproductive alternative which ultimately presents numerous harms a wide array of players. Imprisonment without a clear foundational practice to guide the correction of offender’s demeanour is counterproductive and likely to account for a high recidivism rate in the country. A lowered age of responsibility as outlined in the Victorian criminal justice system now accounts for the disproportionate population of interned juveniles with almost two-thirds of this population consisting of individuals with pending sentences

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            Imprisonment within is a taxing venture which occasions a great deal of economic harm to the nation. The increase in the number of offenders across the territory often linked to lowering of the age of responsibility to the age of 10 years and an exponential increase in illicit drug offences has created unexpected increase the number of individuals housed in such facilities. It is now estimated that A$ 14 billion is spent annually to guarantee the provision of correctional service and a worrying statistic especially in these uncertain times (Committee for Economic Development of Australia 2019). With an overall incarceration rate of 336 per every 100,000 individuals in the adult population, at a cost of $222 daily for incarceration, prisons are not economically and bound to introduce an added social cost in the near future.    

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The overall increase in the number of individuals incarcerated in Australia has also shed light on the adverse impact of imprisonment on prisoner’s physical and mental health.  In the past decade, an increase in the spate of prosecutable offences in Australia has translated into an abrupt influx in the prison population. This is further exacerbated by the fact that a sizeable majority of incarcerated individuals hail from low socioeconomic background and with a higher rate of substance abuse issues (Levy et al. 2017). Imprisonment, therefore, predisposes them to health complications, chronic diseases, and mental health problems associated with lower socioeconomic groups.

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Restorative Justice Conferencing is a ‘soft option’ with Limited Value in the Criminal Justice System

Restorative Justice Conferencing is an invaluable addition with a great deal of benefits to the criminal justice system in Victoria. As a comparatively ambitious undertaking, restorative justice is implemented as a direct response to key fundamentals identified by victims and society at large. Restorative justice introduces a fresh approach starkly different to traditional justice process such as imprisonment in espousing the need to address victim’s expectations while transforming reprobates (Larsen 2014). Additionally, it also presents an exclusive opportunity for the victim and offender to meet albeit in a controlled environment with the aim of discussing the offence in questions and its accompanying effects on both parties. Cumulative gains resulting from full implementation of restorative justice to the criminal justice system also include its direct impact on recidivism rare.

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Australia currently grapples with a 46.4% recidivism rate which represents an existential treat to the Department of Correctional Services (Sentencing Advisory Council 2015). At the core of restorative justice is its focus on the “process” rather than outcomes during the implementation phase. Offenders are given an opportunity to acknowledge wrongdoing and, therefore, less likely to reoffend on account of the complete shift in perspective occasioned by Restorative Justice Conferencing. Druz (2016) opines that restorative justice processes create a sense of satisfaction in contending parties since mediation programs present a degree of fairness. This particularly allows victims to develop suitable coping strategies and ultimately end up being contented while avoiding feelings of contempt for the offenders in question. 

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Restorative Justice Conferencing makes it possible for both parties to also transform their perspective the problems being addressed before regarding it as a foundation for the development and implementation of productive solutions in the future. Moreover, victims are empowered through the opportunity to come face to face with offenders, restoring their self of confidence and safety.  Restorative justice is now a common feature in many domestic and family violence; addressing deficiencies within the Victorian criminal justice system while fostering empathy.

Why Operational Police Officers Should Reflect Demographic Diversity of the Communities in Which they Work

Diversity in law enforcement has recently been hailed for bolstering officer’s ability to communicate effectively with members of the public. Over the past decade, this has become an issue of great significance to the Australian Federal Police (AFP) as an equal opportunity establishment (Australian Federal Police 2016). A diverse police force, therefore improves the establishment’s working knowledge of subtle body and conversational cues which would otherwise have been missed by a homogenous unit.

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Another primary reason why operational police officers should reflect the demographic diversity of the communities in which they work is to first enable them gain a respectable level of grasp of communities within a given locality; allowing them to adequately prepare for interactions during routine patrols. Furthermore, it is a reflection of law enforcement’s commitment to diversity rather than simply serving as an embodiment of compliance with applicable government legislations. A relevant example is the inclusion of Torres Strait Islanders in the Malunggang policed as a direct consequence of conscription efforts by the Malunggang Indigenous Officers Network (Australian Government Transparency Portal 2019).

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Demographic diversity within the operational police members is also crucial as a working framework for future liaisons with international law enforcement partners such as the United States and Britain. It is noteworthy to acknowledge that diversity in this particular context alludes not only to ethnic and racial backgrounds, but also encompasses age, gender, and sexual orientation. For instance, the Women’s Network and Gay and Lesbian Officer Network bear essential working frameworks in the Australia and strive to implement international standards of inclusion into the force. Members are accorded a unique opportunity to adopt workable strategies and leadership strategies to aid them when operating in diverse communities.’

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Furthermore, diversity and inclusion within law enforcement is one of the most effective strategies to apply when seeking to gain public trust and particularly crucial before the implementation of community policing endeavours. The presence of operational police members from a given community enhances trust in law enforcement agencies since they serve as a representation of diversity within the community. Allowing the community to see police officers who look like them elevates the level of confidence particularly in communities which typically meet operational police members only during moments of crisis.

Aging Workforce, Current Global Trend That Might Impact General Motors

General Motor is an automotive company that focuses on designing, manufacturing, and selling cars and automotive parts. The company’s success is highly based on human resources skills, knowledge, creativity, and innovativeness. One of the company’s main competitive advantage is based on having great talents, with a high level of experience in automotive design and production. The company thus values its workforce, especially the old individuals with more years of experience and deep knowledge in automotive manufacturing. This means one of the current trends that are likely to impact the company negatively is the aging workforce. General Motor Company has a huge number of old workers who will need to retire shortly. The company has a huge number of aging workforce from the baby boomers generation across all departments.  This means the company is likely to experience a “bow wave” as baby boomers started retiring in huge numbers (Shea, 2015).

This is likely to impact the company operation if the group would leave without ensuring effective knowledge transfer to the younger workforce. The aging workforce is likely to be a serious issue in a situation where the majority of the aging workforce is working in a sensitive department such as product designs, research and development, and product manufacturing. These among other working stations require individual knowledge, skills, expertise, and experience, which play a significant role in determining overall product quality and performance efficiency. The aging workforce in all other departments has also mastered the art of solving problems and working effectively for better results. This means that the company is likely to lose essential talents and knowledge if proper knowledge transfer is not enhanced before their retirement.

HR Strategies to Address Aging Workforce

To address the aging workforce threat, the company needs to create an effective knowledge transfer strategy from the aging workforce to the younger workforce. To make this strategy a reality the HR department will need to carry out the following action plan:

  • The company should develop a talent development system that enhances mentoring of the young workers from each department by the older workers
  • The company should assess the knowledge and skills levels of the younger generation to determine the knowledge gap between what one possesses and what is needed for effective operation in their area of operation.
  • A mentorship program should be developed based on individual protégé/protegee knowledge deficiency
  • The company should also develop a succession plan where the younger junior workers are slowly introduced to a higher working position which they will occupy after the older workers retire.
  • A rotation program can be established in each department to ensure younger workers acquire all-round knowledge required to ensure effective operations in the department.
  • The company should also have online training programs where senior experienced workers can explain essential operation procedures, tips, and knowledge in videos. This can be referred to in the future even in their absence
  • The company should also establish a workers retention program to reduce turnover among younger worker force trained on product knowledge and secretes that enhance the company’s competitive advantage.

The above-identified steps will be used to protect the company from suffering from unbearable knowledge and skill loss after all baby boomers retire from the company. The main intention of these steps is to ensure that the company has managed to transfer and retain knowledge from the aged and more experienced workforce to the younger workforce. The younger workforce is anticipated to take care of the company operation fully after the retirement of the baby boomers. It will be necessary to ensure that the remaining workforce can maintain the level of operational efficiency, and accuracy, and continue producing automotive products with the same or even higher quality as the experienced workforce (Ulrich, Younger, Brockbank & Ulrich, 2012). This can only be achieved by ensuring that the younger workforce has all operational knowledge and secrets learned by the aging workforce during their many years of operation in the company. The company should thus take advantage of their remaining time in the company to facilitate knowledge transfer through mentorship. To ensure the sustainability of knowledge transfer in the company, the company should establish a talent development system in the company. This system should ensure a constant preparation of junior workers to take over from their senior workers at all levels of operation. By so doing, the company will never experience operational or leadership shock when any of its employees leave the company abruptly or even after retirement (Kats et al., 2010).