IPv6, Its Benefits, Potential Issues and Its Implementation

Introduction

            The internet protocol (IP) is the standard used in the information technology by the computer systems to intercommunicate. Majority of the high-level application or protocols such as P2P, SMTP, HTTP among other depends on IP for their functionality. Devices and computers relying on the IP protocol have a unique identifier known as IP address assigned to them. IP address transfer the information from the source to the destination through the different communication network nodes (Partridge, Arsenault, & Kent, 2007). The unique identifiers consists of 32-bit integer number which in grouped into four numbers separated by a dot. The integer ranges from 0 to 255 and the separation by dot enhance greater ease of handling. It has been observed that the IP address consisting of 32 bits have the possibility of generating about 4,300 millions of unique addresses. However, as the number of computers and devices using the IP protocol continues to increase, the availability of IP protocol consequently continues to diminish (Frankel, Graveman, & Pearce, 2010). Despite the efforts to alleviate this problem through the introduction of CIDR and NAT, the basic problem continues to persist and also elevate the shortcoming related to loss of end-to-end connectivity. This problem is common to IP protocol version 4 (IPv4).

            As a result, a new version of protocol was introduced to resolve the diminishing number of IP address. The introduced IP protocol version 6 (IPv6) consists of a 128-bit integer which has 2^96 times more IP addresses than the IPv4. This new IP protocol (IPv6) has the capacity to create more IP addresses since it has the smallest subnet of 64 bits long. Also, IPv6 has more capabilities and improvement in term security.

Benefits of implementing IPv6 over IPv4

Massive size of the IP address space: This makes harder for the attackers to carry out port scanning. Normally, attackers carry out port scanning as a familiarization method in order to collecting as much information as possible about victims’ network. Experts have observed that since IPv4 has only 32-bit long, an attacker with enough bandwidth can scan the entire IPv4 in just 10 hours (Palet, 2011). The introduction of IPv6 has expanded the IP addresses to 128-bit, which is a massive size that makes it significantly harder for the attackers to carry out comprehensive port scanning. Nonetheless, it is significant to note that the port scanning used in IPv4 as a reconnaissance technique is also used in IPv6. Therefore, it is important to employ internal-use IPv6 addresses in the border router, and use the firewall to filter un-used in IPv6 networks.

Cryptographically Generated Address (CGA): The new generation IP protocol IPv6 has make it possible to bind public signature key to an IPv6 address. The process of binding public signature key to the IPv6 address is known as a Cryptographically Generated Address (CGA). The inclusion of CGA in IPv6 is an additional security to the IPv6 network since it provide defense for the IPv6 locality router detection mechanism (Frankel, et al., 2010). It also requires the user to make available a “proof of ownership” for a specific IPv6 address. This is concept that make IPv6 different from IPv4 in relation to security aspects (HP, 2006). It makes it impossible to incorporate this functionality to IPv4 because of the limited space which is currently stand at 32-bit address.

IP Security (IPsec): This is the technique that provides cryptographically, high quality and interoperable security services for traffic at the IP layer. IPsec was created mandatory in the IPv6, but is optional in IPv4, thus making IPv6 more secured than IPv4 (Partridge, et al., 2007). IP Security ensures that there is originality of IP protocol through access control, confidentiality, integrity and authenticity of each IP packet by the use of Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) and Authentication Header (AH) protocols.

Potentials issues and concerns

IP Addressing Structure: This is responsible for defining the architecture of a network. IP addressing structure should be well designed in order to reduce potential risks related to the new features found in IPv6. Some of the factors that need to be considered when designing a IPv6 network include:

  • Hierarchical addressing and numbering plan: This describes the process in which an organization segregate its IPv6 allocation. For example, organizations that are allocated a 16 subnet bits (/48) address block, should plan numbering to support 65,000 subnets (Palet, 2011). The numbering plan should be designed to simplify access control to interface and links, identify ownership as well as make firewall rules easily accessible in security operations. Careful planning and creation of hierarchical addressing involves the consideration of the following subnet methods:
    • Functional unit of an organization such as operation and accounts among others
    • Physical location of network IPv4 subnet number
    • VLAN number
    • Sequentially numbering subnets
  • Issues associated with tractable EUI-64 addresses: The use of EUI-64 addresses provides the attackers the potential of revealing the model and make of a remote machine, which makes the victims more vulnerable to attackers (Frankel, et al., 2010). In order to mitigate the vulnerability, the organization should use non-predictable addresses by employing cryptographic algorithm such as CGA and allocating addresses with DHCPv6.

Whether or not to continue using the network services

            Since IPv6 is the next generation IP protocol designed to mitigate security problems associated with IPv4, the organization should transit from IPv4 network to IPv6 network. For the transition to be smooth, the organization can run IPv4 and IPv6 side by side. This approach allow the network to run in dual mode using routers that support both IPv4 and IPv6. However, there is challenge of maintain the IPv4 and IPv6 domain consistently (Partridge, et al., 2007). This problem is associated with IP address space which is massive in IPv6. Considering the security benefits brought about by IPv6, the organization should implement the use of IPv6 network over the traditional IPv4 since it provide more protection and space for more IP addresses.

Necessary changes to existing hardware

            There are several hardware changes that are necessary in ensuring effective implementation of IPv6. The hardware that needs to be changed or upgraded include layer 2 switches, layer 3 router and the desktop hosts such as operating systems. Although the implementation of IPv6 does not require significant change to the layer switches, IPv6 support VLAN requires hardware support (Frankel, et al., 2010). Layer 3 router should be changed to allow forwarding and routing mechanism needs to recognize IPv6. Protocols such as OSPFv3 and RIPng needs to be changed to be IPv6 capable. The desktop operating systems needs to be changed to support IPv6. The application changes needs to support peer-to-peer and end-to-end communications models on the internet.            

Some of the factors that needs to be considered when drawing implementation plan include service provider support, network planning, return on investment as well as protecting the existing investment. The organization needs to consider the existing investment in order to evaluate the cost effective way of using this infrastructure to transit to IPv6 implementation without incurring large costs.

Should the Government Raise the Minimum Wage? – Reaction

The global meltdown and the general raise in the cost of living places the low-income families at the disadvantage (Leigh, n.d.).   There has been a great debate from the opponents and proponents of the raise in the minimum wage demands. For the opponents, the raise in minimum wage would increase the prices of goods and services, while increasing unemployment rates. However, the minimum wage rates should be raised by the government, since it offers more benefits that its disadvantages.

Read also Factors Determining Minimum Wage

            Raising the minimum wage rates is a way of creating an economic stimulus in the country. Most of the workers who earn minimum wage hardly have money to save; they cannot get access to decent housing and can barely afford better insurance cover. If the minimum wage rates are increased, the disposable income is increased. An increase in the disposable income means most of the people who were living on the minimum wage will be able to spend more on consumables, housing and healthcare among other things. This will produce a ripple effect in the country’s economy in all the sectors.

            An increase in the minimum wage increases propensity to spend among the employees. This means more goods and services will be bought and businesses will be able to raise more money. The increased consumptions of goods and services will force the industries to hire more workers to keep with the increased need for the goods and services. Thus, an increase in the minimum wage will create more job opportunities across all the sectors of the economy.         Although the opponents of the increase in the minimum wage asserts that the organizations will be forced to look for money to compensate on the increase in the wages, and eventual layoff of workers to make room for the increase, the increase in sales will serve to compensate companies to meet the extra wage demands.

            The move by the federal government to increase the minimum wage will serve as a reprieve to the government and the employees who survive on the minimum wage rates. Most of the minimum wage earners depend on the government for them to run additional social programs for them to be able to support themselves and their families on such minimum wages. By raising the minimum wage, the government will empower the low-income people who are dependent on the social programs to support themselves without depending too much on the government. As a result, the government will be able to save more from such programs, meaning more funds will be at the government disposal to be spend on other needs. In addition, the raise in the minimum wage will reduce the tax burden on the citizens. Most of the social programs that serve the low-income populations are derived from government taxes. Therefore, raising the minimum wage will empower the low-income populations to be self-reliant thus reducing taxes on the general population.

            The organization compensation strategies as discussed earlier above, has profound impact on the employee turnover rates. The increase in the minimum wage by the government will increase job satisfaction and stability among the employees. Those employees who make higher minimum wage are less likely to quit since they will feel more satisfied and comfortable with their minimum wage jobs. Moreover, the lower turnover rates offer more advantages to the organization. The organizations will spend less money in hiring and training of new employees.

            The United States has witnessed a steady increase in the inflation rates over the past three decades. While the inflation has increased every year, the minimum wage has only been raised three times over the past three decades. The increase in inflation has seen the increase in the cost of living and the general rise in prices of commodities. There is need for the minimum wage to be increased in order to cushion the employees who depend on the minimum wage to take care of themselves and their families. Moreover, increasing the minimum wage would allow such families to spend more and have some income left for their savings.           In conclusion, it is imperative that the government increases the minimum wage in the country. According to (Leigh, n.d.), the current minimum wage is unsustainable as the cost of living and prices of commodities continue to spiral out of control. Increasing the minimum wage will help in lifting the low-income earners above the poverty line. Moreover, increasing the minimum wage will increase the propensity to spend and consequently boost the overall economic growth in the country, more jobs will be created and the government expenditure on social programs that support the low-income earners will reduce saving the country millions of dollars to be spend on other needs.

Reaction – Compensation has no bearing on a Company’s Performance

Reaction

            The modern market place is competitive full of uncertainty and organizations must be competitive to survive. Equally, there is need for effective production methods and an efficient workforce. The efficiency of production methods are not only dependent on the production techniques and the machines, but are highly correlated to the type of workforce. However, the workforce can be highly productive if they are motivated and one of the techniques of motivating employing is the use of competitive compensation. Therefore, compensation is correlated to employee performance and has a huge influence on company performance.

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            According to (Hansen, Smith, & Hansen, 2002)employee compensation package includes the monetary and non-monetary packages. According to the author, the compensation package often consists of the base salary and benefits such as performance bonuses, insurance cover and retirement plans. These compensation packages have huge influence on the company cash flows, its ability to recruit and retain employees and its performance. The nature of compensation that companies offer to its employees affects its ability to attract top talent and the experienced employees with high performance in the market. Currently, most companies are listed in business magazines, highlighting the best and worst companies to work for. Among the ratings that are used to rank such companies are compensation packages.

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            The ability of a company to attract top employees improves their ability to compete in the market and thus influencing their performance. Having a well-compensated and competent workforce influences the company performance. A company, which can attract top talent owing to its competent compensation packages, is more likely to be more productive than the one with poorly compensated workforce, with average talents.

            Compensation has a profound impact on employee motivation and job satisfaction. Although compensation is not the only factor that affects employee motivation, compensation packages such as bonuses and profit sharing schemes makes the employee feel motivated to help the organization to succeed. Since such compensation packages are tied on the productivity of the employees, they have huge impact on the company performance. The employees will work to increase performance and thus increase their compensation. Moreover, a substantial percentage of the company cash flows are used in the compensation of the employees, which influences the company cash flows. Higher compensation packages affects company cash flows, which ultimately influences company ability to meet its goals and thus affecting its performance.

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            The recruitment process is one of the most expensive processes for an organization to undertake. Although capital investments take huge investments, recruitment process can be an expensive undertaking for an organization, especially if there are high rates of employee turnover. When a company recruits employees, they have to train on how to perform the job tasks. The company expects the employee to repay them through job performance. However, if the company offers the employee lower compensation, such employee may seek employment opportunities in organizations that offer more competent compensation packages in the same industry. Such employee turnovers, if they occur frequently, are likely to cost the company substantial amount of money in training.

Read also Revamping the Compensation and Benefits Package

Moreover, high employee turnover spells a loss of experienced workforce, which may take time to replace. Therefore, high employee turnover due to poor compensation strategies have an impact on the company performance due to loss of experienced workforce, for which the company spent its resources in training. When a company loses an employee, they lose unique capabilities and possibly the customer contacts, which are hard to harness. Therefore, compensation affects company performance in many ways. Poor compensation strategies increases employee turnover, lowers employee motivation, resulting in poor job attitude and lower job motivation, which results in poor performance. In contrast, providing competitive compensation strategies increases job motivation, create job satisfaction and good attitudes, which increases the company performance.

The Biannual Performance Review Change in Atlassian Company – Organization Transformation Change

Introduction

            Most organizational change initiatives fail to yield the desired outcomes (Cummings & Worley, 2015). However, some organizations have successfully, initiated and sustained change initiatives, yielding the desired outcomes. The Atlassian Company is an example of such an organization, which was able to Initiate and sustain its change initiative in its performance review, achieving the desired performance levels. The Atlassian Company specializes in the development of softwares for organizations all over the world. 

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In 2011, the company management realized that its traditional ratings-based in its biannual performance review was not providing the company with the desired outcomes. The company embarked on change initiatives to overhaul its biannual performance review. The company was able to adopt a more efficient performance review system owing to its excellent change initiatives. The following is a review of Atlassian change initiatives.

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Plan Analysis

            The Atlassian Company performance reviews were not achieving the desired outcomes since the reviews were infrequent and employees dreaded them. In order to address the problem and adopt a more favored less numeric and continuous review process, the company thrashed its existing review process. The adopted review process would engage employees and would be done on a monthly basis. The company change process was made a success owing to its excellent change plan that was adopted by the organization management.

Read also Impact of Performance Review on Employee Morale, Retention, and Improving Business Operations

            According to (Kutz, 2011), effective change initiatives can be achieved through an effective communication and change management. The initial step in the Atlassian Company change management plan involved stakeholder analysis. The change in Atlassian Company was internal, since they were initiated by the employee discontent with the existing performance reviews. The management realized the need for change to adopt a more efficient method, and conducted organizational stakeholder analysis to determine the organization readiness for the change initiatives. The organization sought the input of the employees in determining the type of new performance review processes to be initiated.

            The Atlassian human resource management played an integral role in the change process. The human resource management was involved the determination of organizational weaknesses, strengths and the aspects of culture that need to be changed. Initially, the company determined the target audience, set the communication goals and identified the communication strategies to be employed.  Therefore, the organization decided that rigorous top-level manager training was inevitable. The decision to involve the top-level management in a top-down approach was informed by the fact that effective change starts with the management. The company, through its human resource management conducted the top-level manager training to introduce and communicate the new change initiatives.

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 The human resource management acknowledged the need for good communication of the change initiatives, for intended outcomes could be achieved. According to (Lukka & Partanen, 2013), the major role of communication of change is to eliminate uncertainty, ambiguity and frustration. According to the authors, most of the organizational employees, especially those affected by change are often worried about the possible impact of the change initiatives on their jobs. The decision of the organization human resource management to conduct organizational training on its top-level manager was intended to reduce resistance to change by elucidating the change initiatives and making the management part of the change process. Moreover, the top-level managers would train the respective departmental employees.

Moreover, the organizational analysis in Atlassian Company identified the organizational culture that needed to be aligned in readiness for the new organizational culture that would introduced by the new change initiatives.  According to (Kammerlander, 2012), change initiatives introduce new culture, which are meant to create clarity and focus within the organization. According to the authors, organizations culture defines the way things are done, the values and beliefs, which govern how people behave. In Atlassian Company, the new change initiatives would introduce new performance measurement metrics, which would be done monthly, unlike the previous infrequent reviews.

The new organizational culture needed to be ingrained within the organization for the intended change initiatives to be effective. Through the employee training, resistance to change would be eliminated. Therefore, the Atlassian human resource management training included hands-on training on the procedural aspects of the new performance measurement techniques. The top-level managers in the respective units in the organization, performed training of their line employees to acquaint them with about the new performance measurements. The strategy helped the organization to achieve an organization-wide understanding and reduced resistance towards the new change initiatives. After the organization-wide training had been achieved, Atlassian Company performed an evaluation to determine if the intended goals were achieved. Change was initiated, sustained and employee focus enhanced through motivation and follow-up.

Outcome Analysis

            The Atlassian Company change resulted in the desired outcomes. The company managed to overhaul its traditional ratings that were done annually based on a metric system. The company was able to adopt and use a monthly performance review, which allowed effective review of employee performance. The initial system of performance was numeric and focused on use of numeric numbers in determining the employee bonus. However, with the successful transformation in its performance criteria, the company adopted the use of monthly scheduled one-on-one reviews. The new model enhanced employee satisfaction and achieved the organization goals of effective performance of employees.

            The successful transformation from the old performance review to the current monthly reviews owes to a number of change initiatives adopted during the change process. First, the company started with the organizational culture. (Lukka & Partanen, 2013) assert that effective communication is essential if change initiative is to attain the intended outcomes. Through the top-down training, Atlassian was able to attain effective communication, which enabled it to attain the intended transformation outcomes.

            In addition, the company was able to attain the intended outcomes through its leverage of technology and employee involvement. The Atlassian change initiatives were spurred by internal observations through employee dissatisfaction in the performance reviews. The fact that the need for change arose from within made it easier for the organization to achieve the intended outcomes. The organizational employees were already dissatisfied with the company reviews that were based on numeric ratings. Perhaps the communication was made easier since there was less need for the organization to communicate the need for change within the organization.

            However, the success in the Atlassian transformation of its performance reviews owes to the employee involvement in change process. According to (De Toni, 2012), most organizational change initiatives fail to achieve the intended outcomes due to ineffective communication and a lack of employee involvement in the change process. Through employee involvement in change initiatives, the employee preferences are incorporated in the change initiatives and this helps in eliminating resistance to change. Most organizations who fail to involve its employees through often face resistance to change that result from fear of the change outcomes and reluctance of the employees to leave their comfort zones. Moreover, the involvement of all stakeholders in the transformation process in Atlassian helped to create synergy and created central focus of achieving the required change outcomes.

Strategy Recommendations

            The modern competitive market and changing market trends makes change an inevitable initiative (Millar, Hind, & Magala, 2012). Some organizational transformation may require organization-wide changes or just a change in small scale that affects specific department or organizational operations. For example, changes in consumer preferences may require a change in company marketing and production units to create competitive products. Regardless of the scale of transformation, change initiatives will succeed if proper planning and implementation is done. The following are recommendations for future small scale and large-scale transformation initiatives for Atlassian Company.

Company develops clear vision statement to guide the change initiatives

There is need for Atlassian Company to develop clear vision statement to guide its change initiatives. According to (Millar, Hind, & Magala, 2012) vision serves to create clarity by defining the position of the company and its intended future position. The change vision serves as a guiding tool for the change process. Most organizational transformations however small they may be, fail to attain the desired outcomes because they lack clear vision statements.

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It is recommended that the company leverage the formal solutions

Most change initiatives face resistance owing to the uncertainty and fear of loss of jobs.  This is especially true when change initiatives affect the employees directly. For example, changes that involve the reorganization may lead to lose of jobs and the affected employees will most likely resist change. Therefore, it is recommended that the organization underscores and communicates effectively the need for such a change. In addition, the company must provide alternative solutions to such employees in order to facilitate the change process. For example, the company may opt to offer jobs in other departments of the organization.

Perform System-wide culture analysis

It is recommended that the future change initiatives involve an organization-wide cultural analysis. According to (Roth, 2011), to achieve successful organizational transformation, there is need to determine the key organizational elements such as culture and shared values. Integrating the culture and organizational values into the transformation will help in meeting the intended outcomes. Most transformation models, such as the McKinsey 7-S and Kotter change initiatives asserts the need for the development of good understanding of the organization culture for effective transformation.

Read also Culture Analysis Using Geert Hofstede’s 6 Dimensions – USA, Mexico, China, Israel And UAE

Conclusion

Organizational change is important as it allows an organization to realign its production and marketing strategies. Transformation increases competition and enhances productivity. However, change must be communicated effectively with the involvement of all organization stakeholders. Many organizational change initiatives, fail to yield the desired outcomes, poor communication, lack of vision statement to guide the change process and lack of involvement of all the stakeholders. Therefore, it is important that an organization involve all employees, provide short-term gains and sustain the change initiatives to avoid announcing change too soon.

Leadership Development Interventions and Career Development Interventions

Most organizations in the current times prefer developing their employees with specific skills required in the leadership as well as the general operation of the organizations. Whereas in the past organizations outsourced people with such skills to fill up positions when need arose, most organizations are now equipping their employees with prerequisite skills required for leadership, management and specialized roles. Talent nurturing and development is increasingly becoming a critical component of leadership I most organizations. Most organizations do this through leadership development as well as career development (Bridges, 2003). This paper seeks to explore the similarities as well as the differences between career development intervention and leadership development interventions. 

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To begin with, leadership development interventions include all the activities and policies that an organization puts in place aimed at enhancing and improving the leadership qualities of individual employees as well as that of the entire organization. These activities include, but are not limited to, sponsoring employee higher education in leadership, practical opportunities for leadership development, executive retries among others. Career development interventions; on the other hand, involves the strategies and mechanisms that an organization has put in place to ensure that employees progress in their career from one level to another. These interventions are concerned about creating a structure and a pathway for career development of individual employees within an organization.

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Leadership development interventions have the ultimate goal of improving the capacity of an individual employee in order to enable such an employee to serve the organization at a leadership position. It aims at improving the efficiency and usefulness of an employee. Career development interventions, on the other hand, aim at improving the individual employee’s capacity to serve his or her own career development goals. Career development interventions serve individual objectives more than it does the organizational objectives. Leadership development interventions however serve the goals and interests of the organization. 

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Career developments interventions in effect create maintain and sustain a diversely competent workforce. This is because career development interventions preparer each employee for a greater responsibility that what they currently hold and creates structural pathways for them to move to a level of high responsibility. This consequently, creates a pool of potential and competent people for various positions in the event such positions fall vacant. Leadership development interventions on the other hand create and train a pool of leaders (Corporate Leadership Council, 2001). The interventions, however, do not concentrate on creating avenues in advancement of individuals as is the case in career development initiatives.

Read also Leadership And Decision Making

Leadership development interventions are concerned about enabling the leader to be gain a deeper understanding of the organization’s culture, values and objectives. This is because such interventions aim at creating leaders who will spearhead the organization to achieve its objectives and keep its cultures and values. As such, the leader must fully understand such culture, values and objectives of the organization. Career development initiatives, however, does not take into consideration the values or objectives of the organization. It mainly focuses on ensuring that the employee has a definite career path and hence ensuring that such an employee is retained in the organization. Career development initiatives seek to retain employees in the organization and hence build a large pull of competent employees while leadership development initiatives seek to bridge the gap between the current leadership and the future leadership of the organization. The leadership interventions achieve this through initiatives that create a pool of leaders within the organization (Dubois & Rothwell, 2004).  

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Leadership development interventions focus on developing individuals who can lead team and build capacity in these very teams. These interventions enhance the ability of an individual to recognize factors that are bound to hinder the performance of organizations and proactively address them. The leadership development interventions further equip individuals with skills to motivate and improve the capacity of teams. Career development interventions on the other hand are concerned about the development of an individual and not the entire team. The interventions place a priority on the performance of an individual as far as career advancements is concerned.

Leadership development interventions and career development interventions are not, however, entirely different. There are some striking similarities between the interventions in organizational development. To begin with both interventions focus on developing and improving employees already in the organization as opposed to getting skilled personnel from outside the organization when need arise. Both Leadership development interventions as well as career development interventions involve training as well as talent nurturing among individuals.

In both development interventions, individual employees are prepared for greater responsibilities in the organization. Whether for leadership or the general running of the organization, both interventions equip individual employees with specialized skills. Moreover, both interventions seek to retain and promote individual employees as opposed to outsourcing specialized skills and leadership qualities. Both interventions seek to create a pool of talented and skilled manpower for both current as well as future needs of the organization. In conclusion, the striking deference between Leadership development interventions and career development interventions is the fact that leadership development interventions are focused on the organizational objectives while career development interventions are focused mainly on individual career objectives.

Clean Car Care (3Cs) Case Study Questions and Sample Answers

Clean Car Care (3Cs) is located within a mid-western city of 175,000 people. The company owns and operates four full service car washes in the city. The owner, Otto Spritz, has strategically cornered the car wash market, with his only competition being two coin operated car washes on the outskirts of the city. The current unemployment rate in the city and the surrounding area is 3.8% and is expected to go somewhat lower.
Otto has staffed 3Cs by hiring locally and paying wage premiums (above market wages) to induce people to accept jobs offers and to remain with 3Cs. Hiring occurs at the entry level only, for the job of washer. If a washer remains with 3Cs, they have the opportunity to progress upward through the ranks, going from washer to shift lead person tom assistant manager to manager of one of the four car wash facilities. Until recently, this staffing system worked quite well for Otto. He was able to hire high-quality people, and a combination of continued wage premiums and promotion opportunities resulted in little turnover (under 30% annually). Every manager at 3Cs, past or present, has come up through the ranks. But that is now changing with the sustained low unemployment in the region and the new hires, who just naturally seem to be more turnover-prone. Only a few new hires stay with 3Cs long enough to begin climbing the ladder, resulting in an internal promotion pipeline that is drying up.
Otto has a vacancy for the job of manager at the north-side facility. Unfortunately, he does not think any of his assistant managers are qualified for the job, and he reluctantly concluded that he has to fill the job externally. A vigorous three-county recruitment campaign netted Otto a total of five applicants. Initial assessments resulted in four of those being candidates. Two of the four became finalists.
Jane Roberts is the number one finalist, and the one to whom Otto has decided to extend the offer. Jane is excited about the job and told Otto she will accept an offer if the terms are right. Otto is quite certain Jane will get a counteroffer from her current company. Jane has excellent supervisory experience in fast-food stores and a light manufacturing plant. She is willing to relocate, a move of about 45 miles. She will not be able to start for 45 days, due to preparing for the move and the need to give adequate notice to her present employer. As a single parent, Jane wants to avoid work on either Saturday or Sunday each week. The number two finalist is Betts Cook. Though she lacks the supervisory experience that Jane has, Otto views her as superior to Jane in customer service skills. Jane told Otto she needs to know quickly if she is going to get the offer, since she is in line for a promotion at her current company and she wants to begin at 3Cs before being offered and accepting the promotion.
Otto is pondering what kind of offer to make to Jane. His three current managers make between $28,000 and $35,000, with annual raises based on a merit review conducted by Otto. The managers receive one week of vacation the first year, two weeks of vacation for the next four years, and three weeks of vacation after that. They also receive healthcare insurance (with a 20% employee co-pay on the premium). The managers work five days each week, with work on both Saturday and Sunday frequently occurring during the peak times. Jane currently makes $31,500, receives health insurance with no employee co-pay, and has one week of vacation (she is due to receive two weeks shortly, after completing her second year with the company). She works Monday through Friday, with occasional work on the weekends. Betts earns $34,500, receives health insurance fully paid by her employer, and has one week of vacation (she is eligible for two weeks in another year). Weekend work, if not constant, is acceptable to her. Otto is seeking input from you, his HR consultant, on how to proceed.

You have been hired as an HR consultant to help the company’s owner fill a manager’s vacancy at its north-side facility. Your paper (your input as the HR consultant) must address the following:


There are many ways that people need to fit with an employment opportunity to be a successful match. What type of fit do you think Otto was seeking to maximize in his selection of Jane and Betts? Explain your answer.

Employers tend to evaluate many factors when looking for potential employee to fill in a vacancy in their enterprise. In this case Otto was evaluating four important factors that tells whether Jane and Betts fits with employment opportunity. These factors are attitude or organizational match, cognitive ability, interests or job match, personal structure and technical competences (Whitley, Kostick, & Bush, 2010). Organizational match is described as the extent in which the potential candidate’s ethics, values, attitudes and grooming fits the requirement of job position. The most appropriate tool for evaluating organizational match is face-to-face interviews. Some of the factors that may be observed in the process include honesty, being not prone to hostility and being drug-free.

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            Skills match is the second factor when evaluating fit with the employment opportunity among the candidates. It is described as the extent to which an individuals’ previous experience, technical skills, educational background and specific expertise fits those requirement for the job position. In the case study Otto was looking for specific set of technical skills and knowledge which could not be found within internal employees (Heneman, Judge, & Kammeyer-Mueller, 2012). Jane and Betts have different technical skills and knowledge which fits job position which is the managerial positions. Studies have shown that skills match helps the employees to handle job challenges if the technical skills and knowledge matches the required job position.

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            The third factor is the job match which is also considered as the integral part of a candidates’ job success. It is described as the process of evaluating personality traits, interests and cognitive abilities matches in specific job. Otto was looking core personality which is the characteristic that have been trained over many years (Simonsen, Fabian, Buchanan, & Luecking, 2011). Jane and Betts showed that they are interested in working with the team of Clean Car Care. While cognitive abilities helps the employer to determine how quickly an individual learns and the most effective means of learning. For example, individuals that have indicated their ability to exceptionally quicker problem solvers have high chances of thriving in a challenging environment.

The selection component of staffing is the process of assessing and evaluating people to determine if there is a fit between the person and the job. What KSAOs do you think are required for success in the manager’s position at 3Cs? Describe/discuss why these are the required KSAOs.

KSAOs is described as job-related Knowledge’s, Skills, Abilities and Other characteristics that an applicant must have to perform successfully in the position. KSAOs are categorized into two major categories: behavioral and technical. Behavioral KSAOs is described as measures of soft skills (Heneman, Judge, & Kammeyer-Mueller, 2012). These soft skills include the approaches and the attitude individuals’ portray in their work place such as the ability to communicate orally and ability to work as a team with all the employees regardless of the ethic, race, culture and class (Kehoe, & Wright, 2013). Therefore, the manager at Clean Car Care should be to collaborate with other employees by working as team, encouraging employees to solve their conflicts using the appropriate means as well as developing the culture of equally and respect among the employees.

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            Technical KSAOs is described as measures of acquired hard technical skills and knowledge. For example, in the case study Jane has excellent supervisory skills which is helpful to the 3Cs and Betts in the other hand has excellent customer service skills which will help 3Cs to be successful (Sun, Aryee, & Law, 2007). These are the technical KSAOs that is required to make 3Cs successful. Other skills and knowledge include ability to create and manage various Microsoft applications and accounting principles which are used in the management of 3Cs records.

Do you support the decision to extend an offer to Jane Roberts? Explain your position.

I think the decision by Otto to extend an offer to Jane was appropriate because of the excellent supervisory skills from light manufacturing plant and fast-food stores. These experiences is vital for a manager at 3Cs in order to make the enterprise more successful. This indicated that Jane is likely to gel with her assistance as well as the broad individuals working at Clean Car Care (Montana, & Petit, 2009). Also, the fact that Jane is likely to receive a counteroffer from her current employer is clear indication that she is a good asset that any organization would like to have. The excitement, willingness to accept the offer and preparedness of Jane to relocate are also indication that she is ready to work at Clean Car Care. Another reason is that Jane’s’ current salary is $31,000 and falls within the range Otto pays his managers which is between $28,000 and $35,000. This shows that Jane is likely to accept the salary offered because it is within the required range. Therefore, I support the decision by Otto to offer Jane the job as the new manager at Clean Car Care.

Recommend which type of job offer should be used by 3Cs for Jane Roberts. Explain why this is your choice. Also, discuss why you believe the other choices would not work in this situation.

The analysis of the case study indicated that Clean Car Care should use best shot offer for Jane Roberts. This is because Jane have shown that she excellent performer in the previous employment as well as her current employer (Nishii, Lepak, & Scheneider, 2008). Also, Jane is in line for promotion in her current employment. This means that Jane’s current employer was likely to make a counteroffer when Clean Car Care. Best shot offer is likely to offer Jane a strong incentives which will make her leave the current employer and join Clean Car Care. Although, Jane may probably resist working on the weekend thus becoming an obstacle during the agreement between Jane and the 3Cs (Scanlon, 2014). Therefore, the Clean Car Care should provide the best overall job offer that will compensate Jane for working over the weekend.

            In the other hand, using a low ball offer for Jane makes her to feel uncompetitive because case suggested that Jane was not desperate for the job. This also makes Jane’s current employer to be more competitive than Clean Car and Care, hence encouraging her not change the job. It is important to note that Jane is waiting promotion in her current employment, thus suggesting that her job with current employer is favorable (Scanlon, 2014). Secondly, promotion is likely to offer Jane competitive salary and good benefits. Therefore, Clean Car Care should not use low ball to offer Jane employment.             Another offer that Clean Car Care should not use to offer Jane job is competitive offer because it is not strong enough to convince Jane to leave her current employer. Using competitive offer means that Clean Car Care would offer Jane terms that matches her current salary and benefits which is risk because Jane is waiting for promotion which is likely to offer her high salary and benefits. Also, the working schedule for Jane is likely to change because the Clean Car Care operate over the weekend, therefore, she will be required to work over the weekend and terms should compensate for the extra working days

Recommend other inducements beyond salary, health insurance, and vacation that might be addressed in the job offer. Explain why you believe these to be relevant inducements for Jane Roberts.

From the case study, it is clear that two more inducement are appropriate based on the prevailing conditions: hiring bonuses and relocation expenses. The Clean Car Care Company should offer Jane lump sum hiring bonus which is one-time in order to encourage her to take up the position. This offer is also advantageous to the Clean Car Care because it is a onetime expenses. While relocation assistance may include house hunting services as well as meeting moving expenses. These two inducement helps Jane to quickly move through the transition from the current employment to working at Clean Car Care.


Draft and include as a separate page (not an attachment), a proposed offer letter to Jane Roberts, incorporating your recommendations in numbers 4 and 5 above, as well as other desired features that should be part of a job offer letter.

If Jane Roberts doesn’t accept the offer, what would you recommend as a next step to the owner? Explain your recommendation.

If Jane Roberts choose not to accept the job offer, the owner should offer the second candidate the job which is Betts Cook. After the interview, Betts Cook emerged the second after Jane Roberts therefore she should be the second candidate in the list to be offered the job if the first one does not accept. Secondly, although Betts has little experience in supervisory work, she has excellent skills on the customer care service which also vital for the company. Based on these two reasons, I would recommend to the owner to extend an offer to Betts Cook.

If the owner decides to extend an offer to Betts Cook, which type of job offer should be used by 3Cs for Betts Cook’s offer? Explain why this is your choice. Also, discuss why you believe the other choices would not work in this situation. Would your answer to this question be different depending on whether she is the #1 choice or she is offered the job after Jane Roberts rejects Otto’s offer?

The company should use competitive offer which matches the terms of the Betts current employer. In the case study, it is indicated that Betts receives $34,500 and occasionally working over the weekend. This means that the company should not worry about working schedule because Betts is used to working offer the weekend. Although, Betts salary is within the range paid to managers in 3Cs, the offer should raise a little to lure from current employer.

            Best shot offer should not be used in Betts case because she does not have supervisory experiences which was the key in the selection process. In addition, Betts did not indicated that she is in line for promotion, therefore, it means she will likely accept an offers that is competitive.             Low ball offer should not be used because it will not lure Betts from her current employer. Since Betts is already working, she will not be desperate to move to a job that offer less salary and benefit she is currently getting from her employer.

Recommend other inducements beyond salary, health insurance, and vacation that might be addressed in Ms. Cook’s job offer. Explain why you believe these to be relevant inducements for Betts Cook.

Similarly, the offers given to Jane should also extended to Betts. This include hiring bonus and translocation. These two offers will lure Betts from her current employer and join 3Cs Company.

Draft and include as a separate page (not an attachment), a proposed offer letter to Betts Cook, incorporating your recommendations in numbers 8 and 9 above, as well as other desired features that should be part of a job offer letter.

The owner of 3Cs reluctantly concluded that he needed to fill this job externally for several reasons. Do you have any ideas, suggestions or recommendations that would address his inability to make this an internal promotion? What relevant facts support your thoughts? What strategies would you suggest he implement with respect to staffing and turnover in the future?

You must reference no less than six (6) sources for your work. Although you may use and appropriately cite your textbook, it does not count as one of the six sources. I am flexible on the types of sources that you utilize, but you must cite the source appropriately (using APA format). Please do not use social media type websites. Three (3) of your sources must also comply with instructions 13 and 14 below.

After your bibliography page, please include an annotations page and complete the following for three (3) of your sources: Choose articles that discuss, apply, or assist you in addressing any of the topics in this final paper. Do not rewrite the articles. Summarize the contents of the articles in your own words. If you use specific quotes or parts of the articles, you must cite the source appropriately. Explain the articles’ application to this assignment (how does it relate?). How did you utilize this resource?

The Drawbacks for Companies That Employ Temporary Workers

There are increasing use of temporary employees, contract workers, interns and freelancers by most companies. However, the use of temporary employees offers both benefits and drawbacks. When workers are hired on temporary basis, they are not entitled to some benefits like retirement benefits. In addition, temporary workers do not benefit from security of tenure as their job is basically temporary. This causes a major drawback of reliability (Change3 enterprises LLC, 2016). Most temporary workers do not take their jobs seriously since they are not worried about any consequence of the laxity in the workplace. This may negatively affect productivity, especially given that the modern business world is competitive.

Read also How Employment of Contingent Employees Affect Organization’s Business, its HRM responsibilities, Overall Costs, and Organizational Culture

            Moreover, temporary workers no matter how skilled, require a form of training. Training varies according to the requirements of specific job tasks. Temporary workers who leave after ending their duration of services serves as loss of expertise, from which the company spent money offering training. The use of temporary workers affects their workplace morale when they perform the same tasks, working same hours, but receive different benefits as the permanent workers. Finally, using temporary workers offer some legal and safety concerns for the companies. The companies that use temporary workers must exercise care on how they contract workers and provide care safety training. The frequency and severity of on-the-job injuries are more among the temporary workers than permanent workers are (Sakurai et al., 2013).       

Read also Should Firms offer Benefits to Part-time Workers   

However, I think depending on the company, the drawbacks can outweigh the benefits. For some companies, which mostly offer seasonal services, the benefits of using temporary workers can outweigh the drawbacks. For example, for an immediate care company might find it beneficial to use temporary workers, while for a government entity it would be more costly to employ temporary workers, as it would be costly to train them and let them leave at the end of their contract. In conclusion, the use of temporary workers depends on the type of company. The use of temporary workers might be beneficial to one company, while drawbacks outweighing its benefits for another.

Read also Should the Compensation of Contingent Workers be the same as Conventional, Full-Time Employees doing Same Work?

Ambivalence and Organizational Change

Organizations face challenge of implementing change optimally because of poor communication between the employees and the management. Ambivalence and resistance to change is more amplified by the workers whose lives are directly affected by the changes. Organizations relies on change agents to communicate the intended changes needed to be implemented in the organization(Florian, Klonek, & Kauffeld, 2014). It is the responsibility of the change agents to promote and sponsor change initiative in the organization. The change recipients who are the organizational members are tasked with the responsibility of conducting change measures. In the initial stages of organizational change, change agents are normally faced with resistance to change by the recipients. The intended organizational change fails to pick up when the change agents fails to motivate change recipients to work cooperatively and pitch in for the proposed changes.

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            The objectives of initiating organizational change is to make business to continuously remain competitive advantage in the market. These changes are attributed to continuous change in business environment brought about by competition and globalization aspect. However, effective organizational change is yet to be realized by the organizations due to ambivalence and resistance from the employees(Jos, Marjolein, & Caniels, 2012). Recent analysis indicated that only 1/3 of the organizational change implemented were considered successful by their leaders. Most organizational leaders have acknowledge that implementing successful organizational change has been problematic. As a result, most organizations have opted to adopt structure change programs founded on the assumption that change management involves the interventions that are perceived as measurable, objective as well as linearly manageable and could be realized within a relatively short time. Scholar have argued that the studies should focus on the dynamics of change process rather than the traditional studies that focused on the top-down organizational change. This approach enables the leaders to comprehensively understand ambivalences and change resistance, which is attributed to high failure rate to change.

Read also Leading Organizational Change – Assignment And Sample Solution

            Analysis from the traditional change agent-centric perspective indicated that employees that are perceived to be resisting the change were considered as bad apples that spoil the whole barrel, which means that they intend to curtail the entire change initiative. This implies that traditional agent-centric perspective which is person-centered demonize uncooperative employees. By demonizing the resisting employees, change agentstend to indirectly promote resistance they face(Jos, et al., 2012). Therefore, it is important for the change agents to understand that conversational dynamics between change recipients and change agents plays crucial role in the establishment of cohesive relationship. Despite widely shared census among the scholars and researchers that communication is the key driving force in the achievement of effective organizational change, many studies are yet to comprehensively outline the inherent communicative dynamics that contributes to challenges in the change management process.

Read also Application – Eight Stages of Successful Large-Scale Organizational Change – Bottom Up Scenario 

            In order to determine a situation whereby agents of change triggers resistance among the change recipients, it is necessary to pay attention on the dynamic interaction process that exists between recipients and agents. In addition, dyadic change agent-recipient conversations provide the insights of conversational dynamics under which resistance to change or readiness for change is triggered, although it is perceived not represent the entire range of social situation in agent-recipient relationship(Florian, et al., 2014). Another aspects that leadership in the organization needs to focus on in order to understand ambivalence and resistance to change is the dynamic of social interaction. Through dynamic social interaction approach as a method of managing change process in the organization, the agents of change would be able have insightful of how ambivalence and resistance to change could be addressed in order to assist recipients to readily accept change. This would be achieved by actively engaging them in the change process as well as promoting their acceptance to change. By allowing change recipients to verbalize their opinions about future organizational change, they are given the opportunity to express their thoughts and ambivalent feelings about the entire change process.

Read also Organizational Change Using Kotter’s 8 Step Approach

            The emerging trend indicated that psychology scholars and management conceptualize the context of resistance to change from the concept of ambivalence. The concept of ambivalence highlights the issues of conflicting attitudes towards the intended changes exhibited by the employees. Through natural observation and listening to what recipients talks about future changes, allows the management to build on the perception of resistance to change through ambivalent expressions(Florian, et al., 2014). Utterances from change recipients does not only reveal resistance to change but also give the expression of readiness for change. Addition approach that management could explore in order to comprehensively understand the issues of ambivalence and resistance to change is the comprehensive analysis of change-related language. Scholar and psychologist of change have argued that this approach is similar to force-field analysis, which is known for identifying interpersonal hindrances and driving force in change management.            

Read also A Memo to Recommend a Plan for Change

By using these methods and approaches managers and change agents would be able to address issues that are related to ambivalence and resistance to change(Piderit, 2000). Also, it’s important to engage employees actively in the change process in order for them to understand the importance of the intended change and how it will affects their lives especially in the work environment.

Should Firms offer Benefits to Part-time Workers

Do you think firms should offer benefits to part-time workers? If yes, should they offer benefits such as, paid time-off, a 401(k) plan and health insurance? Or only one or two of the benefits? Explain your recommendation.

Yes, because by offering benefits to part-time workers is particularly smart for organizations that engages in small scale business. First, they have competitive advantage over organization or companies that engages in bigger business. Secondly, small business organization attracts employees who are more experience and skilled over less-flexible organization(Sadler, 2014). Thirdly, most employees that are hire as part-timers transits into full-timers overtime, this means that when part-time employees are offered benefits such as 401(k) plans, paid vacation, discounts on merchandise and health insurance which covers both life and disability, they get motivated to remain in the company until they get the opportunity to be full-timers.

Read also Should the Compensation of Contingent Workers be the same as Conventional, Full-Time Employees doing Same Work?

Analysis indicated that United States lacks the federal law that compels business owners to offer particular fringe benefits to either full-time or part-time employees. In addition, there is no legal definition of part-time or full-time work. Therefore, for the business owner who would wish to offer benefits to part-time employees, it is important to set the minimum working hours per week and monthly for the part-time employees to qualify for the benefits(Sadler, 2014). Most business that offers benefits to the part-time employees have set twenty hours a week in order for the part-time employees to get benefits. The second step is for the business owner to determine the minimum number of hours, weeks, and months or years the part-time employee should stay in the company before becoming eligible to the benefits. Lastly, the employer must determine the minimum contribution the part-time employee must pay to the insurance company in order to get health insurance.

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Characteristics of Living Organism

Living things and non-living things coexists in the ecosystem, but biologically they have characteristics that differentiate them. Typically, living things have eight characteristics that are associated with life and non-living things do not have these characteristics(Kadhila, 2014). The eight characteristics associated with living organism are:

  • All living things maintain homeostasis: This is the mechanism that allows living organism to maintain their internal environment stable. For example, mammals regulate their body temperature through shiver and sweat(Kadhila, 2014). Whereas plants control the water lose through stomata. In addition, human beings develops fever to break down bacteria and virus, thus reducing infection. This characteristic is not found in non-living things because they are dead.
  • Living things have the ability to respond to a stimulus: This is the mechanism of all living to react to stimulus. For example, when a prey (zebra) sees a predator (lion) approaching or hears alarming sound from other living organism such as birds and baboons they stay alert or even run for their safety. Similarly, humans are able to respond to pain by pulling back their hands when they touch sharp or hot objects. Cheetah responds to hunger by stocking and chasing the gazelle. This characteristic is unique to living things and not non-living things.
  • Living things obtains and uses energy: Living thing are categorized into heterotroph which obtain energy by feeding on other organism and autotroph which are the organism that traps energy from the sun to manufacture their own food through photosynthesis. For example, plants traps energy from the sun to manufacture their own food through photosynthesis. Whereas leech suck blood from other organism in order to get energy. Non-living things to do obtain and uses energy.
  • Living things are made up of cell(s): Cell is the smallest unit of organism. Unicellular organism are those living things that are composed of one cell such as bacteria whereas multicellular organism that are composed of more than one cell such as plants, animals and human.
  • All things grow and develop: Growth in living organism is characterized by increase in mass, formation of new cells and structures. Whereas development is a process of natural change in a living thing. For example, living things develop structures and processes that allow for reproduction to occur.
  • Living things reproduce: Living things are categorized into two asexual and sexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction process requires one organism whereas sexual reproduction requires the union of male and female sex cells(Kadhila, 2014). For example, bacteria split into two to reproduce whereas mammals requires union of sperm from a male and egg from a female to reproduce. This characteristics is not associated with non-living things.
  • The structure of all living things are based upon a universal genetic code (DNA): DNA is described as a central point that gives genetic instruction for development and functioning of all living organism. For example, starfish has 36 total chromosomes in their cells, turkey have 80 chromosomes in their cells and humans have 46 total chromosomes in their cells.
  • Living things evolves over time and adapts: Adaptations is described as mechanism for an organism to develop over time and respond to a changing environmental factors, thus helping the organism to survive. Whereas evolution is described as changes in heredity of groups of organisms over time. These eight characteristic are unique to living organism and non-living things do not have these characteristics.