Statistics and Statistical Forecasting Process In Healthcare

Statistical Forecasting Process

Forecasting process involves a number of steps that need to accomplish. These steps assist in broadly define and identify the tools and need of health forecasting. According to Wright, Lawrence and Collopy (1996), healthcare forecasting process requires the use of framework containing dynamic process. The process involves seven main steps. The first step involves identifying the ideas and concepts which address a significant health condition which is of significant cost and great burden to the health care service.  This offers a precise health outcome specification to be forecast and a clear forecasting horizon of definition. The second step entails the use of literature to acknowledge highly correlated and casual variables which are related with the identified health results measures in step 1 (Ganguly & Nandi, 2016). The third step involves data sources identification for both measures of health outcome and all of the possible predictors, and ascertaining the completeness and availability of data. The fourth step involves preparing the sets of data for primary statistical analysis that include descriptive patterns and the forecast algorithms development. Some primary activities include data management and cleaning, and the supplementary variables generation for further analysis. Step five involves the generation of predictive models and their validation by use of various sets of same historical data. The sixth step entails determining and evaluating the final indicators lists required for great predictive model founded on the practical access to other data. The final step involves developing tailor-made and very unique health forecast services for unique client or purpose and for to update the model periodically (Ganguly & Nandi, 2016).

Example of Statistical Analysis Tools Used for Forecasting

Techniques of forecasting can be groups in two extensive groups that include qualitative and quantitative. Quantitative techniques are highly used in healthcare organization. These techniques involves mathematical models that include neuro network, moving average, expert system, regression, straight line projection, simulation, and exponential smoothing among others. Some of the forecasting tools that will be used to enhance data analysis in healthcare system include a time series. Time series refer to gathering of sequentially measured observations over time. Thus, time series forecasting is thus a statistical model method or tool where the same variables past observations are analyzed and collected to create a model describing the underlying relation (Ganguly & Nandi, 2016). There are excess of techniques to time series modeling which include traditional statistical methods which comprise of Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), exponential smoothing, and moving, or nonlinear complex models that include the Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedastic (ARCH) model, Threshold Autoregressive (TAR) model, and bilinear model. Nevertheless, as a result of its implementation and understanding simplicity, the linear models popularity as an applied tool has exceeded its nonlinear counterparts by far. The time series essence lies in the reliance of the adjacent observation and the analysis of time series is concerned with the dependence analysis and can offer foundation to various managerial decisions (Ganguly & Nandi, 2016).

Another tool to be used in forecasting analysis is the Quantile Regression Model (QRM). Quantile regressions refer to linear-regression models extensions that fail to assume the dependent variable normality. They model the provisional quintiles as predictors’ functions, specifying modifications in any provisional quintile. Contrary to linear regression models, QRMs contain the aptitude to typify the association between the independent variables and dependent variable, especially in the distribution extremes. QRMs contain common medical reference charts application, and could be utilized in initial medical diagnosis to acknowledge uncommon subjects by offering robust regressions for approximating extreme values. Quantile Regression Models in addition have the ability of forecasting and predicting extreme chronic health condition such as asthma. Some of the possible predictions include rate of admission (Soyiri & Reidpath, 2013).

The third tool is the fractional polynomials models (FPM). FPM is a probabilistic method that can be used for forecasting extreme health conditions or situations.  FPM is also said to be employed in modeling particular dependent variables categories in a linear data distribution, and therefore, target particular groups more accurately. FPM is used in categorization which provides clear advantages since it permits a full non-linear relationship representation between outcome and predictor variables. This model can be extended to an extensive range of health conditions and situations (Soyiri & Reidpath, 2013).

Role of Statistical Forecasting in the Qualitative Healthcare Decision Analysis Process

Health forecasting involves foretelling health situation of forewarning future events and disease episodes. It can as well be regarded as a kind of preventive care or preventive medicine which involves planning in public health and is focused as facilitating provision of healthcare services in populations. Health foretelling has been frequently applied to visits in emergency department, admissions, and daily attendance in hospitals. Forecasting is a crucial component in the medicine practice with its chief purpose being to improve both individual patient outcome and provision of health service. For instance some forecasting models integrate rule-based model which predicts threats based on environmental situations, with an anticipatory intervention care to offer information that is then communicated. This service allows care providers and patients to take precautions in enhancing delivery of health service and reduction of disease events. Healthcare forecasting is based on four main principles that include the focus, measuring of errors and uncertainty, healthcare forecasting horizon and the data aggregation nature and how it impact accuracy.

Forecasting start with identification of healthcare problem, and gathering of the necessary primary and secondary data. Data collection is done accurately using accredited tools and by certified researchers to ensure high level of accuracy, validity and reliability. The data is effectively analyzed mostly using quantitative research methods. The analysis results provides clear picture of the situation at hand. Predictive model validated with historical. Once validated, these models are used to make prediction of what may happen in the future if the situation is not harnessed. The models are also used to determine what may happen when different possible solutions are adopted. Based on the prediction results, the healthcare providers are able to make a decision on the best measure to take to enhance health care performance. This implies that statistical forecasting provide clear information of the situation on the ground and give possibilities of events that may follow when various measures are employed. They therefore provide a guide in decision making process (Wright, Lawrence &Collopy, 1996).

HCA 340 Managing in Health & Human Services – All Discussions With Sample Answers

HCA 340 week 1 Discussion

Discussion 1 – Leadership and Management in Health Care

Compare and contrast leadership roles and management responsibilities in a non-health care setting with that of a health care organization. In addition, present an overview of key leadership traits fundamental for health care organizational effectiveness, and discuss the essential functions of health care managers. Provide a substantive 150 to 250 word initial post that fully answers the following questions:

  • What does it take to be a “good” leader or manager?
  • What are the primary barriers and challenges associated with health care leadership?

Discussion 2 – Management and Motivation

Discuss the overall importance of motivation as it relates to management. Provide a substantive 150 to 250 word initial post that fully answers the following questions:

  • What are the benefits of having a fully motivated staff, and what are the potential consequences of not having motivated staff?
  • What do contemporary theories tell us about the significance of motivation as a function of employee needs, extrinsic and intrinsic factors?
  • How do we motivate across generations? In your response, please be sure to identify and address at least two theories.

Utilize at least one scholarly source, cited in correct APA format that supports factual statements and conclusions about the topic.

 

HCA 340 Week 3 Discussions

Discussion 1 – Health Insurance Benefits

Managers need to understand the impact on the financial viability of a health service organization for providing care to the uninsured or underinsured. Review the following case scenario and provide a substantive 150 to 200 word response that thoroughly answers each of the following questions:

Joe Smith is a 27- year-old Caucasian male who works two part-time jobs for two different construction companies. Joe has been having dizzy spells off and on for the past two months. While driving to work one day, he loses consciousness and is involved in a motor vehicle accident. Joe is admitted to your not-for-profit hospital with a broken leg and multiple lacerations.

  • Does Mr. Smith fit the typical profile for an uninsured person in the United States? Justify your answer.
  • How will your hospital most likely be reimbursed for Mr. Smith’s medical care?
  • During the recent economic downturn, your community has experienced unemployment rates of approximately 9%. What can be done to mitigate the effects of the financial impact to your organization?

 

Discussion 2 – Managing Financial Budgets

Health care financial management is complex and an effective health care administrator must understand what makes up the foundation to financial operations. This includes: health insurance (private and social) and reimbursements, private vs. not-for profit entities, costs and expenditures, capital, materials management, and budgeting. Provide a substantive 150 to 250 word initial post that fully answers the following questions:

  • Outline and discuss the major categories of reimbursements and costs in a health care organization. How do they influence each other?
  • In addition, how do expenses and revenues affect the specific types of budgets outlined?

Utilize at least one scholarly source, cited in correct APA format that supports factual statements and

 

 

Book Review – Between Flesh and Steel: A History of Military Medicine from the Middle Ages to the War in Afghanistan

“Between Flesh and Steel” is a book written by Gabriel, a great historian with a purpose of describing the military medicine evolution from the middle ages to the 21st century. The book gives detailed information on how soldiers in the battle field have been treated from the time the battle weapons were less severe to the current era where severe and more sophisticated weapons are used. Gabriel achieves greatly in demonstrating the advancement of military medicine and how it has been refined with time as the need to take care and preserve military troop grew in important to different countries. Initially, caring for the wounded soldiers was regard as a waste of resources. This made it almost impossible for the wounded soldiers to receive good treatment. Despite of weak weapons compared to the current situation, more soldiers died in the battle field due to lack of medical care. Gabriel has narrated how the advancement in military medicine has brought the contrast of low battle field mortality rate with advancement of military weapons (p. 36).

The book is considerably detailed, demonstrating various events that took place in different times, especially centuries and the changes that were made. Gabriel demonstrates his great ability to research to obtain detailed information regarding medical evolution in the military field. The book gives small details of how certain medical procedures especially surgeries were conducted and how these practices have changed with time. It has also managed to demonstrate the relation between the general medical discoveries and military treatment advancement. A good example in this case is experiencing more deaths from infectious diseases than war inflicted wounds (p.200). The book also demonstrates how change of weapons and the inflicted injuries and wounds has influenced advancements in surgical medical field. Gabriel thus demonstrates his knowledge in military medicine and war history, providing a rich source of information on the relation between the two. He also provides names of individuals who contributed to various medical breakthroughs in history, especially in military medicine, making his book quite informative, not just to history lovers, but also to anyone interested in specific historical details in the medical field. He gives finer details including the number of soldiers that died in various events for different reasons. For instance Gabriel states that “in Spanish-American War, typhoid killed 1580 men while only 23 died in action” (p. 200). This makes the book to be among the most informative historical work in the military medicine evolution field.

In this book, Gabriel has collected suitable information to contribute to the weapon invention versus military medical invention trend. He has arranged his sequence of events on increments of centuries though not on a constant 100 years interval. This has created disjoint in his work especially regarding major military medical advancements and discovery and events that initiated them. Probably he could have managed a better connection with the use of different warfare or specific wars as denoted by the history, based on change of military technology, or based on the changing medical practices and knowledge in the world in general. The current topic breaks fails in giving continuous narrative which can easily make it easy to recognize and identify major changes and trends. The current arrangement is considerably confusing and can only be understood by attentive readers who are keen in identifying the effect of certain identified procedures with time.

Gabriel, Richard A.  Between Flesh and Steel: A History of Military Medicine from the Middle Ages to the War in Afghanistan. Washington, DC: Potomac Books, 2013.

Learning, An Aspect of Cognition, Emotion and Motivation

Introduction

Individual learning ability is highly influenced by a number of factors. It is highly determined by individual emotions where positive emotions promote learning while negative emotions reduce the urge for learning. Learning is also influenced by motivation. Motivation plays a great role in enhancing learning. Moreover individual ability to learn is highly influenced by his or her cognitive ability. In addition, learning plays a great role in building cognition. Learning is an aspect of cognition, emotion and motivation which had been highly researched on in the past. This paper focuses on determining how learning is influenced or has influenced cognition, emotions and motivation.

Emotion

Emotion refers to the primary psychological systems controlling adaptation of aperson to environmental and personal demands. They are regarded to be subjective multidimensional constructs and experiences with physiological, effective, motivational, cognitive and expressive components. According to Meyer and Turner (2006), emotions are carefully associated to physiological, cognitive, motivational and behavioral processes, thus, they are usually essential for achievement and learning. They might disrupt, terminate or initiate information result and dispensation in selective processing of information or they might arrange recall. Emotions are closely involved in almost every aspect of learning and teaching process. It is therefore important according to Glaser-Zikuda, Stuchlikova and Janik (2013) to understand emotions nature in the school context. In the Glaser-Zikuda, Stuchlikova and Janik (2013) perspective, the interaction between cognitive, motivation and emotion in human life, particularly in classroom and school context is highly complex. Emotion might be perceived as general responses to experiences with instruction and learning, with a social setting, and with demands of achievement, results and feedback. Emotions influence learning and teaching in both negative and positive ways. Emotions of students play an essential role in learning based on self-concept, goal orientation, and motivation, as well as in social relations. The learning outcomes and processes are impacted by emotions, though they might as well evoke emotions. It is thus essential to clarify how emotions are impacted by the teacher expertise and behavior and by the learning environment.

Emotion contains a significant influence on the human cognitive processes that include problem solving, perception, reasoning, attention, memory and learning. According to Glaser-Zikuda, Stuchlikova and Janik (2013), emotions had specifically strong impact on attention, particularly modulating attention selectivity and motivating behavior and action. This executive and intentional control is intimately connected to learning processes. According to Olsson (2003), emotions contain an influence on achievement and learning, mediated by motivation, self-regulation, and attention, therefore directing an individual away from or towards learning matters in learning circumstances. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that student’s perception of self-regulation is considerably positively associated with positive emotions, while observed external regulation is associated with negative emotions. The experience of autonomy and competence in learning has been identified to be significant for self-determination and self-regulation. Emotions are also associated to interest. The positive effect on learning interest has been people subject areas and knowledge domains. Interest contains feeling-associated valence and value-associated valence. It is highly related with intrinsic pleasure and motivation, and it is closely connected to all self-determined activity.

According to Meyer and Turner (2006), the effect of emotions on learning might be negative as well as positive in nature, though its association with learning is not very direct. For instance, anxiety test is approximately perceived as an incapacitating emotion, though research demonstrates that there are two constituents of the anxiety test. One of these constituents degrades the academic performance and the other is related with elevated stimulation, that associate to performance in nonlinear u-curve and this might facilitate performance and learning. This implies that emotions impact the process of leaning in very diverse modes that include interpersonal and intrapersonal effects. The effects of interpersonal emotions on learning are related with the emotions influence on social perception and social judgment, with the effect of social setting on emotional experience and expression. It can also be related with emotions role in dissolving, maintaining and creating social associations and with the nonverbal and verbal emotion communication in social learning conditions. Humor and enjoyment can revitalize climate of learning in the classroom, though when the students are in laughter bits, it might act as a distractor for various students that cannot concentrate on the consequent learning.

Motivation

Motivation is regarded as the willingness and desire to do something, the situation of being eager to work or act, an influence or force which causes a person to do something. According to Kusurkar et al. (2012), motivation can be a precondition of engagement of learner. For instance, due to a long-term credentials goal, learner can be motivated to participate in courses. Motivation can in addition be a feeling of success or satisfaction when participating in valuable learning. Either way, student engagement and motivation are closely associated to student learning elements, which can have an influence on learning outcomes.  Motivation plays an essential role in learning. According to Asvio, Arpinus and Suharmon (2017), motivation to learn refers to the process which provides the learning spirit, behavior persistence and direction. Motivated behavior refers to the behavior which is enduring, focus and full of energy. Learning motivation is the general driving force in the students who provide direction and lead on learning activities. Therefore, motivation is created from the need to attain the goal (Asvio, Arpinus & Suharmon, 2017).

Motivation according to Saeed and Zyngier (2012) is perceived as an essential element for and a pre-requisite of student involvement in learning. Student involvement in learning act as a way to promote student’s sound academic achievement. This is essential since authentic involvement might result to higher academic attainment in the entire life of a student. Motivation has also been found to guide the interest of learners into essential learning activities. A research conducted by Saeed and Zyngier (2012), demonstrated that students that are intrinsically motivated are more engaged and competent in their learning compared to students that are extrinsically motivated. The research also established that when the teacher fulfills needs of students for autonomy, relatedness and competence the student engagement and motivation is enhanced. The research demonstrated the relation between intrinsic motivation and authentic engagement of student. Engaged student were found to ensure they successfully finish their learning tasks and put extra concentration and effort in the full understanding of the content. Extrinsic motivation was also found to be a great boost to enhance learning success, especially in situations where intrinsic motivation is not working effectively. Intrinsic motivation was only found suitable among dedicated students and extremely frustrating among other students that may need extra push. Thus, the use of a combination of external and internal motivational strategies that include external support and incentives can improve learning in average student rather than using intrinsic motivation alone (Saeed & Zyngier, 2012).

Motivation is said to enhance learning in various ways. Motivation is said to direct students’ behavior toward specific goals. Setting goals is cited as one way to create motivation. Setting goals push learners to do what it takes to attain these goals. It therefore influences students’ choices especially regarding learning time management and efforts put in various subjects to enhance good performance. According to Kong (2009),goals of a student influence their effort and motivation in leaning. With goals of learning, students purposely study and put great effort in different subjects based on their desire to perform. In this case, students are more concerned about subject mastering and completing tasks and not anxious about comparison to others or failure. Motivation is also said to result in increased energy and effort, which learners disburse in actions that are directly associated to their goals and needs. Motivation determines if the student conduct a task wholeheartedly and enthusiastically or lackadaisically and apathetically.  Motivation also augments persistence in and initiation of activities, making it more probable for learners to start task at the exact time they wanted to do so. Motivation also makes it possible for a learner to continue pursuing a subject or a task until he or she has completed it as required. Thus, motivation can be said to increase the time a student spend on a task, which is a significant factor influencing their achievement and learning. In Gbollie and Keamu (2017) view, motivation influences cognitive processes of a learner, enhancing the learner’s ability to pay attention to their academic tasks, to enhance performance. Motivated students frequently make an effort to comprehend coursework and to think of how this can be applied in real life situation to solve real problems.

Motivation also determines learning outcome by establishing the consequences that are punishing and those that are reinforcing based on individual interest in life. According to Tella (2007), leaners who are frequently motivated to attain good academic performance find pride in grade improvement in their academic performance. However, leaners whose interest is more on sport get their pride in better sport performance than academic performance. This implies that motivation mostly works based on what one want or aspires in life. Leaners focusing fully on academic work should thus be motivated towards achieving their academic goals. This kind of motivation may be unrewarding when presented to learners whose interest is elsewhere(Tella, 2007).

According to Kusurkar et al. (2012), there are various motivation theories, with some centering on motivation quantity and others focusing on motivation quality. Motivation quantity can either be low or high, while motivation quantity relies on whether the motivation source is external or internal. According to Kusurkar et al. (2012), motivation self-determination theory (SDT) considers motivation quality to be extra significant compared to quality.  SDT supports that the more autonomous of self-determined the motivation is, the improved the observed results, including high academic performance. Motivation has been documented to influence academic performance in college, secondary and primary schools. A research conducted by Kusurkar et al.  (2012) also demonstrated a correlation between academic performance and relative autonomous motivation in medical education. In this case, the effect of motivation quality on performance was said to be positive to the student performance, especially with application of controlled motivation which is initiated by external sources and autonomous motivation that is initiated within a person. This is a clear indication that effective application of strategies to enhance well controlled external motivation and quality internal motivation can enhance learning, even in medical field that is known for complexity (Kusurkar et al., 2012). The research supports the proposition that motivation quality has a higher positive impact on learning compared to motivation quantity.

Cognition

According to Alkhalifa (2005) there are two primary change dimensions which are at play every time a learner is presented with learning materials. One regards cognitive processes which are provoked in the learning of a task. In Alkhalifa (2005) view, this can be basically visual, complex needs that are kinds of mental representation, overworks working memory, can be impacted by individual differences or emotional states, or can be a reasoning task. The other change dimension that can influence learning is related to the degree of complexity of material presented where some components might be defined based on other primary concepts. According to Langley (2016), people profit from low learning level of form researched by the behaviorists, where in study on persuading classifiers from reaction controllers and recognition of patterns for execution is considerably relevant. However, improvement also happens on tasks which need high degree of mental processing, and they seem to engage very varying processes and structures for both learning and performance compared to the ones, which were shared with pigeons and rats. For instance, natural language depends on pragmatic, semantic, and syntactic structure of knowledge and mechanisms, which work over every form of content. In Langley (2016) views, understanding of language entails the incremental meaning construction from previous context and sentences, whereas generation of language works in opposite direction, decoding intended context and meaning into sentences.Acquisition of language is liable for mastering these abilities. This in humans clearly entails lower-level learning processes to recognize specific phrase turns and words. Learning ability expands as one is exposed to more complex learning tasks.

Another cognitive systems model feature lies in stressing on the use and representation of rich mental structures. For instance, mechanisms of reasoning characteristically create proof trees which postulate how one can develop a conclusion from particular elements via inference steps series. Correspondingly, methods planning create chains of action which if conducted would change initial states, into states which attains particular goals. For instance, understanding language changes one sentence into a depiction of their meaning, comprising implied element which were not said. These processes according to Langley (2016) utilize formalisms that include frames, production rules and logic as the building blocks for creating these interlinked structures. Learning is also said to entails the development of novel cognitive structures with each subject employing its own unique methods and principles. For instance, understanding simple chemical elements assist in developing more complex and stable chemical compounds by relating the simple elements. Thus, learning in human is cumulative such that it takes advantage of the known knowledge to expand to the unknown. Both synthetic and human cognitive systems changes over time and thus, learning in the future should and can take benefit from structure which have been obtained from previous experience (Langley, 2016).

This discussion can be summarized by use of cognitive school perspective which claims that learning refers to an active process that entails the reorganization and acquisition of the cognitive structures via which, humans store and process information. In this process, a learner is perceived as an active partaker in the knowledge integration and acquisition process. This theory according to Yilmaz (2011) describes acquisition of knowledge as a mental activity that entails internal structuring and coding by the learner, and proposes that learning takes place best under situations which are affiliated with human cognitive design. Thus, more learning is what assists in developing human cognition and it highly determines the level to which individual cognition can grow (Yilmaz, 2011).

Relation of Motivation, Emotion and Cognition in Learning

The study of leaning, motivation and emotion is deeply entwined. According to Olsson (2003), it is considerably hard to exclusively consider one without the other. Emotion, and the carefully affiliated concept of motivation, provides reason, direction and content to the process of learning. They offer some of the primary components on which depend on learning. According to Meyer and Turner (2006), learning could not be there without motivation and emotion. States of emotion are integral sections of the adaptive learning process that involves attaching value to events and subjects, according to a set of needs. Motivation and emotion associate to internal states which are pertinent in the goals management. For instance, motivational has been described as coordinating and modulating influences on the composition, vigor and direction of behavior. Emotion in line with this perceptive is perceived as an evaluating reaction of an event as significant to a goal; it is optimistic when the goal is unconventional, and negative when the goal is obstructed. It has therefore been argued that the chief emotions function in a learning view is to decouple the person from the need to react unconditionally. Emotion in addition embodies a vital section of the learning process by inducing relations, which are created between stimuli, their behavioral and combinations responses.

The influence of emotion in learning can also be described by the flow theory. According to the flow theory, optimal experiences of learning are intrinsically motivated and associated to improved cognitive processing and positive emotions. According to Meyer and Turner (2006), when people are experiencing flow based on the flow theory, they demonstrate clear goals and work toward attaining them. They also show a balance between the activity challenges and their aptitude to meet them. This demonstrated motivational value of ideal challenge from the literature of risk taking. Moreover, the skill and challenge levels appeared to be voluntarily accessible via both student classroom and self-report observation. Cognition on the other hand seems to be the product of learning enhanced through positive emotions and motivation. Advancing in individual knowledge assist in further development of their cognitive structure. Thus, cognition in learning seems to be a product of learning promoted through motivation and creating of positive emotions in learning.

Can Amanda Todd’s Case Be considered as Legally Prosecutable Under “Conspiracy to Commit Harm, or Defame”

Amanda Todd and anonymous is a unique case with unique aspects to be considered before deciding whether the offender can be legally prosecuted. Cyber bullying can be conspired and may also happen without any conspiracy where the offender does not even know that whatever he or she is doing is causing harm to another person. According to the law, conspiracy happens when two or more individuals agree to commit crime and execute the crime. This is an immature crime since it does not demand that the illegal act to be done in the actual sense. First conspiracy needs a demonstration that two or more individuals were in any form of agreement; oral or formal, to commit an offense.  Any kind of common understanding to conduct an offence is considered in this case. In addition, all conspirators need to have unique intent to commit the conspiracy objective. This implies that a person who is fully unaware that she is taking part in a crime cannot be accused of conspiracy (Justia, 2018).

Conspiracy offenses are hard to argue in the court. One of the main reasons is that conspiracy happen in secret. It is mostly a secret plan between two or more persons to commit crime. This becomes even harder when handling online crimes since it is not clear whether the offender even intended to commit crime or they were only having fun. An act started by one person can be amplified by another person just for fun. In Todd case, it is not clear whether the act was done by one person or a group of people. Todd only reveled that she sent her picture to one person and ever since, that picture has been sent to her family, friends and school mates. The anonymous followed her even in new schools that she transferred to as an effort to evade prejudice (Dean, 2012). The most challenging part is that, the offense cannot be considered as conspiracy if it was conducted by one person, since there can never be an agreement without two or more people. Moreover, the main intention may not be committing crime. The act could have been done by some teenagers whose main intention was to have fun, see Todd’s reaction. They may not have anticipated pushing her into depression or suicide. They may have been unaware of the harm they were causing to her. Moreover, the matter was aggravated by the reaction of those who received the picture. This may make it hard to prosecute the offender based on conspiracy. Nevertheless, in case where the anonymous is a an adult, then the intention to do harm is clear since an adult understand that circulating half-naked picture of a minor to her peer s or associates can cause harm. Taking advantage of Todd’s trust and lack of knowledge to defame her is a crime (Justia, 2018).

The aspect of defamation is considerably clear in this case. The anonymous individual asked Todd for her half naked picture with intention of sending it to her friends, family and peers. The picture would definitely make everyone who sees it to have a different perception of Todd than they had before. They would question Todd’s intention of having such a picture and why the source had it. This would change their perception on Amanda Todd character and moral values. Based on Amanda’s reaction, the anonymous clearly managed to defame Amanda and trouble her, causing emotional, psychological, social and physical harm to Amanda. This clearly shows that there was intention to cause harm or to defame Amanda in school, among family members and her friends. Although it is not clear on whether the act of done by a group or an individual, it is clear that whoever did it intended to cause harm. The anonymous is therefore prosecutable based on defaming Amanda Todd pushing her to a point of committing crime (Packard,2013).

Sources of Law in the United States

The four sources of law in the United States include administrative regulations, constitutions, courts opinions and statutes. Statutes refers to laws that legislative branch pass. Statutes passed by the congress are applied countrywide while those passed by state legislature are only applied within their respective states. Administrative regulations refer to laws which are documented by the executive branch agencies. Court opinions are laws containing opinions and decisions offered by courts in different legal cases after law interpretation (Mayer et al., 2012). These opinions assist in shaping the law. The most supreme source of law in the United States is the constitution laws. Constitutionrefers to the laws which establish the government systems. they act as the foundation of other laws in the country, giving the country judicial, executive and legislative framework. Constitution laws set forth the limits of things governments can and cannot do. The constitution in any state overrules any law which contradicts it. Thus all other sources of law must consider it while drafting their laws to ensure that no law violates it (Mayer et al., 2012).

Legal process refers to mandate, warrant, writ or any other process coming from the court of justice. This process is normally conducted based on the procedure where the law is strictly adhered to. The legal process is conducted as per the judiciary administrative laws, and highly guided by the constitution and other laws of the country. The legal process ensures that both the offender and the complainant get chances to argue their case, to present evidence and witness. The cases are basically judged based on these aspects. The process also ensures that only those with sound mind pass through the process, and that each offender is represented by an attorney. This ensures that justice is served. I therefore agree that legal process is a means of obtaining what is just and ethical as per the laws of the country.

Amanda Todd and Anonymous Case Study Questions And Sample Answers

In your view, should Amanda’s harasser be held accountable for the suicide of Amanda Todd? Do you see this as a case of corruption of a minor, even though the offense took place entirely online?

It is clear based on the Amanda Todd testimony that she was harassed by the anonymous people to a point that she could not bear it. The bully kept on following Amanda Todd from one school to another such that there was nowhere for her to hide (Dean, 2012). This must have disturbed the young girl a great deal. The picture provoked negative reaction from people around her such that she felt that the entire world knew about the photo and they hated her for it. This was considerably hard for a teenage girl who in the early stage of knowing the world and what it contains. I therefore believe that the harasser was the main cause of Amanda Todd suicide. Based on her tape, this could not have happened if the confidential photo remained confidential to the receiver. Using the photo to harass and ridicule her wherever she went distressed her and initiated hostility among other social media users and her peers in school. The act was also intentional and hence the harasser is totally responsible for Todd Suicide and hence he should be held accountable of Amanda Todd suicide.

Corruption of a minor refers to any act that facilitates or promotes the corruption or prostitution of underage person to satisfy his or her lust. Based on the investigation, the harasser was 35 years old. This means that the harasser who is an adult, used internet to influence a minor to send him her half naked picture. To do this, the harasser must have tried to provoke her sexual desire and to build false trust through internet media. The initial intentions of asking for underage half naked picture was definitely for self-satisfaction.He then used this photo to promote child pornography and to harass Todd. Basically the harassment was sexually based and hence, I can consider this as a case of corruption of a minor. This is irrespective of whether the act happened online and not physically since the intention was to corrupt underage person without caring of the consequences through cyber bullying.

Do you believe the hacker group “Anonymous” should be protected, or held legally prosecutable for vigilantism and defamation?

I believe that the hacker group needsto be legally prosecuted for vigilantism and defamation. The group posted a half-naked picture of a minor to her peer especially in school groups. The hacker group was literally monitoring Todd, since it managed to post these photos to students of every school Todd transferred to in search of peace and hiding from shame and prejudice. This was a real act of vigilantism and I strongly feel that some members of the group knew Todd personally to be able to manage this. This following around defaming her among her schoolmates and teachers is the main reason Todd committed suicide. Probably, if the posting happened once, Todd could have tried to forget it and move on after the first transfer. However, they kept on harassing her, following her around. This made her feel unsafe, and monitored, and hence losing faith in finding peace ever in life. Their act made her believe that they will never stop. Having no way to identify them or to fight them, Todd was short of options. It is therefore important to prosecute the group for vigilantism and defamation. The group should not be protected for whatever reason. Use of children half naked picture promoted children pornography. Moreover, the case demonstrates high aspects of cyber bullying. Todd did not share her photo in social media, she had sent it privately to the harasser who decided to misuse the trust Todd had for him. Thus, it cannot be argued that the photo privacy was not guaranteed. Todd had trusted that the receiver will maintain the confidence assured, but decided to make fun of the situation. Thus, they should not be protected.

Consult Cyberbullying Research Summary: Cyberbullying and Suicide, then write your own original policy for governing this problem as a suggestion for school policies and how this issue should be both counseled and prevented.

Cyber bullying is a common problem among young people and it has been cited to be a major course of teen suicide or attempted suicide. To handle the situation, schools should educate students on what cyber bullying is, possible effect of cyber bullying on the victim and the perpetrator and how they should try to avoid it. Close supervision should be ensured while internet facilities are being used in school. School based social groups should be prohibited. Schools should only promote academic discussion forums that promote academic performance and not social groups which are likely to initiate cyber bullying. Students should be encouraged to report cases of cyber bullying to their parents, teachers or school psychologist based on who the child is comfortable with. Peers should also be encouraged to assist their shy friends to report cyber bullying. The school should keep records of children experiencing other mental or emotional disorders, among other children that are at high risk of committing suicide if bullied. Special monitoring should be done on this group of students to ensure that none of them is pushed to a level of committing suicide. Parents should be requested to regulate the use of internet among their children, especially by installing parental regulating program to limit sited the children access and their online social interaction (Hinduja& Patchin, 2010).

Best Criterion for Formalizing Ethical Judgments – Deontological or Consequentialist Ethics?

Which do you believe is the best criterion for formalizing ethical judgments: deontological or consequentialist ethics?

Consequentialism refers to an ethical theory which judges if something is right or wrong based on its consequences. Based on this theory, an act is regarded to be right if it brings more joy and happiness to many and wrong if it brings pain. This is irrespective of whether the act is regarded as right or wrong in our moral perspective. Deontology on the other hand centers on the wrongness or rightness of the action despite of the outcome. Ethical judgment in my belief should be based on the outcome. An act that results to mass suffering should not be regarded to be ethical. I therefore believe that consequentialism should be the best criterion to be used in formalizing ethical judgment. This will ensure that all ethical decisions made are of great benefit to the majority and they do not cause pain.

Do you believe the two approaches can inform one another and how?

In my opinion I believe the two theories do inform each other to some extent. Although the two theories seems to be highly based on anticipated results or he act nature, what makes an action wrong or right might not be definable without regarding its connection with results in one form or another. Orientations of deontology rarely disregard outcomes totally. For instance, if two acts which are equally moral contain different results, even a deontologist might take the consideration of the results. Correspondingly, consequentialism might also take account of deontological aspects. In integrating long-term with short-term considerations, it might be sensible to use general procedures for action and vindicate them with consequentialism rationalization. Moreover, if results are equivalent, the act nature might be considered. This implies that the two theories are not mutually exclusive since they can inform each other to some extent or in particular cases (Tanner, Medin &, Iliev, 2007).

Interacting With African Americans – Non Verbal Communication Training Guide

Introduction

To be able to effectively interact with African-American, you will need to understand their form of communication to ensure no misunderstanding crops up. This is a guide to direct you on how to communicate nonverbally with African Americans to ensure that you fit well in the community.

Kinesics

African Americans are likely to have quite prolonged and direct eye contact when speaking, but less when listening. The speaker is more likely to speak directly facing the audience direct in the eyes. This is normally accompanied by frequent and in some cases large gestures. The communication expressiveness is what is valued. When the gestures augment expressiveness, they are perceived as enhancing communication (Sage Pub, n.d.).

Proxemics

Research on the space use among African Americans produces mixed results. Some studies demonstrate that, in pair’s race-match, African American children will stand closer to one another in conversation compared to white children. Different studies have demonstrated that Black American adults use a greater public distance from one another. Thus one will need to maintain considerable distance when dealing with children and a considerable distance, while handling adults (Elliott, 1999).

Haptics

African Americans tend to use physical touch more than European American especially among friends. They are likely to hug when comforting their friends. Handshake is usually used among friends and is more likely to be followed by a friendly hug. They also have a tendency of touching children more frequently and for a longer duration than European Americans. However, African Americans hate being touched on the head, and they are also offended by refusal to be touched for they think that one is racist, especially if the other party is not African American (Elliott, 1999).

Paralinguistics

African American English has a wide range of pitch and volume in its acceptable form. The voice can vary from high pitched and very loud to deep sound to very quiet, and they may all be regarded as suitable based on the context. Speaking situation compatibility and expressiveness are what determine if the tone and pitch are suitable. Africa Americans do not have a fixed, considerably narrow range like other cultures do (Elliott, 1999).

Chronemics

African Americans are more relaxed about time. They consider right time to be when they get there. Others anger for being late is frequently welcomed with a puzzlement with a common response of “I am here now, we can get started”.  Thus, one should not be very strict about time when dealing with them. African Americans can speak in turns much comfortably where turns are taken from one speaker to another (Elliott, 1999). In this case status, urgency, and the aptitude to command others attention regulates the speaking order. The right to get on speaking is offered by others based on how well the idea of speaker is being accepted. Others responses are normally made after the speaker has completed giving his or her points (Sage Pub, n.d.). This is never considered as interruption. Taking turn in dyads is as well controlled by non-verbal signals that include shifts of postural and hand gestures that reflect the conversational partners, Intensity lessening, tempo slowing and intonation drop. The gaze direction change employed by dominant culture is normally not employed by African American. In addition, pause time should be brief; otherwise people in the group might speak or interrupt on the end of your sentences (Elliott, 1999).

Physical Appearance/ Attire

Smartness is highly regarded by African American. They are highly probable to be smart, especially in an official meeting and expect others to be smart too. Personal attractiveness is also given a high priority and hence, they may go an extra mine to look more attractive. Dressing is also highly used to signify status and hence, it communicates a lot on how one should be addressed or treated Among African Americans (Tidwell, n.d).

Oculesics

Eye contact is regarded positively by African American, especially while dealing with strangers. Eye contact is highly preferred by speaker, especially while addressing the listener at a close range. However, African Americans are likely not to use eye contact while listening and apply it when listening. Prolonged gaze can be interpreted as a sign of sexual interest (Elliott, 1999).

Olfatics

Body natural smell is regarded by African American to be offensive and just like other Americans.They tend to use perfumes to improve their smell (Tidwell, n.d).

Leonardo da Vinci – Renaissance Artist That Inspired Future Artists and Thinkers

Renaissance refers to the era that immediately followed the middle ages. This period saw a high interest revival in the classical values and learning of ancient Rome and Greece. The era was characterized by great artists with unique and exceptional abilities. They included Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Michalangelo among others. Among them, Leonardo da Vinci made the greatest contribution in influencing the future thinkers and artists. Leonardo was an important Renaissance man due to the breadth of his talent, interest and intellect as well as his expression of classical and humanist values. His best known works include The Last Supper fresco, and Mona Lisa, which demonstrated unmatched ability to depict shadow and light and the physical association between objects, animals, and figures-humans alike and the surrounding landscape. The Mona Lisa portraits has impacted modern art by the manner Leonardo placed her body in the art. The hands, arms, and famous smile composition is currently commonly applied in painting.  The vanishing point techniques he employed in the last supper fresco is greatly used in the modern art (Lewis, 2017).

Other artists of this era did exceptionally well, though they did not manage to get much influence, especially in creating association between objects, animals and humans. For instance, Michaelangelo’s work such as the Pieta and Statue of David demonstrated perfection as well as natural human looks which is also important in today’s art. Raphael works such as the School of Athens used perspective and foreshortening techniques which are commonly used in panting today. The brightness used in the Sistine Madonna which was enhanced by oil painting is also being adapted to day. Although they all contribute to today’s art work in one way or another, Leonardo techniques seems to be more utilized and recognizable in today’s artwork compared to other Michaelangelo and Raphael especially in compositions. Thus, he can be said to have a greater influence in modern artists work compared to others (Solia, 2015).