Network Administrator Best Practices and Standards By ISO

According to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), there five best practices and standards in the area of network administrator: fault management, configuration management, performance management, security management and accounting management.

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Fault management

            The objectives fault management is to detect and automatically fix network problems and to extend notify users of problem in order to maintain the network functioning effectively. This is the most implemented of the ISO network management elements since the fault causes network degradation (Cisco, 2007). Under fault management, the following standard management platforms are effected: network discovery, topology mapping of network elements, even handler, performance data collector and grapher, and management data browsers.

Configuration management

            The purpose of configuration management is to monitor system and network configuration so that software and hardware elements can be tracked and managed effectively. As a network administrator, it is important to accurately identify the location of the network device. The information must provide explicit description of how the resource are dispatched when the problem occurs (Cisco, 2007). As part of the configuration standards, each network devices must name beginning with the device name to the individual interface. The naming process should follow a well-defined standardized naming convention. This provide accurate information especially when troubleshooting network problems.

Performance management

            The performance management is normally controlled by Service Level Agreement (SLA) which is a written contract between the service provider and customers. The performance standard is that the network administrator must ensure that the metric values are measurable, meaningful and realistic to all parties (Cisco, 2007). The performance level keep on changing based on network device and traffic. As a network administrator, it is important to select network devices that support higher-layer protocol such as Apple Talk, Remote Source Route Bridging (RSRB) and Data Link Switching Workgroup (DLSW)

Security management

            Control access to network resource is paramount since breaches on the network can lead to sabotage. Therefore, as a network administrator, it is important to implement security policies and procedures that are sound. This can be achieved by setting a minimum configuration standards for all switches and routers (Cisco, 2007). These include the use of authentication, authorization and accounting in order to protect the network from unauthorized persons

Accounting management

            The purpose of accounting management is to determine network utilization parameters in order to regulate group of users or individuals appropriately. As a network administrator it is my responsibility to ensure that network resources are effectively utilized. Network resource utilization can be achieved through the use of Cisco IP and Cisco NetFlow accounting features (Cisco, 2007). It is also important to ensure that billing system and usage-based accounting methods are included in the service level agreement.

Security and Privacy of the Software and Hardware Solution for Verbania

Collaborate and discuss with the team’s Security Specialist about the security and privacy of the software and hardware solution for Verbania. Provide best security practices and guidelines to implement and follow, as well as the creation of formal security policies and a security plan. Include the following policies in your IT security policy:

  • Disaster recovery
  • Password creation and protection
  • Remote access
  • Routers and switches security
  • Wireless communication
  • Server security
  • Acceptable encryption
  • E-mail

Document the team’s security plan, security policy and security solution.

Within the template, prepare 5-7 pages of content addressing the team’s System Design. Insert content into the template document under Section Three.

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Sample Security and Privacy of the Software and Hardware Solution for Verbania

Software and hardware security of the computer system has presented a bigger challenge on the current pattern of technology. The software and hardware used in the present computer systems have been designed to handle important information from clients with complete transparency to the user. Normally, the storage, transmission and the recipient or who access the data is beyond the control of the user (Chess, & Arkin, 2011). Typically, hardware security is perceived as most basic feature since it is a physical device that host and secure networking system. While seeking for solutions to the security and privacy issues affecting hardware, the engineers and designer need to ask themselves how the social networking should be structured in order to provide secure services. The major security concerns associated with hardware are location of the servers and handling of data. These challenges are addressed using security policies which were designed to bring uniformity and standard throughout the world.

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            Software security solution focus on design and development of software to function properly and correctly even under attack (Dent, et al., 2015). Some of the security and privacy of the software solutions that are handled using security policies include access control, confidentiality, authentication, integrity and non-repudiation. In order to address the challenges of hardware and software security issues, Verbania should adopt IT security governance from ISO 38500.

Disaster recovery

            The designers of the social networking should ensure that backup and database recovery process meets the security requirements. Disaster recovery is necessitated by a phenomenon that leads to destruction of networking components. Natural disasters that can destroy networking components include storms, earthquakes, floods and landslide. The backup and recovery processes must comply with legal, regulatory, legislative and policy obligations (OCIO, 2016). The security policies that must be considered in disaster recovery include access controls, environmental and physical security, use of digital signature and encryptions. The disaster recovery plan ensures that network continues to function properly even in the event of interruption or IT emergency. This allows for the restoration of the vital services and resource in a reasonable time.

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            The backups and recovery of the users as well as essential data system must be identified and protected in offsite location. The technical and physical measures must be considered in order to enhance recovery after the failure, compromised or disruption of networking components. The security measures include configurations, firmware installation, software and operating systems.

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Password security policy

            The main objectives of password policy is to establish a standardize methods of setting up and managing strong passwords by network administrators and network users. Passwords are important aspects of information security especially in the social networking. This is the first line of protection for the user accounts (Chess, & Arkin, 2011). The social networking system should be designed and developed to encourage the users to set up a strong password that composed of alphabets, numerical and symbols in order to ensure that social networking applications are not compromised. It is the responsibility of the social networking users to create strong passwords while opening their accounts.

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            The password security policy applies to all Verbania employees which include the end users and system administrators. Also, agents, vendors and business partners are required to create their own personalized passwords. Some of the baseline password policy include requiring all the users to have authentication and identification such as one-time passwords or pass-phrase to permit access to the services (OCIO, 2016). The passwords must be confidential and the users cannot reveal to anyone except under specific circumstance outline in social networking IT security policy. It is the responsibility of the account holders and social networking user to be liable to all the actions such as use of their password to communicate and carry out transaction. The critical system password must be changed immediately whenever the network administrator leaves Verbania.

Email security policy

            The objectives of email security policy is to define an acceptable use of email infrastructure and protect the security of information exchange over the email. The email security policy will be applied in two aspects: the employees of Verbania and those having social media accounts with Verbania. The policy should specifically accept the email usage on specific conditions (Chess, & Arkin, 2011). These include access to the email service only based on business requirements. Also, network administrators who are responsible for managing email servers must adhere to password policy.  User receiving spam emails via the Verbania social networking should be encouraged to report or forward such emails to the Information Security department through help desk. The creation of user account must follow a formal approval process. Lastly, anonymous and spoofing should be strictly forbidden.

            The security controls put in place to ensure protection of the information and data transmitted via the email include blocking of any suspicious emails, all email servers must have security appliance installed such as AV Scanners and spam filters, private and public key infrastructure must use encrypting emails, only approved mail infrastructure shall be permitted to transit through the network by using unauthorized mail relays for explicit protection.

Access control policy

            The main objectives of access control policy is to implement control measures that ensures only authorized persons access the information. The access control policy ensures that the network operates under acceptable level of protection and meet the security requirements. The access control policy restrict the individual accessing hardware, software and infrastructure (Dent, et al., 2015). These include making sure that all systems have a user access lifecycle, the access of information by the user be restricted to base on security requirements and business requirements. Also, all the operating systems and application within the network are access only through login with user ID and password. In addition, all the devices and equipment used in the network must be authorized, registered and identified.

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            In the case of end-user, access control policy requires the end users to have unique ID that identifies them. The network system must be configured to disable or remove all user accounts after a specified period of inactivity. The network system must be designed to approve end-user account before created and enabled.

Cryptographic usage policy           

The main objectives of cryptographic usage policy is to protect integrity, authenticity and confidentiality of the information transmitted and stored. Normally, cryptographic policy is used when protecting information considered as sensitive. The security measures of encryption control include ensuring that data transferred via WAN between stakeholder and Verbania through the internet must be protected using appropriate encryption (Chess, & Arkin, 2011). All the emails that contain sensitive and confidential information must be encrypted. All the business data that contain vital information about the business operations must be stored encrypted. Lastly, the network administrators must determine a standardize encryption methodology that works well with all the users.

Humor and Persuasion

The effect of persuasive communication is dependent on the message, author characteristics and the audience. Researches about persuasion have explored on the effects of the various aspects of communication on audience and the persuasion outcomes (O’Keefe, 2009). The author has identified aspects such as author characteristics and the message communication strategies as some of the factors that influence the effectiveness of persuasion. The use of humor in persuasion is widely used in advertising and lesson plans owing to its influence on the effectiveness in persuasion (Cline & Kellaris, 1999). Humor has had the most conceivable impact in advertising. Some researchers have found the use of humor to have produced positive impact, while others have found it to have negative impact, while some have pointed that it produces no impact at all.

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How Humor Can Support the Effectiveness of Persuasion

            The use of humor has been shown to enhance the effectiveness of persuasion through creation of a positive effect (Lyttle, 2001, p. 207). According to (Martin, 2010, p. 137) persuasion can be attained through two routes as outlined in the Elaboration Likelihood Model. According to the author, other than the message, persuasion can be influenced by other factors such as intelligence, self-esteem, motivation, attention, distraction and involvement. When a listener is exposed to a message, the message can take the central or peripheral routes. The central route involves the elaboration of message by the listener, where the message is found to be relevant by the listener owing to pre-existing ideas or beliefs. However, the peripheral route is based on responses that occur because of heuristic factors such as moods, attributes of the source of message or emotions.

            According to (Martin, 2010, p. 137), positive persuasion effects of humor have been found to result from peripheral rather than the central route processing of message. Humor has the potential to influence emotional aspects of the listener such as the mood, comprehension of message and cognition. Humor that creates positive moods increases the effectiveness of persuasion, while humor that evokes bad moods are more likely to reduce the success of persuasion. It is due to this influence of humor on the listener emotional variables that makes the use of humor increase the effectiveness of persuasion.

            Humor also increases the effectiveness of persuasion among the audience who are motivated less to think about certain issues in the advertisement. According to (Gulas & Weinberger, 2006, p. 115; Martin, 2010, p. 137) humor has been found to increase the effectiveness of persuasion among the more-masculine than the less masculine audience. Martin, 2010, p. 138) points that the less masculine people are more averse to the feelings of distress and would tend to engage in focus on positive, denial and destruction. According to the author, the use of humorous message increases the effectiveness of persuasion among such people especially when the advertisement involves threatening topics such as an advertisement for sunscreen for prevention of skin cancer and condoms as a means of prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.

            The other way in which humor can enhance the effectiveness is through its ability to create positive affect (Lyttle, 2001, p. 207). According to (Cobley, 2013, p. 281) apart from the listener cognitive responses, listeners also react affectively to persuasion information. According to affective theory of persuasion, stylistic/ ancillary materials and/or verbal content can arouse affective responses. Affect encompass both the moods and emotions. According to the author, moods can be defined as the affective state with no specific object. They are lasting, backgrounded and diffuse, while emotions are foregrounded, intense and fleeting. Emotions and moods are influenced by cognitive responses to environmental situations, psychological arousals, motor expressions and motivations. Humor that arouses emotions and moods, leads to motivation of the audience, culminating to increase the effectiveness of advertisement.

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            The use of humor in persuasion has been found to be effective by increasing the liking of the source. The choice of a shared humor by the source can be a reflection of a shared sense of humor which can show shared values. This is particularly true of the humor is not disparaging but illustrates the beliefs of the source as being same as that of the listener. According to (Lyttle, 2001) moods aroused during persuasion are linked to the source. Humor that evokes excitement during persuasion can create a feeling of happiness and the desire to be associated with the source or product. For example, the use of exiting comments can lead to gaining more attention from listeners during advertisement and possible purchase of a product or service.

            Persuasion has been defined as the process of communication whose goals are to shape, reinforce and/or alter the audience responses (Cobley, 2013, p. 273). The effectiveness of persuasion, whose central purpose is to alter the audience response, can be effective if humor is employed in the persuasion process. According to (Lyttle, 2001) the use of humor during the persuasion process is often designed to block system central processing, thus effectively altering the audience responses, making the persuasion process effective. (Gulas & Weinberger, 2006, p. 114) points that humor influences persuasion in two measures, the intent to use the product and the perceived product quality. Moreover, the use of humor can help in enhancing the trust of the source. The sources which speak against their self-interest are more likely to attract increased credibility from the audiences, thus enhancing the effectiveness of the persuasion process.

Risks of Using Humor in Persuasion

            Although humor can increase the effectiveness of persuasion by increasing the liking of source, creation of positive affect and increasing liking of source, it poses some risks. According to (McDonough & Egolf, 2015, p. 827-28) the use of humor has inherent risks such as the likelihood of creating attention rather than credibility/persuasion. In addition the use of humor may not be appropriate for some categories of products/services and maybe unpleasant if disparaging comments are used, causing negative effects.

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            The line of distinction between humor or what is funny and an offensive ad is small to determine. According to (McDonough & Egolf, 2015) though humor can enhance effectiveness to the advantage of the advertiser, it could create serious negative consequences to the advertiser if the humor in the ad is perceived as offensive. For example, a disparaging remark towards a marginalized group may be humorous to some section of audience but may be offensive to the group. This can cause the business to suffer and a change in the general public perception towards the advertiser.

The main purpose of using humor is to create message credibility and persuade listeners into purchasing an item or services. However, there is an inherent risk of too much humor creating increased attention to the humor itself than the message credibility. This is risky as it inhibits the central purpose of humor as a strategy of persuasion. For example, the use of a comedian in an advert can lead to the audience getting engrossed on the comedian antics forgetting the product or service attributes as advertised. Moreover, sometimes the audience may not understand the joke. According to (McDonough & Egolf, 2015) research has shown that failed humor is less effective as a more serious approach.

Importance of Ethical Behavior and its Significance in Persuasion

Ethical behavior is perceived as moral when applied to persuade an individual to undertake or agree to support a noble idea. It is important to understand that persuasion does not necessary translate to ethical situation, some persuasion may be unethical. In simple terms, ethical behavior is described as a phenomenon where an individual in the society abide by unwritten rules that conforms to the law of land (McMillan, & Sheehan, 2010). There are some incidence where some individuals in the public use the perception of ethical behavior to influence a segment of the population to act contrary to the set rules in the society. This paper addressed the importance of ethical behavior and its significance in persuasion.

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            The importance of ethical behavior is not limited to persuasion it serves to boost morality in the society. This include creating a favorable for the different parties to engage each other in a meaningful manner. The importance of ethical behavior in a persuasive process can be traced to ancient periods (Den Hartog, & De Hoogh, 2009). Ethics is defined as behavior that differentiates human beings from other animals in lower forms of life. These include the ability to utilize symbols, reason and create an environment that leads to appreciative understand between two parties. The ethical behavior serves as benchmark where an individual can be judged based on ethics of persuasion.

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            It is the moral standard that put people in the society checks and balances to coexist with each. Studies have indicated that human being cannot exists by absolutism theory, as such certain moral standard that benchmark human behavior while engaging with other in the society must exists. These moral standard may be in the form norms and values which various from one religion and culture to another (Coldwell, et al., 2008). It is this moral standards that govern how the business practices is conducted worldwide. An example of ethical standard is the Foreign Corrupt Practices Acts (FCPA), which prohibits business enterprises from taking in practices that are perceived or believed to disenfranchise a section of the society. This means the individuals elected or appointed to represent business communities and the leaders to the society must operate within acceptable ethical behavior in the persuasion process.

            Ethical behavior also play important role in organization culture since a positive culture in the organization can easily be transited from existing employees to newly recruited employees. Studies have indicated that the best method of assimilating newly recruited employees into the organization culture is by given them the opportunity to experience first-hand on how the employees conduct themselves. In addition, many business firms have relied on good organization culture to build public trust and expand their customer base. For example, Toyota Motors is one example of the business firms that have thrived by excellent organization culture.

            Negative organizational culture affects the image of the company and it is likely to negative impact business operations. If the damage is not managed on time, it may affects the returns and shares earned by the stakeholders. In a nutshell, the consideration of ethical behavior and its importance in persuasion is to build and maintain good relationship between the communities in which the company operates, the customers the company servers and the workforce of the company (Den Hartog, & De Hoogh, 2009). Further analysis indicated that it very challenging to maintain a good reputation in a dynamic business environment and it requires a lot efforts to persuade a lost consumers to accept the good and service of the company after making mistake. This outline the importance of ethical behavior in the persuasion process.

            There are a lot of factors that needs to be considered in the persuasion process. An individual participating in persuasion process needs to approach the whole issues with respect to other partners. It is paramount to treat other people as capable of making informed decisions, worthy, rational and autonomous (McMillan, & Sheehan, 2010). Prior to persuasion process, the public should be made aware of the expectation and the likely outcome of the process. Therefore, the two parties should approach the persuasion process with open-minded and be prepared to inspire and make the recipient able to comprehensively process the information given and come up with informed decision.

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            It is the ethical behavior that enables the parties to engage in a respectful, properly and honesty. This is because persuasion process serves as communication tool that requires the input of ethical morality make the process justly and universal acceptable. Several theories have been put forward to explain the connectedness between ethical behavior and persuasion process. Some of these theories includes relativism and deontological theory. 

            According to relativism theory, there is no single outstanding right moral value and everything is biased. The argument of this theory is that each every individual establishes own principles based on their personal judgment about what is important (McMillan, & Sheehan, 2010). As a result, an individual is forced to weight the negative and positive impacts of the principles but put their own interest forward. Nonetheless, the established principles tend to lean towards the previously made decisions. The relativism theory allows for multiculturalism and every individual to carry own moral beliefs.

            On the other hand, deontological theory states that there are behaviors that agrees on whether an action taken was right or not. This theory outlines the measures that are used to measure the ethical sense of the behavior. For example, a drug driver can be charged in the court of law for negligence in the responsibility to ‘above all do no harm’ (Coldwell, et al., 2008). This responsibility is drawn from various sources which include language, metaphysics, culture, religion, psychology and biology. These responsibilities can be prima facie, absolute or conditions based on the perspective in which deontological theory is analyzed.            

Unlike the relativism theory which considers the outcome of every action taken, deontological theory does not focus on the outcome of determining whether the ethical behavior is right or not. For instance, the theory is concern whether the drunk driver manages to arrive home safely, but it focuses on the wrong action taken by the driver to drive the vehicle under influence of alcohol. Therefore, the action of an individual is judged based on the right and wrong.  In conclusion, ethical behavior is assessed based on the positive and negative impacts. The outcome of the persuasive process depends on the constructive and deconstructive language utilized in the persuasion process.

Quality of Service in Network and Its Importance

Quality of Service is described as a capability of the network to provide better service to select network traffic over various technologies, which include IP-routed netwroks, SONET, 802.1 networks, Ethernet, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) and Frame Relay or all of these underlying technologies (Fitzgerald, & Dennis, 2012). The primary function of the Quality of Service include prioritization of the bandwidth as well as controlling latency and jitter which is a requirement by some real-time and interactive traffic, thus improving loss characteristics. Studies have indicated that Quality of Service technologies provides fundamental foundation to be used by business application in service provider networks, WAN and campus,

The importance of configuring Quality of Service in network

  • ­control over resources: Configuration of Quality of Service enables the network administrators to have control over resources such as wide-area facilities, equipment and bandwidth (Fitzgerald, & Dennis, 2012). The network administrators can prioritize database access based on their importance as well as limiting the bandwidth consumed over a backbone link.
  • More effective use of network resources: Quality of service performs network analysis management and shows unimportant application consuming traffic of the network and the network administrator can restrict the access of these application hence enhancing effectiveness of the network resources.
  • Tailored service: The visibility and control provided by Quality of Service allows the network administrators to tailor the service differentiation to their customers’ hence increasing efficiency.
  • Foundation for a fully integrated network in the future: Configuring Quality of Service technologies in the network is the first step towards the fully integrated multimedia network needed in the near future.

Quality of Service can be utilized to manage the congestion in the network. QoS handles an overflow of arriving traffic by using queuing algorithm tools such as first-in, first-out (FIFO), priority queuing (PQ), Custom queuing (CQ) and Weighted fair queuing (WFQ).

Therapy for Pediatric Clients With Mood Disorders – Case Study of 13-year-old Kara

Case Study of 13-year-old Kara

Mood disorders can impact every facet of a child’s life, making the most basic activities difficult for clients and their families. This was the case for 13-year-old Kara, who was struggling at home and at school. For more than 8 years, Kara suffered from temper tantrums, impulsiveness, inappropriate behavior, difficulty in judgment, and sleep issues. As a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner working with pediatric clients, you must be able to assess whether these symptoms are caused by psychological, social, or underlying growth and development issues. You must then be able recommend appropriate therapies.

Therapy for Pediatric Clients With Mood Disorders – Case Study Of Kara

This paper focusses on identifying the psychological, social and developmental issues affecting young children. The paper is based on a case study of a 13-year-old child by the name Kara. According to the case, Kara has been suffering from impulsiveness, temper tantrums, inappropriate behavior, sleep issues and difficulties in making a proper judgment. Also, the case reveals that her behaviors resulted to problems both at home and in school. This paper will assess  whether the child’s problems are caused by social, psychological development and growth issues in the teenager.

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Psychosocial development issues in Kara

The social and psychological development of Kara is formed by the way she interacted with her social influences, maturity levels especially as she entered teenage hood and her representation of the social world as being able to stand for herself.  When this interaction happens, there would definitely be a lot of influence in the significant relationships, personality growth, social understanding and the way that they are able to become emotionally competent socially and psychologically as they enter teenage-hood (Dever, 2016). With regard to the above case,  it will be important to understand the development elements of Kara.

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First is the social context in which the teenager has grown up in; this will especially look at the relationships that were able to nurture a sense of feeling secure within a group and those that made her feel uncomfortable. It also looks that the social relationships that provided her with guidance and knowledge in different perspective (S.S.Gau, et al., 2007).  It is also important to look at the biological maturation of the child, this is because the behavior of children will always change as they grow from their childhood to teenage hood. It is possible that as Kara entered into teenage hood she began to be very defensive in almost everything. She became emotional even over little things or options about them.  Mostly this has to do with their biological changes or maturation. These differences will always support the development of the emotional and social competencies that seem to underlie temperamental individuality among teenagers.  Also, the development of the child and how she is represented in the society will come into play when she is relating to people of communicating an issue to her fellow teenagers (Liu, et al., 2013).  According to Liu, et al., (2013), the social and psychological development of a teenager is usually well understood as being a continuous interaction between the biological maturation, social and other representation aspects with regard to psychological development.

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Another reason for the teenager’s behavior may have to do with her relationship with her peers or her close family members. In the manner, the interaction will have been observed in the earliest relationship development between the child and her parents or her teenage friends. Usually, all children that are exposed to a normal circumstance will tend to develop a strong emotional attachment to people who care for them. According to various psychologists, the development that comes with this attachment is usually natural biologically like the way they first learned to walk. Usually this is not a byproduct of the way that their parents were able to provide them with warmth or food (Liu, et al., 2013).  On the other hand, this looks at the way these attachments enabled the child to change as an individual since the attachment was able to motivate the child to stay close to people who care for her. In the end, they would benefit both positively or negatively in security, learning, warmth, guidance, and affirmation from the type of relationship that was provided (Liu, et al., 2013). 

In this manner, the type of behavior that the teenager will reveal especially in a situation of intense pressure will also reveal the nature of attachment that the child puts in different things.  One of the best practices is to use the ‘strange situation’ technique in revealing behavior and treating. The technique entails a brief separation of the teenager from the normal situation and introducing them to a whole different environment. During this time, the caregiver will allow the teenager to be alone in a room, then return and greet her while noting down her response (Dever, 2016). This will all depend on the way the child was treated in the new environment, in this manner, there is a possibility that she will be very emotional to depict anger and resentment or she will be very quiet to depict fear or despair, or in other situations, the teenager may react with an agitated response. By looking at the above diagnosis of Kara, it can be concluded that what she is going through is a social issue. This is because the child might be feeling insecure in the new teenage environment. It is possible that Kara might have had a close attachment to her parents as a child and now she is left to experience a new social world of teenage hood (S.S.Gau, et al., 2007).

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Conclusion

In conclusion, the above situation depicts both a social, growth and developmental issue. This is because as the child matured to teenage hood, the relationship with the people around her, especially her parents naturally changed. This automatically led to parent-child conflict and social insecurity,  it is important that parents communicate with Kara and give her a warming response by reasoning with her instead of reasoning for her. If this is done well, she will be able to go through her teenage hood well.

Comprehensive Lesson Plan for Second Grade Students on Hand-Eye Coordination

Comprehensive Lesson Plan Instructions

You will create a comprehensive lesson plan to teach a fundamental skill for an early childhood physical education class (Pre-K to 3rd grade) by revising and adding to the plan you created in Week Two.  Start by reviewing and assessing that the skill(s) in your lesson plan are developmentally appropriate by visiting The National Association for Sports and Physical Education (NASPE).

Your lesson plan should include the following components (note that Sections 1 and 2 are the same as the Week Two lesson plan; just be sure to include revisions and changes).

  1. Title Page
  2. Section 1: Lesson Information
    • Grade level (specify age/grade)
    • Estimated level of developmental stage for this age/grade
    • Number of students
    • Fundamental skill to be taught
    • State standard (see the list of NASPE standards and indicate which state)
  3. Section 2: Lesson Introduction
    • Provide a brief description of the lesson
    • Create a student learning objective (e.g. “As result of this lesson, students will be able to demonstrate _________”)
    • Describe your system for classroom management and student grouping (e.g. class rules, consequences, rewards, and organization of the class during the activity)
    • Describe the equipment needed and the environment (e.g. classroom, gym, outdoors, etc.)
  4. Section 3: Lesson ProcedureCreate a script for what the teacher would say while teaching the lesson and describe the following:
    • Introducing the lesson
    • Safety concerns, rules, and protocols to follow during the lesson
    • Teaching the skill and the method of assessment (refer to the lesson objective; how will you assess mastery of this skill?)
  5. Section 4: Home-School ConnectionCreate a flyer or email that you would use to communicate to parents.  It should explain at least one activity that the family could do at home that would reinforce the skill taught in the lesson.
  6. Section 5: Lesson AccommodationsIdentify modifications and adaptations for each of the following scenarios:
    • Inclusion of a child with a physical disability (e.g. a child who uses a wheelchair)
    • The event of inclement weather or an altered schedule that forces you to change your location. Choose a different location to discuss (e.g. a smaller classroom as opposed to a gym)
    • Several children from a different grade are temporarily joining this class for this particular lesson
  7. Reference pageInclude five to seven outside resources.

Your title page, lesson plan, and reference page should be in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.  The lesson plan must be five to six pages in length, in addition to the title and reference pages.

Sample Comprehensive Lesson Plan for Second Grade Students on Hand-Eye Coordination

The teaching of young students needs a comprehensive lesson plan, which caters for the needs of the learners at their developmental stage. Such a lesson plan is critical in ensuring that educational standards and regulations are observed, while every child is accounted for, through effective skills development.  Students at the lower grades can earn significant lessons through physical education (Kohl & Cook, 2017). It is at these stages that physical education plays an integral part in the development and learning of a student. This paper will develop a lesson plan for second grades students in the state of West Virginia.

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Section 1: Lesson Information

Grade level

This lesson plan is designed for teaching second graders with ages 6-7, the concepts of hand-eye coordination.

Estimated level of developmental stage

The developnmental stage for second graders is quite complex. It is at this stage that the students learn basic motor skills, which includes better balance, eye-cordination and ability of their bodies to perform certain gymnastic moves (Chen, Hammond-Bennett & Hypnar, 2017). This will be critical in teaching them how to follow directions, work with others and in figuring out probems. In addition, second grade students are at their early stages of developing their emotional and social abilties. Since students at this level are prone to low confidence and self-esteem, development of eye-cordination is critical to them building their confidence and boosting their levels of self-esteem.

The students at this level begin to built their relationships with others, which they can do through physical education activities such as play and seek games. In such activities, students interac with one another and the enviornment, in the process building their motor and cognitive skills (Staiano & Calvert, 2011). In education, their interaction with nature helps them to development the undertstanding of the envioronment, where they can begin to collect and understand vital data about their sorroundin. The students will also be part of experience that will promote their social growth through creative cooperation, working in groups or leading others in the groups.

 Number of students

 The estimated number of students to be taught is 23.

State Standard

The State Standard is (National PE Standard): (WE.S.2), which requires Students to demonstrate the ability to access valid wellness information, products and services that apply to daily living experiences (Pre-K – 4 Wellness-FINAL) (SHAPE America, 2013).

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State: West Virginia

Section 2: Lesson Introduction

 Seek and Find

            Seek in Find is an activity that has the students to find a list of objects outdoors and indoors. Every student will be working in groups. This allows the students to build relationships with their fellow peers and teaching them to work together to get to the final outcome. The activity also has the students up and moving to get exercise through their day in school. Plus, the activity can be used as a lesson for the upcoming classroom lesson that is being taught.

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Student Learning Objective

            As a result of this lesson, the student will be able to demonstrate physical, cognitive and language milestones.

System of Classroom Management

            This objective of the lesson plan will be authoritative in nature as it requires students to follow directions. The success of the activity hinges on a number of rules that the students must observe. The students should be adequately prepared before the activity, must be nice and show respect to others and should always learn to for help if they have any questions.

            The teacher will exhibit a close and warm relationship with the students. The relationship will lead to consequences for those who break the rules and rewards for those who abide by the activity rules. The students who will not behave will be talked to on the first offense. If the bad behavior continues, the student will be sent to the principal and taken out of the activity. The rewards are extra recess time, or the students can pick what fun activity they would enjoy doing. During the activity, the students will be organized in groups of five, for easy monitoring. The activity will be performed outside the class for fresh air and increased freedom for the students during the activity. However, if the weather is not good, the school gym or classroom will be used for the activity.

Section 3: Lesson Procedure

Sample Lesson Script

            Hallo class! Today will be a great and fun day as we will be trying a new activity. First, I would like to congratulate you for making this far. Welcome all to the new school year. Our lesson today will be something different besides playing with the outside equipment. You will play a game called hide and seek. I know some of you have heard or done it before. However, you will need to do as I say and follow exactly the activity instructions.

            Before we begin the activity, you need to observe some basic rule that I will tell you. First you need to have adequate preparation, this includes the right attire. Secondly, this is an activity that will involve personal interactions with your friends. So, I need each one to be nice to their friends. Finally, you should seek for help whenever you have any questions. Remember, I will always be ready to attend to any one of you who has any problem before or during the activity.  I expect you to conform to these rules because if you follow them, then you will be rewarded with extra recess time and the chance to choose other fun activity that would interest you. However, if you do not follow the rules, you will be talked to on the first offense. A repeat offense and poor behavior will lead to being reported to the principal and expulsion from the activity.

            The activity will involve being in five groups, as will be determined by the teacher. Once the groups are formed, you will be assigned a number of objects to find within the class or outside the class. Now to know if you have followed all the rules and done the activity perfectly, I will study how you communicate, how fast you locate the objects and how you interact with your group members. This should be easy and full of fun. However, before we begin our activity, you will need to learn how to do it and I will show you. I will first name an object myself, and then find it within the room. Then I will group you into five students, assign you the objects and then you will begin the activity. This should an easy and enjoyable activity. Please do not be shy enjoy practicing it and please follow the rules that I just told you.

Section 4: Home-School Connection

Section 5: Lesson Accommodations

            The school student population is often diverse, with students having different learning capabilities. The design of a lesson plan must consider the diversity of the students in terms of their abilities (Pagliaro, 2012). Student that have physical disabilities may often experience difficulties in physical education, which requires the modification of the lesson plan to meet the needs of all students, including those with disabilities. The lesson plan has designed for the accommodation of children with disabilities, for example those in wheelchairs.

            The modifications for children with disabilities shall be done to accommodate three major aspects; the environment, instruction and rules. The modification of instruction will be done in order modify what the students with disabilities will be expected to do. For students in wheel chairs, they will be assigned peers to help them in the process of finding the objects. The peers will assist by pushing their wheel chairs as they go about the activity. In addition, this group of students will be accorded more time, and rules relaxed until the desired goals of the plan are achieved.

            Another modification concerns the nature of the environment especially when the activity takes place outdoor. In such a case, the students with disabilities will be provided with objects that are easily available, within areas that are accessible with their wheelchairs. In addition, more time will be provided for such students when the activities involve movements.

            In case we are forced inside because of poor weather, the activity will be moved into a classroom. The choice of the classroom will be made so as to ensure it is spacious enough to allow free movement. In addition, it should be easily accessible to all students; otherwise the activity will be cancelled. For a case where several other students from other grades and classes decide to join, it will be important to ensure no overcrowding occurs. The first priority will be creation of manageable groups that do not exceed five students per group. If the students are many, the activities will be alternated. However, this will be done with special attention to the students with disabilities.

Conclusion

Students in second grade learn various skills such as motor skills, eye-coordination and ability of their bodies to perform certain gymnastic moves. Creating a comprehensive lesson plan that caters for all the student abilities is critical in the overall development of students at this level. This lesson plan centers on teaching second grade students (6-7 years) the concept of eye-hand coordination. Whereas this lesson plan is designed for second grade students, it can be applied to students of other grades.

Are Unions Necessary?

Unions are described as an organized body that is formed to represent workers during engagement with employers. The main purpose of the trade unions is to advocate for the improvement of the workers working environment and conditions as well as protecting the needs of the workers. It is important to understand that unions does not allow a single employee to significantly influence the outcome of the engagement about their job. The importance of formations of unions is that it increases the bargaining powers of the employees (Godard, & Frege, 2013). In the past two decades, the trade unions in the United States was shaping the landscape of the working environment. However, in the 21st century these trade unions are doubted if they still serve their purpose considering a more refined labor laws that have been put place. The comprehensive analysis on the existing economic condition and working environment, it is clear that trade unions are still needed.

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            Based on the dynamic working condition, unions are still needed by the workers because the constant changing environment makes them vulnerable to misuse by their employers. Yates (2009) observed that because of the electronic communication that is currently revolutionizing the business environment notes, Multinational Corporation tend to shift their operations to regions where cheap labor is accessible. This means strong trade unions in the United States should work towards protecting the working environment and conditions in which the employees extracting raw materials for companies in the United States to consume. Similar incident can occur when labor intensive companies’ imports labor force from regions with lower wages. Another factor that make workforce of the United States to be more vulnerable to be manipulated by the employers, is the emergence of globalization. These has enable the workers from third world and lower wage countries o travel to countries that have strong unions such as the United States and Europe. As a result of influx, the employers tend to use ‘divide rule’ strategy to weaken, the strength of the unions (Yate, 2009). These developments requires a very strong labor in place to champion the rights and better working conditions for the workers across the global.  

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            Some have argued that most of the roles that were undertaken by the trade unions have been engrained in the constitution, court decisions, administrative ruling and statutes. As a result, unions are no longer needed in the present world since their main functions have been overtaken by events. For instance, in the United States Constitution, Title VII of the Civil Rights Acts was purposely constituted to protect workers against discrimination based on gender, ethnicity/race, culture, status, education and religion. Despite all these arguments and counter arguments put forward by various scholars, the relevance of the unions is much alive in the present society due to social fabric it brings in the community.

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For example, Brazile (2012) observed that apart from engaging in collective bargaining agreement for the betterment of workers, trade unions in the United States is ranked second after military in terms training programs they offer. The trade unions enters in partnership with industries so that they take in apprentice, train them in various skills and impart the knowledge about the working environment, thus helping them to gain the experiences needed in the work environment (Brazile, 2012). This is one of the important roles played by unions in countries where unemployment rate is soaring.

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             In many occasion trade unions have been accused for failing to effectively deliver on their mandates. As stated earlier, the main mandate of the trade union is to harmonize collective bargaining and present it before the representative of the employers as way of enhancing industrial peace and equity in the workplace. The inefficiencies of the trade unions arises when they are dealing with monopoly model. Under this model, the trade unions are compromised by labor cartels which create inefficient mix labor and capital. According to Samuel et al. (2015) alternative representation must be formed when such conditions prevail in the labor market. The alternative representative should be formed based on management and association from nonunion (Godard, & Frege, 2013). The formation of the alternative representation have been covered wells in the provision of the constitutions such as Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, (Godard, & Frege, 2013). The rationale of standardizing labor laws across the globe is to ensure that same laws and regulations are applied equally everywhere in the world.            

Read also Provisions in Labor Union-Employer Contracts

In conclusion, unions have played significant role in ensuring that interest of the workers are protected. Therefore, regardless of the dynamic changes that has taken place overtime, it is still necessary to have trade unions in place. The unions are still needed to safeguard workers in a constantly changing economic environment, which make employees more vulnerable. Apart from representing the workers, unions also play crucial role in ensuring that apprentice acquire the much needed skills and knowledge.

Public Organization Budget And Collective Bargaining Processes

Think of a public organization with which you are familiar. Explain how it differs from a private company in terms of the following:

  1. Nature of its service.
  2. Relationship between its budget and collective bargaining processes.
  3. Bargaining structure and decision-making processes.
  4. Negotiable issues and bargaining tactics.
  5. The right to strike.

Food and Water Watch Budget And Collective Bargaining Processes

Nature of its service

            Food and Water Watch is public organization that ensure fish, water resources and other food items that is consumed are sustainable, accessible and safe. Therefore, the organization support the government to conserve water resource, sustainably supply clean water distributed through public tap, the water supply to the household and public tap is affordable and support the people with the information about where the food and water comes from (Cummings, & Worley, 2014). This way they consumers of the food and water resource build trust and confidence on what they consume. Through Food and Water Watch, government is able to implement internationally recognized standards concerning the quality of water resource and food served on the table.

            It is important to understand that Food and Water Watch is a non-profit organization recognized for advocating the development of workable plan that ensures a balanced, economical and safe food and water is delivered to the citizens. It is the responsibility of the government to ensure that its citizens get access to stable oceans, safe food and clean water. Therefore, it is essential to ensure that these resources are distributed to the citizens in a controlled manner based on the public interest as opposed to personal gain (Hinkin, & Tracey, 2010). The staff of Food and Water Watch are position in 15 offices distributed across the United States. they work in conjunction with other various constituencies to assist policy makers make informed decision as well as holding them accountable for their actions. The global staff of Food and Water Watch in the European Union and other regions of the world work together with coalition partners to monitor the general utilization of water resources and food should conform to U.S. Corporation on public policy.

 Relationship between its budget and collective bargaining processes

            Collective bargaining is described as a process of engaging in formal negotiation between the trade unions who are the representative of the workforce and human resource management who represent the employer (William et al, 2011). Collective bargaining process is normally guided by the mutual objective of the workers who comes together to jointly negotiate for better benefits, working environment, wages and salaries. During collective bargaining process, trade unions and administration attempts to accomplish their many responsibilities.

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For example, the principle responsibility of the trade unions is to draft a proposal that is presented to the administration to be negotiated. Prior to drafting the proposal, trade unions engages in a series of research about the organizations budget, the cost of living and Food and Water Watch’s financial capability (Waddington, 2013). Other factors that must be analyzed include remuneration of the employees, working problems and current benefits. After completing the draft of the proposal, the trade unions seeks approval from the employees before submitted to the administration to commence collective bargaining process.

Bargaining structure and decision-making processes

            The bargaining structure is described as a well-developed and crucial element of commercial relations. It is important to understand that more than half of the workforce must be engaged across the sector/branch-level collective agreements (Hinkin, & Tracey, 2010). This function outlines the legal provisions on bargaining procedures and structures as well as discusses the present situation regarding the number and amount of contracts determined and their contents.

Worker involvement usually secured for many workers of a firm, but until lately just the trade union business was eligible to symbolize employees ‘rights and interests. This unfavorable situation regarding employee involvement and cultural dialogue in enterprises wherever no trade union firm is set up was changed (Roger & ‎William 2012). The new labor legislation makes for the election of operates councils in all businesses and agencies wherever no local trade unions are established. Operates councils are respectable representatives of the team in cultural dialogue with the management. They’ve rights to data, consultation, and control, but no rights to Bargaining structure and joint decision-making

Negotiable issues and bargaining tactics

Negotiating about interests means negotiating about issues that people want and need, perhaps not what they say that want or need. Often, they’re maybe not the same. Individuals often take severe positions that are made to counter their competitors ‘positions. If requested why they are getting that position, it frequently works out that the underlying reasons–their correct interests and needs–are appropriate, perhaps not mutually exclusive. By focusing on interests, disputing parties may more easily satisfy the following principle–invent options for average gain (William et al., 2011). It implies negotiators must search for new solutions to the situation that may allow both sides, not merely fight around the original positions which think that for just one area, one other area must lose.

The right to strike            

Food and Water Watch assisted by non-governmental organization, interest groups, individual donors and its membership has continually hold a progressive agenda about accessible and affordable quality water resource and food to all citizens in the United States. The organization advocate for sustainable supply of controlled clean, safe and wholesome water resources and food with the interest of benefit the society rather than generating revenues. The organization further support procedure and practices that delivers economically affordable and sustainable clean and quality water resource and food as it is the right of every citizen in the society to access these resources sustainably (Waddington, 2013). The procedures we promote can lead to secure and economic drinking water for everyone, rather than dependence on bottled water. Common Sources: We function to stop the financial of nature and the privatization of our common resources, and battle to steadfastly keep up the environmental quality of the water and its resources.

Proposal to Upgrade From IPv4 to IPv6

Globalization today is contributing to radical changes in different industries especially the IT industry, which is prone to everyday technological advancements. Initially different organizations have been using the IPV4 protocol in their system and are gradually changing to IPv6 (Mashable, 2017). The upgrade is due to the everyday technological advancements that come with additional and better benefits, therefore this research proposal will explain why an organization should choose to upgrade from IPv4 to IPv6.

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IPV6 is the 6th version of the internet protocol, which was built to succeed the IPv4. The internet protocol operates similarly to the IPv4 although it provides other additional unique features that are necessary for devices that are internet enabled to be able to communicate properly and easily. Nevertheless, the new internet protocol has a major difference from the former since it utilizes the 128-bit operating system addresses. This makes the communication between internet enabled devices easier and faster, while operating with IPv6 than IPv4 (Mashable, 2017). IPv4 support 32-bit addresses and does not operate addresses with more than 32-bit, therefore it operates a limited number of addresses. This is a problem to institutions in the IT industry since most of these institutions are expanding their business especially in the global market where they require adequate means of communications (Beal, 2017). Such organizations operating in the global market have their hub in their local market and at the same time have other subsidiaries in other countries; therefore, they require operating their subsidiaries from their hub and rely on internet to run their communication. However, internet protocol especially IPv4 limits the addresses of reach for communication purposes creating inconveniences for such organizations.

Nevertheless, this problem can be avoided by upgrading the internet protocol from IPv4 to IPv6, which operates on 128-bit addresses which offers a wide range of communication from one area to another (Mashable, 2017). IPv6 provides more than enough addresses to keep the internet operating for a very long time and in a wide range. Therefore, organizations that require expanding their network and improving their communication can upgrade their systems to IPv6, which gives a lot of addresses and durability for the organization in terms of internet operations since it lasts for a very long time.

However, switching from IPv4 to IPv6 is not that easy and requires a lot of effort as well as capital (Beal, 2017). This is because most computers and servers do not support IPv6 protocol and only work with the old IPv4. There in order for an organization to switch from IPv4 to IPv6 they would require to change their servers and computers, which requires a lot of planning as well as time and money. Additionally, IPv6 is still at its infancy and still requires some security checks to ensure that it has no bugs and it’s compatible with other systems.

Therefore, for an organization to upgrade their systems from IPv4 to IPv6 it would require planning and money. IPv6 is a better upgrade from IPv4 but at the same time it is still expensive for an organization to change from on internet protocol to another. Accordingly, an organization that requires upgrading from one internet protocol (IPv4) to another IPv6 will need to set out a budget for this upgrade as well as a plan in order to ensure that they do not hurt their operations. Consequently, IPv6 is a better upgrade compared to IPv4 because of their extensive address reach.