Physiological processes involved in Biopsychology and Analysis of Theories of Attention and Perception


Human anatomy and physiological processes creates a broad topic of discussion. Assumptions have to be made so as one can understand the physiological processes involved in biopsychology (Smyth, 2004). Biopsychology involves the study of human emotions which develops the relationship of the nervous system to biopsychology. This is proven by some theories of attention and perception. The essay aims explaining physiological processes involved in biopsychology and the analysis of theories of attention and perception.

Anatomical, Functional Physiological Processes and Perceptual Processing

Perceptual processing is a biological process that involves the interaction between sensory input processes and one’s prior knowledge. Perceptual processing is subdivided into categories such as visual and audition. The association of response preparation, selective attention and activities related to mental imagery illustrates the effects of prior knowledge in immediate sensory activity (SAH, FABER, LOPEZ DE ARMENTIA & POWER, 2003). These attention mechanisms therefore, apply anatomical and physiological functional processes. The normal anatomical and physiological functioning helps one to distinguish their actions from external independent agents. These mechanisms functioning illustrate the biological importance of psychology hence the relationship between biology science and psychology.

The anatomy of vision as a perceptual process begins in the eye’s retina. The image seen by one’s eyes is collected inform of photons and converted into electrical signals in the retina (SAH, FABER, LOPEZ DE ARMENTIA & POWER, 2003). The conversion helps in the simplification of brain interpretation of the image to construct our perception of the visual world.  This process is anatomical since it sets a basis to understand the nest steps of visual hierarchy which are enormously rich and complicated. The eye has three layers that function anatomically and physiologically since they play a crucial role of visual processing. The photoreceptor layer helps in transforming photons into electric signals while the inner nuclear layer has horizontal cells that help in receiving input from photoreceptors and gives output to the photoreceptors. Ganglion cell layer receives inputs from bipolar cells and send their outputs to the brain. The brain receives the signals in form of action potentials through the eye’s optic nerve. The ganglion cells therefore, play an important anatomical role in ensuring the anatomical process of vision is complete. Therefore, the anatomical functionality process involved in vision is a practical example of a perceptual process that uses the sensory function of the body.

Perceptual processing has been associated with several physiological processes. Perceptual processing is defined as the organization and interpretation of senses in one with an aim of understanding the environment (Eysenck & Keane, 2005). The steps that one uses to organize and interpret the senses are physiological because they have a biological aspect. For instance, physiological processes of identifying objects in the world, observation and selection are key examples of perceptual processing. Perceptual processing is affected by both internal and external physiological factors. The internal factors include personality, experience and motivation while the external physiological factors include the objects appearance, that it its size and intensity. The internal physiological factors are closely linked to perceptual processing than the external factors. These physiological processes help in audition rather than in vision whereby one’s perception is attracted. Therefore, physiological processes are important in determining the nature of the perceptual processing.

Assumptions of Physiological Processes

Physiological processes are founded on psychological assumptions that build up the arguments surrounding the processes. The main assumption in physiological processes is that the processes explanations are convincing (Mechner, 2010). Convincing is an important human receptive behavior. Physiology aims at addressing issues at a detailed approach. For instance, the use of drugs affects one’s behavior thereby influencing his social life. However, a physiological approach of addressing the issues would focus on the effects of drugs on one’s body. In addition, issues in physiology are made more convincing by the application of reductionist arguments to address concerns. Physiology psychologists explain physiological processes in terms of brain structure. This assumption leads psychologists to made great discoveries on both internal and external impacts of drugs such as the effect on one’s mood. Therefore, assuming that every physiological process is convincing helps in the advancement of psychology.

Physiological psychologists also assume that they cannot explain the complex behavior and experience in relation to the current life challenges (Umarova et al., 2011). This means that assumption acts as a challenge to physiologist because they have to invest their concentration on the physiological processes so as to have a better understanding on the processes. Therefore, the assumption also leads to the discovery of other physiological variables that ought to be considered. The variables include the variation on a person’s actions when in different social settings. This helps in a deep investigation of the physiological processes leading to more detailed physiological conclusions.

Physiological approaches also apply the assumption that one’s behavior and experience can be explained using physiological changes (Umarova et al., 2011). This assumption helps in the exploration of biopsychology because it makes it possible to investigate the brain, nervous system and biological factors. This attracts the use of sophisticated equipment with an aim of exploring one’s brain structure and nervous system. In addition, the assumption helps in the understanding of receptive human sense. Therefore, the explanation of a person’s behavior and experience by physiological changes is an important assumption that leads to the development of stable arguments.

The use of people’s behavior as assumptions, however, is flexible. This is because the perspective of human behavior has various strengths and weaknesses (Mechner, 2010). The flexibility of the perspectives is a challenge that has enabled psychologists to avoid different perspectives on the understanding and study of human and animal behavior. This has led to constant research on the assumption basing their research on the fact that there is no correct perspective. Therefore, the assumption made in physiological processes has led to the development of physiology psychology.

Nervous System and Biopsychology

The nervous system is a crucial system of the body as it helps one to understand psychology from a biological perspective. This is the common relation between the nervous system and biopsychology that gives psychology a scientific touch (Eysenck & Keane, 2005). The nervous system consists of a network of nerve cells and fibers that forms the sensory organ of the body. The nervous system functions anatomically in transmitting nerve impulses between parts of the body. Therefore, the development of the nervous system forms the foundation of biopsychology.

Procedural development of the nervous system is explained using bio-psychological terms because a person’s actions and behavior change as growth in the body occur. Human body growth happens in terms of cell growth (Eysenck & Keane, 2005). For instance, every human began as a zygote cell that develops into a grown up human being. For proper growth, cell differentiation, neuronal migration and formation of neural connections occur. The three aspects of growth explain biopsychology of a person. Cell differentiation helps in the creation of new cells such as the muscle cell. This cell helps in a stronger human. Therefore, the psychology explanation of human beings strength can be explained using the nervous system. Neuronal migration helps in the proper location of cells. This explains the analogical functioning of the body. Neural connections are made to ensure that body processes that require two cells to function together perform their tasks effectively. This means that the development of the nervous system through the growth of body cells explains the biological aspect of psychology whereby a person’s actions is influenced using the system. Therefore, there is a deep relation between one’s nervous system and biopsychology. 

There are different categories of the nervous system that enhance the definition of biopsychology. The main categories are the central and the peripheral nervous system among many other nervous systems categories (Mechner, 2010). Each of the nervous systems influences one’s behavior in a different way. This explains why the nervous system is related to biopsychology. For instance, the central nervous system receives processes and stores information. This creates a receptive function of the body. The central nervous system also orders muscles, glands and body organs. The central nervous system causes a shift on one’s behavior, and if an external factor directly impacts the human body, the central nervous is among the first body organ to be affected. This is because the central nervous system is made up of body’s sensitive organs. Therefore, the use of drugs can affect one’s body through the reaction by the central nervous system. The nervous system is associated with biopsychology hence an important aspect in determining the body’s functions and behavior. 

Relation of Selected Theories and Biopsychology

Theories of attention and perception are important in defining a person’s concentration towards a given aspect. External factors are also covered by the theories because perceptual processing is directly affected by factors such as listening, vision, and ambition. The main theory of perception is the single detection theory. This theory examines how external influences affect a person’s perception. The fact that the signal detection theory analyzes the process of perceiving and not perceiving stimuli creates a psychological aspect in human beings (Corbetta& Shulman, 2011). In addition, the single detection theory predicts what one will pay attention to among competing stimuli. This theory touches on the biological response of humans as affected by perception. Therefore, biopsychology is further explored using the perception theory of signal detection.

The top-down and bottom-up processing theory is another perceptual theory that that improves one’s ability to fill gaps that surround him or her. The theory explains how one develops a predisposition to perceive something in a certain way. The theory, therefore, illustrates human behavior in ensuring he or she is comfortable. This involves the biological reception to perception processing (Corbetta& Shulman, 2011). Top-down processing theory develops an expectation notch in a person. If an action is done contrary to the expectation, the bottom-up processing applies that helps one to recover from misconception. The expectation is controlled by the body’s nervous system showing a deep connection between the theories of perception and biopsychology. Therefore, perception is an important aspect within biopsychology that is elaborated by the theories.

Broadbent theory is a theory that explains the character of attention in humans. The theory was developed by Donald Broadbent whereby he recognized information processing approaches. The theory aims at investigating processes that are involved in switching attention (Corbetta& Shulman, 2011). This is a process that occurs in one’s brains structure thus explaining the link between Broadbent theory and biopsychology. The theory explains the process of acquiring stimuli and directing them into the sensory buffer. This acts as a filter for information that biologically is practically reflected through the attraction of human’s attention. The theory elaborately makes people see how their attention is focused and overloaded by the use of stimuli. The diversion of attention in human beings is a biological process that applies the use of body stimuli. This means that the Broadbent theory uses biological aspects to explain human attention hence its close relation with biopsychology.

Assumptions Made Using the Research Resources

Biopsychology research resources apply a practical approach towards explaining the biological concept engulfed in psychology. The resources develop their arguments on the basis of assumption. The main assumption in the resources is the assumption in the psychodynamic perspective (Eysenck & Keane, 2005). This involves a psychoanalysis approach developed through ones subconscious, denial, repression and personality. These assumption perspectives help in defining the psychology contribution in psychology, hence developing a firm basis for biopsychology. Psychoanalysis also involves the explanation of human mind contribution in different human occurrences and situations. For instance, most of the research resources have based their explanation on biopsychology on perception processing and brain structure. This assumption simplifies the exploration process through illustrating the mind contribution in human action. Therefore, biopsychology resources illustrate biological illustrations through the use of scientific assumptions of psychoanalysis. 


In conclusion, biopsychology is an important aspect of psychology that assists in the exploration of the biological aspect of psychology. It involves the contribution of anatomical and physiological functional processes in perceptual processes. This enhances the elaboration of biopsychology as an internal body factor that is closely related to nervous system. In addition, the theories of attention and perception help in the analysis of biopsychology through their elements. Although there are assumptions behind biopsychology, the area of study has advanced making it to be one of the common psychology topics. Therefore, biopsychology covers a broad aspect of human behavior hence its day to day human experiences.

Application of the Nursing Process to Deliver Culturally Competent Care – Immunization in Developing Countries


Immunization in the developed countries has been recorded as a success. Diseases have been prevented through the administration of vaccines. For instance, in United States of America, diseases that were a threat in the early twentieth century have been eradicated through vaccines. An example is measles. However, in the developing countries, immunization is poorly performed yet, it is an important approach to perform control and prevention of diseases. For instance, in African countries, lack of follow up on immunization schedules and inadequate capital to facilitate the immunization process has led to health challenges. Therefore, the essay aims at discussing nursing measures that ensure the delivery of culturally competent care through creating solutions to immunization challenges in the developing countries.


The main purpose to address immunization in developing countries is to create a universal healthy society. The fact that immunization in developing countries is not performed as per United Nation’s recommendations creates an attention of solving the challenges. According to ‘Immunization in Developing Countries: It’s Political and Organizational Determinants’ by Gauri and Khaleghian, several opportunities have been discussed that can be utilized to ensure greater emphasis is laid on current immunization situation evident in developing countries (Gauri & Khaleghian, 2002). The keen attention offered to immunization challenges in developing countries will facilitate the constant development of the countries because the nation’s healthy labor force will concentrate more on developmental projects rather than health projects. Therefore, the creation of a healthy culture leads to the economic, social and political development of society.

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Immunization is the most inexpensive way to improve a cultural group’s health and to lower the morbidity and mortality caused by diseases (Gauri & Khaleghian, 2001). This reason creates a practical foundation that encourages immunization in developing countries. Despite the definition of vaccination as a ‘pipe dream’ in the developing countries, much effort needs to be cultivated into the sector for the streamlining of immunization process. The impact of immunization on developing countries would, therefore, create a goodwill promise of a brighter future for people not immunized in the developing cultural society.

Improving of immunization in developing countries also has the purpose of creating a reliable and self-sufficient health sector in these countries. Setting up a reliable health sector is done by adjusting the outdated immunization practices and embracing the use of technology and education initiative in immunization (, 2015). This adjustment will ensure that the delivery of vaccines is smoothly performed thus achieving immunization goals. Technological applications of immunization, such as creating awareness, would ensure that people in the developing countries develop a positive attitude towards immunization. For instance, educating people in developing countries on the importance and procedure of delivering vaccines would attract the attention of people and they will be less ignorant and offer minimal resistance to immunization. Therefore, the changes in vaccine delivery techniques in developing countries would greatly help towards ensuring that immunization has been applied as a nursing process with an aim of delivering culturally competent care.

Ensuring that immunization is well practiced in the developing countries would also lead to an improvement in the countries’ economic status. Immunization was developed with an aim of preventing dangerous diseases that posed great challenges during treatment. This means that appropriate utilization of immunization would save the country costs incurred during treatment. Therefore, this capital would be diverted into development projects that would boost the country’s economy. In addition, developing countries will have a large healthy workforce at their exposure. This workforce will contribute towards increasing the country’s per capita income hence an improvement in the developing countries economy. Therefore, appropriate administration of immunization would create a sound economic environment in the developing countries.


The design that a health practitioner can apply towards ensuring the application of immunization for culturally competent care in developing countries should involve first identification of challenges. The next step in the design is the identification of opportunities to improve immunization and finally, implementation of elemental practices to improve immunization(GAUVREAU, UNGAR, KÖHLER & ZLOTKIN, 2012). This design would help in establishing a firm immunization process in the developing countries that will serve the role of improvement of culturally competent health care.


Developing countries have been facing challenges in immunization that results to poor delivery of vaccines.  The main challenge is the lack of a prepared channel to perform immunization. This challenge faces all developing countries whereby a platform to deliver vaccines lacks and if it is available, it is underutilized(Verma et al., 2011). For instance, people do not appreciate the need for immunization thus they do not follow the immunization schedules. In addition, health facilities in the developing countries are unprepared for the delivery of vaccines.  This challenge is brought about by the failure of prioritizing immunization in the health facilities. As a result, the unpleasant state of health centers has discouraged people from accessing immunization facilities. Therefore, developing countries have to improve the state of healthcenters to change the attitude of people in the countries.

Technology advancements in nursing have also been a challenge in developing countries. Technology simplifies the process of vaccine delivery. It creates economical and reliable methods of immunization that are cost effective and they take less time compared to the manual immunization methods(Gauri&Khaleghian, 2002). However, technology is a challenge to developing countries because it is expensive. The expensive nature of immunization technology has acted as a barrier towards immunization improvements in the developing countries. Therefore, the countries remain in the old immunization techniques that discourage people from appreciating immunization. This means that immunization has been underutilized in developing countries as a result of the negative attitude from people in these countries.


There are great chances for the improvement of immunization for culturally competent care in developing countries. According to the article by Gauri and Khaleghian(2002), the challenges that face immunization have reciprocated opportunities for improvement. These opportunities create hope in the developing countries whereby the improvement is seen as an achievable health care practice. The main opportunity is the availability of immunization stakeholders within the developing countries. There is a variety of immunization advocates in these countries who publicize the need for vaccination. In addition, vaccine manufacturers are available for the production of the vaccines. The promising aspect in manufacturers is that they have of late changed their method of operation from business oriented to society developmental approach. This creates an encouraging atmosphere whereby vaccines are cheap. In fact, most developing countries are offering immunization at a cheaper rate or even at no cost(GAUVREAU, UNGAR, KÖHLER & ZLOTKIN, 2012). This creates a high probability for the improvement of immunization in these countries. The structure of the countries’ populationis also an encouraging and promising opportunity for improvement of immunization in developing countries. Developing countries have a large youthful population which is easy to educate on the need of immunization.Therefore, immunization improvement in developing countries is a possible action that needs to be cultivated for its actualization.

Implementation of immunization improvement practices

The main way to improve delivery of vaccines for a culturally competent health care is to educate people in the developing countries. Low literacy levels are a great drawback of immunization because people who are illiterate find it a bother to listen or read immunization advertisements(Pathirana, Nkambule& Black, 2015). However, this challenge is solved by the availability of vernacular radio and television stations. These stations can be used to educate people on the need of immunization. This move will sensitize people to go and get the vaccines because they will start valuing the immunization process. In addition, the education to the people should involve enlightening them on how the immunization process is carried out. This ensures that even the immunization schedule is followed strictly. This will, therefore, create a great improvement impact because people will hunger for vaccines hence creating a culturally competent health care.

Immunization can be improved through the viewing of it as a shared responsibility. Immunization has been approached in a personal approach in the developing countries. This approach leads to ignorance from the people whereby their interest in immunization is greatly reduced. This ignorance is sorted out by changing the approach of immunization to a shared responsibility approach. For instance, in Canada, immunization has recorded to be a success because immunization is shared as a federal, provincial and territorial responsibility(, 2015). These administrative organs act accordingly towards planning and delivering the immunization program. Therefore, the shared responsibility develops a collective role towards improving immunization hence the success of delivery of vaccines in ensuring there is a culturally competent health care.

Handling of vaccines is an important task towards the improvement of vaccination. A better handling method of vaccines involves the technological use of vaccine storage and delivery(Gauri&Khaleghian, 2002). For instance, there are storage techniques that ensure that the vaccines are safely kept under the required temperature and conditions. In addition, the handling of the vaccines during transportation and delivery is an important aspect whereby that requires technology use. Therefore, the application of technology in immunization foresees the improvement of immunization in developing countries for competent health care.

Training of health personnel would also help greatly in the developing countries towards the improvement of immunization. Developing countries have few health personnel thus posing a challenge to the delivery of vaccines(, 2015). Training of the health personnel would not only lead to increased number of nurses to perform immunization, but it would also lead to enlightening of the present health personnel on the current and efficient methods of vaccine delivery(, 2015). Therefore, training of health personnel would contribute to the use of immunization as a nursing practice for the development of a culturally competent health care.

A shift of focus on people’s living structure is a beneficial approach that will lead to concentration on the immunization process. The developing countries should concentrate more on developing the underserved urban slums and squatter settlements. These settlements carry a large population of about thirty to fifty percent of urban populations. The population access low standards of health care services thereby carrying a large burden of disease mortalityand act as a source of infections to the surrounding rural areas. However, if the governments concentrate in improving the standards of these slum populations, administration of vaccines will be efficiently carried out thus the country’s immunization goals will be attained(Gauri&Khaleghian, 2002). As a result, immunization in the developing countries will be performed as a nursing measure for culturally competent health care.


The use of immunization in developing countries for competent health care would face one main limitation. Lack of adequate resources will be a drawback to effective vaccine delivery. This includes capital and initial technical expertise. However, the limitation can be eliminated through donations from the international community such as from World Health Organization (WHO)(Pathirana, Nkambule& Black, 2015). Donations will also not completely solve this challenge because it will lead to over-reliance on donations. Therefore, developing countries should create techniques of developing their capital that in return will help in efficient immunization improvement hence a culturally competent health care.


In conclusion, immunization in developing countries has faced a great drawback due to lack of the required input. Developing countries are an appropriate cultural group that illustrates the slow development of immunization. Improvement of immunization technology and education of immunization stakeholders will play a great role towards improving the state of immunization in the countries. Therefore, immunization in the developing countries will be an effective nursing practice that will lead to a culturally competent health.

Children In Their Social Context


Children live a social life. They require close follow up to ensure that they grow up gaining the appropriate skills. Child development is, therefore, a sociological aspect that requires great contribution from the parent. Some major platforms of a child’s social aspects are parenthood role in child development and family socialization. These aspects create an enhanced child development process that is defined by several child development theories (L, 2015). For instance, theorists Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson came up with theories that define the personality development aspect of a child. These personality theories are important towards explaining a child’s development in the social context. In addition, the experience of childhood is important towards discussing the social context of child development. Therefore, the social context of child development is a contemporary issue that develops a learner’s interest to know how a child develops. 

Sociological Perspectives of Childhood, Parenthood and Family

Childhood, parenthood and family are interconnected perspectives that form the foundation of child development. Parenthood and family are the first child experiences that children encounter. Parenthood gives a child sociological support. Specifically, parenthood is either provided by a paternal and maternal parent or by a guardian. Both parents and guardians highly interact with a child to ensure that the child develops in a proper manner. The social bond formed between the child and his or her guardian acts like a learning platform (, 2015). Through the social platform, the child learns how to pronounce words and how to carry out tasks. In addition, parenthood helps a child to be responsible. The social aspect in childhood and parenthood is, therefore, important as it forms the foundation to a socially accepted child development procedure. The sociological perspectives that are present in a child’s relationship with his or her parents are important in molding a child’s social behavior.

The sociological perspective of child rearing is important. This perspective calls for great participation and follow up of parents. Parents are the main role players in child rearing whereby their social relationship with the child acts as a support to child rearing. Child rearing happens when a parent instructs a child to perform a certain task in a given approach. In addition, child rearing involves follow up of a child’s behavior and attitude to various scenarios (L, 2015). Despite the contradiction that occurs in child rearing principles between different cultures, child rearing requires the contribution of both the motherhood and the fatherhood. Mothers and fathers have separate social roles towards child rearing. Fatherhood helps in monitoring the child’s behaviors while mothers train their children on how to perform tasks. Analytically, children who are responsible are said to acquire the sociological aspect of responsibility from their mothers. On the other hand, children with skilled qualities are said to have acquired the skills from their social interaction with their fathers. This means that child rearing is a sociological perspective that facilitates a comprehensive child development platform.

Child rearing and motherhood is a flexible social perspective. The perspective keeps on changing with societal growths. For instance, child rearing and motherhood has changed its meaning throughout history (Seefeldt, 2015). The common point within the flexibility of child rearing and motherhood is the social construction of child development. Strict gender roles have been implemented to less strict gender roles from time to time as a result of social settings available during child rearing. In addition, positive moral attitude of motherhood has been replaced by less positive attitudes as a result of mothers’ participation in economical situations. As a result, child development is at a risk of dispossession whereby parents are spending less time with their children. Children, therefore, develop a poor social relationship aspect in their growth. Therefore, the social aspect of parenthood is important towards an effective child development.

The social interaction between a child and family is also of importance in child development.  Children are important elements of a family that create an enthusiastic social interaction within the family (Murray, 2015). In some cultures, children are viewed as a blessing due to the belief that children make up a complete family. From sociology, children are termed as social beings that need a societal atmosphere for their growth. Lack of the social aspect in a child’s life creates a void within the child’s life. The void later affects the child whereby he or she is unable to interact effectively with other people. This means that the social aspect of children within a family cannot be overlooked. Therefore, the social context of children is a compulsory stage in the child’s upbringing that creates a brilliant future for the child.

Children in a family are viewed as the basic social factors of the family. Children form the foundation of social interactions within the family. Children orientation in the family is reflected in the society whereby they contribute to social development of the family. For instance, if a child has a positive reputation within the society, the social status of the family is uplifted (Vandermaas-Peeler et al., 2009). A family with children is also appreciated within the society due to the social connections that children cultivate. Children in a family also contribute to social equality and social order perspectives. Members of the family are categorized according to their age and societal aspects. For instance, if a family has a large number of children, social equality and order is required to enhance the stability of the family (, 2015). In addition, children demand rights and allocation of needs. This illustrates the social importance of children. As a result, most families with children are treasured in social research methodologies. Therefore, the sociology of children within a family establishes the concepts of socialization research in a given social setting and the child’s developmental psychology.

Experience of childhood

Childhood has been defined by many theorists as the important step of a person’s life. This is because childhood forms the foundation of development of a person thus determining how one approaches life aspects (L, 2015). This means that the experience of a child is of great importance. A child’s life is mostly characterized by social aspects of peer interactions and family interactions. The experience that the child acquires from the two interactions helps in determining the basis of bringing up of the child.

Peer Socialization Experiences

A child gains a lot of skills and knowledge as he or she socializes with peers. This is because the child is freer with his or her peers than the way he is free with parents. Peers, therefore, are an important life aspect in a child’s life.

Peer experiences of children are gender oriented. Children under the ages of six are sensitive to gender differences whereby they only socialize with members of their own gender. For instance, boys are more social at their young age as compared to girls. Boys form large groups while they are socializing amongst themselves and they tend to trust one another quickly. Boys also find friends in a simpler way because they are blinded by aspects of their favorite games (Sener and Bhat, 2007). This illustrates the intense social network that young boys create among themselves. On the other hand, girls are less social. They form groups of less than three individuals. Although the groupings of girls has low participants, trust that cements these grouping is higher that the trust in boys relationships. Therefore, girls establish long relationships amongst themselves than boys do. Girls also differ in an unpleasant way where a fight may start but when they decide to collaborate and establish a given task, they perform skillfully to attain a pleasant output. The social settings of boys and girls in their interactions can be defined by the sole purpose each gender targets in the relationships. Boys target at having dominance within their social engagements while girls aim at developing strong interpersonal relationships.

Peer interaction of children develops the basic character traits in a child. Children are social with their peer if they find something beneficial in them. For instance, children may socialize due to a certain interesting game (, 2015). However, the benefits acquired by children construct behavioral trends among the children. This means that children with a close relationship usually have similar characters. Therefore, social setting of children interaction helps in establishing the nature of character trait a child.  

Family Instances Experience

Children gain a lot of experience from their family settings. Families have distinct ways of living which directly influence children’s appreciation of life. Children under a straining social life developed social phobia that leads to development of a selfish character (Seefeldt, 2015). Children in a social based family appreciate the need of social relations thus the development of a social character. Therefore, the social setting of families creates a child development platform that help a child acquire social characters.

Family interactions are important because they guide children on the right action to take in a given instance. This fact is enhanced by the availability of parents in a family interaction. The interaction of parents and their children is affected by gender factors. According to analysis conducted by UNESCO, fathers invest most of their time in families with mores sons as compared to mothers who socialize more with their daughters (L, 2015). Parents show their concern to their children through differentials of the time spent with their children. The social aspect of parents in a child’s life is important for it enhances the child’s self esteem level. However, parents tend to offer more benefits to their sons than daughters. This is because sons are expected to accomplish many achievements than ladies. The expectation is mostly wrong because some daughters tend to perform more excellently than sons. This means that the interaction of children and their parents may contribute to a child’s success. Therefore, the experience that a child acquires in a parent-child interaction is crucial towards the social morale than a child gains in life.

Social Development of Children

The development process of children is a process that involves the participation of various stakeholders. Children mostly grow quickly in social aspects as compared to economic and academic aspects. This is because the rate of social interactions that children face is high. Children appreciate relationships that are socially based as they love being recognized and appreciated by the people around them. The appreciation of children by other people ensures that the child develops socially. According to theorist Uri Bronfenbrenner, a child’s social appreciation is defined in terms of a circle (L, 2015). There exist various factors of the circle that helps in creating a balance between a child’ heredity factors and his or her environment. Bronfenbrenner’s theory illustrated the factors of the circle as macro system, exosystem, mesosystem and micro system. The microsystem factor shows the child’s immediate family and surrounding. This factor speeds up a child’s social development process through the immediate impacts of his or her surroundings. Exosystem and macrosystems are broader systems in the circle that ensures that a child has acquired the appropriate values and attitudes. The mesosystem factor in the circle portrays a clear picture of a child’s social development. Therefore, Bronfenbrenner’s theory gives a picture of the procedural social development of a child.

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Social development of a child also applies the social play factors. Social play factors are factors that promote a child’s mental and social abilities. According to theorists Piaget and Sara Smilansky, there are three classes of social play (, 2015). Each of the classes ensures that there is social development of a child in a sociological perspective. For instance, the sensory motor play ensures that a child is socially active by improving his or her senses and motor skills. These skills enable the child to explore objects within his or her environment. The symbolic play ensures that a child’s social aspect is improved through identification of various symbols. The social play factors are crucial towards enhancing a child’s social development. In return, the child’s cognitive skills are improved by the social play factors.

A child’s personality also influences his or her social development. Different theorists have elaborated the role of personality in social development as a procedural process. According to Sigmund Freud, a parent’s role in enhancing the child’s desires determines the child’s personality (Murray, 2015). The development of a child’s personality is linked with his or her ego. In return, a child’s ego influences the social development of a child. On the other hand, Erik Erickson described the development of personality as a procedural process. The initial step within Erik’s personality procedure is the social and emotional development of a child. This defines the reason why social development of a child is an important aspect in the child’s life. The first step in Erik’s procedure of psychology shows the need of social attachments in a child’s life. These social attachments play a great role towards the development of a child’s personality. Therefore, a child’s personality is an important aspect of determining the child’s social development process.


To sum up, a child social context is the definition of a child’s social development. The sociological perspectives of childhood, parenthood and family help in understanding how child development takes place. The experiences of childhood help in determining the nature of social development. This in return reflects the character and attitude of a child in different circumstances. Therefore, the social context of a child is an interesting topic that has basic theories defining the social aspect of a child.

Workout Plan for an Injured Basketball Player


Workout is an act of ensuring body fitness by ensuring that there are frequent exercises. Workout is done by both injured and non-injured individuals. It is commonly known that athletes should keep fit to enhance their optimum performance in the playground. Workout also helps in development of a healthy body. Workout for an injured individual is mostly done on minimal instances to ensure quick recovery. It is recommended that during injury, rest can be used as an appropriate way to facilitate quick recovery. However, rest can cause laxity in body muscles (, 2015). Workouts should illustrate details that an athlete should follow in order to ensure procedural performance of exercises. Workout, therefore, involves a detailed weekly plan on exercises that entails aspects of repetitions, sets and intensity.

How to Carry Out the Workout

The workout plan of an injured twenty four year old basketball player should involve performing physical exercises. Generally, the workout plan should be divided into two segments; the injured segment and the physically fit segment (Vacek, 2011). The plan takes a period of thirty six weeks with the first six weeks as injury workout weeks. The activities involved in the two workout plan segments are totally different. This is because the exercises performed under the injury period are basic while the exercise activities performed after the injury period are complex. Therefore, the workout plan should take into consideration of the two segments physical exercise activities for comprehensiveness.

The workout program should also ensure that repetitions, sets and intensity of exercises involved are up to their optimum. The involvement of repetitions in the course of the work out ensures that the program has a full range ofmotion throughout the exercises.On the other hand, sets ensure that the athlete has enough energy in the course of the workout. Finally, intensity will help in building the basket ball player’s strength to constantly do the exercises (, 2015). Therefore, repetitions, sets and intensity help in ensuring the basket ball player’s workout program is well utilized for athlete’s optimum performance.

Injury period workout segment

First week exercises

The workout program begins with the first six months of muscle relaxing. During these weeks, the ankle injury will be the main point of concentration. Exercises involved will be light and reflexive to ensure muscle relaxation (Greene & Stewart, 2013). During the first week mere warm up exercises will be involved. Warm up exercises should include dynamic warm up activities such as lunge with a twist, hip stretch with a twist, high kicks and jump squats. These exercises help in streamlining the muscle ligaments for a quick recovery. For instance, hip stretch with a twist and lunge with a twist enhances flexibility of the injured ankle’s muscles thus facilitating quick formation of fractured muscles.The warm up exercises will involve at least two sets a day and two to six repetitions in each set. The sets and repetitions will ensure that the required body intensity in the exercise is achieved. A set is a series of repetitions that help in maintaining the motivation involved during the warm up. In addition, the first week’s exercise would be carried out daily in at least three hours a day. However, the first week’s exercises should be under the directions of a doctor. The player during the first week should ensure he takes food rich in calories for quick recovery of the fractured ankle. Warm up exercises will, therefore, help normalizing the injured leg to the practice of workout.

Second to seventh week exercises

During the second to sixth week, exercises to be performed by the injured basketball player should involve cardio exercise. Cardio exercises involve the use of a rowing machine or the use of a stationary bike gym(Torres & Fitzpatrick, 2010). Before starting cardio exercises, the basketball player should perform some warm up exercises to ensure the athlete has normalized with the workout process. The stationary bike would be efficient if it involves performing cycling using one leg.Swimming in some instance would also help in the relaxation of the ankle muscles. Therefore, the three exercises, use of a rowing boat, use of a stationary bike and swimming, should be practiced alternatively between the second and sixth week. These exercises should be performed for a period of twenty minutes to one hour for a minimum of four days a week. In addition, a rest of five minutes should be guaranteed from one exercise to another. This ensures there is repetition and sets within the workout plan. Intensity of the exercises within the second to sixth week is enhanced by the actualization of circuits within the exercise period (, 2015). Circuits within these first weeks should be performed three to four times. Therefore, intensity, repetitions and sets ensure that the exercise performed maintain their endurance thus the weeks exercise will enhance the athlete’s upkeep and maintain his flexibility despite the injury.

Past injury period workout segment

The seventh to thirty six weeks’ exercises should now be more complex because the athlete’s ankle has fully recovered. Time to perform the exercises should be increased for an intensive workout plan. In these weeks workout plan, the target would not only be to achieve endurance but also to ensurethat strength, flexibility and balance in the athlete’s body are improved. These periods’ exercises should involve actual playing of basketball. However, basketball games should be started off with warm ups to ensure that the athlete’s chest has adjusted according to the playing conditions (Vacek, 2011). This helps in achieving the player’s optimum performance in the course of the game. Apart from playing the game, the basketball player should also take part in auxiliary exercises to ensure that the body remains intact and suitable for the game. Auxiliary exercises performed should include lifting weights and taking laps around the basket ball pitch. Lifting weights is an exercise that should be done intensely because it involves lifting weights using various body parts.  All body parts should be involved in the exercises to ensure uniform body build up during the workout program. Therefore consistency within the exercises should be maintained through the workout plan for enhancement of the athlete’s endurance, flexibility, strength and balance.

The workout plan for the exercises carried out within the seventh week and thirty sixth weeks should be scheduled in a systematic routine. Basketball games should be played daily for a minimum of one hour throughout the remaining weeks. Auxiliary exercises should also be done for at least one hour on daily basis. This ensures that the repetitions aspect is well enhanced in the workout program (, 2015). The repetitions in each of the weight lifting exercise should be made few to ensure that the basket ball player maximizes his training intensity.

Seventh to seventeenth week exercises

The number of repetitions to be performed in the weeks exercise is determined by the goal of each week’s exercises (, 2015). From seventh to seventeenth week, the goal of the workout should be increasing strength. Activities within these weeks should involve reverse lunge knee-up, plyo push-up, box drill and standing long jump. Reverse lunge knee-up involves standing on one foot like a karate kid. On the other hand, plyo push-up is initiated in a standard push up position then one jumps up off the ground and quickly claps. Box drill exercise involves firing up of the calves through balancing the right foot using a slightly bent knee. These exercises ensure low repetitions, one to eight per set to be specific, for a higher intensity. Therefore, during the seventh to seventeenth week, the basket ball player should ensure that he alternatively exercises on strength increasing exercises for better preparation of muscle build up.

Eighteenth to twenty ninth week exercises

From eighteenth to twenty ninth weeks, the goal of the workout should beto build muscles. Exercises done for muscle build up should include plyometric deadlift, lateral triple jump and front squat jump. Front squat jump is done by ensuring the chest is up, one is in a squat position and the hands are able to touch the floor. The player should than jump while in this position and ensure that he makes it to the highest height possible.  Lateral triple jump also applies a similar approach (Vacek, 2011). The athlete should practice this exercises frequently and alternatively between the eighteenth and twenty ninth weeks. These exercises require moderate repetitions, five to twelve per set, for moderate intensity (Torres & Fitzpatrick, 2010). The exercises should be done at least for thirty minutes daily throughout the week to ensure that moderate repetitions per set are realized.

Thirtieth to thirty sixth week exercises

Between the thirtieth and thirty sixth weeks, the goal for the workout should be to improve muscle endurance. Exercises to enhance muscle endurance should include pull ups, dips and pushups. Pull ups and pushups should be done by making sure the movements are done in a ninety degrees position. This helps in maintaining the rigidity of the muscle tendons. These exercises should be done at high repetitions, twelve to twenty repetitions per set, to ensure the player achieves lower body intensity (, 2015). In addition, the diet required during this weeks’ workout practices will be carbohydrates and a few proteins for maintenance of body energy. Plenty of water should be consumed to enhance hydration of muscles hence muscle endurance. This means that the overall workout program would have net the necessary requirements of repetitions, sets and intensity.


To sum up, the workout program for an injured basket ball player ensures that the player maintains his fitness despite the ankle injury. The workout schedule helps in improving the athlete’s body endurance, flexibility, strength and balance. In addition, quick ankle recovery is guaranteed by the workout and its nutritional requirements. Therefore, the basket ball player should adhere to the workout program for his optimum performance.

Casual Analysis Essay – Climatic Change


Climatic change is an environmental problem that has been frequently experienced through its adverse effects. Climate change is characterized by shifts in weather patterns, seasonal disorientation and global warming. Climatic change has been a challenge to most economy development sectors, such as farming, whereby a decline in productivity is experienced. Climatic change is caused by various causes. Environmental related causes of climatic change have mostly been cited to be the main contributing factor to the change. For instance, the use of chemicals in farming has brought about shifts in climate patterns (Kapnick & Hall, 2011). Climatic change causes should be addressed to ensure that there is climate stabilization. Therefore, climate change is an environmental contemporary issue of which more emphasis should be placed on its causes for proper actions.

Facts on Climate

Climate is an interrelated condition that depends on several aspects for its upkeep. Climate is dependent on the natural aspects such as plate tectonic activities, angle of sun rays and volcanic activities. On the other hand, climate depends on human activities such as the method used in farming and forestation principles. In addition, seasonal adjustments also affect the climate. This dependency of climate on various factors shows that climatic change as an environmental challenge is brought about by diverse factors. There are five climatic groups that were divided by climatologists Wladimir Koppen (Loginov, 2014). Moist tropical climates are characterized by hot temperatures and high humidity density. Desert climate are characterized by temperature variations and a dry humidity. Continental climate is also characterized by large temperature variations, dry physical surroundings and a moist humidity. Mid-latitude climates are characterized by distinct seasons which include damp winters and hot summers. Polar climates, on the other hand, are characterized by ice cold temperatures and presence of snow. These climatic groups were some years back known to be common and constant in specific regions. However, climatic change brought about the variation of these climatic conditions whereby one region now faces indistinct climatic conditions for an unknown time. Therefore, climatic changes have caused unpredictable weather changes hence an uncomfortable environment for humans to settle in.

Climatic Change Causes

Climatic changes have been caused by a variety of factors. The main cause of climate change is natural occurrences. These occurrences are commonly referred to as internal forcing mechanisms. Natural causes of climate change are linked to the earth’s atmosphere and hydrosphere. Winds have played a great role to climatic changes. Winds are manifested in form of ocean currents. Ocean currents contribute to either land or sea breeze which affects the earth’s atmosphere and humidity concentrations (Kapnick & Hall, 2011). Ocean variability brings about ocean currents whereby aspects of ocean thermohaline circulation help in distributing heat over ocean surfaces. This results to movement of water in the ocean thus causing a long term redistribution of heat. As a result, the climatic condition of areas surrounding the area with ocean variability changes. The climate may end up being uneven and unpredictable in the region.

Orbital Variations

Orbital variations are also a significant cause of climatic change. The earth orbits in a constant rate around the solar system path. However, slight variations occur that cause in its orbiting position. This causes a shift in sun rays angle with the earth’s surface. Distribution of sun rays is affected whereby some areas receive more sun rays than others. This causes strong seasonal shifts because they affect the earth’s glacial periods. As a result, temperature shifts are experienced and the earth’s precipitation rate increases (Mihajlov, 2011). This can cause an adverse climatic change because the precipitation levels may increase to an extent of an el-nino. In addition, orbital variations cause an amplified temperature change which also signifies climatic change. Therefore, orbital variations play a great role towards causing climatic change.

Volcanism and Plate Tectonics

Volcanism and plate tectonics cause climate change through aspects of excessive emission of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Volcanic eruptions release approximately one hundred thousand tons of sulphur (IV) oxide in the atmosphere. Sulphur (IV) oxide has high optical properties that absorb radiations from the sun. This creates a haze of suplhuric acid that eats up the ozone layer. As a result, ultra violet radiations penetrate through the ozone layer leading to increased temperatures in the earth’s atmosphere thus a change in climatic conditions (Mihajlov, 2011). In addition, the sulphuric acid haze formed in the earth’s atmosphere acts like a blanket preventing the circulation of air and humidity in the earth’s atmosphere.  As a result, rain patterns are interrupted causing change in a change in climate. Therefore, volcanic eruptions contribute greatly to climate change through emission of atmosphere hazardous gases.  

Plate tectonics also cause climatic changes through unnecessary movements they cause. Earth plates determine the process of ocean circulation. Movement of plates occurs between two or more plates contributing to a shift in atmosphere-ocean circulation. This shows that tectonic plates contribute to both regional and global climate changes. Ocean dynamics, created by plate tectonics, result to the creation of ocean breezes that influence the precipitation patterns (Loginov, 2014). In addition, ocean dynamics result to temperature shifts on the land thus affecting the climate. This results to great climatic changes as a result of temperature shifts and changes in precipitation patterns.

Changes in Greenhouse Effect

Greenhouse effect is the existence of a gaseous ‘blanket’ in the atmosphere that hinders efficient circulation of air. Circulation of air in the atmosphere is important as it helps in stabilizing climatic factors. The atmosphere has been experienced excessive harmful gases emissions that end up forming the atmospheric cloud of gases. For instance, emission of sulphur dioxide into the atmosphere contributes to formation of a sulphuric acid cloud (Kapnick & Hall, 2011). The cloud is formed in form of a haze that prevents radiations from being rejected off from the earth’s atmosphere. The radiations bagged in the earth’s atmosphere results to change in earth’s temperature. In addition, the radiations deplete the earth’s ozone layer thus allowing penetration of ultra violet rays. The rays that penetrate the earth’s atmosphere add onto the earth’s temperature leading to evaporation of humidity. Climatic change as a result of the greenhouse effect is also experienced in form of acid rain. The sulphuric acid cloud formed precipitates causing environmental devastating effects. Therefore, the greenhouse effect results to shift in earth’s temperature thus great climatic changes.

Human Causes

Humans have also led to climatic changes. Human have a great role in conserve the environment. Acts of pollution and degradation of the environment by humans contribute to adverse climatic changes. For instance, deforestation has caused climatic changes. Trees are known for their role in controlling the atmosphere’s humidity level and attracting rain (Loginov, 2014). Therefore, cutting down of trees contributes to climatic change through an imbalance in the atmosphere’s humidity and a shift in precipitation patterns. Therefore, human actions have led to a shift in climatic conditions through environmental degradation actions.


In conclusion, climate changes have greatly impacted economic activities. Climatic change causes case analysis show that some of the causes can be prevented. On the other hand, these changes are also caused by factors not controllable by humans. Climatic changes, therefore, are the resultant effects of either natural or human related aspects.

Bowman’s Strategy Clock In Relation To Tesco PLC

Business Strategy

Bowman’s Strategy Clock is an evaluative model that explores and investigates the competitive capability of a company in relation to the conditions exposed by the company’s competitors. The strategy is categorized as a marketing strategy that enhances the marketability of a company among its competitors. Bowman’s strategy clock explores the internal factors of an organization using its four quadrants of price and added value (Rodrigo, 2012). Each of the four quadrants within Bowman’s Strategy Clock carries two important strategies that boost a company’s competitive advantage over other companies. For instance, Bowman’s Strategy Clock has facilitated Tesco PLC to outdo its competitors in the market (Barnes, 2011). Tesco PLC has won a large share of both food and non-food products market through the strategic policies developed by this Strategy Clock measure. Therefore, Bowman’s Strategy Clock is important towards ensuring that Tesco PLC is a stable company that thrives in the market.

Overview of Tesco PLC

Tesco PLC is an international England-based general retailer. The company operates as a grocery whereby it is one of the largest retail businesses in the world. The company makes a large volume of profits and revenues due to its diversified retail merchandise operation. The company’s headquarters are situated in Cheshunt, Hertfordshire, England with stores in twelve countries in Europe and Asia. In the UK, the company has a market share of 28.4 percent thus its dominance in the UK’s retail market (Tesco, 2007). The company was founded back in 1919 by Jack Cohen. It has grown under the leadership of Jack Cohen who established a leadership policy that has enabled the company thrive even after his death. The company is listed on London Stock Exchange which is a major advantage to the company as it has gained a market capitalization of approximately eighteen billion. The company is the twenty-eighth companies to attain a market capitalization of such a high value. This depicts the growth and diversification of the company in the global retail market. Therefore, Tesco PLC is a large retail company that has established its market in the UK and across the global market.

Bowman’s Overview In Tesco PLC

Tesco PLC has been renowned as the largest supermarket in the UK since 1995. The growth of the company has been linked to its successive strategies that enable it to diversify its retail operation in the country and over the world. Assessment of the company’s success using Bowman’s Strategy Clock helps in analyzing the strategies that the company has based its operation in (, 2015). In addition, Bowman’s Strategy Clock helps in evaluating the company’s measures that lead to a high number of customers that the company offers its products to. Therefore, Bowman’s Strategy Clock offers a practical platform for the analysis of Tesco PLC success strategies.

Bowman’s Strategy Clock assists in analyzing Tesco PLC competitive position in the market compared to its competitors. The analysis involves application of the eight different strategies offered by Bowman’s Strategy Clock (Hobson, 2015). The strategies to analyze the performance of Tesco PLC are evaluated by varying the levels of price and commodity value within the company. This helps in an integrative analysis of the company whereby all the company’s market domains are assessed and evaluated. The eight strategies are commonly referred to as strategy positions that the company may stand within. The strategies include low price, low value, hybrid and differentiation among others.

Low Price and Low Value

This strategy is not common among companies. This is because most companies do not compete under low value and prices. This strategy position is granted to upcoming industries. In Tesco PLC, the low price and low value is a partial strategy. This is because the company only applies low price of products but upholds the value of its commodities (Brannen, Moore and Mughan, 2013). The company’s commodities’ prices are lowered to ensure that the company is competitive among its competitors. The low price of products in Tesco PLC means that the company’s products have a low margin. The low margins offer high volume of returns to the company. This shows that the company’s strategies are focused on the interest of its customers. In return, the company attracts more customers to purchase its products. This is a strategy that has also been applied by Tesco PLC competitors (Woods, 2007). However, Tesco PLC was among the first companies who applied the strategies thus they won the customers shopping preferences and tastes long before their competitors. This explains why the company has a high competitive advantage over its competitors. Therefore, Tesco PLC ensures that it maximizes its marketability by minimizing the prices of their commodities.

Hybrid Position of Tesco PLC

Hybrid is a position in the Bowman’s Strategy Clock that ensures that the company performs its activities in a moderate operation strategy. Despite Tesco PLC’s low price strategy, the company can harmonize its costs using reinvestment efforts. The company utilizes its returns by reinvesting in the retail market. The company has extended its business operations from food merchandise to nonfood products merchandise. This has ensured that the company has diversified its operation basis whereby it has attained a high market share from the diversification of its operations (Anyesha, Hassan and Aboki, 2014). The company also has made significant efforts to maintain the cycle of reinvestment whereby it has expanded its operations in other countries. This has helped in expansion of the company’s market. In return, the reinvestment strategy by Tesco PLC has enhanced the company’s marketability. The company’s products and regional diversification has increased the company’s sales volume thus creating another basis for reinvestment. This hybrid nature of Tesco PLC, therefore, has contributed to its diversification of the company’s marketability thus an improvement in the company’s competitive advantage.

Differentiation Position of Tesco PLC

Differentiation is another business strategy position illustrated by Bowman’s Strategy Clock. Differentiation is the act of practicing business activities in a different way from the competitors. Differentiation helps in assessing the uniqueness of Tesco PLC business activities as a strategy to improve the company’s marketability level (, 2015). The main unique point in Tesco PLC’s business activities is the company’s operation techniques. The company has established its operation method that involves operating on different retail platforms. Tesco PLC operates on nine unique retail platforms; Tesco Express, Tesco Metro, Tesco Superstores, Tesco Extra, Internet Retailing, Petrol station, one stop, Telecoms and Telecom Club card (Barnes, 2011). These retailing platforms are independent of one another whereby the performance of one does not affect the performance of the other.  This helps in diversifying the company’s operations thus improving the company’s marketability level. In addition, the uniqueness developed in the operation basis of the company boosts the company’s competitive advantage over its competitors.

The company also conducts specialization of products and services. The company has categorized its retail business into different retail platforms to enhance specialization. This is a unique characteristic of the company that has granted it a large market share. Specialization within the company was initiated back in 2013 when the company initiated the idea of restructuring its business structure. The company sold most of its unnecessary business outlets such as the Fresh & Easy Stores in the US (Chang, Chen and Wu, 2012). Specialization of business operations has helped Tesco PLC to grow at a high rate due to concentrated efforts that have been placed on the specialized business sectors. The specialization strategy has, therefore, led to the flourishing of the company hence improved competitive advantage over Tesco’s competitors.

Tesco PLC also has a unique corporate strategy. The company prioritizes its business operations whereby it develops its activities without basing reference to any of its competitors. This corporate strategy helps in appreciation of innovation and invention in the company thus a greater advantage of the company over its competitors (Cates, 2012). For instance, the company’s corporate strategy has enabled it to integrate the use of technological approaches of selling its commodities. The company is, therefore, able to appeal a large segment of the market. In return, customers have preferred shopping in Tesco PLC due to the efficiency of customer service. Therefore, Tesco PLC’s corporate strategy has enhanced the company’s marketability level thus an improvement in the company’s sales.

Differentiation in Tesco PLC has been a great strategy. The company has used the strategy as its strength because the strategy has enabled the company to outdo its competitors in the retail market. The company has attracted customers using the differentiation strategy using its low commodity prices. The company has also differentiated its operation through offering subsidiary services. The company offers technological support and bank services to top up to the retail merchandise it operates on (, 2015). Tesco Tech Support was initiated in 2008 whereby it offers various support services, especially on electrical products. In addition, the company offers extended warranties, electrical returns and finance support on electrical products as an extensive technological support. The banking system offered by Tesco PLC provides opportunities for growth outside the company’s retailing sector. This attracts more customers hence improving the company’s marketability. Focused differentiation in Tesco PLC assists the company to maintain a good customer loyal relationship hence boosting the company’s stability to survive in the high competitive market. Therefore, differentiation has been a sound business strategy under Bowman’s Strategy Clock that has helped Tesco PLC to be outstanding in the global retail merchandise sector.

Outcomes of Bowman’s Clock in Tesco PLC

Bowman’s Strategy Clock in Tesco PLC has revealed several business outcomes that the company’s strategy portrays. The main outcome is derived from the company’s operation premises. Tesco PLC has been illustrated by the Bowman’s Strategy Clock as a business that focuses on being a successful international retailer (Anyesha, Hassan and Aboki, 2014). The company’s strategies on hybrid position of the company support this target whereby the company has been diversifying its business operations in countries across Europe and Asia. Currently, Tesco PLC has established shopping outlets in twelve countries and it aims at using the same diversification strategy to establish more outlets across the globe. For instance, Tesco PLC is developing shopping outlets in China, South America especially in Brazil and India. Therefore, the company’s corporate and diversification strategies are crucial elements of assisting the company to explore the international market.

Bowman’s Strategy Clock has also illustrated that the company’s main focus is to offer customers the best service ever. The company strategies of lowering commodities’ prices and expanding its business premises illustrate the company’s willingness to improve the customers’ standard of living (, 2015). In addition, the company’s appreciation of technology has helped in improvement of shopping services whereby customers enjoy the efficiency of shopping in the company’s shopping outlets. The company’s strategy has also shown a concentrative interest in earning customer loyalty (, 2015). This is evident from the company’s strategy of developing customer’s loyalty cards commonly known as Club Cards. The company has offered the cards to over ten million customers thus earning the company an improvement of weekly eighty two percent sales. The company has also earned customers’ loyalty through creating the internet retailing sectors. The company’s online transaction has earned a large sales volume for the company with a revenue improvement of two billion pounds each year. Therefore, the company’s customer prioritization strategies have led to the company’s growth in terms of revenue and profit earned.

Bowman’s Strategy Clock has also shown that Tesco PLC the company is concerned with developing retail service. The company has diversified its service and goods delivery services whereby it has opened up telecommunication, finance and technological support services (O’Regan and Ghobadian, 2010). This efforts, brought about by the company’s diversification strategy, has led to the growth of the overall retail sector. Therefore, the Bowman’s Strategy Clock has enabled Tesco PLC to expand its retail business ventures.


In conclusion, Tesco PLC is a company that has developed sound strategies responsible for the company’s growth. The Bowman’s Strategy Clock analyzes the company’s success as a result of the strategies. Market diversification, customer loyalty and technology appreciation are strategies that other companies should appreciate and implement for their success in the retail merchandise. Therefore, Bowman’s Strategy Clock analysis of Tesco PLC helps in showing the success enjoyed by the company as a result of its sound and stable business strategies. 

Organizational Culture and Ethics Values of Starbucks


Organizational culture and ethics value are important aspects in an organization. Organizational culture is the framework created within an institution that governs the working environment of a company. Organizational culture involves the philosophy, experiences and expectations that have been cultivated within the organization. On the other hand, ethics value is the significance of a given code of conduct within an organization. Ethics value dictate what action should be taken on a given aspect within an institution. This illustrates that both organizational culture and ethics value are internal factors within a company that determine the success of an institution (Mad Mad, 2012). Therefore organizational culture and ethics should be well maintained and assessed to ensure that they lead to molding of a stable and flourishing organization. In Starbucks Company, organizational culture and ethics value have an impact on the mode of running of the company. At some instance, poor organizational culture and unethical values of the company have resulted to unfavorable conditions of the company. On the other hand, the company has adjusted its organizational culture and established an ethical value that has solved the challenges it solved. Therefore, organizational culture and ethics values within Starbucks Company are important aspects that can either lead to the company’s failure or success.

Overview of Starbucks Corporation

Starbucks Corporation is an international American based coffee company that trades in coffee and its products. The company has grown enormously whereby it has been termed as the largest company that deals with coffeehouse business in the world. The country has a total of approximately twenty two thousand seven hundred and sixty six stores around the globe and has diversified its coffeehouse business in over sixty five countries. The company’s headquarters are based in Seattle, Washington which is a growing business centre. Its location in Washington has favored it to develop firm business foundation within United States of America (Management of Starbucks, 2014). The company is said to have over twelve thousand eight hundred and two stores in USA. This illustrates that a large market share of the company is based within the US. However, the company has established other market shares in the world which include one thousand nine hundred and thirty coffeehouse stores in China, more than one thousand stores in Canada and Japan and eight hundred and twenty five stores in United Kingdom. This shows that the company’s international coffee market share is favorable. The company, therefore, is an internationally recognized and established organization that dominates the international coffee market.

Read also Starbucks Financial Research Report

Starbucks Corporation is a large company with over a million laborers. The large human resource department in the company is as a result of its diversified coffee products that it sells. In addition, the vast human resource department can be explained using the numerous outlets that the company has established all over the world. The company majors in second wave coffee and it has diversified its products through aspects of varying coffee products quality and tastes to suit its wide market share (Mad Mad, 2012). The company has also diversified its products according to customer experience. This has led the company to major in dark roasted coffee which is marketable around the globe. The company has placed serve hot and cold drinks locations, whole-bean coffee selling points, and espresso coffee selling machines. Laborers in these outlets are required at the hot and cold coffee and whole-bean coffee selling points. The espresso machine only requires labor at maintenance and enhances the efficiency of the company’s services. The company’s basic organizational culture is, therefore, formed by its human resource department that creates the basic philosophies and experiences.

The company’s expansion into new markets has captured the attention of marketers. The company expanded through opening stores in several countries and also through buying of existing coffee companies. The company purchased AFC Enterprises coffee outlets in Seattle. In addition, the company also purchased Torrefazione Italia which was a leading coffee industry. As a result, the company has expanded its operations thus gaining the status of an international business. Therefore, the company’s vast operation creates a large organizational culture and ethics value settings.

Organizational culture of Starbucks

Starbucks Corporation has an established a large organizational culture. The large size of its organizational culture is brought about by the large organizational structure. Starbucks Corporation has employed many laborers who contribute to the working structure of the company. This ensures that a working culture has been developed for smooth running of the company (Management of Starbucks, 2014). The company’s organizational culture is experienced in cooperation, communication, division of labor and the status granted to leaders in the company. Therefore, the company has a rich organizational culture that contributes to the company’s success in the coffee industry.

Read also Starbucks Organizational Culture and Key Leadership and Management Traits Used to Execute the Business Strategy.

 Leadership culture

The company’s organizational culture is monitored by the company’s leaders. This forms an important culture within Starbucks known as leadership culture. Leadership culture is illustrated by the company’s expectations of leaders. Starbucks leaders are expected to perform their roles effectively. Leaders in the company are expected to carry out sound decisions that will lead to the growth of the business (Snyder, 2006). They are also expected to control activities that happen in the internal and external business environment of the company. This illustrates that the leadership culture in Starbucks Corporation is centered on a management aspect. Leaders in company also accept their expectations whereby they perform their duties effectively. Therefore, leadership culture in Starbucks Corporation is an important philosophy that ensures that the company is running smoothly thus the company’s optimum performance in coffee business.

Communication Culture

Communication within Starbucks Corporation is an important organizational culture. Communication in the company helps in boosting consistency whereby activities are carried out harmoniously. Communication within Starbucks Corporation is enhanced through aspects of partnership of workers. Workers in the company view one another as equal people thus ensuring that socialization within the company is optimum (Freeburg, 2012). Communication in the company is initiated by the company’s manager. The company’s manager maintains a link between himself and his juniors by communicating to them frequently. The communication between the manager and the company’s workers helps in organization f the company’s stores operation. In addition, communication between the company’s regional managers helps in coordination of the company’s operations. The company’s communication culture has grown to symbolic terms. The company has granted its workers thanks card. The thanks card is a communication card that illustrates the workers gratitude once they receive support from fellow workers. Therefore, communication culture in Starbucks Corporation is an essential tool of building social unity in the company.

Cooperation Culture

The corporation is built on the cooperation of workers. This culture has been deeply cultivated within the company to ensure that workers work together towards attaining the company’s goals and targets. Cooperation in the company is cultivated through the company leaders’ encouragement and the aspect of reward cooperation. This helps in developing a stable and solid foundation of cooperation that helps in attaining maximum cooperation benefits. The company also trains its employees on emulating and applying cooperation behavior throughout their working periods (Berkelycentre, 2015).

Read also Starbucks Corporation Strategic Management and Strategic Competitiveness

The appreciation of cooperation as a working behavior in the company cements cooperation as an important organization culture concept. Practically, workers cooperation is seen through the coordination that exists between workers in different company’s regions. Workers in the twenty two thousand stores cooperate with one another to ensure that there is harmony in the company’s working standards. Despite different ethic cultures that the workers have, they are united by cooperation as their common culture. Cooperation in the company is also created between the company’s workers and the managers (, 2015). This enhances a productive environment within the company. In addition, cooperation of workers reduces unnecessary trouble that may erupt in the company. Therefore, cooperation of workers in Starbucks creates a lively working atmosphere thus enhancing a productive atmosphere in the company.

Division of Labor

Division of labor in Starbucks has been the mode of operation that enhances the company’s productivity. Division of labor is the delegating of duties to specific workers whereby one worker only serves one task in the productivity line. In Starbucks Corporation, every employee has a clear division of labor where employees are divided into various field of labor. Some workers are delegated duties of taking orders and receiving, others are make coffee while others are employed in counting the inventory (Ritson, 2007).

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Division of labor as an organizational culture has helped the company to achieve its market targets through optimizing the company’s productivity. Division of labor in Starbucks helps the workers to have the required energy to perform their duties because it motivates workers to offer their best. Therefore, division of labor as an organization culture in Starbucks helps in creating an effective working environment.

Ethics Value in Starbucks

Starbucks Corporation is based on an ethical framework that enables it to inspire and nature the appropriate code of conduct. Starbucks has outlined strict policies that regulate the working environment through enhancing better business practices. Ethical values within Starbucks also help in developing ethical responsibility whereby every individual in the company has an environmental mission pledge (Snyder, 2006). Starbuck Corporation’s efforts to maintain ethics values have made it uphold ethical standards thus its rank as one of hundred best corporate citizens in 2013. In addition, Starbucks has won an award as the world’s most ethical companies of 2013 in the Ethisphere. Therefore, Starbucks Corporation has been at its best in maintaining ethical measures throughout its working environment.

Read also Ethics as a Component of Organizational Culture

Starbucks maintains the ethical value of social responsibility. The company has impacted the society positively whereby it has availed quality products in the market. Starbucks only deals in quality coffee products. This fact boosts the company’s social evaluation thus attracting a great deal of market. Selling quality products by the company illustrates the prioritization of dignity by the company (Berkelycentre, 2015). In addition, the company has maintained a suitable social relation with its partners. According to the company’s mission statement, the company is dedicated towards ensuring a social stable environment with its partners. The company treats every partner with respect and dignity. Therefore, the company maintains a favorable relationship with its partners as an ethical measure.

 The company also withholds its social responsibility when dealing with customers. The company has always been dedicated towards uplifting lives of their customers. This explains why the company offers quality products. The favorable relation between the company and customers helps in developing a human connection thus upholding social responsibility. The company also maintains a healthy relationship with its neighbors and shareholders.  The company invites its neighbors to take part in the company’s business thus cementing its social relationship with the neighbors. On the other hand, the company treasures its shareholders whereby it rewards the shareholders on every success the company enjoys (Taylor, 2008). This helps in encouraging the shareholders to keep on supporting the company towards realizing its targets. These acts of social responsibility by the company upgrade the company’s ethical values. Therefore, the company has been on the forefront to ensure that it maintains an effective code of conduct.

Starbucks has ensured ethical values are maintained through establishing an annual Global Responsibility and Progress Report. The report helps in gauging the company’s efforts towards ensuring there is ethics in every aspect of its operation. The report insists of the corporation’s duty to avoid depriving people in its environment of their rights. This helps in attracting more stakeholders who help in uplifting the company’s competitive advantage (Ritson, 2007). In addition, the report insists on the company’s duty to protect any of its stakeholders from deprivation. The company in return insists on the need to aid those deprived of their rights. This creates a favorable social environment whereby the company has a duty to protect the rights of its stakeholders. As a result, this boosts the company’s ethical standards.

Starbucks Corporation also prioritizes its role to satisfy its laborers. This is a main ethical value of the company. The company offers its employees privileges that motivate them to perform their duties diligently. For instance, the company offers its workers both, part time and full time, health benefits (Tillotson, 2008). This guarantees the workers upkeep as they are insured on any health complications that may occur while they are at work. The company also offers its employees freedom to join any charitable organizations. This helps in ensuring that workers manage their volunteer hours, products and cash contributions effectively. In return, employees are motivated as they feel appreciated. Therefore, the company upholds its ethical role to its employees.

Starbucks Worker Conditions

Starbucks Corporation organizational culture and ethics values have helped in ensuring the company’s role in offering coffee products in the market are realized. The company’s organizational culture has created a standard platform for performing tasks in the company. This leads to a reliable and smooth internal and external environment for the company. However, the company has faced some drawbacks in its course of ensuring ethics values and organization culture is upheld. The company’s organization structure has created a working platform that needs flexibility of its workers. Although the company has favorable working conditions due to its privileges, the company’s employees have been complaining due to inconsistent working schedules (O’Reilly-Green, 2015). This inconveniences the workers in their personal plans. In addition, workers strain while working because at times they are overworked. This may even lower the quality of the company’s services. The company has faced criticism over the issues whereby it has been said to manipulate its workers with favorable working privileges yet on the other hand they are misusing the workers. In fact the company does so to suit its operation targets and goals. Therefore, the company has to change on its working schedules to ensure that it maintains its ethical values.

Read also Starbucks Corporation Flexible Benefits Programs

The company is also engulfed with an unethical value of limited communication of employees. Employees are overworked and face the inconsistent working schedules yet they are reluctant to resent their grievances. This is a negative organization culture that has led to the degradation of workers working standards. This illustrates that the company is insensitive in encouraging the workers to join trade unions. Trade unions would in return help the workers to realize the challenges they are facing.  This in return would help in developing a voice for the workers. According to the worker who complained about the inconsistent schedules, the company is ethical in acting on complains yet the workers do not express their disfavor as they face it (O’Reilly-Green, 2015). The workers, therefore, are carried away by the fact that the company already has set up the working schedules that come along with other working benefits. Solving this challenge calls for the company’s management to adjust its working system and do away with the inconsistent working schedules. This will create a favorable working environment in the company thus improving the company’s organization culture and its ethic values.


 In conclusion, Starbucks Corporation is an organization that has a reputation of upholding organization culture and ethic values.  The company has advantageous organization culture that helps it to be competitive among its competitors. In addition, the company’s ethical values help in promoting the company’s productivity. However, the company has some shortcomings towards realizing full benefits of organization culture and ethical values. Therefore, the company ought to adjust its shortcomings to ensure that it enjoys optimum benefits of organization culture and ethical values.

Sandwich Generation

What is the sandwich generation?

Sandwich generation is a group of people who take care of elderly people, especially aging parents, and their children at the same time. Most people in the sandwich generation are usually in the middle adulthood age because it takes a lot of commitment to take care of both aging people and children (Pierret, 2015). Challenges are prone to the sandwich generation whereby they have to remain strong to face them. For instance, a person in the sandwich generation may face financial implications due to lack of enough capital to cater for all the needs. Therefore, sandwich generation is a contemporary topic that calls for societal and healthcare support so as to reduce the implications of the generation’s challenges.

Scenarios of Sandwich Generation

Sandwich generation has been categorized into different scenarios based on the situational condition. Giving care to the elderly exists in these scenarios which facilitate the diversity of sandwich generation (Skogrand, Henderson & Higginbotham, 2015). The main scenario is the traditional sandwich generation condition. Traditional sandwich involves an instance whereby people in the sandwich generation are sandwiched between elderly people and their own children. These people experience a large burden whereby their challenges are numerous. Club sandwich is another sandwich generation scenario that involves the grouping of sandwiched individuals using their ages. Club sandwich entails all individuals in their 50s and 60s who take care of aging parents, adult children and grandchildren. In addition, club sandwich involves people in the age bracket of 30s and 40s who take care of their young children, their parents and grandparents. These two scenarios illustrate that the sandwich generation is not bounded by limits of age. Any person at any age may belong to this generation and it takes full dedication for one to pick up all the responsibilities.

Implications of the Sandwich Generation

The sandwich generations faces implications from both the elderly people and the children. It needs a conjoint task of solving the issues affecting both of them so as to reduce the pressure created by the implications (Ben-Galim & Silim, 2015). Elderly parents require financial, legal and emotional support from the sandwich generation. An individual in the generation needs to provide the support. Another major implication on the generation is that the quality of care given is determined by the quality of the relationship between the sandwiched individuals and the elderly. This calls for a selfless character by the sandwiched parents whereby they have to cope with the negativities of the elderly. On the other hand, taking care of children has implications. Children require a great deal of financial support. This is because growing children insists on the provision of their needs. This affects the relationship between the child and the parent. Therefore, the quality of the relationship between the parent, the elderly and the children is crucial in determining family relationships.

Approach of Issues While In the Sandwich Generation

Sandwich generation challenges always have a way out. It takes a positive approach to reduce the implications whereby one needs to be dedicated in the generation’s aspects. One needs to take care of oneself and the marriage (Pierret, 2015). This greatly helps in improving the quality of life while being sandwiched. One also needs to utilize the support systems available. This involves seeking emotional support from friends. As a result, this would help in taking care of elderly and children thus reducing stress. Therefore, the approach of situations in the sandwich generation helps in the management of activities involved in the stage.


Sandwich generation is one of the valued social support aspects. It contributes to the upkeep of both elderly people and children. However, the generation has several implications that need to be sorted out. Individuals being sandwiched need to seek emotional and physical support so as to reduce stress that comes from situations in the sandwiched generation.

Best Ways to Protect Yourself From Exposure to Carcinogens

A carcinogen refers to exposures and substances that can cause cancer by changing cellular metabolism or by destroying the cells’ DNA, interfering with normal biological processes. One of the best ways to protect oneself from exposure to carcinogens is by being able to identify all carcinogens and trying to avoid them, especially those that are readily available in our daily life. By knowing food substances classified as carcinogen and other consumable substances in the list helps, as well as carcinogenic environment helps an individual to avoid them as much as possible and hence reducing their exposure rate to carcinogen. Lack of knowledge on carcinogens can increase the risk of exposure which happens unknowingly, especially with most of food substances that people use on daily basis. It is therefore important to know food items that are regarded as cancerous to be able to avoid them (Shaw, 2018).

The other way to avoid exposure to carcinogens is by following provided safety instruction when disposing, storing or using harmful chemicals and materials. This involves careful reading and following provided safety measure to avoid exposing self and others to danger. Safety measures can as well involve making safe decision while doing different tasks in life. One should consider being safe in their daily activities for instance farmers should consider using mechanical ways of weed control other than using fungicides and people should focus on purchasing organic than inorganic food substances among other safety measures (Eldridge, 2018).

Human Breast Anatomy – Detailed Research Paper


Breast refers to an endocrine gland positioned on the front of the chest, comprising of glandular acini which is covered by cells which contain the features of securing milk under hormones influence. Breast in the adult women is comprised of adipose tissues, connective tissue, and glandular tissues which determine the organ texture, shape and size. At the breast apex is mammary areola which is a skin area that is pigmented with improved sebaceous glands which have the role of making nipple elastic and soft. This paper analyses the anatomy of human breast.

Size, Dimensions, Shape

The shape and size of women breast differ considerably where by some women contain a large volume of breast tissue and thus bigger breasts compared to others. In most cases human breast is predominantly circular, apart from slight oblong part that further extends into axillary area. However, women breasts are hardly symmetrical. Normally one breast is slightly large, lower, or differently shaped. The characteristics and size of the nipple also differ greatly from one person to another. Nipples can be cylindrical, round or flat in shape. In addition the breast appearance and shape undergo various modifications as a woman ages.   

Surface Anatomy/ Landmarks

The areole and nipple epidermis is highly pigmented and a bit wrinkled. The nipple skin has various apocrine and sebaceous sweat glands and comparatively little hair. The nipple base has 15 to 25 milk duct that enters in it, which dilate to create the milk sinuses. The sinuses terminate a little below the surface of the nipple in cone-shaped ampullae. The nipple is surrounded by circular areola and differes in diameter between 15 and 60 mm. Its skin has lanigo montgomery’s glands, sebaceous glands,, sweat glansd, and lanugo hair, that are improved sebaceous gland with small milk ducts which opens into the tubercles of morgagni in the areola epidermis.

Boundaries/ Relations

Human breast is positioned on the anterior wall of the chest covering pectoralis minor and major muscles. The breast inferior border is at 6th rib, superior border is at 2nd rib, medial border is at sternum edge, while lateral border is at the mid axillary line. The breast deep margin is positioned at fascia major muscle of pectoralis. Normally, breast tissues extend into axilla.

Parts/ Divisions/ Layers/ Composition

Human breast has mammary ridges or milk line which runs between inguinal and axilla region where tissue of breast might be formed. Sonographically breast has got six identified tissues layers. They include chest wall, skin layer, muscle layer, premammary layer, retromammary layer and mammary layer. The skin layer consists of epidermal cells, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands. It covers the breast tissue subcutaneous layer1. Premammary layer has varied degrees of fat associated to pregnancy, obesity and age. Mammary layer is the only layer which has glandular tissues, stromal and epithelia tissues and contains 15-20 glandular tissues lobes organized in a radial fashion. Retromammary layer is situated posterial to the layer of mammary, and has different fat levels based on age, pregnancy, and obesity and deep fascia in the retrommary space.

Supporting Structures

The breast has ligaments and tissue that offer its support and provide its shape. It also has layers of fats which are located right under the skin, whose main role is protected and surround the milk making lobules. It also contains muscle which links breast ribs, upper arm and collarbone. 

Surgical Access to Organ

The breast surgical access can be done for breast reconstruction due to various health conditions including cancer. Breast conserving surgery (BCS) is the proposed optional approach for majority of breast cancer patients in early stage. BCS comprised of local breast tissues resection regarded as segmental mastectomy. Brest reconstruction surgery may also be done after the BCS, with options such as implant reconstruction or autologous tissues. In case IBR is conducted nipple sparing or skin sparing mastectomy are probable.

Blood Supply/ Drainage

The breast blood supply is a rich anastomotic system resulting from the intercostal arteries, internal thoracic, and axillary. The biggest vessels originated from artery of the internal thoracic, the pricking branches that pierce the wall of the chest that is next to the sternal edge in the first four intercostal spaces. The four axillary artery branches include subscapular, superior thoracic, lateral thoracic and the acromiothoracic pectoral branch.  The arteries are accompanied by the matching veins.


The breast is innervated by the anterior and lateral cutaneous branches of the 2nd to 6th intercostal nerves. The branches of lateral cutaneous pierce the intercostal muscles and the profound fascia in the midaxillary line and assume an inferomedial course. The 2nd lateral cutaneous brunch ends in the breast axillary tail. The 3rd to the 6th lateral cutaneous branches stretch on the serratus anterios surface for 3-5 cm. They then divide at the pectoral muscle border into superficial and deep branch. The course of deep branch within or below the pectrol fascia to the midclavicualr line, where make an almost 90o turn to enter the glands releasing a number of branches. The superficial branches stretch in the subcutaneous tissues and ends in the lateral breast skin. The anterior cutaneous branches innervate the breast medial portion. They divide into a medial and lateral branch after penetrating the fascia. The lateral branch separate again various small branches as the medial branch transverse the sternum lateral border, that assume an inferolateral course over he subcutaneous tissue. They turn to be continuously superficial on their way and end at the edge or areolar or in the skin of the breast. The superclavicular nerves end in the superior breast part in the skin.

Lymphatic Drainage

The axillary lymph nodes are separated into five not entirely unique anatomical groups and differ in quantity from 20 to 30. They move away from the apical nodes and join at the subclavian trunk. This trunk normally directly drain into the thoracic duct on the left side,, while subclavian truck on the right side might empty into a joint right lymphatic duct or directly into the junction of jugulosubclavian. A small number of efferent channels normally directly attain the inferior nodes of deep cervical.

Histology/ Microscopic Anatomy

Human breast contains nipple which is covered by squamous epithelium that are pigmented. It also has ducts which dilate to create lactiferous sinus under the nipple. Duct basement membrane is continuous with skin basement membrane. It also has keratin producing epidermis squamous cells which spread for 1-2mm in major duct. Human breast microscopy anatomy comprises of skin appendages which comprises of Montgomery tubercles, eccrine sweat ducts and glands, and apocrine sweat ducts and glands. There are also large systems of duct comprising of 15 to 20 major systems of duct which are empty at the nipple. These ducts ramify to an extent of creating multiple round acinis (TDLUs). The systems of ductal differ considerably in extent and size and they do overlap in most cases. Finally there is lobules which are created after branching of terminal ducts into multiple round acini. Lobulocentric has an architecture that contains duct enclosed by multiple acini. TDLU can develop with acini coalescene to create structures similar to ducts, with about half of glandular tissues situated at the outer upper quadrant.

Embryology; Developmental Anatomy

Human breast starts its development at the 5th week of fetus where an ectodermal milk streak grows along the truck on each side to the groin from axilla. From birth up to puberty, human breast contains lactiferous ducts. The ducts beings to multiply where they are terminated from solid cells masses. During pregnancy there is appearance of secreting alveoli where by in early weeks of pregnancy lobular proliferation and ductal sprouting happen, with increases oreolar pigmentation and increased nipple. In the last pregnancy days, colostrum is secreted which is later replaced by milk. At menopause, the breast atrophies glandular tissues turns to be less cellular and level of collegen reduces.

Normal and Pathologic Variants

Human breast can vary in size and shape based on person age, breast tissue volume, weight gain and loss, family history, lactation and pregnancies history, elasticity and thickness of the breast skin, menopause and level of progesterone and estrogen hormones influence. The pathological variation can be caused by various conditions for instance congenital hypoplasia is condition typified by breast underdevelopment. The condition is related to turner syndrome, Poland syndrome, ulnar-mammary syndrome and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Others include amastia which is a rare congenital illness typified by the breast tissues, areola and nipple absence. Amazia is another condition which is identified by glandular parenchyma absence in either both or one breast. Supernumarary nipple is a minor malformation characterized by accessory nipple.

Normal Organ Physiology

There are no apparent structural or functional variations between female and male breast before puberty. During this time both female and male breast contains multiple rudimentary ducts organized converging and circumferentially towards the nipple. They are also poorly developed and the blind end of every rudimentary duct, though possibly secretory acini. With puberty onset, the female breast experiences function and morphology changes due to distinctive response of the breast to different normal influences of hormones that include progesterone and estrogen.