Components of the Master Budget

Assignment Instructions

A master budget provides an overarching view of an organization’s goals and expectations for the future. Due to its all-encompassing nature, there can be many components which are found in a master budget, each related to a different business operation or department, including the Human Resources department. For this Application, you will analyze the master budget and its components in greater detail. In a 2- to 3-page paper, address the following:

  • For each section of the master budget, describe its purpose, the type of information that would be contained in that particular section, and the importance of that budget section to the success of the organization.
  • Consider the role of the Human Resource department. Discuss the importance of the master budget to the success of the HR function. What if any conflicts or potential inconsistencies might exist between an HR budget and the master budget? Be specific. 
  • Comment on why each budget piece must be created in that specific order. For example, why does the sales budget have to come before the production budget?

Importance of Strategic HRM – Article Review

Importance of strategic HRM.  What main points does the author (or authors) make

Strategic HRM refers to a process which entails the utilization of supreme approaches to the HR strategies development that are horizontally integrated with each other and vertically integrated with the business strategy. These strategies describe plans and intentions associated to the general organizational considerations that include organization efficiency, and to more particular features of people management that include employees relations, rewards, development and learning and resourcing (Cania, 2014). Strategic HRM centers on action that distinguish the company from its competitors. Strategic HRM is important to an organization because it contains clear effort on implementing strategic modification and developing the skill base of the company to guarantee that the company can effectively compete in the future.

Strategic HRM expedites the human capital development that meets the business competitive strategy requirements so that organizational mission and goals will be attained. The author insists that Strategic HRM is an integral section of business strategy. This strategy main focus is to attain organizational objectives. Strategy is therefore a set of strategic selections some of which might be planned formally (Cania, 2014). The author insists that strategic HRM is important since it enhances planning, and development of systems founded on workforce strategy and employment policy. It is regarded as a coherent technique to the management and design of personnel. It is also used in matching HRM policies and activities to some categorical business strategies, making it possible to perceive organizational workers as strategic resource and also enhancing the attainment of the organization competitive advantages (Cania, 2014).

Do you agree?  Why or why not?

I highly agree with the author in defining the importance of strategic HRM. Strategic HRM enhances the alignment of the workforce goal with the organization goal such that the attainment of the works goal results to the attainment of the organization goal. It therefore involved a great level of planning and strategizing to ensure great performance in the organization. Generally, strategic management tries to match the organization goals with those of workers such that workers general operation focuses on attaining the organization goals. This planning involves all the above described activities and hence the author view matches my view.

HRM’s Role in Organizations – Article Review

HRM’s role in organizations.  What main points does the author
(or authors) make

Human resource management according to Mwaniki and Gathenya (2015) is an essential corporate asset which influences the organization performance. HRM main aim is to guarantee that organizations attain success via the workers or people. The HRM distinctive feature is its postulation that enhanced performance is obtained via the people in the organization. The main role of human resource management according to Mwaniki and Gathenya (2015), is to enhance organizational capability and effectiveness of an organization to attain its goals by effective utilization of the available resources. The authors insist that he main HRM role is to allow the organization to attain its objectives by providing guidance and taking initiatives and support on every matter associated to its workers. This according to Mwaniki and Gathenya (2015), HRM aims at ascertaining that the management effectively deals with everything related to the development and employment of people and the associations which exist between the workforce and management. The HRM is therefore involved in various personnel management roles that include selection and recruitment, workers training, defining working policies, workers remuneration, handling workers conflicts, monitoring workers performance, and enhancing promotion and demotions based on individual performance.Another HRM chief role according to the author is to enhance the development of favorable work environment that permits workers to make best utilization of their capacities and to recognize their ability to benefit both themselves and the organization. The function of HRM according to Mwaniki and Gathenya (2015), works as part of the full process of business management and cannot be perceived in isolation.

Do you agree?  Why or why not?

I do agree with the author on aspects related to the role of the HRM. HRM is highly involved in all personnel matters that start from hiring to termination. HRM are involved in identifying work positions that need more workers, designing the work requirement and specific qualifications and experience needed for that position, job advertisement, selection recruitment, orientation training, work performance appraisal, promotion, demotion, dismissal, formation of working policies, handling work related conflicts, defining remuneration, incentives and bonuses, leaves, and everything else related to workers welfare. HRM is also responsible of developing the organization work climate and culture. Above this they are involved in developing strategic management of the workers to ensure that they work to fulfill the organization strategic performance goal.  Thus, the authors stand on the HRM role matches what I know and witnessed on the HRM responsibilities in a real situation. 

What HRM is and Why it is Important – Article Review

Human resource management refers to coherent and strategic approach which centers on successful managing of workers at all organizational level to attain organizational goals. According to Burma (2014) workers are the organization human resource and the most valuable asset. In this regard, for an organization to be successful it must make productivity of employee as a major goal. The author insists that other than the recognition of HRM as a coherent and strategic approach that is used to manage workers, there is no any other description given on HRM. However, the organizations have more recently regarded the HR department as the department which plays a chief role in training, staffing and assisting in managing people in order for the organization and people to perform at the highest capability in a manner that is highly fulfilling (Burma, 2014). In the international business,

HRM is progressively regarded as a contemporary development whose main purpose is to mold relationships of employment as a tool which might have efficiently replaced other traditions of management such as industrial relations and personnel management (Burma,2014). The author insists that the main purpose of HRM is to enhance performance and people management. This according to the author is attained through particular human resources practices that include appraisal, selection, and recruitment, development of formal human resource policies that partially and directly constrain the development of particular practices and enhancing primary philosophies of human resource that postulate the values which inform practices and policies of an organization (Burma, 2014).

I agree with the writer on the purpose of the HRM. This is because HRM in most organization are involved in workers managed which include taking care of recruitment, remuneration, workers development and workers monitoring. All this is done to ensure that workers have the right skills and ability as well as the right environment to enhance good performance. They are also used in strategic planning whereby they manage workers in a manner that will assist them in attaining the organization goals. Thus HRM main purpose is ensuring that the organization is a capable of attain success through the people employed in it.

Where Should Health and Safety Programs be Placed in the Organizational Structure?

The placement of health and safety program in the organization structure can highly impact the general success of the program in the organization. It is therefore important to identify the best position for the program. Safety program focuses on enhancing employee safety and wellbeing in an organization. It involves the assessment of safety and health risks, identification of safety and health risks based on priorities and finally defining of strategies to prevent or control these risks. This process can be effectively achieved by placing the health and safety program in human resource department. This is because, human resource department focuses on managing human resources by ensuring that their welfare has been catered for and that they have a favorable work environment to achieve what they want. Thus, it is considerably easy to integrate occupational safety and health programs as part of workers benefits, policies, or work procedures in an organization. It is also easy to schedule safety training together with other work related training while the program is under human resource department.

The enhancement of employee safety can easily be achieved by fostering safety culture in an organization. This can be easily achieved if the program is under human resources since most of the organization policies focusing on workers behaviors are developed here. Moreover, it would be easier to schedule healthy and safety training, assessment and control from the human resource department since the department has concrete information on assignment and when the unit is not under pressure. This means that the unit can easily identify the right time for safety activities in every unit. Moreover, being the control of supervision, it would be easy to assess the level at which safety and health program is embraced by workers and what should be improved on. Finally, human resource department focuses on all workers and hence, it will be able to apply the program with a general view of every part of the organization that will need the program and ensure that the program is implemented to all based on the unit’s needs. This would different to when safety is placed on one specific department whose focus is not enhancing the well being of all, but for the well being of only those in the department.

Importance of Social Security Benefits – Retirement Income, Life Insurance, Disability Income and Medicare

Overview of What Each Social Security Benefits Offers for Employees

Social security benefits are benefits enjoyed by American citizens as instructed by the federal government. The benefits are financed by the employee and the employer on behalf of the employee through taxes. The employer throughout the salaried employee’s working career withholds a certain percentage of the employee earnings and adds his or her contribution to make payments for the total payroll tax for the Internal Revenue Services. The amount contributed increase on yearly basis as individual salary increases. Individual employee is required to pay 6.2% of his or her salary to social security tax, with employer contribution being 12.4% and 1.45% to Medicare tax, with employer contribution being the same (NASI, 2018).

Retirement Life Insurance Disability insurance Medicare
Retirement benefits are structured to replace a portion of earnings of a worker from work. In this case, an employee making social security tax payment is entitled to retirement benefit which is part of their earnings. This money is used to offer economic security for workers upon retirement. The formula utilized to compute these benefits consider lifetime earnings for more than 35 years. Benefits of social security replace a huge share of previous earnings for low earners, but higher earners get bigger benefits, such that their benefits substitute a minute share of what they had been earnings.   Social security also offers life insurance to the workers where by their survivors benefit in case of death. The average monthly benefit to survivors of social security tax contributors is $1129 is one is a widower, widow or dependent child. It is estimated that about 98% of kids could enjoy life insurance benefits when a working parent dies.  Disability insurance is given to a worker who gets non-work associated illness or injury. Normally, workers who are injured at their workplace are compensated by the companies they work for. However, when this happens outside the workplace, the employee will go without any compensation and also loss the ability to generate more income in the future. Disability insurance is structured to fill this need, by paying monthly benefits to employees who are no longer capable of working as a result of a significant impairment or illness which is anticipated to last for about a year. The benefits can also be given to the family members of the disabled person (Metlife, 2013).   Medicare is the country’s primary healthcare program, for the elderly aged from 65 and above and individuals with disabilities. Medicare is divided into four parts with part A focusing on paying for inpatient services, part B focus on paying for doctors’ services and Part C is for extra or all health care services and part D is for prescribed drugs.   

The Most Critical Social Security Benefits for Employees

Very critical Critical Less critical Non critical
The most critical social security benefit for workers is the retirement benefits. This is money set aside during individual working lifetime to support him or her during the old age, after attaining official retirement age. Most previously employed individuals do not have any source of income at this age. They therefore depend on their portfolios and life savings to survive. Moreover aging and retiring is a thing that should happen to all individuals. Unlike disabilities, death and illnesses which can be highly discriminative, aging is a must to any worker who will not experience premature death. In this regard, retirement is the most critical social security benefit. It ensures that no previously employed individual become extremely poor and a dependent in their old age. While retirement benefits are not discriminative, one can only enjoy all other benefits under unique situation, for instance disabilities that are caused by non-workplace related causes (SSA, 2017). The second most critical benefit is life insurance, the two; together with retirement benefits even takes the highest share of the contributed money. Life insurance ensures the survival of the dependents especially children in their parents’ death Although all the benefits are important especially since they are based on things that happens in people’s life disability seams less critical than Medicare. Medicare ensures access to healthcare services at old age, which are highly needed as most elderly people do experience health issues.   Disabilities outside the workplace happens but at a lower degree and hence this benefit is only enjoyed by a few individuals

Social Security Benefits that Carries the Highest Cost for Employers and for the Public

Highest Moderate Lowest
The social security benefits which carries the highest cost for both the employer and the public is the retirement benefits. Social security funds comprising of survivors insurance or life insurance  and old age or retirement package and the disability insurance. In this package, the employee contributes 6.2% while the employer contributes double which is 12.4%.
The amount is divided into two packages that include retirement benefits and life insurance which takes 85% of this contribution. The amount is given to retirees and the surviving spouse and children of dead workers (NASI, 2018).
Medicare is a separate contribution with the least amount of 1.45% for both the employee and the employer.     Disability insurance only gets 15% of the money contributed in the social security fund, where the disabled person and the family members get to enjoy this benefit. 

How Business Today Attempt to Control their Health Insurance Costs while Still Using Benefit Packages as Recruitment and Retention Tools

Health insurance benefit is one of the most escalating costs in business. In this regard most organizations are employed different measures to control this cost. One of the strategies used to reduce health insurance cost is by promoting health and safety measures in the workplace through the use of health and safety programs. Organizations currently prefer developing organization culture which promotes wellness and health, to minimize health adversaries that may be expensive to handle (SHRM,2017). Companies are also providing its workers with different health insurance plan, and permit them to choose their taste or what matches their earning rather than having one-size-fit-all arrangement. Other measures include increasing worker share contributed to the brand name cost to prescription drugs and putting limits on, or augmenting cost-sharing for health care coverage for spousal. Employers have also tried increasing the share contributed by workers in the total health care cost. Most organizations are trying to transfer the health insurance cost to workers, or finding alternative ways to enhance the wellbeing and health of their workers through cheaper means. These measures are employed with workers approval to ensure that they are satisfied. The alternatives offered remain favorable to individual employee based on individual earnings and dependents. This ensures that the benefits are good enough to all to ensure workers retention and to attract more talents in the company.

Health Insurance Benefits Impact Organization’s Business Results and Employee Wellbeing

Impact of Health Insurance Benefits on An Organization’s Business Results

Health insurance is one of the most common employees’ benefits in most organization. Organizations normally provide health insurance to entice the employees. However, this ends up benefiting the organization too.  Health insurance enhances the company’s ability to retain and recruit high-quality employees. Provision of favorable health benefits among others makes it easy for the company to earn employee satisfaction and desire to work with them. This enhances its retention cost, and hence reducing workers turnover and recruitment costs.By providing health insurance a company could attract workers who expect creating a long-term work relationship. Health insurance may also play an essential role in improving the health of workers. This increases the workers’ productivity and lowering turnover and absenteeism. Moreover, employees in a good work environment are more productive and happier. Thus the company also creates the notion that it cares about its workers health as well as that of their dependents. Instead of having discrete coverage, the company should be having a common plan for all its workers with ordinary minimum benefits (O’Brien, 2003).

Impact of Health Insurance Benefits on Employees Wellbeing

Employees want employment-founded health insurance for themselves and their dependents so as to safeguard them from disastrous costs of severe illnesses and to guarantee medical care access. For workers without the income or time to save for medical care, insurance might be the only means to get medical care which would else be unaffordable. Based on the provided insurance system, it is probable for individual workers to purchase health insurance privately. Nevertheless, this arrangement is characterized by high private individual coverage cost, coverage access barriers, and steep costs of transaction. These challenges and expenses assist in accounting for the group coverage values to employees. It explain the reason why employees demand coverage via their employers in absence any other reasonable alternative. Group coverage increases the beneficially bargaining power, and thus it is much cheaper compared to individual private coverage (Kwon& Hein, 2013). Moreover, individual covered through their employers are mostly workers in good health, thus they get cost advantage in employment-based plan. The cost is also reduced by minimal administrative expenses and reduced advanced selection. In addition, employment based coverage also experience special federal tax treatment where by the amount the workers contribute to the health insurance directly from the employer is not taxed. This makes is cheaper to have a group cover than individual cover. With this cover, the employees are guaranteed of regular medical checkups, and access to standard treatment at the onset of the disease symptoms ensuring a healthy workforce and at minimized cost (O’Brien, 2003).

Time for Change in Pay Plans? – Jean Inc Scenario

Jean Inc Scenario

You are a newly hired HR professional now working for Jeans Inc. Jeans does not have a formal wage structure or rate ranges and does not use compensable factors. Wages are basically set on prevailing wages in surrounding communities coupled with some attempt for internal equity among workers.

Jeans does not participate in formal pay surveys. Instead, the administrative assistant routinely looks over online job openings and conducts informal surveys among her friends in local organizations. Jeans has always followed a policy of paying employees about 10% above what the assistant determines are the prevailing rates. She thinks this reduces turnover and fosters employee loyalty. The practice is to pay men about 20% more than women for the same job. The assistant explains, “When we hire males, they have families, and they are stronger and can work harder for longer hours.”

Discussion Questions

Question 1 – Compare and contrast two job evaluation methods discussed in this module. Which method (if any) do you recommend for Jeans Inc.? Why

There are two methods of job evaluation. They include analytical and non-analytical job evaluation methods. Non-analytical method can comprise of job ranking, number of job evaluation methods that an organization can use to create job ranking in an paired comparison and job classification methods while analytical method include factor comparison, point factor ranking. This paper compares paired comparison ranking non-analytical job evaluation to factor comparison analytical job evaluation method. In the paired comparison ranking, the jobs are compared with one another. In this case the job evaluator tends to determine whether one job is less or more than the other, and give points based on the answer. The summation of the points is done and the ranking is done based on the point each job gets in total against the others. A job higher in ranking then receives more pay compared to a job lower in ranking. Factor comparison on the other hand involves breaking down a job in terms of working conditions,, job, responsibility, hourly rate. A mandatory value is assigned to each job based on the said aspects. This finally provides a rank that should suit each job. The job compensation in the two methods is based on the rank, with the higher ranked jobs getting more compared to the lowly ranked jobs (Timeless TimeHR, 2014). 

Between the two, I would recommend the use of factor comparison method of job compensation in the Jeans Inc. Factor comparison is recommendable because, the measures used to rank the job are quantifiable. One can clearly give factual reasons as to why a certain job is ranked higher than the other. Paired comparison does not clearly states aspects that would make one job ranked higher than the other. A person with different opinion can also give reasons to change the order. Thus, it is not consistent and the criteria used in ranking are not quantifiable.

Question 1 – Should Jeans Inc. set up a formal salary structure based on a complete job evaluation? Why or why not?

I find the current informal salary structure quite logical and manageable. Although it is not formalized the company ensures that their payment system is slightly above the market value which makes it more competitive in its local market. Nevertheless, the system fails in valuing the workers as they should be valued based on the work they do, the skills needed, effort put, and challenges experienced.  A formal pay structure does not only consider the external aspects that influence job payment but also the individual job requirements that make it unique (Course Videos 2015). This compensation system ensures fairness to workers and hence making them to feel valued and appreciated. The system also makes it easy for the company to make workers understand why they have different pays but having well defined criteria for wage evaluation. Thus, other than surpassing the market value, having a formal salary structure ensures every employee gets what she or he truly deserve, an aspect that can assist in enhancing workers retention. 

Question 3 – Is the policy of paying 10% more than the prevailing rates a sound one? If so, how could it be determined? If not,
what do you recommend?

The policy of paying 10% more than the prevailing market rates sounds logical to me. Assuming that the surrounding organizations source workers from the surrounding, then adding 10% of the prevailing salary makes the company more competitive in the market. The soundness of the policy can be determines by evaluating the level of workers turnover in Jeans, Inc compared to other surrounding organization. It can also be determined by evaluating the kind of workers the company attracts in terms of skills, ability, and experience compared to its surrounding competitors. High level of effectiveness can be indicated by presence of the best workers in terms of skills and performance in Jeans Inc.

Question 4 – What would you do now with respect to a pay plan process at Jeans Inc.? Why?

As the new HR of the Jeans Inc., I would develop a new pay structure based on formal job evaluation and to be specific using the factor comparison methods. This will assist in determining which job is more valuable to the organization and which is less valuable. The organization jobs will then be ranked from the highest to the lowest. I will then start determining the salary range in each job. In this case, other factors that include the market, government regulations, and competitiveness in the market will be considered (Phillips & Robinson, 2016). This will give the workers a chance to work hard to increase their salary through adding experience, enhancing performance and sticking to the company to acquire long stay salary increment. This will be done to ensure that the company pays its workers as deserved as per their job specifications and needs. It will also ensure that workers’ wages remain competitive in the market despite their job rank in the organization. This will make it the HR management easy. It will also make it easy for the organization to determine the pay range of any other arising job as per its importance in the organization.

Examples of Time Away from Work Policies in Private-Sector Organizations

All companies have various policies that govern different forms of leaves in the workplace. Some of these policies are guided by the federal acts such as Fair Labor Standard Act (FLSA). Some of these leaves are paid while others are not paid based on specific company’s policies. They also vary in number of allowed days based on the company preference. Some of the time away from work policies applied in different private companies include Vacation, sick or medical leave, Family care leave policy that include childcare leave, parental leave, and maternity leave. Other than normal leaves advocated by the government, some companies also offer short-term and long-term leaves for personal development through education, also called sabbatical leave, and bereavement leave. One of the most important leave policy included by almost all private companies is the family care leave policy.

Family Care Leave Policy

This policy is structured to permit parents to care for their new born and developing children, and for male parents to take care of their partners during birth process. This policy according to Wassell (2014) was structured for parents to have spillover impact which increases the children wellbeing and the wellbeing of the probable future generations. Most companies define the days for both maternal and paternal leave where the workers are paid. However, any extra days that an employee take for family care beyond the defined days are not paid. For instance, Facebook Company offers six weeks of paid family leave for its workers to care for their sick family members. The company also offers bereavement leave of 20 days to its employees. Starbucks offers payment for six weeks maternal leave, six months paid parental leaves for both parents in Etsy, and upto one year of paid parental leave for new parents in Netflix (McGregor, 2017).

Paid Sick Leave Policy

The United States is the only developed nation without universal admittance to paid sick leave. Nevertheless, stressed by epigraph, sustenance for paid sick leave has substantially grown in the last decade. Sick leave decrees have been implemented in Portland, San Francisco, New York City, Washington D. C., and Seattle among other states. According to Collier (2014), a strong sick pay coverage rationale is promotion to public health. With no sick pay, contagious workers come to workplace sick a situation the initiates spread of diseases and negative externalities. According to Collier (2014), the private sector in the US contain very minimal generous sick leave policies such that about 40% of the country workforce population fail to get even a day of paid sick leave. Generally, the average rate of absenteeism due to sick leave in the United States is as low as 4 to 5 days annually, with most cases being recorded in the public sector. Most of the private companies in the country apply the federal act of Family and Medical leave which demand that they must provide unpaid leave to certain workers to take care of their family members or children. Only a few provide paid leave for personal of family care during sickness.

How Employee’s Rights Impact Work Relationships

All workers have primary rights in the workplace which influence how they are treated or must be treated at their workplace. These rights include right to fair compensation, right to privacy, rights to certain benefits and protection against discrimination based on age, gender, nationality, sexuality, ethnicity, religion, race, and disabilities among others. Workers are normally very careful in ensuring that their rights are respected as per the law and that the organization is committed into respecting these rights. Observing workers’ rights gives an organization an opportunity to build a favorable work environment where everyone is respected and valued despite of diversity. An organization that is highly committed in observing and respecting employee’ right enhances a positive relation between its managers and workers and also among workers. This kind of organization demonstrates value of its workers, who in turn demonstrate their satisfaction to the organization through positive performance.

On the contrary, an organization that fails to observe workers right imposes a strenuous relationship between the workers and the management, since the workers tend to use the provided channels to force the management to comply with the law. This initiates a battle between the workers and the management, resulting to extreme measures such as litigation, strikes, and joining of labor union among majority of workers in quest to acquire power to fight for their rights. Poor workers treatment through discrimination and poor compensation also make workers to feel less valued, an aspect that demotivated most of them. This eventually results to poor general workers performance. Acts such as poor compensation and company’s inability to respects workers minimal benefits such as annual paid leave, and sick leave, inversion of workers privacy and discrimination may initiate workers hostility as they try to fight for what is rightfully theirs. To some extent, workers may initiate legal actions against the company, which results to huge penalties that may not be positively received by the management. This may result to continuous conflicts between workers and the management and also reduce the organization performance (Zhao& Zhang, 2010).

How Technology Impacts Work Relationships

Technology is being extensively embraced to enhance business operations in the world. Most organizations are relying on technology to enhance communication among workers and between workers and the managers, to monitor performance and to give real-time feedback. Other technology applications include provision of cloud based training and digital checklists. Technology can be used to enhance good and quality communication between workers and their employers which makes it easy to air grievances direct to the managers, without passing through the supervisors. Technology makes it easy for workers to have an open communication to the managers and also to have instant feedback, or further discussion. This improves workers trust in the system and also makes them to feel valued, especially since their issues are addressed on time. Performance analysis and real-time feedback makes it easy for workers to devise plans to improve their performance before it deteriorates further (Bahreini, 2017). It also gives them a chance to monitor the effectiveness of their work strategy and make changes where necessary. Managers can also assist in setting goals and defining strategies to attain them. When workers see their managers investing in assisting them to improve their performance they are likely to develop respect and trust toward them. Performance improvement plan can also be done by investing on workers training on aspects that may need to be improved on, aspect that makes workers to feel valued and hence increasing their respect toward the management. This fosters positive relationship between the workers and the management.

Some forms of technology application can also be used to strain the relationship between the employee and the employer. This can actually be perceived in matters related to workers privacy and spending of the working time. The extensive use of technology in the workplace increases the chances of use of working time to accomplish private businesses. There increasing cases of use of mobile devices to handle personal issues or to socialize, especially through social media. This can be one reason for poor individual performance and in most cases it provokes conflicts between workers and supervisors. Extensive exploitation of company’s resources that include internet and mobile devices by employees for personal business does not only resulted to misuse of the companies’ resources, but also wastes of company’s time. This technology initiated behavior has resulted to the employment of surveillance at the workplace as a counter measure to the issue. Disciplinary actions are taken based on surveillance results, especially if an employee is found wasting company’s time on personal activities.Surveillance is however not positively embraced by workers. Most of them feel that it is invading on their privacy(Chang, Liu& Lin, 2015). Surveillance is also considered to acts as a sign of managers or company’s lack of trust on its workers. This creates a strained relationship between workers and the management, killing the free will to employ extra effort to enhance organization success among workers. The idea of being tight monitoring also creates tension among workers.

Employee Voice and Protections and Restraints on that Voice – PowerPoint Presentation

Employee Voice

  • Employee voice involves guaranteeing that everyone working in a company has the ability to write or talk about important issues
  • Employee voice is a crucial business performance enabler
  • Individuals who have found their voice tend to be more focused in their job
  • Employee voice can promote workers capability which can be enhanced through effective management and HR processes (Du Toit, 2014).

Employee voice plays a great role in ensuring effective communication between employees and employers where employee ensures that their issues are known and addressed by the right authority. This play a great role in enhancing organization performance, since it enhances real time solving of issues and promoting conducive work environment. Workers who voice their issues, ideas and opinion tend to me more focus on their job and hence enhancing their ability to invest their energy in their production. 

  • žEmployee voice promotes workers retention and engagement in an organization ž
  • An organization which does not have employee voice misses on its ability to enhance a better work environment
  • žEmployee voice helps in shaping culture of an organization and also acts as a major cultural change facilitator
  • žIt encourages workers to speak about things they are experiencing creating awareness and chance for change (Huss, 2016). ž

Employee voice promotes workers satisfaction with organization since it has workers in mind. This increases workers retention and engagement in an organization. An organization which does not have employee voice misses on its ability to enhance a better work environment, and hence being unable to make use of workers talents. Employee voice helps in shaping culture of an organization and also acts as a major cultural change facilitator. It encourages workers to speak about things they are experiencing creating awareness and chance for change in an organization. This make it possible for the organization to grow and to promote conducive work environment (Huss, 2016).

  • žLack of employee voice will not only impact individual employees’ performance but that of the organization in general
  • žIt allows productive internal talks which is a pre-requisite to supporting them to have useful external talks
  • žPromoting employee voice assists in preventing external negative commentary žIt also promotes transparency in an organization and hence making it possible to only communicate things that exist (Huss, 2016) ž

According to Huss (2016), Lack of employee voice will not only impact individual employees’ performance but that of the organization in general.  Employee voice allows productive internal talks between employees and managers and among employees. This is a pre-requisite to supporting them to have useful external talks about the company due to their positive perspective towards it. Thus promoting employee voice assists in preventing external negative commentary, since it enhance solving internal problems that would promote negative organization perception among employees. It also promotes transparency in an organization and hence making it possible to only communicate things that exist (Huss, 2016)

  • žGiving workers an effective voice makes them to feel valued
  • žIt gives a way for persons to have control of what transpires to them at work ž
  • Effective employee voice assists to develop trustful and open relationship between employer and employees ž
  • Workers are likely to demonstrate commitment to the company if they have a voice (Du Toit, 2014). ž

Giving workers an effective voice is a basic element for treating them as legal stakeholders in the work relationship.  It makes workers to feel valued and gives them a way to have control of what transpires to them at work place.  Effective employee voice assist  in developing trustful and open relationship between employer and employees through open and transparent communication. Workers are likely to demonstrate commitment to the company if they have a voice. This commitment enhance their long relation with the company and also facilitates high work performance.

  • žSharing views can result to greater productivity, problem-solving and innovation (Huss, 2016)
  • žEmployee voice can be enhanced through technology which include use of blogs, employee forums, notice boards, social networking or even face to face meeting
  • žThe main aspect that must be considered in this case is ensuring that a two-way form of communication is enhanced žThe management should provide feedback to the raised issues (Du Toit, 2014). ž

Sharing views through employee voice can result to greater productivity, problem-solving and innovation (Huss, 2016). Employee voice can be enhanced through technology which include use of blogs, employee forums, notice boards, and social networking. These are platforms that enhance virtual two way communication, giving a chance for a complete dialog to audience or communicator satisfaction. Immediate feedback or communication at real time is permitted, just like in face to face meeting. This kind of interaction ensures that issues are addressed to level of workers satisfaction and a solution is always found.

Employee Voice Protection

  • žThe law offers workers the right to unit to enhance the working conditions and pay
  • žWorkers are Protected from prejudice for participating in protected group activity ž
  • The law outlaws policy prohibiting workers from publically airing complains ž
  • Restrictions denying workers to communicate about matters of interest among themselves are unlawful  (National Labor Relations Board, 2017). ž

Employee voice is also protected by the law. The law offers workers the right to unit to enhance the working conditions and pay with or without a union. Thus workers can not be subjected to any king of penalty, suspension or firing for participating in protected group activity to fight for their rights. Some organizations that workers may air complains related to their working condition or salaries confidentially to prevent other workers to know about their complains. Policies of this nature are prohibited by the laws and regarded to go against workers right to unit to air their grievances. Restrictions denying workers to communicate about matters of interest among themselves are thus regarded to be unlawful (National Labor Relations Board, 2017).

Employee Voice Restriction and Protection

  • žRestrictions against sharing information related to company interest publically are lawful (Zaken &Totorica, 2017). ž
  • Employers tend to spy on employees character using their social accounts ž
  • However, workers are also protected from invasion of their privacy
  • However privacy low protect workers  from this , promoting social media as an employee voice (Guerin, 2017).

žRestrictions against sharing information related to company interest publically are lawful (Zaken &Totorica, 2017). žEmployers tend to spy on employees character using their social accounts žHowever, workers are also protected from invasion of their privacy žHowever privacy low protect workers  from this , promoting social media as an employee voice (Guerin, 2017).

Employee Voice Protection and Restriction 

  • žNo employer has the right to ask for personal accounts password or user account to spy on the employee ž
  • Employee are also protected from being fired based on misconduct that took place on their off duties
  • žHowever, social media posts tarnishing company or boss reputation are not protected by this law ž
  • Workers thus need to know where to draw the line

In addition to this, employers have a tendency of asking for passwords and username to explore private information about an employ or job applicant. According to the law, no employer has the right to ask for personal accounts password or user account to spy on the employee. This should be considered as inversion of personal privacy which is protected by the law. Employee are also protected from being fired based on misconduct that took place on their off duties. Nevertheless, social media post aired for public view are not protected by this law. Thus, publically posted social media posts tarnishing company or boss reputation are not protected by this law.

Key Elements of Certified Electronic Health Records (EHRs)

Certified EHRs has a number of elements defined by the Office of the National Coordination (ONC) for Health Information Technology. Contrary to expectation of many, the rule of PNC sets a slightly low certification bar, such that it does not need usability testing nor demand full functionalities array which might be essential in healthcare organization practice. However, the certification criteria focus on two functionality elements. One of the main elements is the ability to compute measures defined in the incentive program of EHR. Certified EHR systems need to have a distinct set of record-keeping to establish whether a participant met the required threshold and the actual numbers to be reported for denominators and numerators (American College of Cardiology, 2018). The certified EHR thus must be able to make these computations and participants or users should be in a position to report this information more easily to CMS as needed for the incentive program of EHR. Another required functionality element in EHRs certification is the ability to record when digital health information is deleted, created, accessed or modified and the ability to show what happened and who performed the specific act. Thus, the key elements of certified EHRs are highly based on the two main functionalities which are basically extra functionality aspect from a normal uncertified system. The computation of measure considered in the provision of incentive in away ensures that all core objectives of EHRs are certified in a healthcare organization (American College of Cardiology, 2018). 

Global Harmonization System of Classification and Labeling of Chemical Substances (GHS)

What is the Global Harmonization System of Classification and Labeling of Chemical Substances

Is a system for labeling and classification of is a system for hazard harmonization classification criteria and communication element of chemical hazard worldwide.

Why was the Global Harmonization System of Classification and Labeling of Chemical Substances developed?

The GHS was developed with the main aim goal of enhancing better protection of the environment and human health by giving chemical handlers and users, the public and emergency first responders with consistent and enhanced information on chemical hazards (, 2015).

Describe the GHS classification system?

GHS classifies and defines the chemical products hazard. The chemical compounds are classified based on the level of physical hazard, based on their environmental hazard and based on health hazards. 

What is the format for the GHS Safety Data Sheet (SDS)?

GHS safety data sheet is harmonized to accommodate 16 sections. The format includes the number of the section, the name of the section and the description of the specific section. The 16 sections include substance identification, chemical and physical properties, identification of hazard, storage and handling, composition, personal protection, first-aid measures, reactivity and stability, fire-fighting measures, toxicological information, transport information, ecological information, regulatory information, disposal considerations and other information (, 2015).

Example Of A Comprehensive Set Of Policies And Procedures for An Organization

Staff Consultation

  • The company values the contribution of staff in its daily operation, innovation and product development. It thus seeks to offer chances for staff to take part in decision-making via staff consultation among other means
  • Supervisors and managers will directly consult with staff on everyday matters that impact employment of staff members
  • Staffs are urged to directly raise any issues or concerns they might have regarding their work to their supervisor
  • In a situation where any staff member feels that the raised concern is not well handled or not adequately raised by the supervisor, they might ask for staff representative assistance, who might offer advice and support them in raising the issues.
  • Workers can ask for direct meeting with the area manager if need be though their staff representative for further consultation.

Internal Communication

  • Staffs are permitted to communicate using assigned company email system and the internal telephone especially on matters related to their assignments
  • General announcement will be communicated via internal memo pinned on the company notice board
  • Any change of operations, or introduction of new operation procedure will be communicated via physical meeting between the managers and supervisors or between the managers and all bodies of staffs

Cultural Diversity

  • The company embraces diversity and hence every staff member is required to respect other people’s culture, and hence any offensive remarks regarding individual culture or any discriminative act based on cultural aspect will be punished through disciplinary action 
  • The company emphasizes on the cultural diversity value and strengthens its commitment to cultural inclusiveness through various cultural program

Continuous Improvement

  • Company will be conducting continuous assessment of employee performance after every six months
  • Organizational based training and workshops will be provided to all workers in areas of weakness, and special mentorship and coaching will be provided to those who need further assistance to improve their performance. Personal efforts will also be anticipated to improve individual performance

Staff Complaint and Conflict Resolution

  • Any work related issues should be raised to the immediate supervisor. In case the supervisor is unable to handle the problem, the problem can be raised to workers union who are anticipated to work with the management to handle the problems
  • Personal conflict should be reported to the supervisor, and in case the supervisor is unable to resolve the issue, the issues should be forward to the company’s disciplinary committee

Managing Company Ethics

  • Staffs are required to respect company’s property and time. No use of company’s properties or company’s time for personal work
  • Staffs are anticipated to respect company’s customers and to serve them with high level of dedication, respect and integrity
  • Anybody found breaking any of the company’s laws of policy will be liable for the action and will face the relevant disciplinary action based on the offense

Encouraging and Maintaining Effective and Harmonious Workplace Relationships

  • All workers are anticipated to accord each other with respect, humanity and professionalism. Open communication is permitted in each department to enhance collaboration in problems solving
  • Every employee is expected to follow the provided conflict resolution channel to ensure all conflicts and disagreements are handled in a professional manner

Provide Feedback to Staff on Outcomes from Consultations and Complaints

  • Employees’ feedback on various aspects will be provided through the communication channel that initiated the consultation
  • Complaints feedbacks will be provided in a face-to-face meeting with the supervisor or disciplinary committee

Communicating Policies and Procedures

The company policy should be provided to any new employee upon employment. The employee should read and understand them, ask any clarification if need be and finally sign the policy sheet to acknowledge that he or she will follow the company’s policy and procedures while in the company or face disciplinary action. In case the policy and procedures are being introduced to the existing workforce, the HR department should post a notification internal memo to the company notice board to inform the workers of new policies. The HR department should then call for organizational meeting with the staffs, where the new policies will be discussed. The HR department should ensure that all policies are clearly understood by the members. The meeting should ensure that each employee has at least two printed copies of the company’s policies which will be signed at the end of the meeting to demonstrate workers commitment toward observing these policies. One copy of the policy will be returned to the HR department, while the staffs will be left with the remaining copy for personal reference. A copy of the company’s policy should also be left at the notice board (Mazin, 2011).

Benefits of Having Well Developed Policies and Procedures

The main benefit of having a well-developed policies and procedures is that the organization will easily manage to control the behaviors of workers in the workplace. It will also be easy to resolve misconduct related conflicts at the workplace without initiating legal battles. Policies and procedures also enhances effective organization and operation of production activities in an organization since it is clear on what each employee is required to do (Australian Business Solutions Group, 2013).

The Consequentialism Debate: Compare and Contrast Deontology and Utilitarianism

Utilitarianism is a form of consequentialism where by the outcome determines the goodness of an act. Based on utilitarianism, an act is regarded to be morally right only if its outcome maximizes on the goodness. Thus when an act brings happiness to the majority it is regarded as right while when it bring sadness to the majority, the act is regarded to be morally wrong. Based on utilitarianism any act that is considered to be morally right should not focus on harming others but adding to their happiness (Kemerling, 2011). On the contrary deontology theory is based on the duty, where by one would act not due to pleasure and pain but because human have the ability to reason and to do what is right based on the laws of the nature. According to deontology, all people have universal sensible duties toward each other, with the main duty being respecting all other humankind. Deontology thus disregards the outcome and focuses more on the duty which one must adhere to, and for an act to be considered right one need to ascertain that it would be right if all individuals in the world consider taking that action. This theory is thus highly based on more responsibility, commitment and duty (Misselbrook, 2013). The two theories seem to differ such that utilitarianism is basically based on the final results, where by it refutes that moral rightness relies directly on anything but consequences, while deontology is based on the rightness of an act despite the end result. Deontology can best be applied in a work environment where duties are prioritized than the final outcome. One is only considered right if he or she acted as anticipated as per the laws of the organization. This theory will play a great role in helping to stick to my lean to maintain my job in the future.

The two theories are similar in that, logically, all selected actsin deontology are done after logical reasoning and thus, they are all morally right and hence they mostly yield to positive outcome. When an act is morally right, the outcome is likely to be pleasing. Thus, despite not considering the consequences, deontology normally result to a positive outcome which is normally assured to majority, in case that selected act was to be applied by all in the world to solve a similar problem. Thus, similar to consequential theory the final outcome is pleasing to the majority and only painful to those who had adopted other unethical ways of handling their life issues.

Mental Health Assessment- Dissociative Identity Disorder

Mental Health Case

Patricia is a 44-year-old female who reports that she has periods of time where she cannot remember what she has done. She reports that after one such period, she received a telephone call from a man who claimed to have met her in a bar where she was “the life of the party.” She had also told the man her name was Priscilla. Patricia thinks that this is odd because she does not drink, and she is a rather shy and retiring person. However, the man had her correct telephone number and was able to give a good physical description of her. View more instructions on creating a mental health assessment

Dissociative Identity Disorder –

This analysis will be based on case 4, where the patient reports not remembering events that she participated in under different identity. The patient receives a call from a stranger who claims to have met her in bar for a party. According to Patricia, she does not drink, and thus she could not have been in that party. However, the physical description given to her by the stranger matches hers and the phone number given is her. The patient is in the clinic due to amnesia, whereby she reports that she has periods of time where she cannot recall what she has done or major life events she participated in. 

Patricia current symptoms include amnesia, where she forgets about her daily occurrences, and multiple identities or personalities. The patient does not seem to have historical details about her condition, only that the episodes of amnesia have been reported severally. The current condition can be somehow stressful to deal with and to manage individual daily life functions. The condition is likely to affect individual social life and relation with other people in the society (Ringrose, 2012). The fact that one can act differently with similar people, give two identity to similar people can result to distrust. Some may even interpret it as con business, especially based on the fact that the person involved cannot remember anything regarding his or her behavior when acting with a different identity. Another major issue is that condition can result to legal issues since one can do illegal thing when in possession of a different identity without realizing it, and suffer while in the normal identity. The condition can also result to stereotyping and isolation in the society which can increase mental distress and maybe initiating self-harm behaviors (Ringrose, 2012).

The specific diagnosis for Patricia is Dissociative Identity Disorder previously known as multiple personality disorder. This is a condition which has dissociation central features in normal integrated functions of perception, identity, memory, and consciousness. The condition main symptoms include presence of more than one personality or identities, each with unique pattern of relating and interpreting to the environment (APA, 2013). Patricia recorded two identities as Patricia and as Priscilla. She also recorded two personality as a cool none-party person without alcohol taking record, and as a hyper party-bee with alcohol taking as part of lifestyle. Another possible symptom for this condition is amnesia, which limits how much an individual can recall about daily occurrences and traumatic events (APA, 2013). In this case, Patricia reports several cases of forgetting daily occurrences including the last party incident. This condition is found in the general class of Dissociative Disorders, where the central characteristic of these conditions is dissociation (APA, 2013).

I would recommend the patient to go through a psychiatric assessment to determine the condition scale and start a treatment plan based on the identified scale. The provided treatment plan should start by assisting the patient to accept the diagnosis.  The provided treatment plan will focus on enable her to manage her condition, by controlling her changing emotions (Ringrose, 2012). The patient needs treatment for dissociative identity disorder which is mostly done through provision of therapeutic measures, or a combination of pharmacological treatment and therapeutic treatment in severe cases. Some of the therapeutic measures that the psychologist may consider during treatment include psychodynamic therapy and cognitive therapy (Ringrose, 2012).

Individuals suffering from various mental conditions need understanding and support from the family members, especially when their condition can result to self-harm or poor life management. In this particular case, I would engage the family in supporting Patricia during her treatment. The family members should observe closely to identify the trigger to the patient condition and try to suppress them in the future. They should also be there to ensure that Patricia comply with the treatment plan and also to support her while experiencing society judgment and stereotyping (Ringrose, 2012).

Creating a Mental Health Assessment – Assignment Instructions

Mental Health Cases

  1. Tony sometimes seems very wound up. At those times, he seems full of energy, talks very rapidly, and makes very grandiose plans. Once, he gave away all of his belongings and was planning to move to Washington, D.C., so that he could advise the President. At these times, he also seems to need almost no sleep. During other periods of time Tony seems very down. During these times, he does not take care of himself. He seems to want to sleep all the time, and he often makes thinly veiled references to wanting to commit suicide.
  2. Paula has not left her house for several months. When she tries to go out, she experiences great anxiety. She says she is afraid that if she leaves her house to go somewhere, she will not be able to get back. Before all this started, Paula seemed fairly normal except for having several episodes where, for no apparent reason, her heart started pounding, she started to sweat profusely, and she experienced all the symptoms of fear and terror. One of the reasons she is afraid to leave the house is because she is afraid she will have one of these episodes again. Hint: there are two specific diagnoses here.
  3. Horace sleeps a lot, has great difficulty getting out of bed in the morning, and generally does not want to do anything. He has stopped seeing friends whom he used to see often and declines all invitations to do things socially. His most common response is “I just do not feel like it.” He looks sad all the time and does not seem to take pleasure in everyday activities. This has been going on for the past two months.
  4. Patricia is a 44-year-old female who reports that she has periods of time where she cannot remember what she has done. She reports that after one such period, she received a telephone call from a man who claimed to have met her in a bar where she was “the life of the party.” She had also told the man her name was Priscilla. Patricia thinks that this is odd because she does not drink, and she is a rather shy and retiring person. However, the man had her correct telephone number and was able to give a good physical description of her.
  5. Frank was attending college in San Francisco during a recent earthquake. He lived in the area that was hardest hit by the quake. Frank was not home when the earthquake hit and was not injured in any way, but when he returned home, he found his building demolished and his two roommates crushed to death. Frank immediately drove himself to the airport, bought a ticket to Boston, and got on the plane. His parents found him on their doorstep in Boston the next morning. Frank remembers nothing about the earthquake and nothing about going to college in San Francisco. The last thing he remembers is being a high school student and living with his parents in Boston.

You have learned about various psychological disorders and the complexities involved with proper diagnoses and treatment efforts. Now it is time to put your skills to the test. Choose ONE of the cases listed below and create a mental health assessment for your chosen case. In the assessment, you should address the following:

  • Why is your client coming for treatment?
  • What are his or her current symptoms?
  • Does he or she have a history with this problem? If so, please describe it.
  • How could the issue affect his or her daily life functions?
  • What is your client’s specific diagnosis?
  • What is the general class(es) of disorders to which this disorder belongs?
  • What are your recommendations? What specific treatment plan will you prescribe for this patient? You should use your textbook as a reference to substantiate your plan.
  • How could you get his or her family involved?

View a sample answers based on Case 4 (Dissociative Identity Disorder Assessment) or order a unique answer at UniqueWritersbay.Com based on of the cases at an affordable price.

Implications and Challenges of Cost, Quality, and External Forces on Electronic Health Record

The Future of Health Information Systems

The adoption and implementation of electronic health record (EHR) systems is normally associated to a number of significant benefits that include decreased costs of healthcare and better care, due to increase of efficiency, accuracy and speed among other things. However this is not the only thing that comes with EHR implementation. EHR implementation also comes with a number of unanticipated consequences that may make it hard to use. Poor design and improper utilization of EHR system can results to EHR-associated errors which jeopardize the information integrity in the EHR, resulting to errors which threaten the safety of patients or that lower the care quality. Some of these errors occur due to lack of enough money to finance effective implementation of the EHR system and to train the personnel in a manner that enhance effective utilization of this technology in their organization (Bowman, 2013). This paper analyzes external threats, challenges and implications of quality, cost, and external forces on electronic medical record (EMR) no electronic health record (EHR) implementation and selection in health care information department

Implications and Challenges of Cost, Quality, and External Forces on EHR

One of the major challenges facing the implementation and maintenance of EHR is the cost. According to Boonstra, Vesluis and Vos(2014), financial issues that include implementation and adoption costs, continuous maintenance, loss of income related to temporal loss of productivity, and revenue decline act as discouragement for physicians and hospitals to implement and adopt an EHR. Costs of EHR implementation and adoption include buying and installing software and hardware, changing paper works to electronic work, and end-users training. The initial installation cost has been the main challenge in the past, though the extensive use of EHR technology is resulting to decrease in this cost. Maintenance cost is also a great challenge as software has to be upgraded and hardware replaced regularly. Without enough money to enhance the process of implementation, adoption and maintenance, EHR may be poorly installed or implemented resulting to bugs or security loopholes. This can also results to poor workers training, resulting to a lot of human errors in system utilization. Lack of proper maintenance may results to system failures that can yield to loss of productivity among other issues (Boonstra, Vesluis& Vos, 2014).

The effectiveness of the EHR system in its operation is highly determined by its level of accuracy, reliability and integrity. EHR system thus needs to be safe, efficient, and consistent in delivering high quality of care. The EHR adoption has failed to attain the projected cost savings and benefits due to shortcoming in system implementation and design, influencing effective and safe use of these systems. Irrespective of the EHR promise to improve care quality and safety of patients, an extensive range of evidence demonstrates possible safety threats related with EHR use, sometimes regarded as e-iatrogenesis. The occurrence of EHR-associated errors yields to data incorrectly entered, data loss, and/or incorrect datatransmission or display, resulting to loss of information integrity. According to Bowman (2013), increase in EHR use in provision of care has been associated with increase in healthcare risks, including possible EHR-induces medical harm, error, or death. Despite this, there is no set standard on the EHR to be developed in an organization or in the level of safety and efficiency it must satisfy before the system commissioning. This means, errors can easily occur without being recognize as there is no body focusing on ensuring that only the safest and effectively implemented EHR should be commissioned for operation. In addition to this, there is no sense of accountability on some of the errors and risks that the system causes to the patient. Some systems are created with high level of errors and bugs, some designs are incomplete, and some use unreliable software platforms or hardware. These aspects highly impact the care quality and in most cases incasing the risks and disadvantages of the EHR implementation than the enjoyed benefits (Bowman, 2013). Some of the external forces influencing the EHR cost and quality is the change of technology, and competition in healthcare facilities, where each organization focuses on being the best to lead in the market. High competition results to increase in price of quality system to create differentiation in the market.

External Threat Facing
Electronic Health Record Systems

The effective operation of EHR is also influenced by external factors. One of the main possible external factors that can highly influence the EHR system performance is the security issue. The basic to the EHR adoption is the privacy and security of the highly sensitive, digitalized medical data. Thus, privacy and security becomes a popular and significant topic in research of health informatics. EHR system protection from abuse by permitted users and from unauthorized access or from being re-identified from the published health data for secondary use is one of the most important practices in the EHR system development. Security can be an internal and external factor since it can be compromised from inside and/or outside. Systems attempts to compromise the system security can be very costly since they can highly interfere with data integrity through alteration, data privacy and confidentiality through access, or compromise data availability. External security attacks can play a great role in compromising the system quality and efficiency. It can also be very costly to handle security related issues, especially major attacks that influence system availability or integrity (Ajami& Bagheri-Tadi,  2013). It is thus important to pay a great attention to enhancing EHR system security to prevent hacking, snooping, man-in-the-middle attacks, virus attacks and spyware among other security breaches.

History Discussion Questions With Sample Answers

1. Imagine a prominent historian of the early modern period saying “we should consider 1492 as a revolutionary new starting point in history.” Why revolutionary? Explain why this might be true, giving details, facts, and events for support.

2. How did New World societies view themselves and their relationships with other tribes, nature, or the world? How did they view the Europeans who arrived after 1492? Discuss.

3. How did Old World societies view themselves and their relationships with other nations, nature, or the world?  Why did the European Atlantic states (Portugal, Spain, England, France, and the Netherlands, among others) seek to trade, voyage, and discover? How did they view the natives of the New World? Explain.

4. Alfred Crosby called the meeting of the Old and the New Worlds “the Columbian Exchange.” What happened when the two worlds encountered each other?  What types of exchanges occurred? Give examples.

5. How would one compare and contrast the different European colonial experiments in the New World?  Demographically?  Politically?  Social organization?  Relations with the metropolitan center (home country)?  Economically?  (Examine the Spanish, French, and British efforts, or others).

6.  Compare and contrast the experience of the various British New World colonies?  Compare the colonial experiments in the north, south, and middle Atlantic colonies in North America?  How did these compare with the British Caribbean settlements?  (You may use some of the same factors noted in the first question).

7.  Did geography and climate contribute to the different development paths of these colonies?  Explain.

8.  Did religion play a role in the settlement of both the European colonies generally, and the British colonies specifically?  Explain, giving examples.

Real Communication Barriers Created by Technology in the Workplace – Annotated Bibliography

Cho, H-K., Trier, M & Kim, E. 2006. “The use of instant messaging in working relationship development: A case study.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, vol.10, no.4,

This is a research article that focuses on assessing how systems of instant messaging (IM) assist in improving workers working relationship within organizational boundaries which include outside the organization, across departments, and within departments. The research was conduct in a Korean tire manufacturing company where survey questions were issued and interview conducted to 150 respondents in the company. The results indicated that majority of workers used instant messaging to communicate among themselves. This improved working relationships between departments, within departments, and between companies in the provided order. This research demonstrated the effectiveness of using instant messaging in improving and developing working relationships within the organization and across the border.

Sharma, N. 2010. “Communication at work place.” International Journal of Educational Research and Technology, vol.1, no.2, pp. 5-8.

This article discusses the importance of effective communication in a work environment. In the introduction, the article acknowledges different forms of communication and their contribution in promoting interpersonal relationship. The article then reviews on different forms of communication, communication barriers that can influence their effectiveness, and what can be done to enhance communication efficiency while using these methods of communication, especially when communication is fostered between the management and workers. The article guides managers and how they can better their work environment by promoting effective communication. Managers should ensure that they develop trust from workers though effective communication and they improve their skills as communicators.

Mokashi, S. n.d., “Impact of information technology in business communication.”Scibd. Retrieved from

The article features communication as the third major human civilization revolution after industrial and agricultural evolutions.  It clearly reflect on how the communication technology has been advancing in the last 100 years, and the advancements that have been recorded since then to date in terms of physical technology. The article then discusses information technology and how it is being utilized today to enhance business operations.  It also explains the functionality of Information Communication and Technology (ICT) in terms of storing, processing, converting, retrieving and transmitting information. It explains the hardware and software needed to enhance these roles and aspects that information technology concentrates on to enhance effective communication and data processing.

McKenzie, C. L & Qazi, C. J. 1983, “Communication barriers in the workplace.”  Business Horizons, pp. 1-1.

This article discusses how communication breakdown between non-native speaking workers and Native American supervisors influence the work performance and companies’ productivity in various American firms. According to the author, the language barrier makes it hard for workers to understand instructions or to follow them. Although they would not act like they do not understand, supervisors find them standing next to their desks after they are done giving instruction and expecting them to walk out and execute them. This becomes considerably costly as many workers end up losing their jobs, receiving penalties and denied promotion due to errors that cannot be tolerated or job confusion as a result of communication breakdown. 

Perez, C & Soete, L.  “21. Catching up in technology: entry barriers and windows of opportunity.” pp. 458-479.

This is a chapter that focuses on technological advancement in developing nations compared to developed nations. The article analysis some of the unique conditions in which technological imitation and catching up could happen. This discussion is founded on diffusion theory, which gives relevance to industrial development theory. The article starts with a static perspective of technology so as to understand how the actual buying, imitating and developing cost of production technology are impacted by the features of the acquiring company and by those of place.  The article then introduces dynamism of technology and assesses how different elements of the above mentioned costs reduce or increase as evolution of technology takes place to maturity from introduction.

Shachaf, P. “Cultural diversity and information and communication technology impacts on global virtual teams: An exploratory study.” Information & Management, vol.45, no. 2, pp. 131-142.

The article focuses on analysing challenges that are faced by modern organizations in a competitive international economy and turbulence environment. Thisis done by conducting explanatory study paper that enters on determining the ICT and cultural diversity effects on effectiveness of a team. This is done by conducting interviews with 41 members of a team from nine different companies, employed by 500 Fortune corporations. The analysis outcome demonstrated that cultural diversity had a negative impact on communication and positive impact on decision making. It was also established that ICT alleviate the intercultural communication negative impact and support decision making positive impacts.

How To Make Multicultural Project Teams Effective

The best way to make a multicultural team effective is by respecting other peoples culture and being aware of it. This will make it easy for group member to co-exist since they will always respect other people’s diversity and learn as much as possible to avoid offending their colleagues by acting insensitive. The team manager should establish a common ground especially in serious project operation to avoid conflict related to business time for instance some culture being intolerance to delays while others taking delays casually. The project manager can create a common ground where all members can be comfortable. The team can be governed by time management, and communication rules which should be followed by all. A team culture should be developed which will make it easy to unify the group. While doing so, the team manager should consider the values, beliefs and culture of all team members. This will eliminate the diversity aspect and enhance togetherness. The other recommendation is taking advantage of the diversity to enhance team functionality and effectiveness. A diverse team can enhance the aspect of problem solving since members have different experience and life perception. When integrated, these ideas can amount to a unique problem solution. Thus an open communication channel can be enhanced to promote ideas sharing and raising questions. With cultural respect, this can easily enhance understanding, learning and growth of the team, which eventually promotes success.

Group Decision-Making Challenges Faced By Multicultural Project Teams And How To Overcome Them

One of the main challenges is be communication. Multicultural team may include people who cannot speak the same language. This will make it hard for them to discuss an issue to a point of making decision. Another major challenge is diversity in life challenges, experiences, value and expectations. The fact that every person has different beliefs and values from each other may cause chaos and huge conflict in the group discussions, making it hard for the group to make decisions. Variation in perceptions of various aspects in life, business, and in problem solving are also likely to create conflict in discussions leading to decision making (Gobbo, 2008). The team may experience huge conflicts based on members’ high level of cultural, regional, beliefs, norms and values diversity. The best way to handle this would be using a define strategy to arrive to the final decision. The first step should be identifying the problem. The all members should be given a chance to make a contribution on possible solutions. Solutions should be listed as they are proposes. Each solution should then be analyzed, noting cons and pros, and then ranked, and he best choice will be selected. To ensure full participation, without discrimination or stereotyping, to ensure all members take part and contributes effectively including introverts and shy members. This will help in eliminating conflicts and other decision making challenges (Behfar, Kern & Brett, 2006).

Overcoming Multicultural Project Teams Problems

Multicultural team experiences a number of challenges which include communication problems, different expectations, and different values. The communication problematic context in multicultural project teams initiates questions as to how clients, project managers and team members can overcome the cultural and structural constraints and conditions that define the team operations so as to create an infrastructure which facilitates effective communication. The best way to handle this is by defining the possible common language for all. If this is not possible, the project manager should define a communication platform where effective translation of the message can be done. All members should consider using simple language to avoid serious distortion of the message during translation. Members who understand more than one language can also assist in translation. Communication will also be enhanced by learning basic of body languages in other cultures. This will eliminate misinterpretation of any body language from a member of different culture (Ochieng & Price, 2009).

Different values and expectations are other challenges that are likely to be experienced in a multicultural environment. The values and expectations challenges can be overcome by defining clear team or project expectations and values.  Creating clear and well defined team values and expectations will eliminate the diversity aspect and unify the team. Having the same level of expectation makes it easy for the team member to play their respectful roles to meet the team expectation. The team leader should also be determined to meet the members’ expectation of him or her. It is also important to note that multicultural team members have different values. The team leader will ensure that all team members are involved in defining the new team values which will mostly focus on the team main objectives and goal. This will eliminate the chance for imposition of personal values in the team operations and hence enhance focus and collaboration among the team members.