Evolution of Policing and the Training and Skills For Success In Law Enforcement

Foundation of the Development and Functions of the Police Assignment Instructions

To understand contemporary policing in America, it is essential to understand the history by looking at the past eras. The police have day-to-day practices influenced by deeply ingrained traditions. It’s also necessary to comprehend how an officer’s career begins, from the academy to the street. The effective partnership between the police and the community must also be understood to better appreciate the development and functions of police.

Write a 5- to 7-page paper in which you examine the evolution of policing and the training and skills required to adequately prepare individuals to be successful in law enforcement. Address the following in your paper:

  1. Compare and contrast the major characteristics of the three eras of policing–political era, reform era, and community era. Provide real-world examples to illustrate the differences between each era.
  2. Identify the skills and training that are imparted to police trainees during their academy training that you believe are most essential to future success in law enforcement. Explain your rationale. Consider using real-world events to justify your rationale.
  3. Examine the principles of community policing and its importance in law enforcement. Explain how it differs from traditional policing. Provide real-world scenarios to illustrate these differences.
  4. Examine critically the four stages of the problem-solving process (SARA) and explain the importance of each stage.
  5. Determine the top five qualities that detectives and undercover officers need to possess and explain how these qualities relate to real-world applications and future success.

Foundation of the Development and Functions of the Police Sample Paper

Comparing And Contrasting The Major Characteristics Of The Three Eras Of Policing–Political Era, Reform Era, And Community Era

In the words of Martin Luther King, every historical struggle deserves a record. It is important to record a chronology of events in order to help people appreciate their history. Subject to this paper, policing in America, as it appertains to law enforcement has changed dramatically over the years. Law enforcement practices remain deeply embedded in tradition nonetheless. In the historical timeframe stretching from mid-19th century to the early 20th century, law enforcement underwent the Political Era of policing. This era was predominantly brutal, fleeting, and corrupt. Law enforcement basically served political leaders. The police was a secret weapon to preserve the status quo. From fighting their proxy wars to guarding the interests of the politicians, the police force was an instrument of tyranny (De Finance, 1991).

This historical injustices prompted calls for reforms. The call for reform came amid the progressive political movement, which emphasized on the empowerment of the people at a community level as well the initiation of a series of government reforms to mitigate the adversity of the outgoing era of corruption. Education became a minimum requirement to enroll for law enforcement jobs. In policing, the police force went from political control to non-partisan, centralized, and standardized agency under the mantra “to protect and serve.” (Solomon, 1984) The goal was to create an impartial agency as a stepping stone towards fostering social justice in law enforcement. Professor Heather Burns of the University of Columbia explains that the most visible improvement in policing during the Reform Era was the establishment closer contact between police officers and the people at the community level. Policing put officers in patrol cars as they moved around maintaining law and order in the counties (Fagothey, 2000).

Skills And Training That Imparted To Police Trainees During Their Academy Training That Are Most Essential To Future Success In Law Enforcement

In the police academy, police trainees undergo a series of sessions through which they learn basic skills and knowledge to help equip them with the required awareness and comprehension of their new line of duty. The first phase involved induction into law enforcement, which entails introduction to the basics such as first aid training, officer safety, ICT, health, human rights, cultural diversity, and community safety standards. The second phase involves community. Here, the officers are trained in crime reduction and community placement. Trainees learn the basics of maintaining law and order. Next, trainees learn how to conduct both supervised and independent patrols. With the coming of community policing, it was thought best to train rookies on the importance of establishing a connection with people at the grassroots level. Officers ought to be able to engage with people at the counties in an attempt to understand the problems that face communities such as burglary, petty theft, and social crimes such as prostitution, underage drinking, and drug abuse (Maier, 2010).

Read Also Defining Police Ethics

As the so called rookies undergo training at the police academies, what they learn ought to apply in their line of duty. Professor Annabel McKinley of Oxford University explains that police academies equip the would-be law enforcement officers with skills, knowledge, and expertise to use in the field. For instance, in case of any given accident, police officers are charged with the responsibility of offering first aid services to injured people. A police officer ought to be able to act as a life guard in case someone was drowning, for instance. What the academy teaches must be applied in real life scenarios (Solomon, 1984).

Principles Of Community Policing And Its Importance In Law Enforcement

As the role of the police continued to evolve amid calls for reforms to transform a hitherto draconian regime, people felt that the police ought to be in close contact with people at the community level. Thus came the birth of community policing as an important milestone in police reforms in the United States. Community policing emerged as an idea that sought to guide operational strategies and management style of the police force. Community policing emphasizes on the initiation of partnership between law enforcement and the community in a problem-solving approach, which is responsive to the needs of people at the grassroots.

Community policing as it appertains to law enforcement, seeks to foster partnership and liaison between law enforcement and communities. With such efforts, it becomes easy for police officers to understand the problems that face people living in different neck of the woods. Sources indicate that this kind of policing is service oriented in that it helps law enforcement be able to serve the people better by building understanding. Community policing is based on the idea that ‘the needs of the client ought to be the priority of the provider (Maier, 2010).

Enclosed in the law of criminal justice is a strict code of ethical conduct for law enforcement agencies, the courts, and every other institution charged with the responsibility of protecting and serving the public. The role of ethics is, in part, to guide the actions and decisions of personnel serving in that capacity.  In an effort to uphold and foster justice, any given society ought to ensure that its institutions are competent enough to give precedence to the basic principles of basic human rights. Ethics, as a principle, serves to ensure that everybody entrusted with upholding justice does so with reasonable care and due diligence as would be expected of a competent person acting in the same capacity (Schopp, 1998). Law enforcement agencies must ensure that police officers display high standards of ethics in order to build a society in which social justice prevails.

As stipulated in the United States Constitution, ethics is intertwined with morality. This is to say that ethical public officers must display high moral standings to serve the interest of the public.

Professor Hathaway Buchanan of the University of Columbia explains that ethics guides the manner in which criminal justice personnel conduct their affairs in community policing. For instance, the fundamental role of law enforcement is to reduce the temptation to commit crime. To dos so, officers must understand why such temptation arises. The ethical code of professionalism requires every person to understand the motives behind commission of criminal offenses. Examining the reason that prompts people to commit various crimes is crucial while determining how to handle crimes and prevent them. The role of ethics here is to ensure social justice for the society and the offender in question. Building a just society in this case entails reducing incidents and levels of crime as a means to protect lives and property, and the pursuit of happiness. Preventing crime is a basic principle of social justice since it also helps preserve civil liberties (Solomon, 1984).

Top Five Qualities That Detectives And Undercover Officers Need To Possess.

Investigation is an integral principle in the American justice system; as the nature of crimes keeps evolving, criminals have become more subtle and unscrupulous in their endeavors. The seemingly upstanding people in the society may turn out to be the most dangerous criminals. In bid to keep up with this evolving identity of criminals, the American constitution as it appertains to law enforcement sanctions the undertaking of covert investigations. Officers charged with the mandate to conduct investigations include detectives and undercover officers. However, since investigations may sometimes require subtle or immaterial invasion of privacy, which is an abuse of civil liberty, detectives and undercover officers need to uphold certain standards of ethics and professional conduct. This comes with the territory (Maier, 2010).

The five most important qualities of a detective or any officer acting undercover are: ethics, professionalism, diligence, wisdom, and reasonable judgment. Police officers ought to conduct themselves with utmost professional ethics. This implies that they have sworn an oath to respect and uphold the letter of the law as codified in statute. Likewise, everyone charged with the duty of enforcing the law must do so with reasonable care and diligence. The primary objective of the law as it appertains to the police is to protect and serve the interest of the public. Detectives have to be wise in the way that they make decisions and implement them (Maier, 2010).

As stipulated in the constitution of the United States, the most important quality of a detective and undercover officer is reasonable judgment.  In the circumstances that surround police duty, there are reasonable chances of mistaken identity in such instances as identity theft. Likewise, people tend to frame others for certain crimes in order to escape liability. The work of a detective and an undercover cop thus requires brilliance while conducting investigations. In the policy academy, they do not get to teach reasonable judgment; that notwithstanding, every officer of the law must be well equipped with this requisite skill.

According to Professor Annabel Buchanan of Stanford University, every officer of the law must make decisions based on reasonable judgment in such a way that any other competent officer acting in the same capacity would. This is based on the duty of care and responsibility to protect clause as codified in law enforcement statutes contained in the constitution of the United States. Reasonable judgment is the underlying principle in criminal and civil investigation. With reasonable judgment comes fair assessment. Fairness is an underlying principle of social justice (De Finance, 1991).

It is important to note that all principles of law enforcement are equally as important. For instance, any given officer must have a high moral standing since their line of duty requires at least that much from them. Having a high moral standing ensures they act both professionally and ethically. Ethics require impeccable moral standing. In order for one to act ethically, an agent must choose to do that which is moral irrespective of their personal gain or convenient. Catholic ethical scholar and humanitarian, Mother Theresa, once said that in light of every situation, people ought to choose to do the right thing as opposed to making the easiest decisions. With the understanding of ethical considerations in criminal justice, people will be more inclined to display high moral standards. Building a just society, which is the essence of law enforcement, requires reducing incidents and levels of crime as a means to protect lives and property, and the pursuit of happiness. Preventing crime is a basic principle of social justice since it also helps preserve civil liberties

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Relationship Between Organizations And Employees – Apple and Nucor

MGMT 8025M – Relationship Between Organizations And Employees Discussion

Every company has its own perspective on the relationship between it and its employees.  The perspective  vary based on core assumptions, Chapter six in your course textbook compares two organizations: Apple and Nucor.  Apple focuses more on seeing employees “as stools” to accomplish goals for the organization while Nucor is a company that believes its employees have individual needs that can be aligned with the company’s profit and goals. 

By explaining which of the organizations perspective you think is more effective.  Justify your position.  Be sure to include the motivation theories that are relevant as well as Morgan’s psychic prison metaphor in your explanation.

Apple and Nucor Relationships Between Organizations And Employees

Apple and Nucor are two different companies that employ different mechanisms in workforce management. Apple uses its workforce as a tool to achieve its high profit goals, with no concern on its wellbeing. Its workforce is characterized by long working hours, low wages, child labor, harsh working conditions and high level of supervision among other vices. On the contrary, Nucor has established a flattened hierarchy form of organization structure where workers do not have to take orders to do what they are supposed to do. Workers are highly self-driven, with their needs being aligned to those of their organization. Although they do not have extra ordinary compensation, they always receive bonus that match individual work performance and recognition among other things. This highly motivates workers to go an extra mile to enhance personal and organization performance (Bolman&Deal, 2017).

Between the two, Nucor perspective of workforce management is highly effective compared to that of Apple. Nucor has ensured to get the best out of workers, not by bulldozing them, but by motivating them. Nucor employs two-factor theory by catering at hygiene factors and motivational factors. The organization ensures that workers have a favorable work environment such as flat hierarchical structure, good working conditions and favorable company policies. Nucor in addition applies motivational factors that include recognition by appearing in the company’s annual magazine, bonuses and chances for personal career growth (Bolman&Deal, 2017). All these aspects lack in Apple where workers have to work for long hours in unfavorable working condition. Apple can be described using psychic prison metaphor of organization where organizations are perceived as systems which are entwined in their own actions and thoughts. It is controlled by fear of death, obsessions of making huge profits, illusions of anxieties and control, making defense mechanism its center of attention, which is applied by oppressing workers forcing to produce more within a short time period, and paying them less to realize high profits (Morgan, 2006). This makes apple poor in workers management, while Nucor demonstrate effective human resource management strategies.

Hybrid Ventilation System – Recommendation For Ventilation System

Imagine that you are a safety officer, and you have been asked to recommend a type of ventilation system for your company. Which one would you choose, and why?

Hybrid Ventilation System

As a safety officer, I would recommend the use of hybrid ventilation system in the company. Hybrid ventilation involves the use of mechanical and natural form of ventilation. Natural ventilation involves driving outdoor air via building envelope, purpose-built openings. The purpose-built opening comprises of trickle ventilators, windows, wind towers, doors, and solar chimneys. In this case buildings will be designed to allow natural flow of air. Mechanical ventilation involves use of machines available to enhance ventilation and air circulation, which are built based on the purpose of the building and the climate. Hybrid or mixed-mode ventilation depends on natural driving forces to offer the desired rate of flow. It employs mechanical ventilation when the flow rate of natural ventilation is too low. In case natural ventilation is not sufficient, exhaust fans can be integrated to increase rates of ventilation in respectful locations. The hybrid type of ventilation will be the best choice since it is economical such that, the company gets to utilize natural ventilation as long as they are viable and get to reduce on utility bills. The method is also reliable and convenient since when natural ventilation is not sufficient for the required flow rate, the system will have a way to boost it using the mechanical set up. This makes it cheaper to maintain the system than in any mechanical method, and enhance availability beyond the natural level.  

When there is a Breach of Privacy, has a Breach of Fiduciary Duty Occurred?

With the HIPAA laws, much emphasis has been placed on the patient’s privacy rights and the requirements of the health care organization (a covered entity) to ensure privacy of protected health information. Discuss the following: When there is a breach of privacy, has a breach of fiduciary duty occurred? 

When there is a breach of privacy, has a breach of fiduciary duty occurred?

Fiduciary duty refers to the party’s responsibility to act in the best interest of another party.  Fiduciary law oversees relationships wherein one party has discretionary power over the important practicalconcern of another party. In healthcare industry, health care professionals have fiduciary duty toward their organization and patients. The patient-physician relationship has been acknowledged as one amongst other categories of traditionally recognized fiduciary relationship. In most cases liability is based on violation of the fiduciary duty of loyalty, an obligation that needs the fiduciary to properly manage or avoid conflicts of interest. This duty entails situations where the beneficially interest; patient, might conflict with the fiduciary self-interest or the duty of fiduciary to serve third-party interest. Fiduciaries in healthcare setup are also said to work under duty of confidentiality, care, disclosure and discretion. The care duty needs the fiduciary to demonstrate reasonable care, skill and diligence while exercising judgment and any action related to the judgment. The discretion duty needs the exercise of judgment by fiduciary in beneficially (patient) best interest. The disclosure duty needs fiduciary to disclose records, mistakes, and conflict of interest among other information that is important to professional power exercise. The confidentiality duty limits the fiduciary’s disclosure and use of confidential information of beneficiary and demands taking reasonable steps to safeguard patient information confidentiality. The combination of these fiduciary duties results to duty of data and information security which is fully taken by the healthcare organization and its workers to safeguard patients (Miller, Choudhry& Campbell, n.d.).

The HIPAA law covers right to privacy, personal data protection and medical confidentiality. According to Knoppers (2000), privacy continues to develop personal intimacy zone free from public analysis. Medical confidentiality arises from the fiduciary character of patient-physician relationship and nature of the concerned information. In addition recent personal data protection laws enactment assist in shielding people for informatics power though it also offers a measure of personal control and security.  Personal data protection, confidentiality and privacy in health information are inseparable. The ethical requirement of medical professional to exercise information confidentiality and the legal requirement to enhance data protection and privacy gives healthcare organization the fiduciary duty towards its patient. They have a duty of care to protect the privacy, confidentiality and ensure security of patient healthcare information. Breach of this the HIPAA law thus results to the breach of fiduciary duty law which holds the healthcare organization or a specific physician liable for the act. For a breach of privacy to qualify to be breach of fiduciary duties breach of patient healthcare data or information privacy must be done for the best interest of the third party or the physician, nurse or any other medical professional, but not on  the best of the patient.  Patient information can sometime be shared among professionals at reasonable level in an attempt to define the best healthcare measure to assist the patient in the treatment and effective care. This is normally done with patient consent and hence, this is not regarded as breach of fiduciary duty. However, when this is done to assist a third party or for other purpose mostly related to professional benefits, then there is breach of fiduciary duty and the medical professional or the healthcare organization is liable for dishonoring the duty of care given to them by the patient.

Ethical Theory Concept And Importance

Ethical Theory

Ethics refers to a system or theory dealing with values associating to human conduct, with regard to the wrongness and rightness of specific actions and to the badness and goodness of the ends and motives of such actions. Ethical theory refers to systematic effort to justify moral theories and principles and to understand moral concepts. Ethical theory in metaphysics is regarded to be metaphysics in nature which implies that ethical issues are beyond or above physics. Metaphysical issues in philosophy have historically dealt with higher existence realms past the physical realm of things that surround us. This include non-physical realm which is higher and that comprises of spirits and abstract objects. Ethical theory is founded on different main ethical perspectives. These include normative and metaethics (LaFollette& Persson, 2013). Ethics is regarded to be normative rather than descriptive discipline. The ethical theory aim is to offer a reasoned account of how people are supposed to act or be, communally or individually. In this perspective, ethics is interested with the moral belief justification and not describing the kind of moral perspective people hold. It also tries to define what it means for an action to be morally wrong, obligatory or   permissible. Meta-ethics focus in the general morality nature and what defends moral judgments. This is normally based on moral truths and what makes then true. Ethical theory also focuses on moral judgment. Moral judgment refers to the process where in one defines what is bad, good, wrong, or right to warrant grouping of their own accord based on the nature of the entity or object to be judged (Fieser, 2017). People base their moral judgments on different aspects. Some may base them of the outcome where a judgment is regarded to be right if the results makes majority happy. Other may regard moral judgment based on the laws and regulations such that a judgment is regarded to be right if it abides by rules and regulations. Moral judgment might also be founded on emotions where judgment is based on past emotions, for instance torture may provoke empathy and compassion resulting development of ethical judgment from the experience. This clearly demonstrates that ethical views, judgments and acts can vary based on individual perspective, environment and beliefs among others.  

Import Metaethics for Determining Moral Judgments

The phrase ‘meta’ refers to beyond or after. Meta-ethics can thus be regarded as the study of meaning and origin of ethical concept. Meta-ethics focuses on issues ranging from moral epistemology to moral semantics. However, the most common issues in meta-ethics include metaphysical and psychological issues. Metaphysical focuses on issues regarding if morality occurs independently of people, while psychological issue focuses on the fundamental mental foundation of our conduct and judgment.  Metaphysics refers to the study of things which occurs in the universe. This includes both nonphysical and physical things (Bartels et al., 2015). Metaphysics entails specifically determining if moral values are everlasting truths which occur in a simple human conventions or spirit-like real. This can be viewed in two general directions that include this worldly or other worldly. Other-worldly perspective characteristically provides that moral values are impartial in that they occur in spirit-like realm past individual human conventions (LaFollette & Persson, 2013). These moral values are regarded to be eternal or absolute, and that they apply to all rational organisms throughout time and across the globe. The important of this view is that what is regarded to be morally right does not change due to any circumstances and hence, a moral judgment will always be guided by the same principles despite of variation of time or place.

How Ethical Thinking Results in Practical, Moral Action

Ethical thinking makes it possible for a person to consider what is regarded to be right based on the laws that govern human existence. This mostly includes the religious laws, cultural norms among other laws. It also makes it possible for the person involved in ethical thinking to consider the possible outcome of the action. Ethical thinking also evaluates the rightfulness or wrongfulness of a decision based on human inner conscious and based on the religious laws that are said to guide what is ethical among the believers (Fieser, 2017). By considering the consequences of an action, an individual is able to evaluate a situation and determine what is right and what is wrong based on how the action may seems to impact the life of all stakeholders involved in that specific situation. This makes one to be able to consider a practical solution that is moral. For instance, before engaging in any kind of environmental activity, I always ask myself on the effect it may have on the people in my surrounding and the globe in general. If the possible outcome harmful to many, then I consider the act unethical. I also tend to evaluate whether that act is considered right based on the laws of the country and the religious laws that I follow. For instance, lying in a certain situation can save a life or situation, however, I regard it to be wrong and in most cases, it end up hurting more people than it would safe when applying it. In such circumstance, the law, conscious and long-term outcome may not favor the act of lying. Being able to consider all possible aspects and perspectiveswhile making a decision demonstratesa more practical and moral way of thinking.

Stress, Portrait of a Killer – How is Stress Related to Poor Health?

Stress Assignment

Watch Stress – Portrait of a Killer – Full Documentary (2008).

The video features Robert Sapolsky, author of Why zebras don’t get ulcers. He suggests the original purpose of stress was survival. However, what once helped us survive may now be shortening our lives. Research shows that chronic stress is associated with obesity, ulcers, heart problems, and the shrinking of our brains. In our society, we don’t value stress reduction, we tend to value the opposite. We admire the multitasker. But how is stress related to poor health?

Discussion Questions

History of how stress was viewed in relation to ulcers?

Stress was initially associated with ulcers. This was after a clear observation of trend where, most people diagnosed with ulcers seemed to be experiencing a stressful phase in their life. However, the explanation on how stress resulted to this condition was initially faulty. A research focusing on the cause of ulcer later identified a bacterium that was responsible for this condition.  This resulted to a dismissal of the initial allegation that associated ulcer with stress.

The most amazing thing that was determined during the first research was that the ulcer causingbacterium exists in the gastric of all human beings. This raised the question of why the ulcer only occurs in some people, despite the presence of the bacteria in all. This prompted Robert Sapolsky to investigate the relation between ulcer and stress. Robertdetermined that ulcer bacteria only affect people with low immune system. The condition was again related to stress where by, stress was said to depress the body immune system and consequently, giving the ulcer causing bacteria a chance to thrive. This proved the first belief of ulcer being caused by stress.

How does stress impact our heart?

The video predicted that stress hormone can trigger serious negative cardiovascular response, resulting to a pounding heart and increase of blood pressure. In a research to determine the effect of stress on people blood vessels, the researcher examined the arteries of a manager and a subordinate in an organization. It was established that manager’s arteries were clean while that of the subordinate had a number of green tails, with a lot of atherosclerosis build up inside the arteries. Stress and its resulting huge content of hormones was said to destroy the arteries walls of the subordinate, andto increase his blood pressure. This increased chances for heart attack in a situation where a stressed person is subjected to more stress.

Social and psychological stress is said to clog arteries, restrict the flow of blood, and jeopardize the heart health. This results to serious health issues that can result to serious heart problems. Stress causes the release of adrenaline hormone, which causes temporal increase in heart rate and breathing rate. This can be dangerous in a situation where the arteries are clogged due to cholesterol disposition, and hence creating chances of triggering heart attack.

Discuss what the research shows about stress and our brain cells?

A research was conducted at the Rockefeller University, Canada, to determine the impact of stress on the brain cells. In this study, the researchers subjected lab rats to chronic stress and studied their brains. It was determined that the stressed rats had dramatically small brain cells with no extended branches compared to normal rats that served in the control experiment. The normal rats’ brains were found to have an extended branches demonstrating extensive and healthy growth. This resulted to the conclusion that stress destroys brain cells or inhibits their growth.

The decline of brain cells as a result of stress was found to mainly happen more in hippocampas part of the brains, where learning and memory takes place. The shrinking of the brains due to stress is thus said to result to loss of the capacity to remember, as the brains cells responsible for memory is highly reduced. Chronic stress also makes one unable to remember things they know very well, pushing a stressed person to a level of looking stupid.

Why does stress make us miserable?

A different research was conducted to determine why stress makes people miserable. This was done by examining the brains of baboons’ troop headthat was found to have the least level of stress and that of baboons low in the hierarchy, who were found to be more stressed. This was done by use of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanner. The head monkey scan showed shining brains a view that was associated to release of high quantity of dopamine. A similar scan on stressed monkey demonstrated dull brains with low or no release of dopamine. The research assessment established that when neuron-transmitter known as dopamine is released in the brains, it bind to the receptors signaling pleasure. This transmitter was found to be high in normal baboon and less in stressed baboon. High level of dopamine initiated pleasure and happiness in the animal. The lack or low dopamine made it significantly hard or impossible to make an animal happy or less miserable. Thus, the low content of dopamine in the brain of a stressed person is the main reason stress people are miserable.

How does stress impact HOW we put on weight? Why is this important to our health?

The research conducted in the Whitehall of England has demonstrated the relationship between stress, individual position in the society and how one puts on weight. Stress is said to not only initiate weight gain but also weight distribution in the body. Weight distribution at the center is associated with individual hierarchy in the society and may in turn be associated to chronic stress. This means, individuals low in social hierarchy may gain stress related weight, which is mostly distributed around the center of the body; around the waist. Stress does alter how fats are deposited in the body, and it is said to be the main cause of obesity epidemic in the world.

Stress caused obesity is said to contain some of the most dangerous fats. The fats carried inside the abdomen or around the waist circumference are said to be much more dangerous compared to fats carried in any other part of the body. These fats are said to produce dangerous chemicals and unhealthy hormones. These fats and hormones are said to cause serious health effects in the body.

Tragedy that happened to the troop of baboons Robert Sapolsky was studying

Robert Sapolsky was studying a specific troop of baboons; kikara troop, for twenty years.  This troop was characterized by aggressive male, who were high in the hierarchy and less stressed, and oppressed females who were low in the hierarchy and highly stressed. Unfortunately, the kikara troop took food from tourist damping site in their habitat. The food trash included meat that contained tuberculosis. This resulted to death tragedy of about half of the male in the troop. Sapolsky observed that only aggressive, and socially isolated males that did not have social connection died.

The death of Kikara troop alpha males resulted to transformation of the troop. They were twice the number of female than male in the troop. Only friendly males that could manage to treat female with kindness were left. This changed the troop atmosphere to higher social connection and less aggressive incidences. It was discovered that the troop level of stress reduced, reducing other health issues such as blood pressure and obesity in the troop. 

How stress affects the telomeres at the end of our chromosomes and what the researchers found out.

Telomeres referto a compound structure which is found at the end of a chromosome. This compound is said to protect the end of the chromosome from flaying. Telomeres were found to shorten with age. The telomeres are also said to be affected by stress which accelerate their shortening, making a person to look older than his or her actual age. A research was conducted to study the telomeres of a group of mothers under chronic stress. The mothers had a social group where they would go share and laugh despite their situation.

The research demonstrated that those women had shortened telomeres and decreasedenzymes activities. They were also found to experience six years of aging for every single year they took care of a disabled child. This research demonstrated that exposure to chronic stress was highly likely to initiate shortening of telomeres, exposing an individual to early aging where a person looks years older than his or her actual age.

Amazingly, researchers found a way to reduce stress among women who had very high levels of stress. What did they find? What did they find out about these women’s telomeres at the end of their chromosomes?

Stress is said to accelerate shortening of telomeres increasing individual rate of aging. The telomeres were found to shorten, based on the number of years one was exposed to stress. However, a doctor in the field of Telomeres discovered an enzyme that can be used to repair telomeres of individuals, previously exposed to chronic stress. A research with this group of women demonstrated that their telomeres were repaired by socializing and laughing, connecting and helping each other.

The research data demonstrated that stimulation of mind by having a social gathering where people share their problems and get to laugh and be happy can stimulate the release of the enzyme involved in repairing telomeres. This enzyme was also found to be enhanced by being compassion and caring for others, experiencing similar situation or any other hard situations in life. These are some of engagement that helped the women to remain rejuvenated. Connecting with others and finding happy moments in life were found to rejuvenate or reconstruct the end of the women’s telomeres.

What was the intervention to help these women? What were the results of this intervention?

Telomeres were said to be shortened by stress and to be rejuvenated by an enzyme which was stimulated by reducing the stress level. Stress can be reduced by change of atmosphere, to embrace a more stress-free atmosphere where people can share their problems laugh and help each other. In this situation, the women were assisted by being encourage to have more social gatherings among themselves were they can share, feel compassionate about each other, and maybe laugh about  their problems since they understood each other much better.

This intervention resulted to stimulation of telomeres rejuvenating enzyme that enhanced the hearing of their telomeres. This resulted to ease the maintenance of their telomeres, such that their chronic stress associated with taking care of their disabled could not destroy their telomeres completely. Frequent rejuvenation through their social support group rejuvenated telomeres more frequently. Asa result,their level of aging due to chronic stress was highly reduced despite of being always exposed in a chronic stressing situation in life

What did you learn in the video about the effects of poverty on stress levels? 

The video has demonstrated a great relation between stress and social status. According to the video, individual level of stress is highly influenced by his or her position in the social hierarchy. Those that are high in the hierarchy get to experience less harassment and hence they are less stressed. On the contrary, those low in the hierarchy get to be harassed and intimidated by those at the top, even when they try their best. They experience low chances of appreciation, and they are always treated with high level of aggression and strict rules. This exposes the poor or lowly ranked in the social hierarchy to chronic stress.

Poverty plays a great role in exposing people to chronic stress. Poor are lowly ranked in the society, poorly paid and often highly mistreated, while conducting their normal duties to earn their little pay. Living life of scarcity and struggle to make the end meet also add to their stress. Poverty subjects people to other life cruelties such as being disrespected, subjection to verbal abuse and physical abuse exposing them to more stress in life.

How can we reduce the effects of stress? What are some techniques to overcome the harmful effects of stress ?

Stress is highly motivated by social mistreatments. Its main effects include advanced health issues including ulcers, hypertension, diabetes, loss of memory, and poor brain productivity.Stress effects can be reduced by treating people with a higher sense of humanity, respect, love, kindness, and compassionate. According to the video, the monkey troupe was transformed by the death of alphas;that were more aggressive and brutal while handling females and those lower than them in the hierarchy. The embracement of social connecting, caring for each other and eliminating violence reduced the level of stress in the troop. In human organizations, stress can be reduced by valuing others, giving them a chance to take part in important decision making and eliminating violence and any form of abuse.

The harmful effects of stress can be overcome by promoting social connection, showing empathy to those experiencing different life struggles, socializing, engaging in different physical activities, avoiding multitasking and engaging in other stressful activities, and having personal time to do what interest you such as hiking, and nature walk among others. Socializing can be done by connecting with friends and family for a coffee or lunch date, physical activity can involve riding, jogging, and playing in a team game such as soccer. One of strategies that I can use to overcome effect of  stress include socializing and showing compassionate where I would visit a children home with presents and take time to play a team game such as soccer with those children.

Is Physician – Patient Relationship a Contract?

Discussion Prompt

You are working as the manager of a multispecialty clinic. You have been notified that a patient has filed a lawsuit against one of your physicians that has terminated a relationship with a patient. Executive management has asked you to prepare a memo to describe whether a patient can make a successful claim for a breach of contract in this case. 

Sample Answer

Is Physician – Patient Relationship a Contract?

Physicians have legal and ethical duty toward their patients as long as they have committed themselves in providing these services and that the patients still needs them. There may be no written contract to define this relationship, however, the verbal committed of a doctor toward a patient and the patient trust toward a doctor creates a binding agreement which is recognized by the law, and which can be ascertained by medical recorded related to patient’s visits to the physician’s office (Portmann, 2000). Nevertheless there might be times when a physician might no longer be in a position of offering care to a patient he or she had committed to. This can occur due to a number of reasons. It might be the patient is making unreasonable demands, is noncompliant with provided medical instructions, threatening the physicians or his or her junior staffs or maybe contributing to general breakdown of physician-patient relationship. This may also be due to the physician inability to handle the patient condition due to lack of specialty in advance condition development or lack of needed facilities. Most of these reasons may be acceptable in termination of the physician-patient relationship; however, it must be done in a manner that does not indicate patient abandonment. Patient abandonment occurs when physician-patient relationship is terminated by a physician without a reasonable excuse or reasonable notice, and fails to offer the patient a chance to find a qualified care provider to replace the physician initiating a termination.

Can the Patient Make a Successful Claim for a Breach of Contract ?

In this case, there was a premature termination of patient-physician relationship, with clear demonstration of patient dissatisfaction on how the process was carried out. Based on the law, a patient can successful make a claim of a breach of contract, he or she must be able prove that patient abandonment occurred in the process. This is a fact specific issue, and for it to stand in a court of law, the patient must be able to prove that she or he was abandoned. The patient must be able to demonstrate that the physician had already committed himself into treating him or her and that the treatment was underway.  The patient must also demonstrate that the physician abandoned him or her when still in great need of medical care or in critical phase in the treatment process. He or she must be able to prove that the right termination procedures, which may include patient referral or prior notification with adequate time to look for replacement, were not followed. The patient must be able to demonstrate that the termination was abrupt and no reasonable reasons were provided by the physician for the abrupt termination of the physician-patient relationship (Chowdri, 2018). The patient should also be able to demonstrate that the physician did not offer any referral or guidance to obtain another qualified physician who can handle the patient case after the termination. Patient should also be able to demonstrate there were damages or injuries that took place as a result of the physician behavior. The claim will strongly stand if the physician will not be able to justify his behavior based on the patient situation or the circumstances that surrounded the termination, and to demonstrate that the right procedures were followed (Chowdri, 2018). Whether or not the claim of breach of contract or patient abandonment occurred will be determined by the evidence surrounding the patient’s claim. The hospital can thus maybe consider investigating the circumstances that resulted to this termination to get clear perception of this case.

Analysis of Recent Appellant Court Case Related to a Health Care Legal Case

Appellant Court Case Related to a Health Care Legal Case Analysis Instructions

Since the enactment of the Affordable Care Act, there have been several lawsuits in the federal courts, and some have made their way to the Supreme Court. Not all of these cases are accepted for appeal by the Supreme Court and thus are settled at the appellate court. Analyze a recent appellant court case related to a health care legal case. If possible, find a case in your own federal appellate court. Discuss the following in a 3 page paper not including the title page and reference page:In what court did this case originate?

  • What is the law at issue in this case?
  • What are the arguments supporting the law, and what are the arguments to overturn the law?
  • Discuss the effect of this court case on health care delivery or operations. For example, will patient care be changed?
  • How will the operations of a health care organization or health insurance company be changed?

Sample Answer – Ascaris Mayo and Antonio Mayo Vs Wisconsin Injured Patients and Families Compensation Fund

This paper is based on a case of Ascaris Mayo and Antonio Mayo versus Wisconsin Injured Patients and Families Compensation Fund. The case originated from the circuit court of Milwaukee County in Wisconsin. Mayos was seeking noneconomic damages compensation following medical practices that resulted to advanced medical problems for Ascaris Mayo. The case was to determine the constitutionality of noneconomic damages in actions of medical practice. The law at issue in this case is Win. STAT Setion 893.55(2015-2016) which focus on noneconomic damages in action of medical practice. The case focuses on determining constitutionality of that particular law and hence unconstitutionally applied in this case (Wincourts.gov, 2016).

Argument for and Against that Law

Those refuting the law claims that noneconomic damages statutory cap is facially unconstitutional since it infringes the same principle articulated by the Supreme Court in Ferdon ex rel. petrucelli v. Wisconsin Patients Comp. Fund, 2005, by imposing an illogical and unfair burden on disastrously injured patients only, thus refuting  them the laws equal protection (Wincourts.gov, 2016). The cap is said to always lower noneconomic damages for the class of victims that are most severely injured who have been granted damages above the cap, yet always permitting full damages to victims that experience less severe injuries from medical malpractice, this cap thus repudiates equal protection to that victims of malpractice class whose enough noneconomic damages a fact finder has established are more than what is permitted by the cap.  Being unconstitutional based on this argument, it was thus considered unconstitutionally applied in mayo’s case. Those who supported the law argued that the noneconomic damage statutory cap is not facially unconstitutional, though it was unconstitutionally used on the mayos case based on due process and equal protection ground. The law permits a total of $1 million for single claim per year and a total of $3 million for total noneconomic compensation claim per medical institution per year. Thus the initial amount given to Mayo’s was highly quoted and above the permitted amount. However, the law itself is not unconstitutional sine it is highly supported by Ferdon ex rel. petrucelli v. Wisconsin Patients Comp. Fund, 2005 (Wincourts.gov, 2016).

Effect of the Court Case on Healthcare Delivery

The court case clearly approved liability for medical malpractice. The court clearly demonstrated that health care organization is liable of any medical malpractice conducted by its employees. It also sent a message that the liability is limited and hence healthcare organization must limit such cases otherwise they may lose its ability to operate by being recorded for high level of malpractice than permitted. According to the court, any health insurance provider is permitted to pay a total liability of up to $3 million per year for a single healthcare organization and not more than $1 million for a single victim (Wincourts.gov, 2016).The question is what happens when a single healthcare organization commit so much malpractices to surpass this limit of noneconomic liabilities. This clearly shows that the court calls upon the healthcare organization to be more committed to their operations and ensure that its workers are committed to their work, professional and careful while offering their services. It should ensure that workers embrace efficiency, quality of care and safety. Maximizing this will reduce cases of malpractice and legal cases related to malpractices.

Change in the Healthcare Organization or Health Insurance Company

The court ruling will make healthcare organization to be more careful while conducting its normal duties, especially when handling the patients. Quality of care from assessment, diagnosis, treatment, patient engagement and the rest will be done more effectively. By limiting the organization noneconomic liability that can be paid by the insurance company, it puts the organization in a position where it may be forced to pay for extra liabilities from its own accounts. It also clearly shows that the government is not ready to have a healthcare organization that records so many cases of malpractices damages. The case will thus push organization to be more productive and efficient. The court case also reduced the health insurance providers’ burden on malpractice settlements. By limiting the amount to be paid per year, the court tries to improve the quality of care and hence reducing the chances that health insurance providers will loss huge amount of money handling cases that could  been prevented. This makes it possible for the money to be used in other important medical procedures. The operations of health insurance providers are changed by protecting the companies from being misused by healthcare organization. This court case instills trust that the provider has with the government in protecting its interest. It also increases chances of easy relation between the provider and healthcare organization since they are sure that they can hardly be misused. This eases the relationship between the healthcare organizations and health insurance provider such that they may feel at ease paying for medical damages. The provider will easily consider future liabilities as unavoidable mistakes and not just a sense of carelessness for the organization knows the liability will be taken by the provider.

2017 Wisconsin Act 97 – Upgrade to Ambulance Service Level

The paper is founded on 2017 Wisconsin Act 97. Upgrade to Ambulance Service Level. The law was first introduced in Wisconsin Senate on 11th of May 2017 by six senators including Vinehout, Harsdorf, Nass, Feyen, Marklein, and Olsen and cosponsored by other 16 senate representative. It was read for the first time on the same day, which was followed by a public hearing on June. Executive action was taken on 30th of august where the bill was adopted. The bill was read for the second and third time on the October and passed on the same month. A few adjustments were made on November, read again with amendment for the second and third timebefore it was presented to the governor by end of that month where it was approved in the beginning of December and published as a law (Docs.legis.wisconsin.gov, 2017b).

The main reason of introducing this bill was to promote health care among the people that live in the rural parts of the Wisconsin state. Limited ambulance services limited the level of saving life during the patient transition from home to the nearest hospital. The bill focused on eliminating these limitations by offering ambulance providers a chance to upgrade their services to maximize the aspect of saving life. The 2017 Wisconsin Act 97 permits service providers of rural ambulance to upgrade their level of services to the highest license level of any emergency medical services practitioner ambulance staffing can offer if the medical director accepts a proposal presented to her or him by the service provider of rural ambulance. The Act also permits a service provider of rural ambulance to upgrade its services to only advertise for service level the provider is capable of offering 24 hours service on daily basis. It also needs a service provider of rural ambulance who upgrades to bring its operation plan up to date with the health service department. The bill was passed though legislative vote (Docs.legis.Wisconsin.gov. (2017a).

The law is created to improve the quality of care among patients needing ambulance transition from their rural homes to the nearby hospital. This law is basically founded on healthcare ground and hence it highly affects healthcare organization in various ways. Improving ambulance services increases chances of saving life and reducing health complications that could occur before the patient reach to the emergency room. This increases chances of survival before and after admission to the emergency room. This increases chances for high patient outcome in a healthcare organization, reduced duration of hospitalization and also reduction in the death rate. It also ensure decline in the death rate of people living in the area in the state, especially among elderly people suffering from chronic diseases such as heart diseases, and diabetes among others. Being able to save patient life during transition and to offer more care to ensure no condition advancement will be highly beneficial to the community in the rural area and also to the surrounding healthcare organizations. Upgrading ambulance services will also help in reducing the cost of care in the healthcare organization since most patients will not demand length intensive care services due to preventable condition advancement during transition. The law will thus have a great impact to the health care organization and the health ministry in the state in general.

Reflection on GHS Safety Data Sheet Chemical Incompatibilities Section

Incompatible chemicals refer to chemicals that react when mixed to cause a great threat to safety and health through formation of toxic materials, fire, or explosion. It is therefore important to have good understanding of chemical incompatibility at the workplace to avoid mixing incompatible chemical subjecting the company, workers, and other stakeholders into the danger whose magnitude can only be measure by the outcome. Normally, the extent of the hazard is determined by the amount of each chemical and the condition of their encounter. It can thus be very severe to cause serious injuries, disabilities or even death. It can also result to destruction of company structures in the surrounding. It is therefore important to understand chemical reaction and chemical incompatibility well and to ensure that those who do not understand chemical reactions and incompatibility do not mix any two chemicals or any chemical with water or expose any chemical to the air as an experiment. Those dealing with chemical will need to understand section 7 of the new GHS safety data sheet to be able to avoid any mistake of mixing two incompatible chemicals. To ensure high level of safety in chemical sector the company uses the reactivity management roundtable (RMR) to predict possible reaction of chemicals while mixed, and to determine if there is a warning of possible incompatibility between two or more chemicals. This increases the level of chemical safety in the organization, reducing or eliminating possible threats. 

Performing A Job Hazard Analysis At Your Workplace

You have been asked to perform a job hazard analysis (JHA) at your place of employment. Which method would you use to perform the JHA? Explain your choice.

Job hazard analysis (JHA) is very important in any work environment since it guides an organization on the best measures to employ to reduce hazards. To analyze job analysis hazards at my work place I will use the method that involves a number of steps to complete the analysis. The first step would be identifying types of jobs that need to be analyzed. This will include jobs containing the highest rates of illness or injuries, jobs with the ability to cause disabling or severe illness or injuries, even without previous accidents history. Other jobs to be considered would include jobs where simple human errors would result to severe injury or accident, jobs which are novel to normal operations or where changes in procedures or processes has been imposed and jobs which are highly complex to need written instructions. This should be done by involving workers, reviewing company accident history, and carrying out preliminary job review. The analysis will involves listing hazards that are found in each job, seriousness of the hazard, and frequency of occurring or possibility of the hazard occurrence. This will then be used to rank the jobs based on the hazards with those demonstrating high level of severity receiving the highest priority downward.To enhance effecting analysis and recording a documentation of identified hazards should be listed in each analyzed job. Measures to handle the hazards with intentions of mitigating them or completely eliminating them should be done.

Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) Discipline Overview – PowerPoint Presentation

Introduction to EHS

Environment health and safety comprises of the processes, guidance, rules and laws structured to help protect the environment , the public and employees from harm. Environmental, Health, and Safety Discipline focuses on reducing and preventing health issues, emergencies and accidents at work, together with any environmental damage which could consequence from work practice. EHS departments assumes an empirically and systematic informed mechanism to prevent injuries and accidents. EHS departments also supervise an array of hazards which include heavy machinery, height falls carcinogens exposure, and ergonomic hazards.

EHS Concerns

  • Work assumed by EHS department is inspired by various concerns;
    • The workers protection, the natural environment and their health
    • Compliance with regulatory standards and legal requirements
    • The improvement of morale, profit, and productivity which comes with a healthy and safe workforce (Utdallas.edu, n.d.).

EHS entails developing an organized and systematic approach to comply and follow environmental regulations reducing carbon footprint of a business and manage waste, and general safety and health of all workers in their working environment. To ensure a strong environmental health and safety hold, firms need to have understand EHS regulatory standards and legal requirements employed to enhance performance. The organizations also need to employ measures on how to handle ergonomics, air quality and other workplace concepts where health and wellbeing of all involved persons and employees in the company are taken into consideration. This is generally anticipated to enhance the development of a favorable work environment which eventually result to improvement of the improvement of morale, profit, and productivity of workers in an organization

Responsibilities of Environmental, Health, and Safety Discipline

  • Ensure implementation of laws and regulations governing health, safety and environment
  • Ensure implementation and development of all safety and health programs in the company
  • Ensure workers safety and application of the right protective measures
  • Supervise dangerous procedures so as t lower injuries risks
  • Ensure hazard communication
  • Advocate for environmental policies progress
  • Develop general safety rules in an organization
  • Ensure proper training of workers on use of their respective working machines, equipment or chemicals
  • Facilitate proper inspection of equipment before use and proper maintenance
  • Perform risk assessment at the workplace (OSHA.gov, n.d.)

EHS discipline is  also responsible of ensuring organization complies with all environmental regulations and standards. EHS department also enhances the implementation of policies required for the application of personal protective equipment in an organization. It also conducts regular safety meetings so as to review novel policies and procedures required for all workers in an organization. Reviewing the safety information posted in the entire work field so as to accurately updated on what is novel in the regulations and rules of health, safety and environment.

Types of Hazards Addressed by the Environmental, Health, and Safety Discipline

  • EHS is involved in the prevention of different hazards experienced in the workplaces. These include;
    • Occupational physical hazard
    • Occupational electrical hazard
    • Occupational chemical hazards
    • Occupational biological hazards
    • Radiation hazards
    • Environmental hazards
    • Ergonomic Injuries

EHS is involved in the prevention of different hazards experienced in the workplaces. These include occupational physical hazards which are mostly as a result of mechanical equipment accidents. They can include burns, cuts, and broken body parts among others. Occupational electrical hazards include electrocution. Chemical hazards include chemical burns, inhaling chemicals, eye splash, and skin irritation. Biological hazards include viral, bacterial infections among other things. Other hazards that are addressed by EHS include radiation hazards, ergonomic hazards and environmental hazards that include different forms of pollution..  

Types of Control Methods Used by EHS

  • The EHS employ different types of control methods which include;
    • Personal protective equipment to prevent injuries during operations
    • Administrative control to alter how people work
    • Engineering controls to isolate workers from hazards
    • Substitution to replace hazards with least harmful
    • Elimination which involve physical removal of a hazard

The Environmental, Health, and Safety Discipline employ different types of control methods to ensure it accomplish its main operation goal. Some of the measures to be employed include personal protective equipment to prevent injuries during operations. The may include different forms of protective gears that include gloves, helmet, goggles, overall, and boots among others.. Administrative controls are controls that alter how people work by devising new rules and procedures where safety measures are more considered. Engineering controls are controls designed to isolate workers from hazards by structuring the workspace in a more secure manner. Substitution controls replace hazard with least harmful hazards to reduce their effects. Elimination which involve physical removal of a hazard in the workplace or workstation.

Interaction Between EHS and Production Discipline

Production is a unit of an industrial organization where there is a lot of mechanization. Mechanization can be considerably hazardous due to moving machines that are amounted into electrical sockets and possibility of reagents that can be dangerous.  The Environmental, Health, and Safety Discipline can be used to assess the level of danger in the department, before the machines are turned on for daily operation. It can also be used to train workers in the unit on the best protection measures they should employ to enhance health and safety. EHS can also be used to dictate other safety measures such as regular inspection and maintenance of the machines among other things. All these measures reduce chances of accidents due to human errors or machine faulty.

Interaction Between EHS and Human Resource Discipline

Human resource unit focuses on management of workers in an organization with intention of offering the best to get the best. The unit is thus highly concerned on organization safety. Human resource unit can interact with Environmental, Health, and Safety Discipline by using EHS standards and strategies to promote workers safety and health through policies, training, embracing safe culture, and ensuring the right protective measures are provided to all relevant units.

Issues Facing The Information Technology Manager In Constantly Expanding And Changing Information Technology Environment

The world has experienced an extensive growth of Information Technology as different organizations, institutions, and companies continuously adapt the new technology. This extensive use of information technology has come with different challenges that IT managers must handle to enhance effective use of IT technologies in their respective organizations. The level of challenges grows in an environment when IT is constantly expanding and changing. The IT managers in this environment play a significant role in managing risks associated to expanding and changing IT environment. Some of these risks include privacy, security, accuracy, control and ownership. This paper focuses on discussing issues facing IT managers in an environment where information technology is constantly expanding and changing.

Issues Facing IT Managers in a Constantly Changing and Expanding Environment

The growth and expansion of IT technology use has come with a number of problems. One of the main issues facing IT managers in a growing and changing IT environment is security. Information system security practices entail the application of both non-technical and technical measures to safeguard assets of an organization from different threats. Information systems are often exposed to different kinds of threats that can result to different forms of damages which may result to significant financial losses. System bleach can result to loss of data confidentiality, integrity and availability. This can highly influence the general business operations of the affected organizations. Lack of availability makes it hard for the organization to operate for the entire period when the system is unavailable. Compromising data confidentiality can results to unhealthy competition in the market, make it easy for the company to lose customers to the competitor with unauthorized access to company’s data. Integrity compromise can result to huge errors in different parts of operation, which interferes with accuracy and to some extent, it may impact the trust that customers have in an organization (Jouini, Rabai & Aissa, 2014).

Expansion of IT system comes hand in hand with great need to improve the security system to eliminate the system vulnerabilities which hackers can use to compromise the system. It is also important to note that hackers tend to advance their system security bleach knowledge and techniques as the IT system technology advances. This leaves IT managers with a great challenge of ensuring system security, especially in anexpanding or changing environment where network system need to be expanded. IT manager should thus test the system to ensure it has no security loopholes. Regular security system auditing will also be needed to be able to uncover any vulnerability that could be exploited. Development of a recovery system by creating backup system will also be necessary to protect the company’s data among other measures (Alnawaiseh, 2014).

Privacy is another major challenge facing IT managers in a changing and expanding IT environment. Most organizations are currently taking vital and private information on their customers storing them in their information systems for recording and enhancing proper care and services to their customers. This is especially seen in healthcare organizations, banks, and government organizations among other institutions. These organizations normally pledge ensuring total privacy for the customers data to ensure no unauthorized individuals or unconsented third party access these data (Kotz et al., 2016). The IT managers are thus required to enhance both internal and external security of the system to protect data privacy. Internal security is required to limit the database access rights to ensure that only authorized persons can access the database. Other measures may include data encryption to ensure any successful security bleach does not guarantee data manipulation or reading. Educating users on personal security measures such as password strength and secrecy need to logout individual account when not at workstation among other measures. This is not quite easy especially since the IT manager requires the collaboration of other workers to ensure total internal security of the system, and it may be quite challenging in a growing organization while new workers are introduced often and hence, constant training of the workers on internal IT system security will be needed (Ziegeldorf, Morchon& Wehrle, 2015).

Another major challenge facing IT managers is accuracy. Accuracy is normally determined by the efficiency of the system and also by the user’s proficiency in using the system. System error can be as a result of technical issues which can occur during system development, implementation or configuration. IT managers thus need to keep have updated information on the new systems that may be required in their organization, and technical skills in installation, configuration and testing of the system (Manson, 1986). They should also ensure that the organization workers are well trained to be able to effectively work with any new system. New workers should also be trained on the same. Ensuring accuracy can be quite challenging in a changing environment especially due to the need of involving all workers in the changing process. Change introduces new training demands and need for new skills to be able to handle the new system. Regular training will be required to ensure that the users are comfortable with any changes that are introduced in the organization.


IT managers have a great role of ensuring accuracy, security and privacy among other things in a growing or changing environment. This is not an easy task, especially in this era where cybercrimes are on the rise. Competitors and malicious hackers are always on the lookout to identify any security loophole that may make them to access information that can be of benefit to them, or that they can use against the system. IT managers are thus required to put extra effort in promoting system security and system operation efficiency, while ensuring system privacy, accuracy, integrity, confidentiality and availability.

Holistic Approach To Human Trafficking Problem In Florida


Human trafficking is perceived as modern slavery, an illicit industry that is worth billions of dollars. It is documented as the second most dangerous crimes of modern time. Human trafficking is a dreadful by product of unchecked greed and global poverty. Its growth in the society impacts humankind, the nation-state and individual, as it involves the use of coercion, fraud, or/and force to engage in women, men, and children for sex, forced labor, involuntary servitude or organs retrieval.  It also endangers the security of individual human as it interferes with the national security (Huff-Corzine et al., 2017). Just like in other parts of the world. Human trafficking is a serious problem in the US, especially in Florida which is ranked as the third main destination of human trafficking victims. This is despite Florida having functional measures to fight the vice. This paper evaluates the human trafficking situation in Florida and proposes a Holistic Approach as a more viable solution to the human trafficking problem in Florida.  

Background on Human Trafficking

What is Human Trafficking?

Human trafficking is among the most contentious and popular topics tirelessly discussed from the late 20th century to early 21st century by activists, academics, journals and the public in general. It involves scenarios of women and girls trafficking within or across national borders for commercial sexual exploitation purposes, trafficking men and boys for organ removal, or for marriage purposes, for labor or contemporary slavery (Timoshkina, 2014). Human trafficking is thus defined in a way that tries to address all scenarios representing it, with the Palermo Protocol of United Nationsbeing the most adopted definition of human trafficking. According to Mapp et al., (2016), human trafficking is regarded as ‘trafficking in persons’ which is defined as receipt, transfer, recruitment, harboring, or transportation of individuals, by use of force or means of threat or other kinds of fraud, of coercion, of deception, of abduction, of the power abuse, of a vulnerability position, of receiving or giving benefits or payments to win consent of an individual with control over another individual, for exploitation purpose. At a minimum, the exploitation should include prostitution or other kinds of sexual exploitation, forced services or labor, slavery or activities similar to slavery and the removal of organ or servitude.

Prevalent of Human Trafficking in the United States

Victims of Human Trafficking

Human trafficking affects all individuals including men, women and children. However, majority of the victims are women and children, especially where commercial sex, forced marriages and force labor are the main factors of interest. Sex trafficking victims are mostly young girls aged between 10 and 17 years, mostly white and black. Men can also be human traffic victims but in small numbers. Girls are also more preferred than boys in global human trafficking (Timoshkina, 2014).

Statistics on Human Trafficking

According to international labor organization there are about 40.3 million human trafficking victims worldwide. Among them 75% are girls and women, 25% are children, while 81% of them are stuck in forced labor (Polaris Project, 2108).  The majority of trafficking victims; 24.9 million individuals were apprehended in force labor, while 15.5 million individual were apprehended into forced marriages. It was approximated that 4.8 million individuals, particularly children and women, were in 2016 trafficked in money-making sex trade. Over 1 million children are commercial sexual exploitation victims every year (Swarens, 2018).  Human trafficking and forced labor is said to account for 150 billion dollar industry globally. The Department of Labor in the U.S. has acknowledged that 139 imported goods from 75 nations are produced by child and forced labor. Based on 2016 data, it is approximated that 1 in every 6 imperiled runaways documented in the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children were probable to be victims of child sex trafficking (Polaris Project, 2108). 

Human Trafficking in Florida

Florida is ranked as the third largest destination of trafficking in the United States, with half of all victims of trafficking being children below 18 years (Floridahealth.gov, 2018). According to Human Trafficking Hotline (2017), the state has received 1601 human trafficking calls, and recorded 604 cases of human trafficking. The main forms of trafficking taking place in the state include sex trafficking, labor trafficking, both sex and labor and unspecified form. Majority of the victims of labor trafficking are subjected to domestic work or agricultural work. Majority of Florida human trafficking victims are women accounting for about 83%, followed by male, and then gender minorities. In addition, majority are adults who account for about 70% of the victims with the rest being minor. The state receives both local and international human trafficking cases, with U.S. citizens being among the majority compared to foreigners (Human Trafficking Hotline, 2017).

Human Trafficking Laws

International Laws

International law is a powerful channel for fighting human trafficking. The most recent and reputable international law instrument which have set the progression for how to prosecute, prevent and define human trafficking are the Convention of the United Nations over transportation Organized Crime and its two associated protocols that include the United Nations Protocol to Punish, Suppress, and Prevent trafficking in Person, particularly children and women, and the United Nations Protocol over the Migrants Smuggling by Air, Sea, and land which was enacted in 2003-2004. These conventions were created by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) that have supported ability of international law to fight human trafficking. In support of enacting these instruments, the UNODC created the Global United Nations Initiative to address human trafficking (Gallagher, 2010). Instruments of handling human trafficking can be traced back to slavery abolition, which include provision of 1926 Slavery Convention, and 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Slave Trade, Slavery Abolition, and Practices and Institutions Similar to Slavery. International law additional tools which include segments against persons trafficking comprises of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the 1966 International  Covenants on Political and Civil Rights, the 1940 United Nations Convention for the Suppression of Prostitution Exploitation and Traffic in Person and the  1979 Convention on Abolition of all Kinds of  Women Discrimination. These instruments created the foundation for the modern efforts and conventions to eliminate human trafficking (Gallagher, 2010).

U.S. Federal Laws

Human trafficking is regarded as a crime under the U.S. federal law. The initial comprehensive federal law enacted to handle human trafficking is the 2000 Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA). This law offers a three-divided approach that comprises of prosecution, protection, and prevention. It also prohibits trafficking in persons, particularly into involuntary servitude, slavery, and sex trade (Mapp et al., 2016). Since its initial enactment, this law has been reauthorized three times in 2003, 2005 and 2008. The reauthorization prohibits the U.S. from importing goods created by forced lab roe human trafficking benefits. The law also addresses related but separate issues on trafficking in person, alien smuggling, and clandestine terrorist travel criminal support. The law also safeguards children from sexual exploitation and abuse, which is a common factor in child human trafficking. The law through Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act of 2000, which demand that property owner may be notified of the use of their properties in harboring aliens of facilitating smuggling. The 1910 Mann Act as well as it subsequent amendment makes it a crime knowingly to coerce, persuade, entice or induce a person to travel to another state for prostitution purpose (Homeland Security, 2017).

Florida Laws

Florida law recognizes human trafficking as a kind of modern-day slavery, with victims being adults, teenagers and young children. Tis act based on Florida law involves forced labor or sexual exploitation of another individual. Human trafficking based on Florida Statute 787.06 is committed when an individual recklessly or knowingly ignore facts, financially benefit  from or engages in transporting , obtaining, soliciting, maintaining, recruiting, enticing, harboring, or providing another person  for that person exploitation for commercial sexual, services, or labor activities. Florida law demand prove that any adult human trafficking victim was forced into performing commercial, service or labor sexual activity, however this prove is not needed when the victim is a child. The penalty given ranges based on purpose of trafficking, the kind of victims involved and the coercion employed during the trafficking process (Leg.state.fl.us, 2018).

Address of Human Trafficking by Florida Law Enforcement Agencies

There are several laws created to safeguard trafficking victim in internationally and in the United States. However, majority of these laws only center on international and underage victims and thus, excluding sex trafficking victims who are USA citizen and in majority age; 18 and above years. In Florida among other states, there has been gradual emergency of multi-agency task force as the chosenorganizational structure for both implementing Laws on human trafficking and offering assistance to human trafficking victims. Typically, these task forces include providers of social service, law enforcement agencies, and non-governmental groups under organization umbrella, with the police primary role being to implement human trafficking and associated laws. Majority of task forces in Florida are supported either by non-profit organization or federal funding (Huff-Corzine et al., 2017). The multi-agency task force structure permits for investigation of cost to be extended across various agencies and assists investigation processes across jurisdiction borders.

Multi-agency approach additionally offers access to specialized devices and equipment for purpose of investigations and integrates prosecutorial, social services, and investigative expertise, theoretically permitting for extra successful prosecution and identification for primary human trafficking offenders. More essentially, it also helps in the provision of benefits and support to victims. Initial reactions to the human trafficking suspect are first carried out by the local agency and then state or/ task force response is requested if required. Another approach for investigations initiation include use of through tips focused on the National Center for Missing and Exploited children (NNHTRC), activity informed by the Florida Department of Children and Family (DCF) or Community Abuse Hotline. Most of the task forces have intelligence sharing and meetings quarterly, where they can carry out training and define future goals. Some operations are conducted undercover uncover human trafficking dens (Huff-Corzine et al., 2017).

Statement of the Problem

Threat to Public Safety

Human trafficking is regarded as a form of modern slavery, which is at the intersection of other emerging threats that include drug production, economic opportunities disparities, environment degradation, and excessive international migration. This is because threats of these kinds are pull-and-push aspects for human trafficking, or due to the fact that human trafficking intrinsically develops fertile ground for boosting some of the five identified threats. Thus there is a distinctive association between human security and national security, since theyareequally supporting the national security protective function and the mainly empowering the human security role. Human trafficking is enslavement which is a crime over humanity since it involves exercising individual powers related to the ownership right over another individual (Pati, 2014). Human trafficking involves violation of human rights to freedom, especially in making important decisions in life. It also involves illegal immigration of citizens to other countries forcing the victims to live in a foreign countries or states under the control of other people. This interferes with family peace, destroy the community or the society, and also propagate immorality in the society.

Comparing the Missions of OSHA, NIOSH, ACGIH and AIHA and Their Influence on Practice of Industrial Hygiene

Industrial Hygiene Assignment Instructions

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), and the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) are four major organizations with a great amount of influence on the industrial hygiene field.

Prepare your essay comparing the missions of each of the four organizations and their influence on the practice of industrial hygiene. Choose one of the organizations, and describe how the passage of the OSH Act of 1970 influenced the foundation of the organization. What is the most significant contribution that your chosen organization has made to worker health and safety?

Sample Answer – An Essay comparing the Missions OSHA , NIOSH, ACGIH, AIHA and Their Influence on Practice of Industrial Hygiene

U.S. has four major organizations with great influence on industrial hygiene. These industrial organizations that include The American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA),e National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), American conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), play an essential unique role in enhancing industrial hygiene. This paper defines the mission of the four organizations, and identifies ways in which each organization influences industrial hygiene. The paper then selects one of the organizations and evaluates how its development has been influenced by OSH Act of 1970. 

            AIHA is an organization whose mission is to enhance, protect and promote industrial hygienists among other environmental, safety, and occupational health professionals in their effort to enhance the well-being and health of workers, the environment and the community.  AIHA influence industrial hygiene by nurturing professionals needed for effective learning of industrial hygiene (Institute of Medicine, 2000). NIOSH refers to a U.S. federal agency which carries out research and gives recommendation to avert workers illness and injury. Its main mission it so create new knowledge in occupational health and safety field, and to transfer this knowledge into practice. NIOSH has influenced industrial hygiene by supplementing industrial hygiene research programs in the country. ACGIHis a charitable scientific organization with mission of advancing environmental and occupational health in the society. ACGIH has been committed to enhancing industrial hygiene and environmental and occupational safety and health communities. The Organization has influenced industrial hygiene by encouraging experience interchange among industrial hygiene employees and to make accessible and collect data and information which might be of help to them in suitable fulfillment of duties (Institute of Medicine, 2000).OSHA was developed with a mission of assuring healthful and safe working conditions for women and men, by enforcing and setting standards and by offering training, assistance, education and outreach. OSHA influences industrial hygiene by setting mandatory occupational health and safety requirements suitable for over six million U.S workplaces.  OSH Act of 1970is the occupational safety and health act whose prime objective is to lower workplace hazards and to implement health and safety programs for both employees and employers. AIHA was founded in 1939 to sever the interests of professional of about 300 industrial hygienists who were active in the US during that particular time. This was long before the enactment of OSH 1970 Act. The enactment of this Act played a great role in promoting operations in AIHA and influencing what AIHA is today. OSHA has played an important role in the advancement of occupational health and safety in the country’s workforce. OSH 1970 Act enactment assured every working man and woman in the country of the healthful and safe working condition. This landmark decision proved to be among the first different major occurrences that galvanized the country around the safeguarding of the environment, communities and workers (OSHA, 2013). This gave the AIHA a stronger grip into enhancing its mission of nurturing industrial hygiene professionals by making it possible to use the OSH Act of 1970 guidelines to define how to enhance safe and healthy working environment. OSH Act of 1970 provided a baseline in which AIHA should train its professionals on enhancement of occupational safety and health. The enactment of this law makes it possible for the AIHA to work in alliance with OSHA to offer AIHA members with guidance, information, and access to resources of training which will assist them safeguard safety and health of workers and comprehend workers’ rights and the employers’ obligation under the OSH Act. The enactment of OSH Act has thus enhanced the advancement of knowledge in occupational safety and health in AIHA missions, especially in ensuring that all workers trained in this organization can easily adhere to occupational safety and health requirements defined by OSHA irrespective of which industry they operate in (OSHA, 2013).

Concept in Information Systems Research Paper Instructions

Use the Internet or the Library to research one concept in information systems that you have studied in this course. You may select a topic of your choice or you may use one of the following:

  • Computer literacy and information literacy
  • Using information systems and information technologies / management information systems
  • Data warehouses
  • Personal, legal, ethical, and organizational issues of information systems
  • Protecting information resources
  • Mobile and wireless networks / security risks associated with information technologies
  • Computer and network security
  • Security threats / measures & enforcement / comprehensive security guidelines
  • Convergence of voice, video, and data
  • New trends: the Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 eras
  • e-Commerce / B2B e-Commerce / mobile and voice-based e-Commerce
  • Global information systems
  • Building successful information systems
  • Enterprise Systems
  • Management support systems
  • Intelligent information systems
  • Emerging trends technologies, and applications

Write a four to five (4-5) page paper in which you:

  • Present an overview of the origin and history of the concept that you have chosen.
  • Describe one (1) current use of the concept that you have chosen. Include at least two (2) examples of such use in individuals, organizations, and / or governments to support your response.
  • Discuss common attitudes toward the concept. Next, discuss your own attitudes toward the concept in question. Justify your response.
  • Explain the fundamental strengths and weaknesses–or the advantages and disadvantages–of the concept that you have chosen. Justify your response.
  • Describe the prevailing view that experts hold about the likely future of the concept in question. Include the views of at least three (3) experts to support your response.
  • Use at least six (6) quality references. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Explain the major components of an information systems infrastructure.
  • Identify emerging technologies that enable new forms of communication, collaboration, and partnering.
  • Explain how information systems are enabling new forms of commerce between individuals, organizations, and governments.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in information systems.
  • Write clearly and concisely about management information systems using proper writing mechanics.

Data Warehouse Origin and History

Data warehouse refers to a collection of various data with varying structures. It is a relational database which is structured for analysis and query and not for transaction processing. It normally has historical data derived from data transaction, though it can comprise of data from other sources (Shivtare & Shelar, 1, p.67). Data warehouse was used long before 1990s, though it was first defined in 1991. Its origin was initiated by desire to use data to enhance business competitive advantage. Data warehouse initial users focused on putting related data together. Although it was used long before its definition, most of enterprises got to understand it years after its introduction. According to Kim (5, p.39), majority of enterprises came to realize that the data they had at their disposal were essential assets, which when leveraged properly can offer them competitive advantage, in the late 1990s. These enterprises also realized that their data have been stored in disparate systems, and to be able to run applications, the data had to be integrated. The need for enterprise data integration offered a motivation to data warehouse creation. The initial step towards data warehousing was the data fixed presentation. The objective was to develop a system on top of controlling and automation applications.The original warehouse was founded on IBM Ireland or Wal-Mart, who defined the data warehouse (Maslankowski, 4, p.43).

Current Use of Data Warehouse

Data warehouse refers to a system which cleans, extracts, source and confirms data into a dimensional data store, and then implements and supports analysis and querying for the decision making purpose. Data warehouse is said to offer business conditions coherent picture at a specific point of time, it is thus utilized for effectual decision making process. Data warehouse entails the development of system which assists the data extraction in flexible ways. It integrates multiple data stores and this information is utilized by the managers for improved decision making. Environment of data warehousing comprises of the relational database extraction, client analysis tools, engine of online analytical processing (OLAP), loading and transformation (Joseph, 2, p. 329).  Data warehouse is used in different private and governmental organizations. It is used in healthcare organization to store data which are later used to evaluate the healthcare efficiency in offering quality care. This information assists in making decisions on the aspects to be improved on to enhance the general performance, for instance in reducing rate of medical errors, patient waiting time, and cases of readmission. Healthcare data in this case is collected using electronic medical records (EMR), they are then stored and integrated in data warehouses, where they are later extracted for analysis and decision making (Evans, Lloyd & Pierce, 3, p.190). Data warehousing concept is also applied in the government services. Data warehouse is used in the storage of data in e-government system that is used to collect different kinds of data from the citizens. The data warehouse is then used by the government decision makers to analyze different situations in the country using different queries. The queries complex analysis results are then used in making decisions that are likely to change life of the citizens in a great way (Arora & Gupta, 7, p.28).

Common Attitudes toward the Data Warehouse

Data warehouse is highly embraced by almost all organizations that need to store huge volumes of data from different sources. Data warehouse is highly supported and embraced for its ability to organize data in a manner that it can be easily retrieved and analyzed. It is highly supported by business or organization managers and data analysts, who highly depend on it to make important decisions in an organization. Majority of data warehouse users are highly satisfied by its operability and level of efficiency, in data manipulation and analysis (Chen, Soliman, Mao & Frolic, 8, p.106). Similar to other data users, I am also highly satisfied by data warehouse functionality and effectiveness in enhancing data manipulation and analysis for effective decision making. However, I am always concerned about data warehouse security and how lack of security can impact the credibility, confidentiality, integrity and reliability of the stored data. Although I highly embrace data warehouse concept and its role in enhancing data analysis and decision making, I am always keen on the employed security measures and importance of sealing all security loopholes.

Fundamental Strengths and Weaknesses of Data Warehouse

Data warehouse is associated with a number of advantages and disadvantages. One of the main warehouse disadvantages is inability to totally ensure clean data. Although data warehouse has a data cleansing mechanism to ensure only clean data is obtained, it is considerably hard to attain perfection, since data quality and cleanliness is also determine by the data source. Another disadvantage is that it is considerably hard to handle large volumes of data stored in the data warehouse. It is always hard to cope with large volumes of data, especially in a warehouse that holds a lot of outdated data. The main advantage of data warehouse is that it enhances business intelligence since data warehouse features facilitate data analysis, ensuring that the organization only practices informed decision making. Data warehouse also enhances timely data access as the organization data are integrated in a single warehouse. It also facilitates increased system performance and query enhancing data analysis and decision making (Cuzzocrea, Bellatreche and Song, 6).

Prevailing View that Experts Hold about the Likely Future of the Data Warehouse

Data warehouse has been experiencing a lot of advancements since it was defined. This includeshardware advancement, which provided powerful processing power, and enough data storage space. Ithas also empowered by provision of advanced data warehouse appliances that ensure certified configuration and creating a balance between services, software and hardware. There has been further advancement of database storage technology which enhances easy access and data querying. Today, the data warehouse has advanced to be integrated to big data technology which adds to the warehouse data holding capacity. The analysis simply demonstrates the growing and advancement of data warehouse technology in the industry. Shivtare and Shelar (1)thus believe that data warehouse will continue to grow to enhance its storage ability and performance power in terms of data ease of accessibility and analysis.Cuzzocrea, Bellatreche and Song (6) believe that there will be high level of integration of the big data and data warehouse with intention of creating a more liable data management system with limited challenges. According to Maslankowski (4), the world is growing in terms of data production and need of data storage, especially with advance use of social media platform, this will create demand for large, secure and easily accessible data storage technologies, an aspect increase chances of integrating cloud technology to data warehouse technology in the future


Data warehouse technology has been of great importance in enhancement of data management and data analysis. Its main purpose is to promote decision making process. Although data warehouse has both advantages and disadvantages, its advantages surpass the disadvantages, and hence it has been highly embraced. Data warehouse has highly managed to blend well with the new technology and hence it demonstrates strong ability to survive future technological advancements.

Employees Right Influence on Relationships at Work

All workers have primary rights in the workplace which influence how they are treated or must be treated at their workplace. These rights include right to fair compensation, right to privacy, rights to certain benefits and protection against discrimination based on age, gender, nationality, sexuality, ethnicity, religion, race, and disabilities among others. Workers are normally very careful in ensuring that their rights are respected as per the law and that the organization is committed into respecting these rights. Observing workers’ rights gives an organization an opportunity to build a favorable work environment where everyone is respected and valued despite of diversity. An organization that is highly committed in observing and respecting employee’ right enhances a positive relation between its managers and workers and also among workers. This kind of organization demonstrates value of its workers, who in turn demonstrate their satisfaction to the organization through positive performance.

On the contrary, an organization that fails to observe workers right imposes a strenuous relationship between the workers and the management, since the workers tend to use the provided channels to force the management to comply with the law. This initiates a battle between the workers and the management, resulting to extreme measures such as litigation, strikes, and joining of labor union among majority of workers in quest to acquire power to fight for their rights. Poor workers treatment through discrimination and poor compensation also make workers to feel less valued, an aspect that demotivated most of them. This eventually results to poor general workers performance. Acts such as poor compensation and company’s inability to respects workers minimal benefits such as annual paid leave, and sick leave, inversion of workers privacy and discrimination may initiate workers hostility as they try to fight for what is rightfully theirs. To some extent, workers may initiate legal actions against the company, which results to huge penalties that may not be positively received by the management. This may result to continuous conflicts between workers and the management and also reduce the organization performance (Zhao& Zhang, 2010).

Singapore Airlines Human Resource Practices Evaluation

The success of any organization is highly determines by the HR practices adopted in the organization. Different organizations employ different practices some which influence their performance more compared to other similar organization. This paper evaluates Singapore Airlines HR practices that have highly contributed to the organization success. SIA emphasis on five elements to enhance successful HR practices. The first element is straight recruitment and selection processes. The second element is investing extensively in retaining and training sources. The third element is successful teams of service delivery. The fourth element is frontline staff empowerment to control quality. The fifth element is staff motivation through recognition and rewards leadership for cost-effectiveness and service excellence. The implementation of these elements has highly enhances the organization success compared to its competitors.

The Uniqueness about Singapore Airlines’s Five Elements of its Successful HR Practices

One of the main reasons why these elements are unique is because they all work together and complement each other. The selection process is considerably strict and discriminative compared to other companies, especially those in US. Other than academic qualification, the selection process also focuses on individual physical attributes, age, attitude, and ability to work with others and interact with strangers.  Some attributes such as age and physical appearance cannot be applied in other similar companies in US since it is regarded as discriminative and hence illegal. The selection process also involves a number of tests which do not take place in other companies. The water confidence test, uniform check, psychometric test and also an English test ensures that the company does not make blind judgment on candidate ability to handle the tasks and to satisfy the requirements. The company does not take chances in recruitment. It offers different interviews and test to ensure that is only select and confirm the most confirmed individual in the group of applicants. This focuses on ensuring that that the selected candidates have all it takes to be part of the team (Wirtz& Heracleous, 2012).

Effectiveness of Each Element’s Contribution toward Singapore Airlines’ Leadership in Service Excellence and Cost Effectiveness

The selection and recruitment process is very strict and detailed which provides the company with an opportunity to only select the most qualified individuals who fully satisfy the company hiring requirements. This ensures continuation of service excellence in the company. In addition to this, the recruitment process is extended to probation period where those who qualify for the first selection are trained, couched and mentored, as well as closely monitored for a period of six months. This training ensures that the new employees are ready to work effectively and safeguard the image of the company. Continuous training is also offered to all to ensure that they remain informed and always ready to handle different tasks as required by the company (Borisova et al., 2017). Empowerment ensures that workers remain motivated and always in positive attitude while working in the company. This increases job satisfaction and assist in maintaining quality performance. Recognition and rewards enhances self determination to develop leadership skills and to be more effective in personal work and hence nurturing leadership skills. Team work ensures effectiveness in work done and support and guidance in refining individual skills as well as nurturing leadership skills. All this ensure the provision of high standard services and development of leadership skills (HCI Talent, 2016).

Why Most Companies have not Adopted Proven Practices Services to Attain Higher Company Performance

Despite a clear prove that the five Singapore Airlines elements enhances achievement of high company performance, many organizations have not managed to execute them. One of the main reasons is due to the cost involved. In most cases, companies only select individuals they are sure they can keep. Initial training is never given to people who may be dismissed after probation. Thus in most cases, companies do not set aside extra resources to train candidates who may not be confirmed at the end (Wirtz& Heracleous, 2012). The cost involved in training experienced people is also considerably high and hence most companies prefer avoiding it by only offering training to those who needs it most, unlike in SIA where training is offered to all. Some of the practices involve in SIA selection and recruitment is considered illegal in countries such as US and hence, they cannot be applied by any company in the country.

SIA Practices which are considered Illegal in US and how they may Create Unfair Competition

Selection and recruitment is one of the main five elements of the SIA which enhances it success.  This element involves a number of practices, some of which are illegal in the United States. Practices include elimination of candidates based on their physical looks and age is regarded as discriminative in the United States. According to labor anti-discrimination law no employer is required to eliminate an applicant based on age, gender, race, ethnicity, disability, religion, and sexuality. This means that American airlines are at disadvantage since unlike in Singapore, they cannot eliminate a candidate based on physical appearance which mostly comprise of race or color and disability aspect, or age. Concentration on individual physical appearance is considerably discriminative since most people cannot control how they look or where they were born. This aspect encourages racial discrimination where complexions considered being not good enough for airline services are eliminated despite having satisfied all other requirements (Houseman, 1999). It is not clear whether beauty or ‘fine’ physical appearance contributes significantly to the SIA success compared to other factors. In my opinion these practices are unethical (selecting based on physical attribute) and they may make a negligible contribution which can be covered by concentrating on other important aspects such as attitude and ability to work with others and to handle customers (Sillup& Klimberg, 2010). Thus, they may not give SIA much advantage, but they are definitely in promotion of racial discrimination in employment.

Scorecards and Dashboards

A scorecard is a form of report which measures individual performance and contract the performance over the individual goals and projections. Scorecard assesses the failure and success of individual efforts, founded on key performance indicators (KPIs). Scorecard process starts by early determination of the KPIs so as to permit management to use them to evaluate the progress successfully. When accurately done, scorecard offers great value to an enterprise since it can assist in evaluation of business direction and goals, establish tracks, evaluate patterns and trends and in using resources in the most efficient manner possible.  Dashboards on the other hand are multiple reports, permitting an individual to easily contrast and compare various reports or to access different datasets in a single screen. Scorecards can be viewed and included on a dashboard with other forms of reports. Among the common reports utilized on a dashboard include trends on new item, exception reports, and analysis of 52-week profit. Dashboards can be modified and present various views from a field representative to the executives. Basically, all data are pulled from one data repository to guarantee accuracy in the reports. The main benefit of using a dashboard is that it makes it easy for the management to access summary of important information at ago (Mihai & Zamfir, 2014).

Difference Between Metrics and Analytics

Metrics are measurement standard that serve as an accountability integral component. Metric is a quantifiable measure which is utilized to assess and track the specific status of business process. In human resource management, metrics are data utilized to quantify the impact and cost of Human Resource (HR) processes and programs of talent management, and assess the HR initiatives success. Business metrics are normally utilized to assess key business stakeholders that include middle managers, executives, employees, customers and investors. Metrics improve organizations value by offering the information needed to make the best talent related decisions. They report ongoing, current, and long-term numbers for HR common areas that include performance, employee engagement and retention (Lowisz, 2008). Analytic on the other hand involves assessing the data pattern to communicate a meaning. It is normally utilized when data is required to respond to particular business-associated questions. Analytic entails applying math and statistics so as to define data patterns. Human capital analytics assess the HR metric effect on organizational performance, and thus, analytics can be said to define similar patterns in metrics. Prolonged use of analytics can help an organization to make a prediction, based on patterns and trends (Zielinski, 2014).

Social Media and Human Resource Management

The world has in the recent past experienced increase in the use of social media in all places that include workplaces. This has highly changed people’s behaviors in the workplace, where people tend to spend most of their free or even work time on social media. Social media is also widely used by the companies for public relation which include enhancing the company relation with its customers.  Social media has also been attracting human resource review during hiring and even for confirmed workers as a way of evaluating their character and behavior. This extensive use of social media has thus created a significant impact to the human resource management of different organizations. This paper analyses the impact of social media on HRM.

Influence Social Media has on Human Resource Management Success

Social media has a great influence on HRM activities in today’s workplace. Social media attracts HR professional urge to investigate more about a job applicant or an employee through their social media accounts. Most of them view their public profile and learn more about their personal details and character from their post. This is likely to influence their decision regarding an applicant or their judgment regarding an employee, and in most cases assist them in making the right judgment with regard to the new employee character or in any other matter other than discriminative aspects (Wilkie &Wright, 2014). Social media can also aid in identifying the right individuals based on their qualification. Media such as LinkedIn is a professional network that can easily link the company to the kind of employee it is searching for based on their qualification (Wright, 2014b). According to Waden (2016), most workers are found to use significant part of their working time to engage in social media activities. This is said to affect the individual work productivity and eventually resulting to a considerable decline in organization productivity. Uncontrolled use of social media is also likely to affect the image of the company. This mostly happens when unauthorized workers make post on behalf of the company without much scrutiny on the content of their posts (Swain, 2017).

Challenges of Human Resource Management Professionals Using Social Media to Learn about Current and Potential Employees

HRM professional are currently experiencing challenges accessing job applicants and employees personal accounts in the social media. According to Wilkie and Wright (2014), different states are making laws to prohibit HRM professionals from asking for personal social media accounts login details from their employees or job applicants. These laws which have by now been enacted in twelve states regards asking for login details from employees as a bleach of individual privacy and hence it is prohibited. The American congress is also pushing to be able to enact similar law as a national law. This according to Wright (2014a) will protect people who post anything on social media without thinking of the consequences it can bring to their professional life.

Another major challenge HRM professionals are facing is legal risk of obtaining personal details protected by the antidiscrimination law in employment. Most social media accounts owners give so many details about their lives which include their age, race or ethnicity, and religion among other protected personal information. The HRM team fears that dismissing an employee due to other permitted reasons may initiate legal battle claiming having been terminated due to discriminative reasons. This can highly take place especially if the employee knows that the HR had access to his or her detailed personal information from the social media (Wright, 2014a). Moreover, HR cannot dismiss an employee based on something he or she posted in states where social media privacy law is enacted, unless it can be viewed in a public domain; while viewing the profile without having to login.

Use of Social Media in Private Companies with Regard to HRM

Social media is extensively being used in various private companies to enhance HRM activities. Zappo for instance has recently abandoned the traditional method of recruiting which involved positing job in its website and waiting for applicants to apply to a new method that focuses on using social media. In the new system, anyone interested in working for the company should join the company’s social network known as Zappo insider where the company will be posting available jobs openings. The company gives its social media members a higher priority than other people in job provision (Robb, 2014). Kroger Co. is another company that has transferred its recruiting process to social media. Kroger HR basically shares job openings to people through the company Twitter and Facebook accounts. This has enabled the company to reach demography of workers they could have never attained in the previous means of job opening advertisement. Spitfire Group is also using social media to attract new talents. The company integrates LinkedIn, twitter and Facebook in a Financial Force HCM system which is a cloud based system for managing human capital in sales department (Rabb, 2014). This demonstrates that social media use in HRM activities is growing extensively and more is still anticipated in the future. 

Labor Laws, Unionization, and the Workplace – Verizon Strike Of 2016

The Story behind the Verizon Strike Of 2016

Verizon 2016 strike involves landline section workers who are highly unionized. The workers complain that the company is trying to eliminate unionized workers in the section by focusing on outsourcing workers from Philippines and Mexico, who are working on hourly rate and with no demands for health benefits, pension, or any other form of benefits negotiated by unionized workers. The company consider this more profitable since it reduces the operational cost and eventually, finding a way to eliminate unionized workers who always fight for a better bargain (Smith 2016).

In addition to this, the company is claiming to be experiencing a decline in sales landline section as 1.4 million customers disconnect their landlines and focus on wireless communication. Consequently, the companywants to compensate for this by eliminating workers in landline unit benefits by employing shared cost medical cover and freezing workers’ pension benefits at thirty years of service making them to pay high health cost. The company has also reduced work injury compensation, and job security. Moreover, the company had a plan to b assigning technician to two months of duty away from home and refuses to negotiate for any change of working condition or workers benefits (Smith 2016). This initiated for a need of strike as a way of pushing for the workers agenda and resolving they work condition dissatisfaction.

How Verizon Strike Reflects the Current State of Unions in the United States

The American unions have been growing weak in modern days. The union power may have been declining with time, with union influence on companies’ labor treatment going down. According to Smith (2016) majority of employers always find an alternative to handle striking workers duties every time there is a strikes. Smith noted that in most cases, these companies end up doing better in terms of performance during strikes and hence leveraging union’s bargaining power (Smith, 2016). Verizon also managed to use supervisors and outsourced workers as alternative service providers in the company during this time. This corners the union suppressing its ability to bargain for a better deal. The Verizon strike is regarded as a mega strike, since unions have not been calling strikes for a while. Thus, the strike may reflect the unions desire to repossess their initial power. It also demonstrates poor collaboration and support among workers union. The striking union CWA represents workers in the landline unit. Although Verizon workers are represented by a number of different unions, no other union called a strike in solidarity with CWA, despite other unionized workers in wireless unit experiencing similar threats that include high level of outsourcing and hence possibility of extension of benefits cut in the future.  

Whether Verizon Strike “Signaled a Larger Economic Battle” or “No Morality Play”

In my opinion, Verizon Strike is more of a signal of “Larger Economic Battle” than it is a “No Morality Play”. This is because the strike is initiated by Verizon steps to cut cost on a unit that it considers to be less profitable, compared to others, though it is not making any losses. The trend also demonstrates that the company also prefers nonunionized workers in wireless unit, so as to eliminate workers benefits and pensions, despite the unit being one of the most profitable units in the company (Dayen, 2016). Thus, it is clear the company’s move on landline unit is not an isolated case of treatment for the workers in the unit due to low unit profitability, but a company’s strategy to lower cost, and maximize on profit. Based on the trend, other units will soon experience the magnitude of this economical move. In addition to this, the technology is changing, giving companies a better way to offer services without incurring much cost or involving so many workers.  This creates a threat of huge lay off among older workers who demands high salaries on the basis of redundancy or lack of technological ability to handle companies’ task.

Verizon workers have experienced a great change in working condition, reduction of benefits, off home duties, reduced job security among others. Although one may claim that they are among the best paid in the country, the negative change to their financial benefits and work environment cannot be overlooked. Moreover, Verizon workers cannot compare their position with a low performing organization just to perceive the changes as less cruel (Sherk, 2016). Their work position is changing to the worse as change in the economic environment brought about by technology is experienced. As the company struggle to maximize on profit through cost cutting, workers also struggle to safeguard their financial health by resisting the changes. Thus, this is more like an economic battle which is likely to be experienced elsewhere, than it is a “No morality play.” 

Lesson Learnt by HR manager from the Experience of the Verizon Strike of 2016

The HR manager should learn that changes especially those trying to lower the status quo of workers will not be readily welcomed. Workers will strongly resist any change that seems to negatively affect their working condition, workers benefits program or create job insecurity, despite the change being justifiable. Workers will always revoke the Wagner Act to promote their collective bargain to block unfavorable changes (U.S. Department of Labor, 2017;HR Hero, 2017). Thus, HR must be prepared for this battle which may leave them torn between embracing effective workers management system or the company’s demand for cost cutting and high level of profitability.

The Pregnancy Discrimination Act Application – Sandra’s Scenario

Employee Rights/Safety – Assignment Instructions

Prepare a paper that discusses how the Family and Medical Leave Act, the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, the Americans with Disabilities Act, safety laws or other state laws might apply to the following scenario.

Sandra’s Scenario

One of your old college roommates, Sandra, is a nurse who took a job that required her to be able to lift 50 pounds smoothly. She was told the job had this physical strength requirement for patient safety and to ensure that teams of nurses could move patients as needed. Sandra worked for a nursing home chain that employed 900 employees. Sandra had become pregnant and on her doctor’s advice tried to refrain from lifting 50 pounds. After she kept finding herself in situations at work that required her to do this kind of lifting, she decided to just stay home until the baby was born. After the baby was born, Sandra went back to work, but her baby developed a medical condition that required her to see doctor’s frequently. Sandra didn’t have anyone else who could be a “dedicated” caregiver for her baby, so she took leave from work to tend to her child. When her leave was about to expire, she got her daughter’s doctor to write a note in support of extending her leave. The note wasn’t clear and suggested that the doctor thought it would be nice, but not necessary, for mother and child to be together. Sandra’s manager told her that the nursing home wouldn’t be able to keep her job open for her any longer. However, he told her she should apply to the company again as a new-hire when she was ready to get back to work.

Employee Rights/Safety Assignment Sample Answer

The Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA)

The PDA prohibits pregnancy based discrimination when it comes to any employment aspect that include hiring, job assignments, pay, fringed benefits that include health insurance and leave, promotions, training, and any other employment condition. Based on this law, a woman who is temporarily incapable of doing her job because of a medical condition associated to childbirth or pregnancy, must be treated by the employer in the same manner as temporarily disabled workers are treated (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, n.d.). In this case, the nurse was unable to lift heavy object that are 50 pounds due to pregnancy. The employer based on PDA was required to assign lighter duties to her, those that did not require any lifting or those that involves lifting lighter objects.  In case such duties are not available in the working place, the employer should offer for unpaid leave just as he or she could do to temporary disabled persons in the organization.  In this case, the employer is unable to provide a reasonable accommodation to the pregnant nurse. However, the employer provided a favorable condition of unpaid leave where the pregnant nurse was able to take the unpaid leave just like disabled people do to be able to go through her difficult pregnancy.

The Family and Medical Leave Act

The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) focuses on prioritizing on providing the workers with the aptitude to balance the family and work demands. FMLA offers eligible workers with job-protected, unpaid leave for particular medical and family reasons. Eligible workers, are required to take 12 workweek leave in a period of one year for child birth or adoption, to take care of their children, spouse or parent experiencing serious medical condition, for prenatal or pregnancy medical care, or for military families related duties. Extra leave days are only given to those taking care of servicemen or individuals caring for servicepersons families or in case one is able to prove that the dependent has a serious health condition that demands extra attention (U.S. Department of Labor: Wage and Hour Division (WHD), n.d.).In this case, Sandra needed extra time to take care of her new born baby who had a medical condition. She needed more than the maternity leave to care for her child who needed medical attention. She even had a doctor to write a note to convince the employer that Sandra needed more time with the baby.However, the doctor only shows it is nice and not necessary for Sandra to be with the baby. This makes it look like there could be an alternative to handle the situation, especially since the mother had already exhausted her leave time as required by the FMLA. The note does not clearly demonstrate the seriousness of the situation and hence, the organization is justified to deny Sandra extra leave time. However, if the doctor was convincing enough, the organization could have been forced to add Sandra’s leave days to cater for her ailing, however, it did not manage to do so, and hence Sandra can only get back to work or lose it. 

The American with Disabilities Act (ADA)

ADA forbids discrimination against individual with disabilities in various places including the working place. The law demands that the employer should be accommodative of disabled people by offering extra days of leave, when the disabled employee has exhausted his or her required leave days. In addition, these individuals should be provided with light duties that they can comfortably handle based on their health condition. The employer should also provide a favorable working condition for the disabled to enhance their movement and ease of working (U.S. Department of Labor, n.d.). This should also be available even to workers with temporal disabilities including pregnant women. Sandra enjoyed the privileges offered by ADA during her pregnancy. She was provided with an unpaid leave to be able to take care of her difficult pregnancy. However, this privilege could not be extended to Sandra after birth. Thus the ADA law does not protect Sandra child or Sandra after she recovers from her pregnancy related complications.

Safety Laws

The safety laws such as Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) was created to guarantee that every working person in the country contains a safe working environment. OSHA demands that an employer should provide workers with healthy working environment free from dangers of physical and psychological injuries or free from ergonomic injuries (HR Hero, 2017). Lifting can results to a number of injuries that include back injuries, and wrist injuries among others. It can even be more dangerous during pregnancy. An organization involved in a lot of lifting activities is required to provide machines and tools that can assist in lifting to make it easy. Lifting 50 pounds for frequently in a day is not easy. It can easily result to injuries even to healthy employees. The nursing home should consider identifying a better way to aid workers into lifting these loads to enhance ergonomic working environment. Where assisting tools cannot be used, the organization should offer training on ergonomic procedures to be used to ensure that one make these lift without subjecting his or her body into injuries.

Best Practices In Recruitment of Females and Veterans of the U.S. Military – News Release

Federal Contract Compliance Issues SLP Scenario

You are a newly hired HR staffing specialist for MEGATRANSPORT, a private-sector employer in the business of making large, transport equipment mainly for the U.S. government. Your supervisor has asked you to write a 2 to 3 page news release on best practices in the recruitment of females. He also would like you to discuss the recruitment of military veterans. Tailor your discussion as much as possible to recruiting these targeted applicants to the large transport equipment industry.

Draw on your own research to identify (by name) real-life, private-sector employers who have used some of the recruitment techniques that you propose. Discuss their real-life experiences as examples in your news release.

Best Practices In Recruitment of Females and Veterans of the U.S. Military

Best Practice for Women

Women are among the minority groups that the US employers must consider when giving equal employment opportunity. Women are normally discriminated in different work environments, especially in recruitment and firing due to various reasons that include need for maternity leave, a number of family leaves, and various personal distractions at work due to their role in the family. Most employers believe that women have a lower level of productivity than men. This makes most of these employers to offer male with the same academic qualification and work responsibilities as women in similar job position a higher salary than women. Women are also said to be less flexible in job assignments since most would not prefer out of town assignments or night shifts due to their family responsibilities (Brady et al., 2015). Thus some employers consider eliminating women at the hiring stage to ensure they have a more flexible workforce.These incidences among others made women identified as a minority group that needed governmental protection to get equal employment opportunity.  The government thus prohibits American business organization against discrimination workers and prospect workers based on gender or sex. To satisfy this legal requirement the Mega Transport organization has tried to employ best practice in the recruitment of females. Mega Transport is a private company that acts as a Federal contractor in supply of transport equipment to the U.S government. Thus, the company must observe employment nondiscrimination law, which includes offering equal employment opportunities for women (Brady et al., 2015).

Mega Transportation uses the best practices in the female’s recruitment as a way of ensuring equal employment opportunities. This includes ensuring that qualified women are given equal chances to be employed as men in different work positions in the company. To ensure women have equal opportunity, the company provides 30% annual opening slots to qualified women applicants in the company. The company has harmonized salaries to ensure that women with the same job qualification and in a specific working area are compensated equally to men in the same position and with the same qualification. Thus job adverts clearly encourages women applicants with a promise of equal treatment in terms of compensation, promotion and other benefits. The company also highly acknowledges and appreciates women great family role by offering various tools to blend personal and work environments that include gyms, on-site shopping, day care and medical facilities among others. These tools play a great role in enhancing women efficiency at work by ensuring proper life balance which put their mind at ease and increase their concentration at work. Mega Transportation also offers paid maternity leave of not less than six months to new mothers in the company. This provides them with a great opportunity to nurture their kids to an age that they can be accommodated by the organization baby care (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2012).

Mega Transportation plays an important role of rewarding women in the company for employing extra effort to advance in their academic qualification. Women are promoted based on both academic advancement and high job performance, same as men in the organization. The promotion includes advanced working position and salary increment. Women are also provided with equal compensation to men with the same qualifications or doing similar job, and equal chances of professional growth using different programs provided by the company which include training and academic scholarship or paid study leaves. The company does not discriminate women in any way in terms of work opportunities, training, compensation and working environment. The company acknowledges the extra role of women in taking care of their families and hence they are offered extra family leave days if need arises after they have exhausted their defined leave period. The company has also established professional women empowerment network where women in the transportation manufacturing industry can encourage each other professionally, to ensure more women take the available opportunities to advance their education, improve their work performance, and enhance professional growth. For effective recruitment of women, the company clearly states all benefits and resources it offers to qualified women applicants in job advertisement.

Best Practice for Military Veterans

Military veteran is another minority group that is likely to experience employment discrimination in the United States. After leaving the military, veterans find it hard to blend in the normal society due to lack of enough experience in their area of interest or due their physical or mental disabilities acquired during their service time (Tully, 2010). However, for a company to be permitted to work as a private federal contractor, the company must be able offer equal employment opportunity to veteran and people with disabilities. To fulfill this, the company has established a special program where it employs and ensures advance employment of qualified veterans from Vietnam era, recently separated veterans, special disabled veterans, and veterans that took part in active duty in an expedition, campaign or war where authorization of campaign badge has been done (U.S. Department of Labor, n.d).

Mega Transportation ensures that twenty percent of annual new work positions are filled by veterans through this program. This is ensured by posting job opportunities through veteran communities. Their resumes screening also focus more on their leadership skills technical and training ability, other than the academic and specific professional qualifications only. The program also provides orientation training which assist in familiarizing veterans into the new organization culture that is different from that of the military. It also ensures that the recruited veterans are reoriented into their area of qualification after being out of the field for a while, especially if their duty in the military did not supplement their professional or academic qualification, under which the company has used for their recruitment (Tully, 2010). This program also ensures provision of medical facility to the veterans that include psychological center which focus on enhancing their physical and mental health. The mental health services play a great role in ensuring that workers employed through veteran program accept “the new normal” which might include subordinating even if they were at higher military position where they were only used to giving orders. The organization also provides suitable accommodation for veteran with disabilities to ensure that their health needs are addressed. This includes provision of ergonomic work tools for them, provision of extra paid health leave days. They are also assigned work duties that they can manage with their disabilities without much straining (Friske, 2010). The company also ensures equal compensation, and professional growth opportunities to all workers, including those recruited through veterans’ recruitment program.