Assignment Instructions

Imagine that you work for the maker of a leading brand of low-calorie microwavable food that estimates the following demand equation for its product using data from 26 supermarkets around the country for the month of April.

For a refresher on independent and dependent variables, please go to Sophia’s Website and review the Independent and Dependent Variables tutorial, located at http://www.sophia.org/tutorials/independent-and-dependent-variables–3.

Note: Your professor will provide you with the equation and data necessary for you to complete this assignment. You will find this information attached to Assignment 1 within the course shell.

Write a four to six (4-6) page paper in which you:

1. Compute the elasticities for each independent variable. Note: Write down all of your calculations.
2. Determine the implications for each of the computed elasticities for the business in terms of short-term and long-term pricing strategies. Provide a rationale in which you cite your results.
3. Recommend whether you believe that this firm should or should not cut its price to increase its market share. Provide support for your recommendation.
4. Assume that all the factors affecting demand in this model remain the same, but that the price has changed. Further assume that the price changes are 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 dollars.
1. Plot the demand curve for the firm.
2. Plot the corresponding supply curve on the same graph using the supply function Q = 5200 + 45P with the same prices.
3. Determine the equilibrium price and quantity.
4. Outline the significant factors that could cause changes in supply and demand for the product. Determine the primary manner in which both the short-term and the long-term changes in market conditions could impact the demand for, and the supply, of the product.
5. Indicate the crucial factors that could cause rightward shifts and leftward shifts of the demand and supply curves.
6. Use at least three (3) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia does not qualify as an academic resource.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

• Analyze how production and cost functions in the short run and long run affect the strategy of individual firms.
• Apply the concepts of supply and demand to determine the impact of changes in market conditions in the short run and long run, and the economic impact on a company’s operations.
• Use technology and information resources to research issues in managerial economics and globalization.
• Write clearly and concisely about managerial economics and globalization using proper writing mechanics.

Your supervisor has asked you to compute the elasticities for each independent variable. Assume the following values for the independent variables:

Q = Quantity demanded
P (in cents) = Price of the product = 8,000
PX (in cents) = Price of leading competitor’s product = 9,000
I (in dollars) = Per capita income of the standard metropolitan statistical area
(SMSA) in which the supermarkets are located = 5,000
A (in dollars) = Monthly advertising expenditures = 64

Variable Elasticity

Elasticity = change in quantity / change in price. To calculate the elasticity for every variable, change in variable quantity divided by change of variable. This results to variable coefficients (Viton, 2012).

QD = -5200 -42P + 20PX + 5.2I + 0.20A + 0.25M

= -5200 – 42 * 500 + 20 * 600 + 5.2 * 5500 + 0.2 * 10000 + 0.25 * 5000

= -5200 – 21000 + 12000 + 28600 + 2000 + 1250

=17650

PED = variable initial value x variable coefficient

PEDP = -42 * 500/ 17650 = -21000/17650 = -1.19

PEDPX = 20 * 600/17650 = 12000/17650 = 0.68

PEDI = 5.2 * 5500/17650 = 28600/17650 = 1.62

PEDA = 0.2 * 10000/17650 = 2000/17650 = 0.11

PEDM = 0.25 * 5000/17650 = 1250/17650 = 0.07

Implication of the of Computed Elasticity

PEDP = -42 * 500/ 17650 = -21000/17650 = -1.19

The demand elasticity of price demonstrate a negative value of -1.19. This value is close to the unity elasticity which demonstrate equal change of demand to the change of prices. This means that change in the product prices for a certain percentage, influences the change of demand for almost similar percentage. This demonstrates that in the short-run, increase in the prices of frozen, product with low calorie will reduce the demand with a similar magnitude and similarly, decrease of their prices for a certain will increase their demand for a similar magnitude. However, the situation may change in the future as more people are giving extra importance to healthy feeding. This implies that increase in knowledge regarding healthy feeding may increase the products demand due to their important feature of low calorie. This may change the situation such that change in price will not receive similar magnitude in demand change. The demand may change slightly with change of prices or may not be affected at all in the future (Nitisha, 2015).

PEDPX = 20 * 600/17650 = 12000/17650 = 0.68

The value in this case is less than one which can be interpreted as relatively inelastic. This implies that change in the price of the competitor for a certain percentage result to change of the company’s product demand decrease but in a less magnitude. This implies that, competitor prices can influence the company’s product demand in the short-run. This may continue to happen in the long-run, unless the company employ measures to ensure that their products are highly competitive, particularly in health related matters to reduce the impact created by the cost of substitutable goods in the market.

PEDI = 5.2 * 5500/17650 = 28600/17650 = 1.62

The per capita income elasticity provide a value greater than one. This can be interpreted as relative elastic demand. This implies that a small change in prices create a huge change in the amount demand. Thus, change in the per capita income has a very great influence in the amount demanded. In the short-run, increase in the per capita income of individuals in the region will result to a huge increase in the amount demanded, while a decrease in per-capita will results to a huge decline in the amount demanded. The situation may remain constant in the future. Change of individual per capita may have the same influence in the demand even in the future, since people’s spending is always determined by their earnings (Nitisha, 2015).

PEDA = 0.2 * 10000/17650 = 2000/17650 = 0.11

PEDM = 0.25 * 5000/17650 = 1250/17650 = 0.07

Number of microwave sold affect the level of demand very slightly. The elasticity value tends to zero. This demonstrate inelastic situation where the level of oven sold hardly impact the demand of the company’s product. The situation is tending to almost inelastic s. In this regard, oven purchased may not impact the level of demand even in the future and hence, its significance to the company’s business in almost negligible (Nitisha, 2015).

Recommendation on Firm Prices

The analysis demonstrates an almost unitary elastic demand situation, where change of price causes an equal change on demand. This implies that decrease in the product prices by 10% will cause a demand increase by only 10%. This may not be very profitable to the company since the demand increase will only be enough to cover the losses incurred as a result of price decrease. Thus, the situation may remain the same forever. In this regard, the company should not consider reducing its prices to enhance the level of demand. This should only happen in the future, in case the analysis will demonstrate that a small change in prices will attract high increase in demand (Hofstrand, 2007).

Solving Mind-Body Problem Presented by Dualism and its Relationship to Cognitive Science

Understanding reality and all the intricacies surrounding it has long been the quest of sophisticated sages. The mysterious nature of our environment together with all its components has been the subject of extended discussions within philosophical circles, with the primary aim being the improvement of its comprehension. One of the most common examples of this quest is in the development of dualism as a system to aid in the understanding of reality and all other related components in our environment. In essence, the view contends that there are two distinct parts that, when joined together, constitute reality in its purest form. Philosophy generally agrees with the proposition that the mind differs greatly from the physical even though they may interact in one way or another. It is a time-honored position that has been explored by some of the most famous philosophers in history; Descartes exemplified it in his mind/matter difference, Hume in fact/value dissimilarity, pre-Socratics in their appearance/reality dichotomy, Kant in his transcendental/empirical phenomena and Russell’s existence/subsistence question (Friedenberg & Silverman, 2016, p. 57).  Nevertheless, interest in this particular disposition and contemporary cognitive science has always led aficionados to the mind/matter distinction that was popularized by Descartes. Commonly referred to as Cartesian interactionist dualism, Descartes’ perspective was emphatic in suggesting that the mind and matter were two distinct entities that existed independently. Mind substances, however, wielded a considerable amount of power that would enable it to influence material objects. Active thinking was what defined the mind in this case while its counterpart was defined by the spatial dimensions that in which it was located. The assumption made during this period in history was that matter could exist without matter and vice versa. It is worth noting that the question of dualism is not solely of historical interest but also has considerable implications on cognitive science. The purpose of this research paper is, thus to solve the mind-body problem presented by dualism and its relationship to cognitive science.

We currently live in a contemporary world that is driven by numerous technological advancements and scientific developments. An area of special concern for leading scientists is the cognitive faculties that human beings possess and their ability to subsequently make out their environment. There has been a special interest by scientists seeking to trace the roots of this ancient concept since there is a high likelihood that demystifying it would greatly influence modern science and the debate surrounding consciousness. A convincing argument from the scientific community rejecting dualism has often been thought as the only sure way of solving the age-old mind-body debacle. Proponents of this viewpoint argue that it is key in enabling cognitive scientists to vindicate the materialist approach and conclusively holding a disposition that can be proven empirically.  Understanding the mind and how it functions has been at the center of most research projects that have been carried out over the past five decades. The problem presented by cognitive scientists has been one that sought to understand dualism and brain function as a whole. From the onset, it was clear that there was a huge difference between the brain and individuals mind. While habits entrenched in the basal ganglia of the mammalian brain, the reality is a construct that solely represents the minds perception of its environment and all other elements surrounding it. Dualism, presented in its raw form, therefore, seeks to explore how mind interacts with matter at any given point. An interaction between these two entities, from a cognitive science perspective, presents a special circumstance where the mental finally manifest into the physical. Unlike the route was taken by occasionalism on the issue, causal efficacy is espoused in cognitive science with the causal agent, in this case, being consciousness(Garvey, 2011). The mental and physical states interact to synchronize a dualistic appearance that is in harmony with its surroundings.

Cognitive scientist keen on solving the mind-body problem have claimed, time and again, claimed that the notion of causation may be the reason why controversy surrounds this subject. Initially, most experts were of the misguided opinion that the problem lay in the dualist ontology that had been adopted by most of the predecessors that seemingly contradicted any standard notion ever held on the issue. It is for this particular reason that scientists now claim that our mental lives are subsequently reflected in the physical lives that we are currently leading. Questions as to whether cognitive science has the ability to close this particular gap often stem from the vast differences that exist between the mind and brain. The reasoning capacity that enables human beings to function is a product of the mind while the brain acts as the matter that only behaves as a conduit. Moreover, cognitive scientists are in agreement that there are stark differences between these two phenomena, which can also be separated according to function and importance. Aristotle and Plato were among the first philosophers to attempt to solve this problem by suggesting that there were multiple souls within us that were arranged in a hierarchical manner (Margolis, Samuels, & Stich, 2012, p. 56). Their functioning was a matter of distinctive functions served, with the most important ones taking precedence. Out of all other qualities found in other animals, reason amongst human beings stands out. This reasoning capacity is said to be as a result of the soul that every individual possesses, which ultimately defines them. Accepting the mind as a non-physical entity is, therefore, the first step in realizing the non-spatial nature of the mind. With this ability, they are able to become self-aware, revealing their intelligence even when compared to other beings. Cognitive science does not dispute the existence of a metaphysical state where consciousness is said to reside, which is why extra effort is put into seeking practical ways to help establish the forces behind this reality. Substance duality has been used by cognitive scientists as a starting point when proving that both entities have different origins and foundations. This opinion is further bolstered by property dualism that proposes the existence of ontological differences when exploring mind and body. Predicate dualism is another popular school of thought that revolves around the irreducibility of mental predicates, thus agreeing with the widely held cognitive science view that the two are distinct.

One of the most important points to note is the existence of the said entities and their location at any given point. A view that has been widely accepted is that which suggests that consciousness exists outside the body. This, therefore, means that it is virtually impossible to destroy consciousness, in the same manner, one destroys the body. A common axiom explaining the existence of the mind and consciousness suggests that consciousness can be likened to space in an open field with a house built in its midst. The house represents the human body which takes shape on the open field representing consciousness. Even though it is possible to destroy the building, rendering it uninhabitable, the space representing consciousness still remains and is impossible to destroy. Understanding the mind-body connection, therefore, begins from this precept which also acts as a guiding principle in cognitive science. The body serves as a channel through which the mind presents itself to the world and cannot think for itself. In recognition of this supreme reality, the mind takes full control of the faculties and making important decisions regarding the person’s well-being (Vicari & Searle, 2013, p. 92). Moreover, consciousness exists in a realm different from the physical one which is why it is irreducible when it comes to its general neurobiology. Cognitive science also asserts that the intelligent design behind the body’s make up is the primary reason why consciousness exists in it in the first place. Appropriate organization is a typical feature of the human body, which is why scientists unanimously agree that it was created to adapt to these changes. Mental states are a common feature in dualism, with the experience of consciousness varying from one individual to the next. The mental states are unique to particular individuals and cannot always be the same for all those experiencing consciousness at any given moment.

Human beings have, for centuries, been baffled by consciousness and how best to explain it using layman’s language. This is because the mind has no physical manifestations, therefore making it an uphill task for anyone seeking to compare the experience to anything in existence.  Consciousness does not have a physical equivalent, which is why experts such as Jerry Fodor and Donald Davidson had to use reduced predicates to describe it. Cognitive science seeks to explore an unchartered territory since quanta have always been a scientific hot seat in the past five decades. There has never been any empirical evidence to suggest that consciousness exists, yet we all know that it does. Each individual experiences consciousness at any given time and are fully aware of its existence and the influence that it has on their lives. A school teacher wakes up in the morning and follows a strict regimen. All meetings and activities of the day are performed with exceptional ease and attention to detail, suggesting that the individual is in complete control. But without consciousness, all this would not be possible. Consciousness enables the said individual to become fully aware of their position in society and what exactly it is that they need to do for them to successfully wade through these murky waters. The meticulous nature of their demeanor and attention to detail suggests that there is a particular order to the manner in which human beings carry out their day to day activities. Consciousness seems to be at the heart of all the said functions, with the mind acting as the sole driver of individual. The teacher’s sense of self is located in their mind, making certain that they wake up every morning, acknowledging the role they play in the society and the expectations held by people.  Cognitive science explores mind as a motivation for the body, pushing it beyond any perceived limits, before ultimately achieving the set objectives.

Even though the mind and body are two dual states that appear independently, the interaction between them becomes inevitable. Initially, the commonly held view was that these two states were independent of each other and functioned without any aid. The perception was that consciousness represented a higher reality, one which differed greatly from the one mere mortals were used to.  Philosophers were of the opinion that there was more to it than what met the eye and even went ahead to suggest that these two states interacted with each other to effect the changes that were present in life at any given moment. The advent of cognitive science meant that experts now had a chance to explore the validity of these claims and ultimately reach an informed conclusion on whether or not this was actually true. Similarly, interactionism was beginning to serve as a common bottom line for a majority of scientists who were convinced that there was truth to these claims (Wheeler, 2010). The rule of cause and effect has been widely applied in exploring the mind-body connection, challenging previously held views about the nature of consciousness. It is now widely accepted view in the scientific community that these two states are in constant interaction with each other, with the mind’s influence extending to the body. Mental states, for instance, have been of particular interest to scientists over the years. This is because beliefs and desires have often been found to manifest into their physical equivalent. An individual who ends up owning their dream apartment achieves this through this quantum interaction that cognitive scientists have often been put to task to explain. An affirmation is first made in the subconscious, allowing the said individual to immerse the desire before acting upon it. Common-sense intuitions also come into play, allowing an individual to tackle that which is practical and appropriate for a particular scenario. Logical arguments may commence, with the person in question trying to make sense of the auto-suggestions made to their subconscious in an attempt to allow the body to fully grasp the concept. An event that begins in the mental faculties, therefore, becomes empirical once an individual has been able to focus on it for the appropriate amount of time, allowing changes to take place cumulatively.

There is no doubt that there is a close interface between contemporary cognitive sciences and dualism. The turn of the 20th century introduced a wide array of changes in individuals and the views that they held concerning various common-sense intuitive actions. In essence, dualism has had an immense effect on Eastern and Western cultures owing to its widespread use in spiritual texts. Mind and body become commonplace, which partly explains why the culture has been able to endure. Nevertheless, cognitive science has emerged as a staunch critic of this particular disposition, since there is a noticeable gap that it reveals when attempting to prove its feasibility. Psychological analysis procedures often involve a close observation of the mind and bodies reaction, as opposed to expanding it essentially. The reconciliation of neuroscience and psychology, therefore, serves as a process that seeks to explain the existence of the brain and the main as a single entity. Behind this idea is an attempt to establish the true nature of the mind while basically explaining its relation to the physical self. Cognitive science, in particular, has been put to task when debunking dualism to explain the occurrence of free will in the society. Any functionalist explaining the occurrence of particular national myth, experts in cognitive science ultimately end up coming to the conclusion that free will is, therefore, nothing more than an elaborate illusion.  In the case of the Founding Fathers of America, the general conclusion would, therefore, be that they were not seekers of liberty of free thinkers but ordinary individuals in positions of influence reacting to external stimuli. Simply put, they were at the right place, at the right time and had to react in a manner suggesting that they would be following the course of history and destiny.

Subjective elements also appear as common elements in dualism, especially when trying to understand reality. Epiphenomenalism takes this task to heart and seeks to explain the mechanics of the universe and how every single event takes place. Cognitive science takes these attempts a notch higher by attempting to make a scientific inquiry into how the human mind works in an attempt to explain life events (Kitamura, 2015, p. 78). Emotions play a major role in how the human mind functions, which is why cognitive science is as the preferred option when explaining the inner workings of this particular system. Any advancement that may emerge will not affect a society in any way imaginable since the psyche of the larger segment of society often happens to be on the same wavelength. Incremental changes that were brought forth by cognitive science through the introduction of Freudian discoveries were an instance where genuine attempts were made by persons in positions of influence. Following this method of deduction will lead one to question common truths that are usually held by a majority of individuals in a particular population. Freedom, for example, is adored by a large segment of society with most people viewing it as the icing on the cake. This attractive option, nonetheless, means that individuals will have to follow a popular ideology to avert suspicion of their activities and live their lives away from any type of scrutiny. One common example is that of White rural communities that dwell in the American South. A large majority of them still vote their age-old preferred political divide. Additionally, subtle forms of discrimination and segregation are still present, affecting persons from minority communities. The downside of this particular tendency is that persons may rally behind a group that does not have the whole community’s interests at heart, therefore forcing particular members of the society to be pushed to the fringes. This is because the mammalian response system may have been programmed to perceive individuals from particular segments of society as threats. The immediate response would be one resulting in disunity, which is why cognitive science seeks to ensure that equality becomes a reality. The average American will have an easier time empathizing with illegal migrants since their mind does not register them as threats.

In conclusion, dualism presents a new challenge to cognitive science, with experts painstakingly seeking to explain the dichotomy that exists between the mind and the body. Both are in existence, though in different planes and play a huge role in influencing human behavior. Understanding cognitive science is the key to solving the mind-body problem and exposing the relationship that they share.

Social Expectations between 1450 and 1800

Social expectations and all other ideas tied to it have existed for centuries among world civilizations. These expectations were therefore an integral part of society since they determined the image that one would portray while settling into their adaptive function. Behaviors of whole populations were therefore decided by such expectations, even going as far as altering perceptions either directly or indirectly.  I opine that the main factor shaping nascent social expectations between 1450 and the 1800s was knowledge that was being disseminated between persons at an industrial scale. The developments that were to be made in society now depended on this crucial facet of society that would even go ahead to shape the most iconic periods in history. The Age of Enlightenment was a historical event that took place during this era and was punctuated by radical reorientation in the field of science, politics and philosophy (Walzer, 2003). It was during this period that thinkers emerged across Europe with radical views that they expected adherents to embrace. Thomas Hobbes was a notable figure during this period remembered for his best work, Leviathan, in which he espoused the absolute monarchy as the most ideal form of government. The general expectation was that individuals would become monarchists, even though this view proved quite divisive.

Nonetheless, it is vital to acknowledge that this was a tumultuous period in the political affairs of a majority of European powers. Leading thinkers such as John Locke were critical of the divine right of kings to rule over their subject and was quite critical of this form of government. The most dominant political philosophy was that of liberty to all while questioning traditional authority. It was these same notions that were embraced by the American settlers in the 13 British colonies who fought in the Revolutionary War (1776) and in the French Revolution (1779) (Starkey, 2013, p. 56).  On the economic front, capitalism emerged as the most dominant system.  Tools of production were in the hands of the bourgeoisie while the proletariats were expected to provide their labor for this particular cause.   On the other hand, established religions were on a rough patch particularly due to the permeation of scientific knowledge that now allowed people to question their own long-held beliefs. Persons therefore ascribed to what was popularly referred to as “scrutiny by reason” which allowed them to poke holes at miracles and transmutation.  They were therefore bold enough to question the church, demanding empirical evidence which would be the only way to prove claims that had been made by religious leaders.

Sex Trafficking in the Native American Community

Over the past decade, numerous interest groups have made it their life’s work to expose sex trafficking and its permeation across the entire globe. The primary objective of such pundits has always been to shed light on a modern-day existential debacle that still remains ignored by a wider section of society. In reality, sex trafficking has mushroomed into an endemic problem. The International Labor Organization (ILO) estimates that there are roughly 21 million people across the globe subjected to this form of human trafficking (Aronowitz, 2009, p. 89). It is for this very reason that sex trafficking has been named the most lucrative criminal business, posting proceeds that far exceed those of any legal enterprise. Contrary to popular belief, sex trafficking also has a firm foothold in the United States with Native American women accounting for a majority of the victims. Preliminary studies into this phenomenon have gone to reveal that the disproportionate rates of sex trafficking cases in the Native American community stem from its vulnerability. Higher rates of native women are trafficked per capita, in comparison to their non-native counterparts, a source of concern for many interested parties.  This research paper, therefore, seeks to explore sex trafficking amongst the Native American community with a specific focus on its historical context, major effects, the role of social workers and intervention strategies to curb the vice.

Historical Context

Trafficking amongst Native communities has existed from the first point of contact with explorers in the New World. In fact, journal entries by Cristoforo Colombo (1451-1506) reveal that Europeans frequently engaged in the exploitation of indigenous peoples of the Americas with women and young girls falling victims. It was this behavior that would soon set the tone for the abuse of Native American communities in the centuries that soon followed. Historical attitudes, such as the normalization of eroticized and hyper-sexualized images of Native American women are now commonplace in contemporary society. This form of degradation has largely been blamed for the high number of sex trafficking victims amongst members of this community, with most of them ending up in prostitution rings. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy to acknowledge that little empirical data exists on the exact number of Native women that are currently living in bondage in continental America. The reason for this peculiar state of affairs stems from the fact that most victims fail to identify themselves fearing shame while also openly distrusting law enforcement agencies (Brooks & Omohundro Institute of Early American History & Culture, 2012). As a result, members of this particular segment of American society have continued to suffer in silence with no one to turn to. The high demand for fetishized ethnic groups has made the situation even worse with Native women being in danger of abduction at any given point. Indigenous women hence remain vulnerable to this form of exploitation with racism, socio-economic inequality, and inadequate social serving as predisposing factors.

Major Effects of Sex Trafficking in the Native American Communities

The United States has always been at the forefront in terms of exposing cases of sex trafficking around the globe and the adverse impact that it has had on its victims. It is for this reason that January was named the National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention month, bringing to light the impact of this illegal trade on Native American Communities. Even with the scanty statistics, testimonies from tribal leaders, lobbyists, and independent investigators have gone revealed a grim reality. 41 % of women that have been rescued from sex traffickers in the United States identified as Native Americans (Deer, 2015, p. 67). This is rather surprising, especially considering that Native women represent 10% of the general population. One major effect of this state of affairs is the violent victimization of Native women. Rape has often been used by traffickers as a tool for control and dominance that would ensure sheer obedience. These women are then forced into prostitution for an unspecified period, with the trade soon taking its toll. Secondly, aggressive crimes have heavily impacted the Native American community, with human trafficking being solely to blame. Physical assaults are commonplace in such circumstances, with traffickers often murdering women who make repeated attempts to escape the yoke of bondage. Thirdly victims from far-flung localities such as Minnesota, North and South Dakota are soon inebriated with intoxicants. Traffickers use highly addictive psychotropic substances such as opioids, cocaine, and heroin to control their victims, making them toe the line. This, however, has negative effects on the victims since they soon develop a dependency that may end in an overdose. The fourth major effect of sex trafficking amongst members of this population involves psychological scars left on the victims and their families.  Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has been a hallmark of survivors who often have a hard time shaking off the trauma of what they had to live through. It is hence no wonder that suicide rates are highest amongst this group, since the burden of their psychological wounds often becomes too heavy for them to bear.

Role of Social Workers In Tackling Sex Trafficking

Although sex trafficking in the Native American communities has proved a hard nut to crack, social workers can play an active role in putting an end to this abhorrent trade. This is because they are first in line, when it comes to contact with Native communities across the United States. By acting as a conduit between the Federal Government and the Native Americans, social workers are uniquely positioned to help end the inequalities that have so often made these individuals susceptible to traffickers. Monetary inducements for a better life away from the reservations lead many desperate young girls into the vicious jaws of sex traffickers hell-bent on exploiting them. Social workers have an obligation to petition the Federal Government and all its agencies to make a concerted effort to provide more opportunities for Native communities. Programs encouraging fiscal emancipation are instrumental in making certain that Native American women become self-reliant, significantly reducing the risk of them being trafficked (“Human Trafficking in Native American Communities – ACAMS Today,” n.d.). Moreover, social workers have a responsibility to ensure that an elaborate child welfare service is established in Indian Reservations. This is because most victims of sex trafficking have been through the system at a particular point in their lives. Minimal social support amongst the youth means that they are easily targeted by marauding traffickers who often seek out such opportunities to trap their victims. Additionally, social workers have a responsibility to look out for at-risk children before instituting measures to protect them. These children are usually from poor families, orphaned or with limited education. A history of sexual abuse, truancy and substance abuse also magnifies the risk of sex trafficking, all signs which need to be looked out for by social workers.

Current Intervention Strategies

Human trafficking within the Native American community has received a heightened level of attention from federal and tribal governments.  This has prompted the implementation of legislation that would go a long way in curbing the permeation of this practice. For instance, the Navajo Nation has begun by implementing a set of laws meant to protect vulnerable members of the community. Individuals found culpable of collaborating with traffickers to kidnap these women are treated as criminals and tried before a court of law. The State Department has also made a commitment to ending sex trafficking in the Native American nations by increasing its annual funding to social welfare programs. Social workers working amongst Native peoples are therefore better placed to combating sex trafficking by empowering those at risk.  Raising awareness on the plight of Native Communities has also shed light on the issue and its dire state (Reséndez, 2017). More and more people are now cognizant of this reality and are working hard to ensure that resources are secured to combat this problem. The expansion of the Tribal Access Program has also been used as an intervention strategy. Training is offered as a contingency measure that makes certain all community members are aware of those who might be in mortal danger and steps that can be taken to assist them.

Significant Events that Took Place During The Roaring Twenties

The Roaring Twenties was an epoch in and around the 1920s that was punctuated by sustained prosperity in various spheres of Western society. For this assignment, a list of significant events that took place during this age will be listed and categorized as Economic, Social or Political. Furthermore, each incident will be connected to what was happening in American History at the time while paying attention to the specific details.

1. Prosperity (Economic)

During the 1920s, the United States experienced extraordinary economic success. The end of the Great War (1914-18) brought with it factors necessary for sound economic growth. Financial capital was available and was combined with new technologies to transform American industries. Cheap labor was provided by refugees fleeing persecution in Europe, although this also led to the “Red Scare” during which the American public was living in fear of infiltration by Russian operatives keen on spreading communism.

1. Organized Crime (Social)

Systematic and unlawful activities carried out for the sole purpose of making a profit soon became a noticeable hallmark of the Roaring Twenties. By now, it had surpassed the regional scale and was keen on becoming a national plague. Labor racketeering, the rise of the Mafia and crime syndicates soon became the norm in a majority of American cities as a response to the Prohibition Era (1919-33). Bartolomeo Vanzetti, Ferdinando Nicola Sacco and Al-Capone were notable figures during this period and were viewed by the Federal government as hazards to civility.

1. Consumer Goods (Economic)

The unprecedented prosperity that was evident in the United States during the Roaring Twenties led to an increase in middle-class Americans with nascent patterns of consumption. Consumer goods such as clothing, beauty products and cars now became commonplace. Access to credit also made it possible for the average American to purchase these goods that were now quite affordable(Moore 67). In particular Henry Ford’s T- Model car brought ripple effects through the growth of the restaurants, oil, rubber and hotel industry. It was also during this period that radio waves were used for communication while the commercialization of air transport improved transportation.

1. Freedom (Political)

The United States was founded on a foundation of freedom and liberty for all its citizenry. Under this premise, political changes were effected in the 1920s to realize this dream. The 19th Amendment was introduced which guaranteed women of the right to vote. In addition to this, there was an increase in initiatives to educate women on political matters since the Equal Rights Amendments had been introduced in 1923. It was also during this period that women started donning the flapper and used it as a symbol of their womanhood and independence.

1. New Music and Dance (Social)

A shift in the American psyche meant that they could now focus more on the arts. Original music and dance became popular during this era with artists incorporating integration in their works. Phenomenon such as the Harlem Renaissances occurred during the Roaring Twenties were African American dancers, poets, authors and musicians demonstrated a level of solidarity and support for one another. Jazz was viewed as a tool that would be used to break down racial barriers and was expertly exploited by Duke Ellington, Bessie Smith and Duke Ellington.

1. Prohibition (Social)

The ban on the manufacture, conveyance and sale of alcoholic liquors came into effect through the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution and marked the beginning of the Prohibition Era. Historical pundits trace its origin to the temperance movement, disappointed by the ineffectiveness of the Volstead Act. Both federal and local governments made concerted efforts to enforce it while using agencies such as the Internal Revenue Authority (IRS) as allies. Bootlegging and the rise in illegal bars (“speakeasies”) soon dealt a blow to these efforts and led to an increase in organized crime.

1. Republicanism (Political)

Conservatism was also quite common during the Roaring Twenties. At its center were small governments that based their success on the sainthood of a chosen leader and the economic policies that they passed.  Three Republican presidents were elected to office during the 1920s and, even though controversial, won with a majority landslide. Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover all had conservative backgrounds and promised to bring economic recovery after the ravages of the First World War (1914-18).

1. Political Scandals (Political)

Public concern also grew during the Roaring Twenties and was as a result of the Scandals that rocked President Warren G. Harding’s administration. Cronyism had crept into the highest echelons of power where senior associates of the president were accused of underhand dealings and corruption. The infamous “Teapot Dome” event marked the climax of these scandals with many of the indicted tied to illegal schemes to fleece the government. Nevertheless, the election of President Calvin Coolidge was meant to change this state of affairs and restore the federal government’s respect and credibility.

Research Background and Aim

The onset of the 20th presented new opportunities for business savvy persons across the globe to establish their enterprises while using new strategies to ensure that they thrived. Keeping these businesses afloat was a primary objective for most entrepreneurs with most of these individuals painstakingly seeking ingenious methods to outmaneuver their competitors.  It soon became apparent that the customer was the most integral cog that ultimately set these businesses in motion. Without their presence, many of these companies would fail and were soon back to the drawing board (Anderson & Dubinsky, 2004, p. 78). Successful conglomerates were famous for staying in touch with their customers in a bid to establish whether or not they had a worthwhile experience dealing with the company. The thinking behind these follow-ups was that additional information would be gathered from the clientele in a bid to determine whether the services they obtained were to their liking and the changes that needed to be instituted (Barlow & Møller, 1999). It’s from this epoch that we trace customer experience as an integral construct for the success of any commercial enterprise. Popular belief had it that customer satisfaction only involved the purchasing action of a potential customer. However, it’s evident that this assumption was erroneous as other intricacies have to be taken into account to conclusively cover customer experience (Bolton, 2016, p. 58). In contemporary times, customer experience has become the subject of concern for small enterprises and large corporations alike due to its importance whenever a customer comes into contact with the brand (Bergman & Klefsjo, 2010, p. 67). Customer experience, therefore, encapsulates the feelings that the target clientele has towards a particular brand and how they perceive it. Opinions do matter, and hence strategies by world-renowned brands to create an image that will be readily accepted by their target market together with all those who choose to purchase their wares.

Optimizing customer feedback, therefore, seeks to use a holistic approach in dealing with the experiences of all those who come into contact with a firm’s products. The brand message is consequently unified with its identity to ensure that there is consistency in the quality of the goods and services provided at every step of the way (Charantimath, 2011). The aim is to ensure that the customers are always happy with the products and services that they get while feeling like they do matter. The primary reason for carrying this study has to do with the fact that I have personally experienced the difficulties that can plague an enterprise in the absence of proper customer experience. My business associates and I own a business language school that serves various companies. The business model that we have embraced involves contracting teachers and trainers who are then sent to specific business sites to train individuals from multiple departments on how to use the English language when conducting business. The purpose of these training programs is to ensure that our clients are well-versed in all aspects of using English in business, which may range from general communication, presentation skills, teleconferencing, delivering negative news to making orders and requests. The debacle facing the company stems from a lack of customer service skills amongst the employees which is having adverse effects on output together with the shared relationship that is meant to exist with the trainees.  Nevertheless, it’s vital to acknowledge that the firm receives feedback from our clients. The problem lies in the fact that no proper mechanism exists to deal with the feedback, resulting in volumes of paper with comments that are never acted upon. Moreover, it has been noted with great concern that trainees intentionally avoid participating in these programs, making little or no progress. Most of these individuals are coerced into participating making them loathe the experience, with absconding being the only option. It’s also vital to acknowledge that progress has been slow with most of these individuals blaming the situation on the current state of affairs. The primary aim of this research paper is to find the most viable way to introduce change to the company and enable it to gain relative success in ensuring that the trainees have an easier time making progress. In essence, this research proposal seeks to solve this particular issue by presenting the best ways I which the company can optimize customer feedback, therefore improving their experience.

Research Questions

The following research questions have been identified in this study:

1. Why is customer feedback optimization of the utmost importance to the business in question?
2. How does the business in question miss the customer requests made?
3. How has the lack of action on a customer request affected the interviewees?

Literature Review

Customer experience has always been an area of interest for previous studies. Fortune 500 corporations would go out of their way to fund numerous studies seeking to have a better understanding of customer experience and all the dynamics that surround it. In reality, the customer is the most critical person in transactions involving the firm and the reason why particular attention has to be paid to their satisfaction (Cook & Kogan Page, 2008, p. 34).  It’s therefore vital for companies to have developed customer service skills that are ideal and those that foster good relations between the two parties involved in the transaction. Once in a while, customers will have issues with some of the services provided by a company and their integrals that their feedback is considered and looked into whenever concerns are raised (Films Media Group, & Video Arts (Firm), 2016, p. 32). These strategies are lacking in our language department with the main worry being a lack of satisfaction by our customers who provide us with vital feedback. Receiving such information and acting on it is one of the essential actions that need to be undertaken to improve the success rate.  Optimizing a customer’s experience and feedback is vital to any brand because their satisfaction level is the main reason why they would choose to use a product again (Garber, 2005, p. 98). Therefore, optimizing feedback is a crucial differentiator of various brands offering the same services or product. Correctly implementing this strategy would increase a firm’s revenue due to an increase in the number of happy customers who are willing to use the product again (Gupta & Lehmann, 2008, p. 43). Moreover, optimizing customer feedback is an essential step for any firm with the intention of boosting its sales since it will, in the long run, ensures that loyal customers are retained. Hemorrhaging of sales is an expected effect of any firm that fails to receive comments from their customers with the urgency that they require.

According to Kaufmann (2012), businesses and the improvements made after that create a symbiotic relationship between the two entities involved. A business seeks to understand what it can do to for its clients to ensure that they enjoy their experience while obtaining the product or service. The client seeks the satisfaction of receiving the highest quality of service during their quest to obtain a product. In such a scenario, both the business and the customer are dependent upon each other to fulfill each other’s needs. Any company doing business seeks to make the highest amount of profit from any transaction (Harrell, 2010, p. 97). The objective is to improve the yearly projections to a point where it makes noticeable gains that will ensure that it remains buoyant in an ever-changing market. The customer, on the other hand, seeks to provide that they make the most out of the money they will be spending on a particular product or service. In such a scenario, the goal out of such a situation is to ensure that they get value for the money they will be spending while appreciating the whole experience. Additionally, a study by Dobrusskin (2015) reveals that optimizing customer feedback can be an essential problem-solving tool that businesses need to embrace (p. 222). Firms and companies need to acknowledge that at any given moment, even when they have used all their resources to improve their brand, lapses always seem to occur. These debacles may be brought about by human errors in the provision of the required service with the best option being to confront them (Hayes, 2008, p. 3). Businesses that spend most of their time focusing on correcting any obvious operational difficulties end up benefitting it in the long run. Customers develop a sense of appreciation for the brand and the manner in which the staff goes out of their way to ensure that any anomalies that had been noted are corrected swiftly.

Similarly, Binsar &Panjaitan (2014) opine that customer service is one of the most critical aspects of a company and is responsible for maintaining customer loyalty. In every single occasion, companies seek to ensure that they retain those first customers that tried their services. By so doing, they remain loyal to the brand in all situations and subscribe to the services provided. Even in adversity, they would brave the weather and make numerous sacrifices to ensure that they purchase the said products due to the top-notch services that they obtain from such an entity (Hickman & Wicks, 2006, p. 37). Loyalty is built on the first impression that an individual gets once they decide that the product being offered is worth their time and money. Under normal circumstances, these individuals wouldn’t want to move from one brand to another and would instead provide their opinion on changes they would love to see instituted to improve their experience. Companies which take this feedback seriously often indicate that they value their clients and are ready to make the necessary changes that would benefit them shortly. Such customers are highly likely to stick to a single brand that has proven beyond any reasonable doubt that they care about the opinion provided. Firms that often apply empathy in their operations are likely to act quickly whenever a customer raises any pertinent issue that is of concern to the customers. In some cases, the clients are encouraged to make any formal complaints whenever the company doesn’t deliver on its promise to provide them with the service that they require. Customers, therefore, end up feeling as though they have a say in the manner in which a particular company conducts its business as it is a clear indication that their opinion is valued by the top executives. Numerous benefits accrue whenever such a state emerges since most of these individuals would choose to stick with a brand that listens to them.

Tan (2012) suggests that there is a direct relationship between the level of customer satisfaction that exists and customer care skills (p. 67). Optimizing feedback is one among the many customer care skills that are necessary for a business to thrive. These powers are inherent in some of the employees, but not all; hence the urgent need to ensure that they are provided with necessary directions on how to handle the customers.  Developing these skills might involve costly extended sessions that might introduce new expenses to the company. In the long-run, however, it’s a worthwhile investment since the company will benefit directly from the skills that their staff will have gathered throughout the years. A business enterprise with a workforce that is well-versed in tending to their customers ensures that any complaints and feedback is recorded an acted upon with the urgency that is required. The whole idea is to deal with the issues raised within the shortest time possible which would ensure that the customers get a better experience the next time they seek these services. There are moments when customers request to be treated as equals, and this often happens when customer care representatives act on the grievances that they had presented. Over the years, numerous companies have made use of this technique to ensure that they attract more clients in a competitive market. Instead of focusing on their marketing strategies, companies would invest heavily in their customer care services and capability to respond appropriately to any issues raised. Kaufmann (2012) is particular about the focus that entities should put on customer care skills and the urgency with which they should respond to the questions posed. In most situations, companies are usually too busy delivering their service or wares that they are oblivious to the challenges customers may be facing when handling their products. Opening feedback as a line of communication ensures that they are aware of their flaws and are subsequently poised on responding to the feedback gathered.

Harrell (2013) opines that feedback is a litmus test for most business entities (p.43). The general expectation is that the responses received on the product and services provided are meant to improve the company’s standing and its outcomes. These entities are intended to produce goods that will be of value to their customers. It would be pointless for a business entity to be operational when it is apparent that the opinions of those they serve are always ignored. Capitalizing on the feedback provided is a precondition for growth especially when entities decide to treat it as constructive criticism.  The feedback provided can be used as a platform for the company to catapult itself to greatness (Hill, Allen, & Roche, 2007, p. 76). Companies have an opportunity to learn from any of their mistakes when they decide to take capitalize on the feedback provided and seek viable solutions that would improve the company’s standing. A customer’s response is a unique chance for a firm to come to terms with all the issues of concern that the business might have missed (Inc. (Firm), 2014, p. 54). Correcting these mishaps ensures that a company deals appropriately with any of its short-comings that will enable it to make small but noticeable changes. Optimizing customer feedback, nonetheless, serves as a keystone habit that a firm can capitalize on to ensure that all the employees have a better chance at dealing with issues raised by customers (Jansen, 2008, p.  78). From time immemorial, it has been proven through extensive studies that massive overhauls in the manner in which entities operate had little to no bearing on their success rate. In most cases, these knee-jerk reactions end up as total fiascos that leave the whole company reeling from the massive losses incurred during this difficult period (Moreira, 2017, p. 21). Optimizing the feedback provided by the customers enables allows a workforce to confront each case with the urgency that it requires while ensuring that every issue of concern is dealt with immediately. In such an event, customers are now able to appreciate the services they obtain and enjoy each experience, benefitting the company in the process.

Research Plan

Overall Strategy

The objective of conducting this research is to delve into customer services and the how instrumental they are in any firm. Over the years, it has come to our attention that customer service skills are lacking in our business, which impedes our ability to carry out our mandate. The problem extends to the relationship that we share with our trainees as the feedback provided is not dealt with by our team. The overall strategy in this research study is make an overall assessment of all the factors surrounding all the customer requests made and impediments to the feedback process. An overall assessment of where the business might be going wrong is vital in ensuring that all issues that are of concern are brought to the limelight to enable a speedy resolution to the matter (Szwarc, 2005, p. 77). Generally, the strategy used in this study will be one seeking to find the actual cause of the problem faced to ensure that there is a practical solution to the issue at hand. In essence, the study aims to come up with the best option regarding responding to this their requests and optimizing feedback to improve output.

Underlying Assumptions

The following are some of the underlying assumptions made in this study:

1. The instruments that will be used in collecting data will elicit responses that can only be termed as reliable
2. All respondent will have fully understood all the questions asked before responding to any of them.
3. The respondents will be honest when providing their answers and will do so within their scope of knowledge.
4. The questions posed by the researcher will be provided in a consistent manner

Methodology

In this research, quantitative methods will be used in assessing the best optimization technique. This will ensure that there is a standardized system capable of handling the feedback that the study seeks to delve into. It will be imperative to look into the feedback forms that had been received from the clients which would then allow for a detailed response as to why issues raised were never dealt with (Timm, 2011). In this particular case the study will involve 100 feedback forms that will be picked randomly and no more than 3 years old. This is to ensure that only recent matters are dealt with to establish the primary reason why the output was being affected. These methods provide that there is a conclusive analysis of select requests made and the reason why feedback was either delayed or non-existent. By using this technique, the study will present the reasons behind the prevailing state of affairs while interrogating the observer’s viewpoint. Quantitative methods ensure that the study is inter-subjective especially with the number checking technique to provide that the data collected from the interviewees is consistent with the general situation in the firm (Texas, 2001). This method aims to ensure that there is a correlation between the information provided and to ensure that statements collected are not misunderstood.

Origin of Samples to be studied

The samples that will be put under this study’s scope will be obtained from the company’s logs. They include customer requests made to the company in the past three years and will only include those which were not addressed. These samples will be vital in assessing the strength of the customer service skills that the firm is lacking in and the ripple effect that this state of affairs has on the business (Thomas & Applegate, 2013, p. 59). Most of the trainees attending the program have complained of being forced to attend most of these sessions. The study will assess these responses with the requests made to establish whether it was the Human Resource departments in these companies also had a role to play by incorrectly grouping the trainees.

Data Collection Methods and Analysis of Results

The data in this study will be collected using a combination of interviews and the filling of questionnaires. Participants will be selected based on the 100 customer requests that had been obtained awaiting responses. Interviews will first be conducted on the trainees to assess the damage that lack of appropriate response from the firm will have. This will establish the level of distraught that most of them feel when seeking to answers concerning issues that are of grave concern to them. Similarly, questionnaires are important in such a study to gauge the adverse effects that this delay in response is having on the trainees and the company in general. It’s possible to make use of a Pareto analysis model to make a precise classification of the factors that might be directly affecting the customer relationship (United States & United States, 2002, p. 56). Using its 80/20 principle, it will be possible to establish the origin of the problem and the most appropriate way to solve it. Moreover, it will be possible to use the cause and effect analysis in seeking the actual questions being encountered and how to solve them.

Ethical Review

All participants will receive sufficient information on the nature of the study beforehand to ensure that they understand what it entails. The purpose of this standard operating procedure is a measure to ascertain that they were aware of what the study required and was not coerced to participate in the study (Wellington, 2010). It’s also essential to ensure that all participants fully comprehend the study’s threshold to ensure that they were not coerced into participating in the research and did it on their volition.

Race Relations and Freedom in Of Love and Dust By Ernest Gaine

Race relations and the resultant effect that they have had on individuals living in the United States has always been a thorny issue to broach. In a society where a majority of the population descends from Caucasian European pioneers, minorities rarely get an equal share of the national cake and in most cases treated without any parity (Rodriguez, 2011, p. 43). African Americans, in particular, have had a long standing fight against a system that was often viewed as working against their interest. Here they were, in an unknown continent as descendants of slaves who had been brought across the Atlantic to work as manual laborers on plantations owned by wealthy white men with no pay. Ernest Gaines grew up in such an environment, as a descendant of slaves in the state of Louisiana who had been freed after the emancipation of his people and still witnesses the suffering that they have to endure. As a sharecropper family, they lead a wretched existence trying to make ends meet and place food on the table in a society that was built to favor a particular side of the divide and while leaving the other dispossessed. In Of Love and Dust, he seeks to explore the life of a black man living in the United States under a system that was explicitly setting them up for failure. Using Marcus as the protagonist, this masterfully crafted masterpiece is a sneak preview of what life was like for black folk during an epoch when all odds were against them. It is through this story that we get to understand the complexities of race relations and how artificial constructs that created a nascent superiority complex was responsible for the woes that befell many such people. The purpose of this essay is therefore to explore race relations and the façade that was freedom in a land full of contradictions.

It is apparent from Of Love and Dust that the system that was in place had not yet accepted African Americans as citizens of the United States, hence the oppressive nature of the justice system. African Americans are a people with a rich history filled with tales of sadness, trauma, and hope. Having been brought over as slaves to work on plantations, they were inadvertently made beasts of burden that were to be worked to the death. Many of those who had arrived in this New World had their life expectance significantly reduced due to the brutal nature of the work that awaited them. Historians point out that, on average, a slave in the American South could only endure about 8years of manual labor in the fields before they died out of exhaustion or wounds suffered during this particular ordeal (Perkinson, 2010). The experience was notably worse for women and children since they would have to get used to poor treatment by their overlords. Women would be systematically raped by their masters who viewed them as nothing more than property that could be purchased or sold at a whim. It is therefore shocking that the justice system would recommend bonded labor as the best form of punishment for a young black man. To “work off” his sentence, Marcus is forced to work as a laborer in a white man’s farm, a situation that is meant to assure him of his freedom ultimately. It is shocking that this is a most fitting form of punishment, especially considering the trauma that slavery had inflicted on African Americans. In reality, Marcus realizes that no black man is free but at the mercy of the white man who would do anything to ensure that they were put back to their shackles. Before this encounter, he had thought that life for him would be different; having been born during a different era, but still finds him trapped in a vicious cycle that was meant to ensure that people like him remained in the lower strata of society.

Black people are treated as second class citizens who are nothing more than a means to an end. The abolition of slavery and emancipation of all enslaved people has often been hailed as the beginning of freedom for African Americans, but nothing could be further from the truth. Although it is true that legendary leaders such as Abraham Lincoln were committed to ending slavery, others were not adequately prepared to see an end to this abominable institution (Blackmon, 2012, p. 32). The fact of the matter is that the prosperity of the United States was built on the backs of Africa slaves. These individuals worked all their lives on the farms of enterprising white men who did not want to see them acquire their freedom. They were meant to accept the situation as it was and in other cases, even told that the Bible had stated that their duty was to serve their master. It was this type of brain washing that made certain that these persons would not resist and willingly submit to their masters. It is apparent that their primary goal was to make the most out of the labor that could be provided by the black man and aid him in making more money. Marcus finds himself in such a situation when he is transported to Herbert plantation under the guise that he is working to ensure that he corrects his demeanor. In truth, the white establishment that was had settled on such an irrational system had done this to once again provide that they could make the most out of the black man. Their primary interest was not on correct these individual’s demeanor, but in ensuring that they benefit from them in a manner that would not be frowned upon immediately. To many who saw Marcus and his compatriots working, this seemed a reasonable scenario that was perfectly okay since they had committed heinous crimes that they needed to atone to sooner or later. The only person who was benefitting the most from this arrangement was the white land owner who was receiving free labor from the convicts.

It is also through Ernest Gaines and his tale that the average reader gets to acknowledge the conditions that slaves had to endure. Many often hear the tales of the sheer horror that slavery had brought upon those transported across the Atlantic. It was no wonder that some even chose to drown in the seas as opposed to spending the rest of their lives under the control of another individual. Slaves were the first to wake up, and the last to resign to their quarters. They labored day and night so that their masters could enjoy an earthly kingdom while they waited for a heavenly one (Gleissner, 2010). Those who had a difficult time working under such brutal conditions were severely punished and others sold at a lower price to other plantations where conditions were even much worse. Floggings were a common sight, with slaves routinely experiencing it under their overseers.  The situation that Marcus finds himself in is genuinely reminiscent of the dark days of slavery when the overseers were ready to kill a black man out of contempt. They could do this by publicly flogging them in front of other slaves or by dramatically increasing their work load to a point where death was the only thing coming their way. The Cajun overseer put in charge of Marcus, and the other convicts represent modern day slavery and a representation of what slaves went through while in servitude. A personal difference between him and Marcus sees him hell-bent on revenge to ensure that he teaches the young convict a lesson. As a white man, he feels superior and with the power to do as he pleased even if it meant mistreating another human being. He works Marcus under grueling conditions to break his will and to ensure that he kills him out of spite and also due to his position in society.

Race relations are also brought into perspective in Of Love and Dust when observing the relationship that exists between the landowner and his black lover. From time immemorial, the race has always been a thorny subject in the United States. So much so that many would avoid broaching this subject due to the can of worms that it might open. Those who now identify as “black” walk around with faces that are a clear reminder of their origin. Their shade of black and fair complexion is evidence of race mixing which probably took place many generations back when their ancestors were still slaves. Women often became the victims of sexual violence in an environment where rape had been normalized. Many of these women ended up pregnant and what is surprising is that their masters viewed this from an economic perspective (Smithers, 2012, p. 57). Their children were still considered slaves and therefore enjoyed no privileges. They would be sold as high value slaves or put to work inside the house as butlers who were more presentable in the eyes of white visitors. In other occasions, black women could not turn down the advances of these white men since they viewed it as a way in which they could gain sure favors from their overlords. The main reason why this was the case stems from the fact that these plantation owners could decide the fate of slave women and their children. They could choose to sell them and separate them from their families or send them to work in the fields like any other ordinary slave. In Of Love and Dust, the landowner is no different as he develops one such relationship with a woman living on his farm. Even though the woman loves her, he does not reciprocate this affection and puts her at arm’s length. He extends this cold treatment further by denying the two children that result from the relationship any privilege that would assure them of social advancement.

From Of Love and Dust, it is evident that Marcus is the face of perseverance even during the hardest of times. Marcus has suffered a great deal. He has been imprisoned by a racist society that seeks to see him relegated to the periphery. Like any black man during this period, the threat of violent death is never far way. In the South, white supremacists are looking for every bit of excuse to lynch any black man they can get their hands on while those who are lucky enough to escape them find themselves in the hands of the justice system. Simply put, life is not pleasant for a black man living in te United States. But Marcus is no ordinary black man. He shocks the narrator by exhibiting blatant defiance of authority and makes rebellion his life’s work. He is aware of his present situation but refuses to capitulate or let it define him. Moreover, he is determined to make the most of his time at the farm and even manages to seduce the landowner’s wife (Gaines, 2012). Marcus does this even with the risk of death hanging over his head but is fearless in his approach. He, therefore, represents hope for all black people who still experience oppression in the United States. Being aware of his situation makes him cherish every moment and avoid letting anything hold him back.  In a country still plagued by the ghosts of racism, Marcus represents optimism in the face of persecution.

In finality, Ernest Gaine’s Of Love and Dust delves into institutionalized racism and the effects that this system had on those caught up in this maze. Through Marcus’s story, it is possible to deduce the oppressive nature of this system, how it affected those caught up in it and how others managed to cope. It also represents hope for those still experiencing racism in this new age and serves as an inspirational piece of literature.

Assignment Instructions – Need for Sustainability Manager

A Sustainability Manager provides a specific focus on the environmental and social concerns of the company. In this assignment you will explore the importance of this position and the incorporated responsibilities.

Review what happens next at Top Shelf from the Top Shelf Scenario :

Top Shelf has a fairly typical ratio of managers to employees. However, your team knows that having a dedicated staff to focus on sustainability has worked well at other companies. Research sustainable management. Identify and research companies that have a sustainability manager (SM) or a similar position. Select three companies for use in this assignment. At least one of the three selected companies should also be in the retail industry.

Prepare a report making a case for Top Shelf to hire an SM. Cover the following in your report:

• Explain the role and importance of an SM within a company.
• Analyze the approach of your selected three companies toward sustainable management.
• Provide rationale for Top Shelf to have a management focus on sustainability.
• Explain the specific responsibilities the SM will take up at Top Shelf and the benefits and costs associated with the hire.

Sample Answer –  Report on the Vitality of Hiring a Sustainability Manager (SM) at Top Shelf

Role and Importance of a Sustainability Manager within a Company

We currently live in an era where the society is acutely aware of all activities carried out by humanity and how some of them may eventually affect the environment. It is for this very reason that prominent conglomerates the world over increasingly hire sustainability managers (SM) to fill their ranks. These individuals are integral in these modern organizations since they play a pivotal role in ensuring that the firms commit to an agenda that espouses posterity. Resources are scarce commodities, which is why sustainability managers (SMs) are at the forefront of ensuring that they are not depleted and, in the process, securing them for future generations (Andreas, 2011, p. 67). Moreover, companies that hire these professionals have an edge over their business rivals since they are now able to evaluate the economic viability of their undertakings. It is through this multifaceted role that all environmental standards are upheld, allowing the company to produce its consumer good without threatening a green future. Sustainable managers (SMs) are assets companies since they play an active role in formulating strategies that will ultimately reduce any possible ecological damage. They also play a crucial role in liaising with local authorities, agencies and other bodies related to the national government in an effort to promote ecological sustainability. General Electric Multinational Conglomerate Company, Siemens, and the retailer H&M have taken a keen interest in this approach and have made concerted efforts to hire sustainable managers (SM) as part of their management team.

The rationale for Top Shelf Having a Management Team focused on Sustainability

From the aforementioned cases, it is fundamental for any well-meaning firm to make a concerted effort towards sustainability owing to the benefits that would accrue from a conscientious integration of this approach. A management team at Top Shelf that is focused on sustainability will provide the company with a competitive advantage that would go a long way in improving its image. Such employees, therefore, take a personal interest in ensuring that they raise the public’s awareness while introducing them to their sustainable habits. Productivity in the firm will also increase while the cost of production would reduce considerably (Hitchcock & Willard, 2015). This is because all employees will now pay close attention to efficient operation, all geared towards conserving the resources that are at their disposal. They are therefore better placed to comply with all relevant regulations in addition to attracting potential investors.

Responsibilities of a Sustainable Manager (SM) coupled with Costs and Benefits Associated with the Hire

A sustainable manager (SM) is at the forefront of ensuring that the company in question is steadily working towards staying green. This is done by developing action plans and policies that are to be adopted as the de facto modus operandi in all operational capacities. A sustainable manager (SM) is also responsible for disseminating information on the strategies that have been developed and an appropriate budget to fund such activities. Another key responsibility is ensuring that they keep track of the firm’s sustainability performance. Keeping track of these KPIs makes certain that the metrics are provided using a context-based system that reveals the sustainability efforts. The average annual salary for professionals filling this position hovers around \$40,000 and \$50,000 annually. With such an individual, the company is now assured of a firm environmental standing with an expert capable of analyzing and managing all sustainable plans.

BUS 6420 Argosy- Course Project Scenario : Top Shelf Shoes

Top Shelf was found in 1990 by Tie Woodward. Within five years, Top Shelf had established a solid presence in the global shoe business with production facilities in Asia and sales throughout the world. By 2000, Top Shelf had a share of 45 percent of the global market in shoe sales. In 2001, Top Shelf made the Fortune 500 list of privately held companies and Tie was awarded the coveted International Business Award. However, Tie claimed the real success of his firm could be seen in the stylish Top Shelf shoes being worn by everyone from villagers in Africa to rock stars in Hollywood.

In 2003, a major competitor of Top Shelf began a green marketing campaign to highlight its efforts to reduce its environmental footprint with its new “Green Shoe.” A simultaneous, growing concern for environmental issues helped spur the sales of Top Shelf’s competitor—it gained market share. As the competitor’s sales increased, news stories began to question the implications of Top Shelf’s business practices, especially as they related to low cost labor and environmental concerns. Within a fiscal quarter, Top Shelf sales were down by 10 percent. Tie responded by exclaiming on the Nightly Business Report that everyone had to wear shoes and Top Shelf made the best looking and most affordable foot fixtures on the planet. Sales fell another 5 percent the following quarter. Tie’s management team attributed this to the competition’s green efforts and the bad publicity received by Top Shelf.

Tie’s firm hired a middle manager for environmental affairs and launched a green campaign that touted a Top Shelf shoe-recycling program with the slogan “We make them, you wear them, we’ll recycle them. It’s good for your feet and good for the earth.” Sales climbed back up 7 percent over the next quarter, and the boss gave out bonuses to his management team.

While initial reaction to the marketing was positive, especially among longtime Top Shelf shoe wearers, two reporters, Burnstone and Woodwoe, broke a story about the impact of air and water pollution at Top Shelf’s shoe-recycling facility on the outskirts of a major city in Asia. Apparently, some of the shoes were recycled to produce energy. According to the report by Burnstone and Woodwoe, the shoes were being burned by low-wage workers without any precautions for the workers’ health. An increasing number of children and elderly in the region began showing up at clinics and hospitals with breathing problems, dizziness, and toxic blood poisoning. Then, a worker at the plant collapsed and died in front of the large kiln.

Global news organizations, bloggers, and YouTube broadcasters quickly picked up the story. The sales of Top Shelf began to plummet. By the end of the fiscal year, the company saw a 50 percent reduction in revenue as compared to the previous year. Growth was no longer the issue. Instead the company was faced with the problem of how to stay afloat despite the significant losses and depleting capital. This time, Tie made no public pronouncements. He laid off the manager of the recycling plant, shut down the kiln at the plant, and, on the advice of long-time friend Gifford Pinchot III, hired a reputable sustainable business consulting firm, Sustainable Growth Strategies, to advise Top Shelf on everything from public relations to substantive changes in the company’s labor and environmental policies.

“How it will End” By Denise Duhamel’s – Poetry Explication

Love has often been an overarching theme in poetry. Masterpieces have been written to describe its intriguing nature and how it is, primarily, the spice of life (Hirsch & Duke University, 2013, p. 45). Nonetheless, there are moments when this fiery passion inadvertently fades away, paving the way for a certain level of vulnerability that was hitherto unknown to the subjects. Such is the case in Denise Duhamel’s “How it will End,” an expertly written poem in which the poet explores the intricacies and realities of a relationship wrought with debacles.  The purpose of this poetry explication essay is therefore to provide an in-depth assessment of the elements and literary techniques employed by the author in developing the plot and other structural features.

Firstly, the poet makes use of two unique scenarios to develop the plot and also to bring the couple’s issues into perspective. The first scenario is that of the narrator and her husband describing their walk at the boardwalk. They seem happy together, especially considering that the tone is casual, yet very indulging. After a short while, the second scenario is introduced when they witness an altercation between a lifeguard and his girlfriend. No sooner had they started analyzing the bickering couple than they decide to develop a story line to describe what the bone of contention between the two might be. It is succinct that each party picks a side on the matter in a bid to discern the problem as portrayed in the poem: “I’m angry at him for seeing glee in their situation // and say, ‘That’s your problem—you think every fight // is funny. You never take her seriously,’ and he says, // ‘You never even give the guy a chance and you’re always nagging, // so how can he tell the real issues from the nitpicking?” (“How It Will End — How It Will End — Denise Duhamel,” n.d.).  It is through these scenarios that the couple is able to realize that they too have unresolved issues that need to be addressed promptly.  The poet uses an unusual word and stanza choice that creates tension while allowing the reader to acknowledge the complex nature of the conflict.

Duhamel’s poem also uses irony as an element vital in the development of the plot. Explicit use of this technique is meant to provoke the reader’s faculties, making them think deeply about what is being said and the implications of this particular disposition. The couple begins their observation by taking note of the problems experienced by the lifeguard and his girlfriend. They clearly take an interest in this fight and are even ready to pick sides and point the possible flaws that may have resulted in this sad state of affairs: “My husband says, “Boy, he’s sure in for it,” and I say, “He deserves whatever’s coming to him.” My husband thinks the lifeguard’s cheated, but I think she’s sick of him only working part time or maybe he forgot to put the rent in the mail” (“How It Will End — How It Will End — Denise Duhamel,” n.d.). The irony of this particular case is that they too have unresolved issues that are eating into their toxic relationship that may soon result in a failed marriage. The author manages to capture the reader’s awareness that would ensure that they pay attention to details while also presenting an “ironic gap”. By so doing, the author allows readers to reconcile their interpretation with that of the characters, making certain that they find a compromise that would result in a cordial resolution.

Thirdly, there is an air of suspense throughout the poem meant to attract the reader more to the subject matter. The judgmental couple apparently has a lot of issues that are periodically swept under the carpet and avoided at all costs. However, their encounter with the other couple at the beach is a wakeup call for them also to interrogate their relationship and the course it seems to be taking.  The suspense begins right from the beginning, with a title that will, sure enough, leave any reader wondering whether this problem-ridden relationship will survive the storm that it is currently in. Similarly, the ending is filled with suspense since the lifeguard and his girlfriend reconcile while they are left wondering what their next step would be considering the new found realization: “I don’t know why you can’t admit she’s a killjoy,” and then out of the blue the couple is making up. The red flag flutters, then hangs limp. She has her arms around his neck and is crying into his shoulder. He whisks her up into his hut. We look around, but no one is watching us” (“How It Will End — How It Will End — Denise Duhamel,” n.d.). The use of a red flag and a rough current as symbols further complicates the text since readers would not know what to expect ultimately. The author succeeds in developing the plot with language that is both casual and fluent meant to enable readers to interpret descriptive stimulus.

In finality Denise Duhamel’s “How it will End” delves into love and the issues that arise in relationships. The author uses double scenarios, irony, and suspense as elements to add dramatic panache to her piece. By so doing, she produces a masterpiece that explores grave matters that are rarely broached.

“An American Poem” by Eileen Myles – Poetry Analysis

Blind naivety is a common aspect of life, especially for persons who had a sheltered upbringing.  Eileen Myles finds herself is confronted with this reality when she explores the world around. The central theme is the blatant discrimination that still runs rampant across the country. By focusing on her own life and experience she provides a lucid account of the issues facing the United States, most of which are largely ignored by the elected officials. To bring these issues into perspective, the author uses a confessional style in writing the poem. In using this style, she examines her personal experiences and memories as a primary source in expressing her disposition: “Homeless me with AIDS are among them” (Lines 90-92). The poem is also littered with numerous instances where the author uses rhetorical questions when discussing inequality. She, therefore, succeeds in ensuring that the reader acknowledges the thematic message being put across by pondering over the questions she so expertly poses. It is also vital to note that the overall mood of the poem serves it right in enabling the audience to relate to the message being put across. The overall use of expressions that elucidate a somber state of the nation is meant to strike a chord with thousands of Americans who had been experiencing this inequality in addition to raising awareness. In finality, the author pays special attention to ethos by expressing her trials and tribulations as a lesbian:  “What could be more foolish and obscure. I became a lesbian” (Lines 43-44). The author achieves her goal of enabling her readers to realize that inequality is an actual reality through her own discrimination based on sexual orientation.

“We Real Cool” by Gwendolyn Brooks – Poetry Analysis

In her quest to succinctly express life in American ghetto housing projects, Gwendolyn Brooks writes “We Real Cool”. Although the author is very economical with words, this short poem still manages to express the desperation in the lives of young rebellious youth. The author uses the stress and syntax to create a sense of rhythm that would go a long way allowing the reader to comprehend fully the nature of the conditions that the youngsters have to endure. In the 8 lines that the author pens down, the life of this group of individuals is expressed in pinpoint accuracy. The author extensively makes use of rhyme to depict the lives of these lone gang members. For instance, “sin/gin” and “cool/school” serve as the best examples of a combination of internal and end rhyme to further the poem’s rhetoric. It is also worth acknowledging that the author repeats the word “we” on six different occasions while narrating poem. By so doing, she expresses the brotherhood that exists within members of this group even during adversity. To accurately depict the attitudes of the said persons, the poet uses a defiant tone. Members of this particular group have pledged allegiance to it and live life according to their own rules. Dropping out of school and drinking alcohol until late hours of the night, therefore, become commonplace. Additionally, the author seeks to aid the reader to understand the chaos present in the lives of these teens by mixing short and long vowels. The result of this ingenious stylistic device is a passionate verbal experience for those reading it. From the onset, it is clear that the title of the poem is lengthy, even though it is contrasted with revert vowels such as sin, thin and gin.

The Bull Calf” by Irving Layton – Poetry Analysis

Appealing to the sentimental nature of mankind has over the years proven a worthy asset for poets seeking to relate a moving account. Such is the case in Irving Layton’s “The Bull Calf” that seeks to explore a rather controversial matter; the innocence of animals under our care. In particular, the author seeks to explore the deaths of these animals by introducing a speaker whose conscience continually haunts them owing to the death of an innocent animal. The author makes use of a plethora of literary devices to dramatize the poem while also ensuring that the thematic contents of the poem are communicated. Imagery, for instance, is efficiently used to enable the reader to understand the desperate nature of the situation: “growing smaller and smaller/till we were only the ponderous mallet/that flicked his bleeding ear” (Line 22). The author also organizes the poem in such a way that the stanzas represent a deterioration of the conditions at hand, ultimately culminating in the calf’s demise.  The author, therefore, allows the reader’s emotions to follow the order of events, showing little emotion at the beginning but, later on, expressing his humane side. Finally, the speaker turns around and weeps painfully as recorded in the last stanza as an indication that the author had finally come to terms with a future full of possibilities cut short. Moreover, the use of symbols in the poem is meant to bolster the speaker’s notion that the calf is just but an innocent animal. The bull calf represents the sheer innocence present in any young soul. Death thus symbolizes this abrupt loss of innocence in the most brutal of ways. The author also makes use of allusion to signify the disaster that would strike the calf. His use of Richard II foreshadows a certain ever approaching demise for the innocent calf.

Relationship between Pain Medication and the United States’ Heroin Addiction

Among a string of complications that patients have to deal with, chronic pain ranks highest with regard to the level of distraught and discomfort it causes to its sufferers. Nevertheless, medical practitioners are increasingly facing emergencies with persons exhibiting chronic pain, with their sole duty in such a case being to alleviate it. Ostensibly, the healthcare system has often seen it fit to institute the use of painkillers as the first line of treatment. This disposition stems from the fact that using painkillers has for a long time been thought as the quickest and the most cost-effective treatment method for managing chronic pain. It’s hailed for its effectiveness in dealing with recurring pain and conditions that do not normally respond effectively to traditional pain management techniques. Estimates by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) put the figure of individuals using pain medication to manage chronic aches as 117 million in the United States alone, with the figure expected to rise in subsequent years (Anitescu, Benzon, & Wallace, 2018, p. 67). Concerns, about the use of prescription painkillers, stems from the relationship it possible shares with a rise in the number of heroin addicts across the United States. As of 2016, it was estimated that 9.8 million Americans were struggling with heroin addiction, with the National Survey on Drug Use and Health linking it with opiates use among chronic pain sufferers (Lembke, 2016, p. 78).  What further worsens this scenario is that heroin and its derivatives feature greatly in medicine meant to treat alcohol and other forms of drug addiction. From the premise above, this essay seeks to prove that pain medication is indeed a leading cause of heroin addiction while also providing effective alternatives to properly manage the epidemic.

Pain medication acts as a gateway to heroin addiction since, in most cases, opioid narcotics are seen as a viable option by doctors in managing aches. Medications from this particular family are known for their efficiency in dealing with cases of acute and chronic aches in patients making it a popular option. Pain medication causes the central nervous system focus to shift to antagonists, which are sites for the opioid receptors. In other cases, the affected person’s receptors may be activated leading to immediate relief from pain that might have dogged the individual for a considerable amount of time. Codeine, Vicodin, and Percocet are prescription drugs commonly recommended by physicians to manage chronic pain in patients.  A typical side effect of opioid pain medication is that the individuals in question may inadvertently experience analgesia and euphoria after intake. All this occurs at specific periods, during which the sedative effect becomes apparent, with the individuals finding it useful in managing their pain. Medical practitioners are often aware of the risk of addiction to these drugs, preferring to provide them on the prescription basis to ensure that patients are soon off the drugs (Anitescu, Benzon, & Wallace, 2018). Nevertheless, they often fail to take into account the effect that continued opioid use has on the body’s reward system. Dopamine receptors are eroded, kicking off strong urges to quench urgent opioid craving. It’s vital to remember that buying illegal substances in the United States is much easier than purchasing legal prescription drugs without a doctor’s recommendation, making it easy to acquire heroin as a substitute drug. Persons who had their pain medication discontinued often succumb to self-medication, with heroin being their preferred drug of choice. To them, it acts as a perfect surrogate for the medication they were formerly put on to aid them lead life without distress. . Continued heroin use as a pain treatment alternative that also induces euphoria ultimately results in addiction with the person in question finding it difficult to kick the habit autonomously.

Continued use of pain medication ultimately leads to opioid tolerance, heroin serving as the only alternative readily available. The average amount of time that individuals are put on pain medication often ranges from six to eight months, which is enough time for tolerance to a drug to form. According to Adams (2007), this scenario manifests itself through the increase of acute pain which seems unmanageable even with an immense increase in the opioid dose (p. 59). In the human body, pain functions more like a sensory signal. The thousands of neurons solely dedicated to pain permeate the brain making it rather easy for opioid pain medication to exert their effect on the patient’s mu-opioid receptor. Similarly, these receptors are responsible for the release of dopamine, related to a patient’s use of pain medication, reducing their sensitivity significantly. Fewer mu-opioid receptors are released after using the medication continually; forcing the said individual to flood their system with more of the drug to experience its previous effects (Ballantyne & Tauben, 2013). Physical tolerance, therefore, deems pain medication useless, with heroin being their only feasible option. In most cases, addiction stems from an immediate urge to quell the pain together while ensuring that the body is in its accustomed state of euphoria. Heroin emerges as the only drug capable of handling such a bodily state because it’s readily available and can be acquired on a whim. Though classified as a Class A drug, heroin is abundant in the United States due to the permeation of criminal gangs and an increase in organized crime. The bureaucracy present in the American healthcare system inadvertently means that there are various impediments to acquiring a refill for one’s medication without a doctor’s prescription. On the other hand, drug dealers do not require such documentation to provide a patient with their preferred opioid, which makes the whole process of acquiring heroin even much easier.

The rise in heroin addiction across the United States is as a result of physicians using narcotic opioids as their first strategy in dealing with pain. What usually starts off as a harmless attempt to assuage chronic pain often ends in disaster when the introduction of this particular substance marks the start of an addiction. In reality, physicians should exploit all available options before finally resorting to recommending opiate pain medication as a strategy in managing the aches that might be experienced at any given moment. Medical pundits even go as far as opining that the prescription of opiate pain medication should only be limited to surgery patients and persons involved in serious accidents (Quinones, 2015). By so doing, the number of persons using opiates as their only pain management skill will drop, and with it the numbers of those addicted to heroin.  Effective pain management programs will also include plans to get their opioid pain medication off the drug once they begin their recovery phase. There is a high possibility that continued use of these chemical substances may cause dependency and tolerance to a particular drug, ultimately driving them to heroin addiction. Healthcare facilities need to ensure that they look into the provision of residential medical detoxification to remove any drug residue from the subject’s system. Such an elaborate arrangement ensures that all traces of the drug are non-existent, allowing the body to acclimatize to functioning at optimum condition without requiring opioids. In addition to this caregivers need to ensure that they introduce new pain management techniques as a relief method during this phase as the patients are gradually let off the drugs. A specialist often provides TENs Units and the even more popular biofeedback method in ensuring that there is an alternative option ready to aid them to alleviate the pain during this difficult and trying time.

In finality, the rise in heroin addiction in the United States has for a long time been a source of great concern for medical experts. There is sufficient evidence now linking this sudden state of affairs with the use of pain medication and has been proven, time and again, that opioids in these substances are a primary causative agent leading to heroin addiction. Listing pain medication as the first line of defense is one of the main reason why the number of heroin addicts has been soaring each year. Medical practitioners need to come to terms with this reality and develop substitutes that can then be used as conventional pain management methods to reduce cases of heroin addiction. Moreover, doctors need to ensure that patients do not develop tolerance by ensuring that precautionary measures are taken in weaning them off any opioids. Taking appropriate steps in curbing heroin addiction is ensuring in that individuals avoid being hooked to a habit-forming drug capable of ruining their lives completely.

Describe in detail two programming examples in which multithreading does not provide better performance than a single-threaded solution.

Multi-threading does not provide a user with a superior level of performance, compared to the single-thread option, as it’s a sequential program. The detrimental effects of applying this option can be viewed in the calculation of person’s tax return. Another example involves the use of programs such as Korn shell by a user at any given moment. Shell programs are cumbersome since all variables that make its processes possible have to be monitored closely as a measure aimed at ensuring optimum performance (Posch, 2017). In essence, utilizing the multi-thread option often involves constant time complexity where the operating system will be forced to run a separate thread greatly reducing the level of performance.  Multi-threading slows the operations down as the time taken to complete them remains constant.

Purpose of a Process Control Block (PCB)

The Process Control Block (PCB) is located in the operating system kernel and widely viewed as the most integral data structure in a computer. Vital information responsible for the scheduling process is located here, together with the management steps that would commence from this particular premise. A plethora of data items are stored in the Process Control Block (PCB), with a large majority being responsible for efficient management of all other processes. An integral role played by this particular component is seen in its ability to modify or access all other utilities provided for by the operating system (OS). These utilities include those responsible for input/output and scheduling while ensuring that the computer’s memory can be accessed at any given moment (Dhamdhere, 2006, p. 47). Moreover, vital information is stored in this data structure ensuring that the operating system (OS) is capable of supporting multiprocessing if the need arises. It also acts as a recovery tool due to the wealth of information stored in it as raw data. It, therefore, becomes easier to pick up from where an interruption affected the processes, commencing swiftly without any technical hiccups. In reality, this component defines the operating system (OS) and its overall state whenever resource allocation and performance monitoring become an urgent requirement.

Compare and contrast the two models of inter-process communications

The Two known  Inter-Process Communications (IPC) models are shared-memory and the message-passing model. To begin with, the shared memory is lauded for its ease in processing information going through it at any given moment.  In this case, communication occurs at a faster rate as compared to its counterpart, which also serves as one of the many advantages of harnessing its full potential. Even with the convenience and high levels of speed experienced in this particular case, challenges exist in the synchronization process. All processes commencing have to make sure that they are not writing in the same area simultaneously. Security is also a major concern when using this model, requiring the users to stay vigilant and address issues that may arise during processing (Chopra, 2010, p. 34).  On the flipside, the message passing through this model presents a paradigm where direct or indirect communication occurs between the processes. One positive attribute of this model is seen in its ability to allocate minute amounts of data at given moment. By so doing, the implementation process is also simplified making inter-computer communication possible. It’s however vital to acknowledge that any form of communication carried out using this model occurs at a much slower rate due to the amount of time spent by the system in establishing a connection setup.

Direct Relief – Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) Analysis

Direct Relief ranks high among Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) popular for using humanitarian aid in providing help for afflicted populations while finding solutions to their political problems. Over the years, the organisation has made the provision of humanitarian aid its primary objective while also viewing it as a conduit through which various levels of conflict across the world can be quelled. Presently, its reach beyond the United States is extensive and is present in more than 81 countries. One of the reasons why it covers such an expanse has mainly to do with its dedication to achieving all its objectives while, at the same time, reaching a much larger demography.

It’s vital to acknowledge that Direct Relief’s mission also doubles up as its main driving force in a world where conflict remains prevalent. Poverty and poor health care are seen as a major cause of human misery, with the NGO dedicating it’s time and resources in countries and localities where they are prevalent. Moreover, over the years, the organisation has been successful in carrying out case studies that seem to suggest that there is a direct relationship between these two states and the presence of conflict in a country (“Direct Relief | Humanitarian Medical Aid,” n.d.). The organization, therefore, seeks to do all that is within its mandate to provide humanitarian aid to those who might require it the most while working towards ensuring that it never occurs again.

Direct Relief plays an integral role in the world today and is still hailed for assisting thousands of people around the world. One of its unique features is that it provides this aid using a non-partisan disposition, allowing it to reach persons from all walks of life. Furthermore, Direct Relief also acts as a force for good since it seeks to find the cause of conflict while proving solutions that would enable nations avoid strife, providing a conducive environment for the larger population. Apart, from this, the organisation also seeks to assist countries in establishing programs centred on the prevention of diseases, preparedness and capacity building to ensure that there is sustainable growth across the board.

Daddy & Papa – Movie Review

Daddy & Papa” is an intriguing documentary movie shot in 2002 exploring the world of same-sex couples who decide to become parents. By delving into a subject that is rarely talked about, director Johnny Symons opens a can of worms that was bound to spark conservations on the issue. Symons expertly does this by presenting his story and that of four other gay couples that had decided that they were ready to become parents. To help the viewer understand the scope of the overarching theme being discussed, the filmmaker first begins by introducing his partner (William Rogers) in addition to introducing their adopted son by the name Zachary. The scenario they present is one rarely seen due to the hurdles that gay people often face in seeking to play a parenting role. There is no doubt that they represent only a small fraction of individuals who are accorded this privilege, a state of affairs which he claims is as a result of the blatant discrimination that persons of their sexual orientation have to grapple with. In reality, the film seeks to document the lives of gay men as they try to start families of their own especially when the parents are of the same gender.

In producing this documentary film, Symons surveys the various dynamics present in relationships that are rarely given the respect they deserve. He seeks to humanize a group of people that have, in the recent past, been ostracized and relegated to the fringes of society their supposed “queerness” would be accepted. The film succeeds in presenting gay men as rational human beings with feelings and longings just like anyone else, which is why they would openly declare their intention to start families. It is remarkable how, throughout the film, Symons and the other gay parents seek to change the age-old pre-conceptions that were appalled by the idea of such an arrangement. By introducing this subject to the forefront, the film succeeds in bringing the plight of gay parents to light and the challenges they have to surmount. The film was a pioneer in presenting the ramifications, both personal and political, that this particular decision had on the lives of these and where they fit in the United States. Moreover, the documentary treats gay couples as normal individuals who lead typical individuals, who like any other parent, would want to raise children in a happy and safe environment. Theirs is a struggle against the status quo prevalent in the mainstream and to open people’s eyes to the reality that is gay-parenting.

The film also serves as a guide for gay couples that would want to start families of their own. Available options include surrogacy, co-parenting and adoption. The documentary relates stories of how the adoption system from picks children from foster care from around the country. A striking feature of the children awaiting confirmation is that a vast majority of them are children of color. Those intent on adopting them are usually white middle-class gay men who offer are generally hell-bent on ensuring that they achieve this goal. I was quite impressed by the film, giving an overall rating of 7 out of 10 and would recommend it to my classmates.

Moral Justice in the play Hamlet by William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare’s Hamlet is a tragic play wrought with intrigues by two of the primary characters hell-bent on seeking moral justice. Both Hamlet and Laertes seek retribution for specific wrongs that they feel were done to their families. After meeting his dead father’s apparition, Hamlet soon realizes that it was, indeed, his brother Claudius who had murdered him and taken his throne. Moreover, he also made King Hamlet’s wife Gertrude his queen, which was the most significant act of betrayal. On the other hand, Laertes father Polonius had a penchant for prying into other people’s business, a character trait that ultimately leads to his demise. He meets his death while eavesdropping as he sought to gather valuable information from a conversation between Hamlet and his mother, Gertrude. Both characters, therefore, have a rallying cause for plotting their revenge against all those who they deem responsible for these deaths (Bates, 2010, p. 47). The fact that they both feel aggrieved and intensely loyal to the memories of their departed family members motivates them to do all that is within their power to ensure that they institute reprisals.  This essay seeks to examine moral justice in the play and instances where it was achieved.

To begin with, it’s vital to acknowledge that the playwright explicitly positions Hamlet as the protagonist due to his keen sense of morality. A karmic form of moral justice would, therefore, be achieved in the long haul even if it meant the death of the central character. Hamlet carefully plots to have his revenge for his father’s death and seek to do all it takes to ensure that his plan comes to fruition. His perception of those closest to him immediately changes when he realizes that his uncle Claudius is not only a usurper but also a murder. Furthermore, what angers Prince Hamlet the most was the fact that his uncle appeared to show no remorse for his actions:

“Is there not rain enough in the sweet heavens To wash it white as snow? Whereto serves mercy But to confront the visage of offence? And what’s in prayer but this twofold force, To be forestalled ere we come to fall Or pardoned being down? Then I’ll look up. My fault is past. But oh, what form of prayer Can serve my turn, “Forgive me my foul murder”?” (Shakespeare, 2014, 3.2. 46-57).

Hamlet sets all this in motion when he forces Claudius to drink from the same goblet that had earlier on killed his mother:

“Here, thou incestuous, murderous, damned Dane, Drink off this potion. Is thy union here? Follow my mother (Shakespeare, 2014, 5.2. 320-322).

These events, therefore, ensure that moral justice is served with his death, even though his mother died in the process.

Laertes on the other hand, seeks to right the wrongs done to his family, especially with the death of his father, Polonius. For this cardinal offense, he holds Hamlet directly responsible even though the circumstances that led to his death were regrettable:

“Vows, to the blackest devil! Conscience and grace, to the most profound pit! I dare damnation. To this point, I stand That both the worlds I give to negligence. Let come what comes; only I’ll be revenged most thoroughly for my father. ” (Shakespeare, 2014, 4. 5. 104- 110).

Nonetheless, Laertes is an impulsive figure who decides to plot a hasty revenge mission against his foe. Under Machiavellian standards, he seeks moral justice and makes his decision at the spur of the moment. An in-depth examination of the motives driving these two characters reveals that Hamlet’s actions were as a result of the grief he felt for his father’s death. After arriving in Denmark, Laertes learns of his father’s death and takes Claudius’s opinion at face value. It was from this premise that they concoct a treacherous plan to coat Laertes’ fencing sword with poison during the match, an act that would assure him of victory over Hamlet. Laertes acts in a self-preserving demeanor that was irrational since he only believed Claudius’s account of his father’s death.  In the end, he achieves his objective by accomplishing his revenge, ultimately.

Misconducts in Policing, Their Causal Factors and Strategies Used to Prevent Such Occurrences

The police occupy a special position in societal hierarchy. In essence, they are considered the vanguards of law and order, with people looking up to them as enforcers of law. With this unique opportunity comes power and authority which is meant to aid them in carrying out their mandate. The general expectation amongst most people is that members of law enforcing agencies are honest individuals with impeccable records of integrity, but nothing could be further from the truth. Over the years, news outlets have been awash with claims of so-called “dirty cops” among members of the force, sparking heated debates about police misconduct. In truth, cases of police engaging in inappropriate or even illegal actions are a reality that society now has to contend with. It is vital to acknowledge that police officers are also human beings, which means there are times when they would fall short of the oath they took. Governments across the world have recommended the formation of policing authorities to monitor their actions at any given time to ensure that they operate within the confines of the law (Prenzler, 2009). Nevertheless, police miscount still remains an existential problem with more cases being reported involving offers who even have the audacity to obstruct the course of justice. Such cases have come to light with the advent of new technology and social media platforms where, for instance, videos of police brutality are shared. The purpose of this essay is to discuss misconducts in policing, their causal factors and strategies used to prevent such occurrences.

One of the most common types of misconduct in policing is corruption among members of the law enforcement agencies. The general expectation is that police officers are an honest ilk of individuals who strive hard to ensure that they uphold the rule of law while carrying out their duty. However, this is not always the case as there are reports of officers who openly accept bribes to let suspects lose or turn a blind eye to illegal activities taking place right under their noses. Prostitution rings, drug trafficking cartels and racketeering syndicates base their survival on a group of corrupt police officers who let these illegal activities take place (Prenzler, 2009). In other instances, police officers go as far as befriending mobsters who earn a living by extorting individuals conducting honest enterprises for a share of the loot. These activities have now permeated the police force with high ranking officers being directly implicated. Most of these officials are highly protected, making it increasingly difficult to prosecute them since other officer are usually not ready to testify against them before a court of law. The result is a continuation of these illegal activities and vices that are left to continue undisturbed by police officers. Such misconduct deals a blow to concerted efforts towards the War on Drugs and human trafficking. Moreover, this type of misconduct can also be carried out by police in an effort to bribe law makers and have their way. These bribes are meant to shoot down bills meant to curtail their powers or in investigating their activities at any given moment.

Racial profiling serves as a common type of police misconduct. Law enforcement agencies in the United States have over the years been blamed for soaring cases of racial profiling. Neighborhoods predominantly filled with minority communities, such as African Americans, Latino and Hispanics, are routinely patrolled by police units for evidence of illegal activities. The results of this type of police presence are regular stop and search routines that are often the subject of much debate since they focus on minority groups. African Americans or Latino citizens in the United States are four times more likely to be stopped by police with the intention of making inquiries in comparison to their white counterparts (Reiner, 2010).  Members of the police force have been accused of systematically targeting these individuals and even going as far as providing false evidence. Lying under oath and before a court of law is a criminal offence, even though some police officers who would go ahead and do the same. The result of such actions is the mass incarceration of individuals from a specific demography, which is further exacerbated by a high recidivism rate (Roberson, n.d.). In other cases, victims of police misconduct are not lucky enough to walk away from such confrontations with their lives. The brutal killing of Rodney King, Mike Brown, Alton Sterling and Tryvonn Martin are just but a few examples of the horrendous consequences that police brutality can have on individuals. All were innocent unarmed black youth gunned down and are classic cases of racial profiling as a type of police misconduct.

Even the police misconduct menace, the Federal government has succeeded in making necessary arrangements to avoid such eventualities. One of the most common measure that has been implemented in the United States is a body and dashboard camera for each police officer and squad car. Each incident is recorded in real time and the video feed transferred to precinct headquarters for assessment. The result has been a significant reduction in the number of police misconduct cases, which is a positive step towards stamping it out completely. Events leading to a supposed fatal shootout are in investigated and videos evidence used to corroborate accusations of racial profiling. Moreover, the formation of independent oversight authorities is a strategy aimed at policing the police. One of their primary objectives is dealing with cases involving police officers accused of conducting illegal activities and abetting criminal gangs. The Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) is at the center of such activities and has been known to investigate corruption cases involving members of the police force (Harris, 2010). By following bank account transactions and unexplained payments, suspected officers are usually put to task to explain this source of extra income. As it turns out, many are unable to provide convincing evidence which goes to prove speculations about their culpability.  Moreover, police officers are required to create a case log of all calls that come in, which is vital in filing reports.  These reports are then routinely assessed for any loopholes that may indicate cases of police misconduct.

In conclusion, misconduct in policing is now a reality with a wide array of manifestations. Police officers have been found guilty of corruption, providing false evidence, paying lawmakers, racial profiling and use of excessive force. Nevertheless, the silver lining in these types of occurrences is that they have led to measures such as independent oversight and the wearing of body cameras to check police excesses. It is such steps that will ultimately lead to a society devoid of police misconduct.

Medical Advice Column Reply Assignment – Mirtazapine and Venlafaxine for PTSD, Depression and Eating Disorder

I have been on Mirtazapine 45mg and Venlafaxine 225 mg for the last 3 years for PTSD, depression and an eating disorder.  Following a crisis last year my psychiatrist said I would need to stay on the combination for at least 2 more years.  But I have been feeling a lot better for months so I persuaded a new GP to let me start coming off them.  It’s been 3 weeks now and I have gone down to just 75mg of Venlafaxine.  Apart from nausea I don’t seem to be having withdrawal symptoms but mentally I feel bad and I am not eating properly again.  I have gone down 2 dress sizes in 3 weeks.  I don’t want to go back on the tablets but know I am not right, I don’t know what to do.  Has anyone else been in this situation?

Best Regards,

Dr Ian Smith.

Making Connections Between Research and Practice By Jennifer McMaken – Article Review

In recent years, experts have taken a particular interest in research and the integral role it is thought to play in as far as developing viable solutions is concerned. Nonetheless, a clear and distinct connection has been established between research and actual practice in the field. This explicit link is thought to be the reason why most research undertakings end up being successful, producing novel solutions that have gone to aid many in their quest. In Jennifer McMaken and Andrew Porter’s article dubbed “Making Connections Between Research and Practice,” the researchers seek to introduce a new perspective to this whole argument. This article review seeks to provide a comparison of the supply versus the demand explanation presented and action research as per the text.

One of the most important undertakings that need to always be underscored when establishing research protocol is paying close attention to the level of influence that it will likely have on the intended target demography. The purpose of this technique is making certain that those who will eventually receive the final product actually acknowledge the cumulative benefits that the research has been able to bring (In Blackshields et al., 2015). The action research found in the text seeks to elucidate this approach by providing the first hypothesis espousing the importance of implementing research at the instruction level before ultimately allowing the information gathered to be put together in the development of the final product. In this respect, research carried out in the past was always going wrong since the focus was on classroom instruction, a final product. Exploring all aspects of supply would have been advantageous to this quest since research-based programs would first go through a testing phase to establish their feasibility. Instructors would, therefore, be involved in the process from the very start and will have an easier time knowing what actually works and pitfalls that need to be avoided.

Supply versus demand in the context of education research often involves long periods of probing areas that might be of particular interest to the subject matter while involving influential figures. The amount of time spent on setting the ground rules has often been found to be having a direct correlation with the end product that researchers eventually present. An area of particular interest most recently has been on the individuals driving this change. Having the so-called “ideal” leader conducting these projects has been emphasized upon and viewed as a precursor to the development of policy’s that actually do work. According to Jennifer McMaken and Andrew Porter, the involving charismatic individuals during the supply phase often results in better outcomes (Porter & Mcmaken, 2009).  This also serves as their second hypothesis where they explore the effect that such individuals have on standards-based reform. It is common knowledge that influence goes a long way in the implementation of working principles. They usually at the forefront of policy development and practice as was the case with Marshall Smith during his stint at the NSF Education and Human resource directorate. The influence that he wielded is a major reason why he was able to thrive in enforcing systematic reforms that have had lasting effects on the education sector.

Research has to be viewed through the lens of legitimacy and the amount of input that needs to be put into it. Such an approach has been vital in informing decisions made by experts in as far as demand and supply were concerned. In this regard, any practitioner wishing for any commendable results had to make sure that the right individuals were placed at the helm of investigations being made to ensure that they finally delivered quality policies. Pursuant to this point of view, the third hypothesis seeks to incorporate the use of practitioners with relevant knowledge on the field and ready to put their expertise to good use. Such individuals are an added benefit for the cause of improved policy and workable reforms since they seek to provide practical solutions to solve psychometric problems. An example of this has been seen in the continued use of the hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) by practitioners in highly competitive environments. The result has been the development of an overall ability to analyze any data set in education which was hierarchically nested. Such advances, in a relatively short period, have now made it possible to implement improved techniques at the demand stage which ultimately fosters practical use in a psychometric community.

Reforms in the education sector should always involve an in-depth evaluation of their effectiveness and usability since demand often relies on the level of welcome that it would enjoy during instruction. Any policy that needs to be implemented needs to first focus on the end product if any progress is to be made. This is due to the integral nature of the demand side of things that often plays a major role in whether or not the changes are ultimately accepted into the mainstream. The fourth hypothesis focuses on this integral bit of the whole process by advocating reasons that include a policy’s effect on student achievement. Students are a key part of this whole process since it is they who are ultimately affected by any reforms that may be brought forth. Any beliefs held by reformers need to be put in the student’s perspective to ensure that the priorities are placed in their order of importance (Porter & Mcmaken, 2009). Good education research on the supply side of things backs up its demand through the formulation of big ideas that can improve the school climate in general. The relative scale and quality of research, therefore, serve as an area of importance to practitioners whose end goal is to ensure the provision of high-end education.

The inclusion of fresh approaches in education has often been an area of great interest for proponents of nascent ideas. Their inclusion often means that a direct connection is made between supply and demand, notwithstanding the influence that it will eventually have on the quality of education provided. Students require the implementation of these techniques in their school regimen since demand is usually high and the benefits often noticeable. A motivation for change thus serves as the fifth hypothesis since its discharge ensures that practitioners invest in change. Technology and its use in the promotion of fundamental education practices have generally stalled owing to a limited investment on the much-needed change. Its benefits on the demand side will only be acknowledged if a shift in perception takes place, involving the professional development of curriculum using technology.

A paradigm shift involving the passing of merits from one leader to the next has often been seen as a major way in which reforms are affected the education sector. According to Jennifer McMaken and Andrew Porter, it is fundamental to consider demand and supply whenever connections linking research and practice in education are being sought. In essence, the authors of this article acknowledge the fact that, for the longest time, those involved in such processes had the issues misconstrued. The focus was only placed on the research bit representing supply while ignoring the demand and need for such solutions on the ground. The sixth hypothesis underscores the vitality of formal and informal networks since it is through them that any feasible implementation takes place. Reforms end up passing from one leader to the next and promptly implemented for the benefit of all those involved.

Impact of Seasonal Demand on Emirates Airline Tickets Purchase And Prices – Literature Review

The airline industry is one of the most dynamic entities that exist in the contemporary world. In recent years, air transport has become the most reliable means of transportation capable of ferrying both passengers and cargo to different localities globally. Through the creation of a business niche, the airline industry has been developing in record speed. The implementation of incentives such as reduced regulation and leeway to create low-cost models has made the airline industry a modern-day success story. Investors and benefactors in this sector have been investing millions of dollars geared towards the improvement of the existing fleets due to a high possibility of raking in numerous profits. The central idea within most of the business models used by many of the leading airlines is to minimize their operational costs while increasing their annual projections (Vasigh, et al.).   The sheer elasticity of this cost-driven industry is one of the reasons why seasonality has been witnessed over the years. Fluctuation of airline tickets has now become commonplace with demand for tickets changing by the day. The increase in significant players in this market meant that demand became fluid, mainly affecting the purchase of tickets and their prices. Leading economics and pundits have largely ignored seasonal demand in this market since only a handful of individuals have taken it upon themselves to interrogate this particular issue and conclusively bring it to a close. In particular, airlines in the Middle East have been victims of this phenomenon with Emirates Airlines serving as a prime example.

According to Evans et al. seasonal demand is one of the primary reasons why airline tickets are often changing prices and later influencing the purchasing pattern of potential customers (98). It’s vital to acknowledge that we live in a diverse world with an assortment of cultures. Their practices and occasions that are central to these set of ideals have emerged as important determinants of ticket prices and the period during which they are purchased.  Globalization is a reality that we all have to contend with and has mainly been cited as the primary factor behind the permeation of different cultures, dogma, and practices around the world. Leading airlines, such as Emirates, have invested heavily in experts whose task is to come up with a list of these methods and the areas that are significant to them. Tourism therefore becomes a focal point of their strategy, especially in countries which host a vast majority of individuals living in the diaspora. Chances are that persons who staunchly follow a particular creed or ideology will travel to a county or sites that are sacred to their disposition, creating a unique opportunity for commercial airlines to capitalize on this occasion. The result of is that airlines capitalize on this particular state of affairs to boost their income. Demand for tickets is soon on the rise, which sees most of the potential customers making necessary arrangements that will see them acquire air tickets earlier than usual. Their purchasing pattern is therefore influenced directly by the seasons and events that they are keen enough to be part, with these oligopolies becoming the primary beneficiaries of these changes. For example, Emirates is acutely aware that Muslims from all around the world will make a concerted effort to travel to Mecca, Saudi Arabia during the holy month of Ramadhan. As mundane as it seems, this vital piece of information will influence their ticket prices due to an urgent need to attend such an event. The impact of this seasonality is that adherents from far-flung countries with a substantial Muslim population will book their tickets earlier than usual, a clear indication of a change in ticketing pattern.

McCafee opines that major players in the airline industry are fully aware of the financial opportunity that seasonality presents (57). The seasonal demand for tickets often occurs during specific periods during the year with these shrewd business entities taking this opportunity to revise their airline ticket price chart. In occasions when seasonal swings occur, often heralded by a significant reduction in the number of travelers, airlines have been known to implement measures such as offering discounted rates to attract more persons to travel by air. The general idea behind this strategy is to minimize the loss due to the costly nature of air transport. According to Peoples, seasonality introduces a “feast and starve” scenario that might impact an airline adversely if not taken seriously (45-50). The whole point of establishing such behemoth entities is to ensure that the highest amount of profit is made during these transactions. Raising ticket fees becomes the most viable legal means to improve one’s profit margin especially in an industry that is as volatile as this one. In the case of Emirates, experts working in its marketing departments are often on their toes observing the intricacies of the world around them and capitalizing on this state of affairs. High returns, increase the likelihood that an airline will remain operational when the number of persons traveling falls. The profits made during peaks seasons are used as a contingency measure that will ensure the firm’s survival even when their amount is made drops. The onset of winter in North America and Europe presents a perfect opportunity to change the prices as they see fit to ensure that enough money is made before the beginning of summer. The ripple effect of this seasonality is that a vast majority of the holidaymakers will be unable to enjoy their trip as they had earlier thought. Tickets are most expensive to purchase during this period which translates to other additional costs. The cost of accommodation in luxury hotel suits is also highest during this period, with this variation

Suppositions made by Vasig et al., suggests that impacts of seasons extend to the global price of oil, therefore impacting the economies of various countries negatively. Over the years, corporations in charge of fossil fuel and airlines have developed a symbiotic relationship. Airplanes are leading consumers of the fuel they produce, which is quite integral during air travel. Planes require massive amounts of jet fuel for them to remain in business, with these companies gladly providing them with this product. Nonetheless, fossil fuel companies are also in their industry to make a profit and therefore raise the price. The seasonal demand thus includes a rise in global oil prices which affects the third world and developing countries adversely. An increase in the oil prices translates to higher costs of living, especially when the incomes of those in question remain static.

Legalization of All Drugs

The push towards legalization of all drugs previously been deemed illegal is a paradigm shift that is quickly gaining traction across the globe. Now commonly referred to as drug liberalization, this idea calls for the legalization of all drugs whose use had been prohibited while also working towards reducing and eliminating all laws that impede the actualizing this goal. All over the globe, attitudes towards drugs are transforming with many even suggesting that their legalization will solve those problems they have time and again been blamed for. The states of Colorado and California are prime examples of jurisdictions that choose to embrace this concept by decriminalizing marijuana and making it possible for those who required it the most (persons suffering from chronic diseases) to access it. These states are aping similar policy changes that had been implemented in The Kingdom of Netherlands where possessions use, and sale of marijuana had been legalized (Becker). It was through this pilot program that researchers were able to establish that the possession of this particular substance had no impact on the rate of use among individuals in a selected population. Legalization of other drugs was therefore seen as the only viable course of action that would now relieve governments and law enforcement agencies of the strenuous probation work. The purpose of this essay is, therefore, to help bring this issue into perspective by exploring arguments on the benefits of the legalization of drugs together with a look into possible adverse effects.

Legalization of drugs is fast becoming the best option since prohibition has apparently failed. The War on Drugs is an indication of the failure of this policy where the Federal government pumped millions of dollars in taxpayer money. Instead of using prevention and setting up social programs to tackle social issues that may be plaguing the inner city, the response to the drug menace has been the deployment of law enforcement agencies to curb drug use. The result of this strategy has been crippling to marginalized communities caught in the cross-fire. Young individuals have been arrested for possession of these drugs and slapped with mandatory minimum sentences (Bogart 34). It is even more surprising is that these sentences are handed out with full knowledge of the fact that a majority of the said individuals are non-violent first-time offenders. In most cases, these individuals are the sole breadwinners for their families and their incarceration deals a blow to their families. Criminalization of drugs has done more damage than good. Illegal trafficking of these drugs still thrives, leaving a trail of death and destruction. Abuse ruins the lives of habitual users while violence escalates to unprecedented levels. Mexico is a prime example of the damage caused by laws prohibiting drugs. Drug barons have made massive gains both in wealth and influence, sparking turf wars for the control of territories to conduct their illegal trade.  Legalization of drugs would enable enterprising individuals to set up a legitimate business that will be taxed by the government, evaluated for quality control in addition to constant quality control.

Secondly, there is lack of reliable evidence on the purported harmful nature of illicit drugs. In fact, proponents of the criminalizing drugs are usually at pains to provide empirical evidence proving that illegal drugs are indeed detrimental in comparison to other substances and human activities. The only harmful effects that are apparently visible from making these drugs illegal are the thousands of individuals jailed for possession or intention to distribute, locking a considerable section of society behind bars. Housing these individuals is a costly venture that requires substantial funding from state and federal governments, money that could be put to better use dealing with social problems that draw people to drugs. Moreover, the intentions of those criminalizing drugs are not yet clear since most of them often use shibboleth principles to justify their stance. Legalizing drugs would have a wide range of benefits that may improve the lives of thousands of individuals. Most recently, scientists have acknowledged the benefits of using MDMA and psychedelic mushrooms in dealing with a wide range of depressive disorders. Persons that had been struggling with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and bipolar disorder have found reprieve in the use of these drugs since they aid them in suppressing symptoms associated with the conditions mentioned (Goldstein). Medical marijuana has been used as a remedy for patients experiencing chronic pain and is a better option compared to its synthetic counterparts. Opiates have been widely criticized for their adverse effects on patients in addition to being a leading cause of addiction. Even more surprising is the fact that they are legal while marijuana, a drug that has been found to have a wide range of medicinal benefits declared illegal. The only convincing argument explaining this phenomenon is that corporations (in the form of pharmaceutical companies) are trying to create a monopoly for their selfish gains.

Detractors of the Legalization Lobby often make repeated attempts to poke holes at the argument that billions of dollars have been wasted in fighting. The Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) however claim that the money has been put to good use, preventing this menace from reaching dangerous levels. Their task has been to dismantle organizations responsible for trafficking and permeation of these drugs into the United States, and in the process saving young persons from descending into addiction. Legalization of drugs is hence viewed as an undoing of efforts that had been made previously in the fight against its spread. Addiction rates and use amongst underage individuals would soar as was the case in Alaska (Wainwright 13). Other view legalization of drugs as a dangerous mirage that is capable of harming a people more than they could even imagine. Legalizing drugs such as cocaine and heroin would make the drug easily accessible and cheaper, also when users are acutely aware of the extent to which it can harm their lives. It is viewed as an unrealistic approach since a black market for the drugs would still exist and with an increased chance of drug overdose. The numbers of individuals institutionalized due to addiction would also be on the rise since it is a widely known fact that there are those with an eroded sense of willpower that would be susceptible to drug abuse. Legalization is seen as allowing individuals to make conscious decisions that will most likely end up harming their bodies and the relationships that they have with those around them.

In conclusion, legalization of drugs is a nascent point of view that is quickly gaining popularity around the world. Proponents of this idea believe it to be a lasting solution to the so-called drug nuisance coupled with the medical benefits that would accrue from lifting the ban. Nevertheless, legalization would also lead to a black market resulting in cheaper low-quality drugs worsening the state of addiction within a defined population.