Month: January 2016

In Mexico and Brazil, are there negative social stereotypes attached to the indigenous populations as compared to the people of European descent


This research will seek to answer the question: In Mexico and Brazil, are there negative social stereotypes attached to the indigenous populations as compared to the people of European descent? The research question will be seeking to establish if phenotypic prejudice against indigenous races occurs in these two countries. If they do exist, to what extent are they rooted in the society? And in which ways are they exhibited?


Stereotyping in Public Reaction to Poverty The topic of my paper will be racial stereotyping in public reaction to poverty in Brazil and Mexico. Two news stories from 2012 have made me choose this particular topic. In October of 2012, a pale skinned girl with blonde hair was found begging for money on a street in Mexico. The child’s parents had darker complexions and were described as “brown.” The child’s poverty plight aroused national interest and her mother was thrown in a prison and accused of kidnapping until a birth certificate proved that the child was hers. Also in October of 2012, fair-skinned former model Rafael Nunes’s homeless plight came to national attention in Brazil. The public outcry for both of these cases focused on pale skinned individuals living in poverty. The ensuing reporting of the cases did not focus on the many homeless individuals or beggars who exist in these countries who have darker complexions. In fact, the only mention of those with a darker complexion in these stories are the blonde girl’s parents, who are immediately assumed to be kidnappers. I will be comparing the two cases and looking into other examples of national and international news stories on poverty in Brazil and Mexico to see if this is a consistent pattern. My sources will include primary documents, newspapers, and reports from non-governmental organizations.

Annotated Bibliography

Aguilar, Rosario. “Social and Political Consequences of Stereotypes Related to Racial Phenotypes in Mexico.” La División de Estudios Políticos (DEP) 230 (2011): 1-21.

Aguilar states that the purpose of her research was to address the misconception that it is only socioeconomic lines that matter in Mexico. Aguilar asserts that there is a belief that in Mexico, inequality and discrimination occurs only along socioeconomic lines, and that racial appearances do not factor into discrimination the way that they do in the United States. To prove her point, Aguilar measured reactions to European-looking, Indigenous-looking, and mixed-looking Mexicans using morphing software packaging. In her research, Aguilar found that the more European-looking Mexicans were more favorably regarded socially. Aguilar’s research is relevant to this research paper because Aguilar’s research demonstrates that social consequences can be found through the existence of the phenotypic prejudice experienced in Mexico.

Aguilar Pariente, Maria Del Rosario. The Political Consequences of Prejudice among Mexicans and Mexican Americans. Ann Arbor: Proquest Umi Dissertation Publishing, 2009.
Although the title implies that the research came to political conclusions, the research actually measured the subjects’ willingness to vote for a political candidate based on their skin color. The researcher offered three options for candidates to vote for: White, Mestizo, and Indigenous. First, candidates were presented to students living in Mexico City, and later, they were presented to Mexican-Americans living in Chicago. The results demonstrated that candidates living in Mexico were more likely to vote for the White candidate, while those living in Chicago voted for the White candidate the least. The author attributed these differences to the negative stereotypes that the students living in Mexico had been exposed to in terms of Indigenous people and Mestizo people. This is relevant to this research paper because it demonstrates the phenotypic prejudice against those with Indigenous heritage and demonstrates that it expresses itself socially in the daily political and policy decisions that individuals in Mexico make.

Berry, Bonnie. The Power of Looks: Social Stratification of Physical Appearance.  London: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2008.

This book deals with the overall power inequalities that people experience based on their physical experience. Berry actually deals with with a number of physical appearance factors, such as eye shapes, height, and weight. But the book is relevant to my research topic because Berry also addresses concepts of colorism, particularly as it related to people in Mexico and South America as a whole. Berry asserts that Latin American societies see a definite favoritism towards those who look more European. Berry also states that those with mixed heritage are favored over those with darker complexions, or those who have traits that can be described as being native phenotypic. Berry’s research shows that the preferences manifest in economic situations, particularly in regard to income potential and hiring practices. This book helps to demonstrate that there is considerable phenotypic prejudice against indigenous people in both Mexico and Brazil.

Degler, Carl. Neither Black Nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1986.

Degler’s study is a comparative examination of Brazilian slavery and the evolution of slavery in the United States. This study won a 1971 Pulitzer Prize and is included because it is considered a ground breaking work. Brazil’s history differs from the United States because Brazilian slavery never led to the type of rigid segregation that appears in the United States following the Civil War. Although it was originally published four decades ago, I have included it as a foundational work because it delves into the historical background behind the current social, cultural, and economic differences that exist in Brazil between Indigenous phenotypes and other citizens in Brazil. Degler’s work also provides a historical explanation for the prevalence of interracial relationships. Considering the amount of social stereotypes that are in existence among the those of mixed heritage today, this study is very important to my paper.

Eisenstadt, Todd A. Politics, Identity, and Mexico’s Indigenous Rights Movements. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

This book details the ways in which the Indigenous people of Mexico are striving towards increased representation and equal rights. Eisenstadt uses a survey of more than 5,000 people in order to explore the situations surrounding the 1994 Zapatista insurgency. This book is important to my research paper because it explores the ways that the Indigenous people of Mexico have different cultural values. These values are often used against them by non-Indigenous people in the form of stereotypes.

Gates, Henry Lous. Black in Latin America. New York: NYU Press, 2011.

Although Gates’ research was primarily focused upon the experiences of individuals with African heritage, it also offers insight into race relations as they exist in Latin America. His research includes Brazil and Mexico. Gates discusses music, dance, politics, religion, food, and language experiences of Latin American citizens and the ways these are linked to the phenotypic experiences that the individuals have. The most important aspect of Gates’ research in relation to my own is the amount of time that Gates spends on explaining the way that even a drop of European blood seems to make a person more “white” than someone who was not “white.” In this way, being white is definitely seen as a preferable privilege to those with other types of heritage, including those with an Indigenous heritage.

Knight, Alan. “Racism, Revolution, and Indigenismo: Mexico, 1910-1940.” In The Idea of Race in Latin America, 1870-1940. Ed. Richard Graham. Austin, TX:University of Texas Press, 1990. 71-113.

This chapter is important in explaining the history of race and racism in Mexico. The chapter particularly focuses on the concepts of “mestizo” and “Indian,” and the way that intellectuals in Mexico were able to build a language that relied upon “science” in order to foster anti-Indigenous racism. The article focuses on the educational, artistic, and cultural ramifications that the anti-Indigenous sentiment had. It argues that educational institutions in particular were sites devoted to disseminating nationalistic propaganda that relied upon phenotypic stereotypes against Indigenous people. This chapter is important to my research because it provides a historical background to the existing stereotypes in Mexico.

Kempton, Willett. The Folk Classification Of Ceramics: A Study Of Cognitive Prototypes. Cambridge: Academic Press, 2012.

Kempton’s book is especially useful for this research paper because Kempton focuses on the social stereotypes that are associated with indigenous Mexicans. For example, Kempton explains that there are claims of indigenous people in Mexico being unfriendly and lazy. Stereotypes also exist of the indigenous people being violent or engaged in polygynous activities. Kempton’s research demonstrated that these social stereotypes manifested in school teachers passing these stereotypes on to children. Additionally, indigenous Mexicans were viewed so negatively that the more “modern” citizens expressed a desire to keep their distance from the indigenous citizens entirely.

Lovell, Peggy A. “Gender, Race, and the Struggle of Social Justice in Brazil.” Latin American Perspectives 27.6 (2000): 85-102.

This study demonstrated that equally qualified Afro-Brazilians who were black earned less than white Brazilians. The study also demonstrated that those Brazilians who were brown also earned less than those who were white. This research was very relevant to my research paper because it demonstrates that in Brazil, there is a definite preference for those who are white over those who are brown or black, including those who are Indigenous. This has a social effect on their economic status, because they are placed in inferior earning positions.

The Right to Food of Indigenous Peoples in Latin America: The Fight of the Sawhoyamaxa in Paraguay and the Guarani-Kaiowá in Brazil for Their Rights. Heidelberg, Germany: FIAN International, 2012.

Although this research is more about the struggle for civil rights than it is about stereotypes, one of the most important aspects of the research is on hunger and the malnutrition that affects people in Latin America. The research strongly argues that the hunger occurs as as a result of multiple examples of discrimination. The report also discusses the intersectionality aspect of gender and ethnic heritage that affects the Indigenous women and poverty. This is relevant to my research paper because this type of poverty is one of the greatest examples of the ways that phenotypic stereotypes result in negative consequences for the Indigenous people of Brazil.

Telles, Edward and Nelson Lim. “Does it Matter Who Answers the Race Question?: Racial Classifcation and Income Inequality in Brazil.” Demography 35.4 (1998): 465-474.

Telles and Lim explore the incorrect belief that there is a harmony between racial and ethnic groups in Brazil. They also dismiss the idea that there is an absence of racial discrimination in Brazil and address the misconception that all inequality in Brazil is found along economic lines. Importantly, Telles and Lim believe that the economic inequality is due to the phenotypic stereotypes that exist. They argue that if the phenotypic stereotypes did not place people in economically unequal situations, there would be no discrimination along the lines of economic situations. This is relevant to my research because it addresses the economic consequences of phenotypic stereotypes among Indigenous people.

Tutino, John. Mexico and Mexicans in the Making of the United States. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2012.

Tutino’s research explores  phenotypic prejudice against both Mexicans living in Mexico and Mexican-Americans living in the United States. Tutino discusses the way that prejudice in Mexico is expressed against mestizos, whose physical appearance is closer to the indigenous people, and the racial prejudice against mulattoes, whose physical appearance is closer to those of African ancestry. Tutino argues that both mestizos and mulattoes face phenotypic prejudice, and that those who are lighter skinned face the least amount of prejudice. This is relevant to my research because it explores the ways in which the phenotypic prejudice is expressed against Indigenous people in Mexico.

Affirmative Action and the Law

“Affirmative Action and the Law” Please respond to the following:

  • Analyze the Bakke and the University of Michigan rulings and discuss two implications these court rulings have on you as the personnel manager of your agency.
  • Debate It: Take a position for or against the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in 1986 on the use of affirmative action in hiring, promotion, and layoffs for your agency. Provide at two reasons and examples to support your position.

Question: 2

Ethics Management and Training” Please respond to the following:

  • From the e-Activity, analyze at least two issues or current events found in the news items on the Website. Discuss reasons and consequences of the actions described. Recommend two ways you will address the issue(s) in your agency.
  • Propose a strategy to implement an ethics management and training program for current and newly hired employees in your agency. Within your strategy, propose a plan that includes a minimum of three key elements to be included for employees and a plan for management.
  • e-Activity —–
  • Go to The Center for Public Integrity iWatch. Scroll to the bottom of the page to “What We Investigate.” Select a topic and review two of the latest news items about it. Be prepared to discuss.
  • question 2 refers to e-activity each question has to be one page

Contemporary Societal Problem Final Research Project

The topic of your project needs to be a contemporary societal problem, such as healthcare reform, immigration reform, privacy rights, euthanasia, First Amendment Rights, stem cell research, capital punishment, corporate prisons, legalizing drugs, ageism, animal rights, cloning, prayer in schools, racial profiling, recycling/conservation, sexism, outsourcing jobs, workplace bullying, etc. The topic must focus on a single aspect, as in “How far do corporations intrude into the private lives of their employers?” or “The social costs of financing the distribution of custom-designed drugs.” You may suggest another topic to use, but the instructor must approve the topic during the Week Two Discussion.

The Final Research Project will present research relating the responsibilities of a critical thinker to contemporary society. In this assignment, you will do the following:

  • Research one aspect of a contemporary social problem.
  • Define the problem.
  • Propose a possible solution for the problem.
  • Create an argument that supports your thesis position. You should take on the perspective of a critically thinking researcher. The argument must present a thesis statement and evidence to support the thesis statement.
  • Evaluate the ethical outcomes that result from the position you take on the issue and explain how those outcomes would influence society and culture.
  • Interpret statistical data from at least two peer-reviewed scholarly sources.
  • Evaluate evidence using the following standards: validity, reliability, and bias related to the chosen topic and accurately identify strengths and weaknesses.

Research and Define the Problem
You must take on the perspective of your major field of study and explain in your paper what that perspective is and how it informs your view of the topic. The topics listed above are far too broad to write about in 10–12 pages (3,300–3,900 words). Instead, you must choose a narrowly defined thesis and approach it from the perspective of your field.

Example: If you are an economics major, and you are interested in immigration reform, you should approach a very specific aspect of immigration reform through the lens of economic theory and practice. A specific thesis question would not be, “How does illegal immigration influence the U.S. economy?” One could write thousands of pages on such a topic. Instead, a better question would be, “How do illegal immigrant hotel workers in Chicago impact the economy of Northern Illinois?” You would then want to do the research and determine the positive and negative impacts they have, ultimately trying to conclude how illegal immigration in this area should be approached ethically.

How to Hone Your Thesis: It is important that you start your research early in this course. Try to find the most important contemporary questions and theories in your field of study and then align the most important questions with a very specific aspect of the general topics above.

View a sample answer on racial profiling to this assignment or order a unique answer written by our professional writers at an affordable price. 

Does a virtual team benefit or stifle an organizational structure

Al-Ani, Horspool, and Bligh (2011) described qualitative aspects of working in virtual teams, often with virtual strangers (Here we sit in our virtual classroom!), ranging from the continued importance of face-to-face communication to an entirely “virtual presence.” As discussed in Week 6, a multigenerational workforce presents multiple levels of leadership challenges that have continued to evolve in parallel with the Internet age and the changing dynamics of the modern worker. A leader must still lead despite where teams may fall on the continuum. Does a virtual team benefit or stifle an organizational structure? What are the new leadership toolkits necessary for success?

To Prepare

  • Review the Learning Resources.
  • Consider the communication challenges that exist in virtual settings.

Post a description of the benefits and challenges of communicating with co–workers or clients/citizens in virtual settings. Can the problems be avoided or overcome? Use specific examples to explain your response.

Note: Support your postings with specific references to all resources used in its preparation. Use correct APA formatting for all resources.

Collaborating with ‘virtual strangers’: Towards developing a framework for leadership in distributed teams

  1. Ban Al-Ani
    1. University of California, USA,
  1. Agnes Horspool
    1. Claremont Graduate University, USA
  1. Michelle C. Bligh
    1. Claremont Graduate University, USA


The current study qualitatively explores emergent leadership themes within distributed teams in a large international Fortune 500 organization. Sixteen employees across different organizational sites were interviewed about experiences in both collocated and distributed teams. Previous research has typically highlighted how these teams fall on a continuum of virtuality, from purely face-to-face to entirely distributed, as well as emphasizing the importance of distributed team leaders using technology to create a virtual presence along this continuum. In addition, extant research emphasizes that leadership functions may need to vary depending on the geographic and temporal dispersion of the team. Consistent with traditional leadership theories, our findings suggest that distributed team leaders play an important role both in structuring group tasks and supporting socio-emotional group processes, and these functions vary by team distribution level. The idea that distributed teams are particularly conducive to more non-traditional forms of leadership also appeared as a consistent theme.

PPA 604 Urban Planning Redevelopment – week 4 discussion questions and Assignment

week 1 DQ [ DUE WEDNESDAY AUGUST 6] and discuss several motivations available for local government entities to promote economic development programs. What techniques are available to urban planners that wish to encourage economic development within their community? What is sustainable development as it relates to urban planning?

week 2 DQ [DUE WEDNESDAY AUGUST 6] What are the three main reasons why urbanization was limited between 1949 and 1980 in China? What specific tasks did the Chinese government perform regarding urban planning during this period? Has the urbanization movement in China been balanced regionally? Why or why not? What are some challenges that the Chinese government face regarding sustainable development? What options are available to the Chinese government as it relates to urban planning techniques?

Week 4 Assignment [DUE EITH SATURDAY OR SUNDAY AUGUST 9 OR 10] Prepare an assessment of local economic development programs within your community. To address the key issues related to economic planning, you will need to: a. Describe the types of economic development programs that are being conducted in your community. b. Analyze the actors involved in the economic development programs. c. Explain the short-term and long-term goals of the economic development programs. d. Assess the types of issues (i.e., political, economic) faced by the economic development programs.

Your paper must be 5 pages in length (not including title and reference pages). Must be formatted according to APA style. You must cite at least two scholarly or professional sources in addition to the textbook.