Month: April 2016

Essentials of Public Health

Module 1 Achievement in Public Health

Public health issues in the United States of America is nothing new and is a very hot and happening issue that prevails in the country. Public health in the US is a very large field that includes qualitative and quantitative analysis in various trades like environmental health, biostatistics, social and behavioral science, epidemiology and various others. Erin DeFriesBouldin along with some of his colleagues performed a research with his colleagues regarding public health in the United States of America and revealed various statistics regarding the issue (Chapman, 2007).
There have been major achievements in public health in the last decade according to Bouldin and these achievements are not small instead these achievements involve hard work of not only the government but also the people who fought against it. Tobacco control is one of the major achievements that occurred few years back and is still in progress to reduce the consumption to less (Burnett, 2004).
The first report regarding the consumption in US was published in the year 1964 and it was noticed that tobacco consumption is more than the consumption of some cereals and therefore the local, state and federal authorities came forward to reduce the consumption of tobacco and till date they are considerably successful (Moyer, 2005). The reduction is noticed in every report, in the year 1965 adult smokers constituted around 42.5% of the total population and according to the latest report in 2009 it has come down to around 20.5%. The reduction rate has fluctuated in every decade but at the end of the day reduction has occurred and that too considerably (Proctor, 2001).
The success has a more value compared to other issues because no state in the United States of America had a state law and with the latest report in 2009 the state excise duties in cigarettes started increasing and from 41.96 cents per pack in 2000 it became 1.44 dollars per pack in the year 2009. The average increase in the federal excise taxes was also noticed and it increased from0.76 dollars to 2.21 dollars per pack.2010 was the year in which the Federal authority went a step forward and formulated various anti-tobacco law which included ban of flavored cigarettes, prohibition of smoking in schools and institutions, youth access reduced and some more (Jha, 2000).
This achievement is a success and achievement of all the local, state and federal authorities in charge of public health in the United States of America. The tobacco issue was not taken seriously in the past but because of mass awareness programs from the government people has started taking seriously and are thinking of reducing the consumption. The government is also trying to eradicate the menace by various ways and imposing excise duty is one. Therefore if taken seriously fighting against a public health issue is no big deal.

Burnett, K (2004) Empowering action on international priorities
Studlar, D (2012) Global tobacco control
Chapman, S (2007) Public health advocacy and tobacco control
Jha, P (2000) tobacco control in developing countries
Moyer, D (2005) the tobacco book
Proctor, R.N. (2001) Smoking and health

Analytical Matrix Historical Views of Leadership

Historical Views of Leadership


Commonalities Disparities
Primary focus was on management, science and social psychology by researchers (Wren, 1995). Leadership Notions

Some of the theories perceived influence to be the main component of leadership, others considered attribute and then there were those that perceived leadership to be an exchange determined by power relations (Bennis & Nanus, 1985).

They all had a limited perspective because they ignored the leadership views developed by other disciplines such as Art, Philosophy, and History (Greenleaf, 1977; Burns & Peltason, 1966; Wren, 1995). Burns believed that followers of a leader are significantly involved in the leadership process, and leaders have to lead their followers in an ethically and morally upright manner.  Greenleaf on the other hand believed that servant leadership was key.  Warren and Burt believed that leaders pull, inspire and enable their followers to meet their needs as the purpose of leadership (Greenleaf, 1977; Burns & Peltason, 1966; Bennis & Burt, 1985).
These leadership theories were dominated by a leadership view that was pragmatic, linear, male oriented and Newtonian Perspectives (Bennis & Nanus, 1985; Greenleaf, 1977). Burns and Greenleaf leadership view have roots of the old system leadership where top down was the order of leadship whereas Warren and Burt attempts to view the followers as significant players who ought to take part in the decision making (Bennis & Nanus, 1985; Greenleaf, 1977; Wren, 1995).
These three leadership theories had tenets in the military leadership style where precision and hierarchy in decision making was highly considered.  For instance top down decision making structures were paramount (Burns & Peltason, 1966). Burns view of leadership was inclined more on military leadership and Bennis and Burt views were inclined more on the organizational leadership (Bennis & Nanus, 1985; Burns & Peltason, 1966).

Guidelines for Caring for Populations Milestone


The purpose of this PowerPoint presentation is to provide an opportunity to develop a community health nursing intervention and evaluation tool for your identified community health problem (described in Milestone 2: Assessment and Diagnosis) and identify the components of the nursing process as they apply to a community or population.

Course Outcomes

This assignment enables the student to meet the following course outcomes.


CO1: Apply principles of nursing theory to the public health system by analyzing determinants of health and the public health intervention wheel. (PO 1)

CO3: Plan prevention and population-focused interventions for vulnerable populations using professional clinical judgment and evidence-based practice. (PO 4, 8)

CO4: Evaluate the delivery of care for individuals, families, aggregates, and communities based on theories and principles of nursing and related disciplines. (PO 1)

Due Date

Submit your assignment to the appropriate basket in the Dropboxby 11:59 p.m. MT Sunday of Week 6.

Points: 250 points


You are a community public health nurse (C/PHN) working in your setting of choice. You have analyzed the data collected from your windshield survey and assessment and diagnosis assignments (the first two milestones) and identified one community health nursing problem. You have decided on onenursing intervention and need your organization’s approval for funding of this intervention. Your leadership team has agreed to listen to your proposal.


  • Watch the Milestone 3 tutorial by clicking this link. This tutorial is also available on Course Project page under Course Home as well as Week 6 Assignments page.
  • Choose a community health nurse setting.Some examples of settings are school nurse, parish nurse, home health nurse, nurse working in the health department (be specific to what area in the health department, e.g., WIC, STD clinic, health promotion, maternal-child health, etc.)
  • Introduction:Introduce the identified problem, the purpose of the presentation, and reiterate at least one or two important findings that demonstrate this problem in your community (average of 1–2 slides)
  • Proposed Intervention: Propose one community health nursing intervention that would address one or more of the major factors that contribute to the problem(average of 3–4 slides).
    • Describe your specific nursing intervention relating it to the public health intervention wheel (Nies& McEwen, 2015, p. 14, Figure 1-3)
    • Whois your target population?
    • Where is this intervention taking place?
    • Will it take place one time or multiple times?
    • How will you reach out to your target population?
      • How will you get your target population involved?
    • What is the CH nurse’s role in this intervention?
    • Will you collaborate with anyone (e.g., physician’s office, church, local resources, etc.)
    • Is anyone else involved besides yourself (C/PHN)?
      • If yes, are they paid or volunteers?
    • What level(s) of prevention is your intervention addressing (primary, secondary, or tertiary prevention)?
  • Intervention Justification: Justify why the problem and your nursing intervention should be a priority.
    • Based on what you have found in the scholarly literature, discuss why these interventions are expected to be effective.
    • Include summarized information from at least two professional scholarly sources from peer reviewed journals related to your intervention (average of 2–3 slides).
  • Proposed Evaluation Methods: Your presentation must include at least oneproposed quantitative or qualitative evaluation method that you would use to determine whether your intervention is effective. Outcome measurement is a crucial piece whenimplementing interventions(average of 2–3 slides)
    • Describe at least one quantitative or qualitative method you would use to evaluate whether your intervention was effective. (There is a helpful tool found in Doc Sharing to assist you with understanding qualitative and quantitative methods of evaluation).
    • Describe the desired outcomes you would track that would show whether your intervention was working.
    • Include a discussion about the long-term and short-term impact on your community if the intervention issuccessful.
  • Summary: The summary should reiterate the main points of the presentation and conclude with what you are asking to be accomplished; for example, “Based on ABC, it is imperative our community has XYZ. Thank you for your consideration.”
  • In addition to the slides described above, your presentation should include a title slide with your name includedand a reference slide.Remember, you are presenting to your leadership team, so the slides should include the most important elements for them to know in short bullet pointed phrases. You may add additional comments in the notes section to clarify information for your instructor.


  • Application: Use Microsoft PowerPoint 2010 (or later).
  • Length:The PowerPoint slide show is expected to be no more than 20slides in length (not including the title slide and reference list slide).
  • Submission: Submit your files via the basket in the Dropbox: Milestone 3 Intervention and Evaluation by 11:59 p.m. Sunday of Week 6.
  • Savethe assignment with your last name in the filetitle:example: “Smith Intervention and Evaluation.”
  • Late Submission:Seethe course policy on late submissions.
  • Tutorial: If needed, Microsoft Office has many templates and tutorials to help you get started.

Best Practices in Preparing PowerPoint

The following are best practices in preparing this project.

  • Be creative but realistic with your intervention and evaluation tool.
  • Incorporate graphics, clip art, or photographs to increase interest.
  • Slides should be easy to read with short bullet points and large font.
  • Review directions thoroughly.
  • Cite all sources within the slides with (author, year) as well as on the reference page.
  • Proofread prior to final submission.
  • Spell check for spelling and grammar errors prior to final submission.
  • Abide by the CCN academic integrity policy.

Grading Rubric: Caring for Populations: Intervention and Evaluation (250 points)




Outstanding or highest level of performance



Very good or high level of performance



Competent or satisfactory level of performance



Poor or failing or unsatisfactory level of performance

Problem identification

20 points

Presentation includes at least one slide that introduces the problem and significant findings in the community.

(18–20 points)

Problem is introduced but lacks support with findings.

(17 points)

Supportive findings discussed but problem identification not clear.

(16 points)

Problem is not introduced and does not include community findings.

(0–15 points)

Proposed intervention

85 points

One community health nursing intervention is proposed that would address one or more of the major direct or indirect factors that contribute to the problem. Intervention includes specifics:

*Intervention described and related to Public Health Intervention Wheel

*Community settingoutlined.

*Intervention location described.

*Timing of intervention (length and number of sessions) included.

*Outreach and engagement methods described.

*CHN role in intervention outlined.

*Collaborating with other disciplines or community leaders discussed (e.g., physician’s office, church, local resources).

*Level(s) of prevention addressed (primary, secondary, and/or tertiary).

(78–85 points)

One intervention is proposed but is missing one or two specific details from column one.

(71–77 points)

Intervention is missing more than two specific details from column one.

(65–70 points)

Intervention is not proposed or does not address any details in column one.

(0–64 points)

Intervention justification and application of evidence-based literature

30 points

Includes at least one slide that discusses why this intervention should be a priority based on two scholarly findings. Two or more quality references from peer reviewed articlesand their findings are summarized to show that the evidence supports your intervention.

(28–30 points)

Includes slide stating why the intervention should be a priority.Two references cited but references may be not be a scholarlyarticle or is not directly relevant to your rationale.

(25–27 points)

Intervention justification inadequate or fewer than two scholarly references cited.

(23–24 points)

Lacks slide on intervention justification.No references cited.

(0–22 points)


70 points

Presentation includes at least one proposed quantitative or qualitative evaluation method anddesired outcomes. Long-term and short-term impact on your community if the intervention is “successful” discussed.

(64–70 points)

At least one evaluation method adequately described but lacks discussion on long- and short-term impact on community.


Long and short term impact on community discussed, but evaluation method unclear.


Presentation lacks clear evaluation method and future impact.

(0–52 points)


20 points

Includes at least one summary slide that reiterates the problem and purpose of the presentation.

(19–20 points)

Summary does not clearly reiterate the problem or purpose.

(17–18 points)

Lacks reiteration of problem and purpose.

(15–16 points)

Summary slide not present.

(0–14 points)

Overall presentation

10 points

Presentation is presented in a clear and logical manner. PowerPoint is appealing to the eye and includes creativity. Bullet points with short phrases used instead of paragraphs. Font is easy to read.

(9–10 points)

Presentation is clear and organizedbut lacks creativity or slides are too busy.

(8 points)

Presentation is somewhat disorganized and lacks creativity.

(7 points)

Presentation is disorganized and difficult to understand.

(0–6 points)


15 points

Excellent mechanics with no more than two errors of the following:

– complete title slide

– correct grammar, spelling

-all sources cited in the text of slide

-all references listed on the reference slide and in APA format (hanging indent not needed for PowerPoint).


Three mechanical errors of elements listed in column one.

(13 points)

Fourmechanical errors of elements listed in column one.

(12 points)

More than fivemechanical errors of elements listed in column one.

(0–11 points)

Total points:         /250


Treatment versus Punishment – Juvenile Justice

Treatment versus Punishment – That is the Question! When looking at the relationship between social justice and juvenile justice, there are two over arching concepts when addressing juvenile delinquency – treatment and punishment. These two concepts have driven a cycle of changes in the juvenile justice system over the years. Your task is to support your premise that your state or city should either implement a philosophy of treatment or punishment for juvenile offenders for a specific crime or criminal justice issue identified in your paper. Explain the differences between the treatment and punishment concepts. Build the case for which one you believe has the stronger position based on your research and the crime or criminal justice issue you selected to study. Review the juvenile crime statistics between three cities or states in three different parts of the country (e.g., Boston, Chicago, and Seattle) for a crime or criminal justice issue. Incorporate a graphic display to present your findings. Be sure to include at least three demographic items, such as gender, ethnicity, race, education, or socio-economic status, in your analysis. Ensure you standardize your data (i.e., 1:1000; 1:10,000; or 1: 100,000) and incorporate the scale in a key for each chart. Identify the prevailing thought in the city or state: Is it treatment or punishment? Analyze the differences in the recidivism rates between the cities or states you have selected? Is recidivism the best indicator of success or failure or should we use a different indicator? In chapters 2 and 3 of the text, our author addresses biological, psychological and sociological theories to help explain juvenile delinquency. Evaluate which of these theories would best support your thesis. Support which juvenile justice intervention strategy would be effective to counter the crime or criminal justice issue based on your research? Conclude with a summary of which concept (treatment or punishment) best supports the over arching concept of social justice? The paper must be ten to twelve pages in length and formatted according to APA style. You must use at least six scholarly resources (at least four of which must be found in the Ashford Online Library) other than the textbook to support your claims. Cite your sources within the text of your paper and on the reference page. For information regarding APA, including samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center, located within the Learning Resources tab on the left navigation toolbar, in your online course. Writing the Final Paper The Final Paper: Must be ten to twelve double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Must include a title page with the following: Title of paper Student’s name Course name and number Instructor’s name Date submitted Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement. Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought. Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis. Must use at least six scholarly resources, including a minimum of four from the Ashford University Library. Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Factors That can be Associated with the Cause of Violent Crime

There are many factors that can be associated with the cause of violent crime. Research suggests that some of the factors include severe mental health abnormalities, children who are consistently exposed to violence at home, firearm availability, the independent subculture of violence, and the socialization process, just to name a few. In addition, it has also been found that when homicide occurs, there is often a preexisting relationship that is present. Some relationships include a romantic relationship, narcotic seller/narcotic buyer relationship, or a gang rivalry. Despite the understanding of the aforementioned, criminal justice professionals still have difficulty controlling homicides. Review Chapter 10 in your primary text, and watch the video Murder Capital USA Ganglands of Chicago, which discusses the high murder rates in Chicago and focuses on contributing factors (Siegel, 2015; Danzo1212, 2013). In your paper,

Critique a criminological theory that explains why homicides occur. Discuss ways to decrease and control homicides in the United States. Discuss some of the factors of focus of the various sociological schools of crime causation that explain why murder occurs. Your paper must

Be four to six double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Include a separate title page with the following: Title of paper Student’s name Course name and number Instructor’s name Date submitted Use at least five scholarly sources in addition to the course text and the article being evaluated. Document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Criminal Justice Framework


This paper will be assessing the past, present, and future trends of the adjustments segment. It will likewise be examining the budgetary and administrative effect that it has on future trends including law authorization and the courts framework. The criminal justice framework will dependably be a noteworthy piece of social request.

Crime has no ontological reality; it is a “myth” of regular life. The defiance of any basic nature of which to convincingly characterize an occasion as crime is demonstrated by the mixed bag of crimes; burglary, charge card extortion, medication hawking, assault, insider exchanging, prostitution, plural marriage and endeavoured suicide to give some examples. They ought to involve discipline in the perfect circumstance. These circumstances can and do occur in amazingly different conditions and for clashing reasons. This stochastic variable makes it hard for the criminal justice framework to be foul confirmation and have a “perceived measuring standard” of crime to a level that fuses the aggregate viewpoint of different social gatherings (Digital Films, 2012). Any activity against the expression of God, the laws of a nation or one planned to cause damage and hardship to an individual or a general public is characterized as crime (Danny Dorling et al, 2005).



Two parameters decided general society’s impression of crime by and large; the most reported crimes in the standard media and the in all likelihood crimes they experience in their everyday lives. Most of the interviewees are more slanted to see a criminal in the terms of a “firearm – toting road criminal” not as a “perfectly dressed divider road investor”. Time and absence of information protects general society in terms of salaried, corporate and state supported crimes, which are more advanced and have much more extensive effect. As indicated by the Jones and Bartlett, a Gallup survey of 2009 discovered fifty percent of the respondents accepted road crimes, for example, theft, assault, homicide, medication hawking, attacks as the prompt genuine crimes they stress over most. Spending on security frameworks has been evaluated to be an upwards of ninety billion dollars and is regularly expanding (Jones and Bartlett Learning, 2011).

Crime is a mark of social collaborations. At the point when individuals cooperate, we defy occasions and through a methodology of comprehension, we take in the reasons and outcomes of enjoying certain human occasions. These occasions have uncommon qualities that stamp them for unique distinguish mint in the general public as crime. They cause unfriendly mischief and hardship to the general public all in all and stopped by burden of brutal punishments and withdrawal from satisfaction in certain societal freedoms, the idea of crime and discipline, the foundation of the advanced criminal justice framework (Morrison, 2005).

There exists an open misinterpretation that crime rates are higher among African American and Latino guys than the genuine real crime measurements on the ground authenticate. The media sustains this by depicting them as the guilty parties and the victimized person as white, and a ‘power of great’ in TV projects and crime stories despite the fact that most crimes include wrongdoer and casualty of the same race. A study by Los Angeles Times found that eighty percent of crime victimized people in LA were Latino or African American, homicides including a white exploited person emphasized all the more unmistakably in the news. The media reliably offers grub to the generalizations of racial profiling. This has prompted the misinterpretation by whites that they are much more secure around whites than African Americans or Latinos despite the fact that different whites perpetrate seventy-five percent of crimes against whites. In situations where the personality of a criminal was in uncertainty, seventy percent of white exploited people distinguished their guilty party as African American.

General society convictions about crime once in a while disregard the unpredictability of crime. People in general are more worried about road crimes than cubicle or corporate crimes, which are more destructive and cost more. The general public sees the discipline of a road criminal all the more as a vindication to a direct danger postured by the activities of his cooperation’s and sees this as more satisfying than pursuing the billions lost in cushy and corporate crime, which includes establishments instead of a solitary arrangement of people. Society sees crime as any human cooperation that tears the fabric of the general public. The media and the legislators have a tendency to “overdramatize” and put more accentuation on road crime, the savage nature, the racial generalizations and its consistency. The portrayal of crime shifts from area to locale however the shape sticks with it. Crime is anything that stances threat to the wellbeing and prosperity of people in general.

The world’s pioneer in detainment is the United States. Prisons and penitentiaries work around two rationalities of discipline versus restoration. The previous tend was isolation with no sympathy toward detainee recovery or any sympathy toward the prosperity of the prisoners. The majority of the increment has originated from the progressions in sentencing laws and approaches, however not in the wrongdoing rates. These trends have stemmed in jail congestion and money related weights on states to oblige a quick expanding corrective framework. The war on medications sentencing approaches brought about an extreme increment in imprisonment for medication offenses. There was additionally the “Three Strikes and you Out” laws. Serious sentencing laws, for example, compulsory essentials are in charge of wrongdoers to stay in prisons for a more extended times of time, likewise high recidivism rates. Lady in Federal and State prisons that have been detained for medication offenses has expanded. The ladies’ have histories of huge histories of physical, sexual ill-use, HIV, and substance ill-use. Despite the fact that fierce wrongdoing has been descending, the detainees that are serving life sentences keeps on growing (Carson & Sabol, 2012).

With the jail populaces expanding the new motivation is group adjustments. Over the previous decade the development of wrongdoer populaces has delivered changes in the way of discipline, which has an expanding request on the remedial order to create group based assents (Carson & Sabol, 2012). Option sentencing/group amendments is for peaceful criminals to have the chance to stay in the group and work. The judge can give a suspended sentences as well as probation, this is the point at which the litigant’s sentence is suspended penitentiary or jail time is put on hold. The respondent must agree to specific commitments of the suspended sentence or the judge can arrange the litigant to serve the first sentence. Some group rectifications projects are the work discharge programs, electronic observing/house capture. At the point when a judge sentences a guilty party to probation they must comply with all laws, report frequently to the probation office, no liquor or medication utilize just to give some examples. In the event that a man is gotten DUI, one of the option sentences can be is that the guilty party must introduce a Breathalyzer gadget in their auto, or they need to give addresses or go to addresses on the perils of liquor utilize and do weekend penitentiary time.

Jail security goes cutting edge, Prisons are assembled in a panoptic on plan. The jail incorporates a focal control room that furnishes the work force with a 360 degree perspective of prisoners. The new reconnaissance cams that screen prisoners are vastly improved than the used to be. These cams are shot safe and you can hit it with a sledge hammer. Observation makes jail more secure for prisoners and prison guards. New innovation in prisons are utilizing radio recurrence ID following. The detainees wear an electronic arm ornament that tracks his or her development all through the jail. On the off chance that a prisoner enters a restricted territory and is wearing an electronic arm ornament an alert will sound, it is additionally simpler to tally the detainees. This electronic arm ornament can give information on detainee’s development, so if there is a surprising measure of individuals setting off to one region it can alarm the staff. This information can be put away and utilized later to pinpoint who was available at a certain time and place particularly when researching an occasion. Biometric is an alternate propelled following instruments this sweeps the prisoners iris or fingerprints. Despite the fact that if there is a great deal of prisoners the expense could be high utilizing the biometric framework. A few prisons are utilizing electronic sound/feature innovation, video chatting and videoconferencing which permit detainees to show up in court remotely.

Budgetary and administrative effects that future trends will probably have on revisions: In this nation jail organization has changed the superintendent was the boss twenty five years back in the endeavour to attain to reorganization, disengagement, diligent work and contrition. The director of prisons today must oversee troublesome staff framework, packing foundations and cutting edge progresses in a viewpoint of expanded open and political examination. There are numerous difficulties of today with the expanding number of individuals entering prisons and correctional facilities. With the expanded utilization of illegalization of illegal medications, and privatizations of prisons. The prisons and the framework are much bigger today than they were twenty five years prior, there topping off with uneven number of minority detainees transcendently dark and Hispanic prisoners. In numerous locales jail packs have appeared with force and impact and is testing jail organizations the capacity to control jail environment (Riverland, 1999). Again expanded jail populaces, the real driver over the countries was an increment in law authorization regard for illegal medications particularly split cocaine, additionally expanded was the punishments for trafficking, and more sentences for fierce and sex wrongdoers. Not just does this support in the congestion of the prisons additionally to the budgetary and administrative effect and that is HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and hepatitis. The executives of prisons need to expect obligation regarding the recognizable proof, treatment, counteractive action and keep control of these illnesses in jail and correctional facilities (Riverland, 1999).

In the 70s and the 80s the courts assumed control as the real direction in jail organization. In the 90s the strategy creators assumed control from the courts. Jail overseer today arecantered around more extensive approach issues. The courts inclusion in prisons had a noteworthy impact on the jail organization in actuality and in observation. This activity remedied some genuine ill-uses and enhance the aggregate operations of prisons. It additionally constrained jail organization to meet sacred bits yet was extraordinarily affected and upgraded polished methodology at all levels of jail organization. The movement from a verbal to a composed approach and to a methodology situation improved the polished skill of amendments at all levels.

Electronic checking and its belongings, 5,034 medium and high hazard guilty parties. At that point there were the guilty parties that were not put on electronic observing 266,991. This was more than a six year period and the subjective information gathered through up close and personal meetings. It incorporated 105 guilty parties 36 regulating officers, and 20 overseers from fourteen areas in Florida. This shows that the quantitative examination the electronic checking lessens wrongdoer’s danger of disappointment by 31 percent and that worldwide situating framework observing results in 6 percent less supervision disappointments (Bales, Mann, Blomberg, Gaes, Barrick Dhungana, &Mcmanus, 2010).

In a late NIJ supported symposium, a few specialists offered their perspectives of what Criminal justice would look like in 2040. (Ritter, 2006) The specialists were Bryan J. Vila, a previous head of the NIJ’s Crime Control and Prevention Research Division; Christopher E. Stone, a teacher of practice of criminal justice at Harvard, and David Weisburd, educator of criminology at the University of Maryland. (Schmalleger, 2011) Vila said that he accepted that the future wrongdoing warriors will need to comprehend what he calls the co advancement of wrongdoing commission and wrongdoing battling. (Ritter, 2006) Technological advances will have a significant impact on wrongdoing battling, as per Vila. (Schmalleger, 2011). Improvements in reconnaissance, biometrics, DNA investigation and radio recurrence will have an incredible impact on wrongdoing battling. As indicated by Vila, the future will acquire upgrades frameworks that will permit authorities to talk electronically to each other in instances of crises and different circumstances that oblige the need. (Ritter, 2006). He has the conviction that the associations between the nationals and offices will prompt a decline in criminal open doors. (Schmalleger, 2011).

DNA profiling or DNA fingerprinting makes utilization of the human DNA for purposes of distinguishing proof. The DNA is found in individuals’ blood, spit, skin tissue, hair, bone and semen. The Justice Department takes note of that DNA confirmation is assuming a bigger part than at any other time in recent memory before in criminal cases all through the nation. This has been utilized to convict criminals as well as to permit the ones detained to be excused of unlawful acts they didn’t carry out yet were indicted. ( Through the years there have been numerous databases that have been produced to profile cases. This helps authorities discover a profile for a criminal that has been fingerprinted. The capacity to dissect DNA is getting to be more pervasive throughout the years. The capacity to have the capacity to confirm DNA relativity to a case in a timelier way will make for speedier conviction.

Some terrorist organizations are trying to get weapons of mass obliteration including conceivable concoction, natural radiological and atomic dangers. (Schmalleger, 2011). PC information robbery, and also endeavours to accumulate ordered information from the legislature’s PCs is extremely normal. There are various viral PC worms that terrorists endeavour to utilize attempting to close down government frameworks and military frameworks. (Schmalleger, 2011). There are better approaches for making weapons that are turned out to be harder to distinguish. It is getting to be simpler for criminals to get around the obstructions that we have now, and as time passes by it appears that there are dependably changes being made. It appears that the criminals are dependably one stage in front of the law implementation.

Recent Trends

The most recent innovation has moulded a complete new class for the different phases of crime. Police must utilize what is accessible with the innovation of today to proceed at the front line of potential criminals. Innovation has improved the capacity to perceive and take into guardianship people blameworthy of perpetrating crimes. Late trends, for example, correspondence methods have immensely expanded the cooperation identifying with law requirement and society.

There are a few improved gadgets that are utilized for the wellbeing of groups which are the Amber Alert and the Adam Walsh Act’s. These are strategies that each state partakes in the United States. These approaches make accessible to society the high need of information concerning tyke abducting. These strategies consider groups to draw together and help police in settling kid kidnappings. In spite of the fact that, criminals may advantage from innovation by utilizing it for criminal increase; law requirement likewise profit from the most recent innovation. DNA is an innovation that has built up a noteworthy effect on the perspective of the criminal justice framework. With DNA tests of a singular’s unique mark’s can be lifted from a crime scene. The achievement of DNA permits a man to be perceived through body liquid, hair, and finger impression tests to have the capacity to fathom a crime (Smith, 2004). DNA tests recognize associates yet one with the more constructive parts of DNA is demonstrating a man guiltless when he or she has been dishonestly detained. Contemporary issues are issues that have confronted the criminal justice framework.

Contemporary Issues

There are numerous contemporary issues confronting the criminal justice framework and effect has brought on issues, for example, with sentencing, courts, and rectifications. The congestion of prisons and more jail sentences are specifically identified with the “Three Strikes and You’re Out” laws (Muraskin& Roberts, 2009). Similar to the absence of restoration and re-entry preparing. There are hindrances that people must face when leaving jail and reappearing the overall population. These boundaries incorporate social, mental, and legitimate obstructions (Muraskin& Roberts, 2009). To totally comprehend what is required for detainees to reappear society and be fruitful, a gander at the past, present, and future of re-entry projects are required. The issues confronting sexual orientation separation in the middle of men and ladies; break even with security is obliged to dispose of any sex segregation.

Estimation of the Criminal Justice System

The estimation of the criminal justice framework in changing society is to present suggestions for ascending above injustice in the United States (Robinson, 2009). The criminal justice framework is to be fair-minded and diminish crime. Thusly, the criminal justice framework must change as society changes and keep on passing approaches when expected to battle new innovative crime. There must be a criminal justice set up to keep on being a feature of society that verifies justice is served, crime controlled, and break even with treatment to everybody.


What is corrections going to be in the year 2025, some say that the jail overseer still will be kept on being tested by staff limit issues. There will at present be issues of segregation, badgering and prisoner/staff connections. Privatization of prisons will be across the board in revisions when all is said in done. There will likewise be a ton of dependence on innovation in the organization of prisons. The impacts on today prisons organizations over the United States are comparative also are the difficulties. Could we expect that today’s issues will be significant drivers of tomorrow’s issues?

Throughout the following 50 years we could see numerous changes in the field of criminal Justice. There is no real way to anticipate the future, there are numerous things indicating toward change. There are such a variety of new improvements that occur in innovation, science and various instruments for examinations. These changes implies that we need to roll out improvements in the way we handle things, and this implies that the field of criminal justice have and will change with the times.

There are numerous changes that must be made in the future so as to stay aware of the changes in innovation and the persistent development in wrongdoing. As expressed before there are criminal acts that appear to be one stage in front of the arrangements. As law authorization has the capacity roll out the improvements with innovation and make things simpler for them, they will have the capacity to roll out improvements in the way we find the law violations and location them. I think there will be numerous things that will make law implementation more powerful. I believe that there is almost no change that will be impeding to law authorization. Nonetheless, I accept that with change there comes more change. There will never be an end to what needs to be carried out to take after the change.

Preparation for Generating a Policy Proposal

Assignment 2: Preparation for Generating a Policy Proposal

Although some states and cities have passed laws to ban texting and using handheld phones while driving, there is no current law to ban all cell phone use while driving. However, according to the National Safety Council (2009), 28 percent of all crashes—1.6 million per year—are caused by cell phone use and texting by drivers. The mission of a new national nonprofit organization called FocusDriven, patterned after Mothers Against Drunk Driving, is to make phone use while driving as illegal and socially unacceptable as drunk driving. US Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood supports FocusDriven and its efforts.

According to the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, LaHood said that this movement would become “an army of people traveling the countryside” to push for bans on cell-phone use and tough enforcement (Schmitz, 2010). As a political advocate interested in this issue, you will be writing a policy proposal that utilizes the current research to propose a solution to the issue and submitting it in Module 5.

Annotated Bibliography: Effect of Cell Phone Use

Before you can write this proposal research, you will need to conduct initial research on the science behind this initiative. For this assignment, use the Argosy University online library resources to locate research reports from peer-reviewed journals that discuss the effects of cell phone use on vision, attention, perception, or memory. In selecting at least five research reports from peer-reviewed journals relevant to the topic, make sure they address one or more of the following issues: •How do texting, handheld phones, and hands-free phones compare with each other in their effects on driving? •How do other, traditional distractions compare to cell phone use in their effects on driving (such as eating, attending to children, talking to passengers, listening to music/news, etc.)? •Can cell phone use while driving be compared with drunk driving? Why or why not? •What other variables (such as age) can affect driving while using a cell phone?

Based on your reading of the five articles, create an annotated bibliography for each of the five sources. Each annotation should consist of the APA reference entry followed by a paragraph-long summary of the articles. In your summary, provide answers for the questions below. For the last question, think about how the research results could be generalized to fit other environments or not be generalized. •Summarize the main ideas in the reference. What were they investigating? •How were the studies conducted? What was the sample size? Is it appropriate? •Were the studies conducted in the real world or was a simulated environment used? •How might these methodological considerations affect the research findings and the conclusions drawn from them? How does this article fit in with your paper? How did it influence your own ideas about your paper?

Your annotated bibliography should be at 3–4 pages in length. Click here for the annotated bibliography template. This document will help you complete your paper more successfully.

Be sure to include a title page and reference page listing your articles.

Developing Marketing Strategies

Pretend you have been hired as Director of Marketing and Planning in time for a company’s anticipated introduction of a new product or service. For your first assignment, you are asked to provide a rudimentary market analysis and promotion mix for the introduction of a new product offering. You will present this information to the Senior Vice President of Marketing, as well as to others in upper management. They will compare your suggestions to suggestions developed earlier and are hoping to receive fresh, new insights into how they will identify, attract, and capture their desired audience. Although you want to make a great impression, you also know that, since they very well may give the implementation of the plan back to you, your presentation needs to be as realistic as possible.

You must cite all resources used and include an APA-formatted bibliography. Your Activity responses should be both grammatically and mechanically correct, and formatted in the same fashion as the Activity itself. If there is a Part A, your response should identify a Part A, etc. (100 points) (A 3-page response is required for the combination of Parts A, B, C, and D.)

Part A Choose the type of company you work for and write a description of the company that includes the following.

1. The Industry You Operate In

2. Product Lines

3. Total Number of Employees

4. Annual Revenue

5. Top Competitor

6. Any Other Relevant Information

Part B Write an overall description of the new product you will be promoting. Include four (4) product features and one (1) benefit for each feature.

Part C Identify and describe the three (3) primary market segments (target markets) you will promote to; in each description, identify two (2) demographic and one (1) psychographic characteristic.

Part D Develop a list of five (5) marketing activities you recommend to promote this new product. Include the reason why you believe each of the marketing activities will be successful.

The Impact of Urban Migration Variables on Tuberculosis Prevalence in Monrovia

Introduction Tuberculosis is a human infection that is caused by the bacterium, bacteria. The bacteria that is responsible for tuberculosis is called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This bacterium is closely compared to Mycobacterium leprae, the bacterium that causes leprosy (Gupta, 2012). Tuberculosis affects anybody although it is more common in those whose people whom their socioeconomic status is low,est, people living with HIV, and people living in areas where one can get TB easily like psychiatric patients and prison inmates. The two types of TB are extra-pulmonary tuberculosis and pulmonary tuberculosis (Gupta, 2012). The most popular TB type is the pulmonary TB that is throughout the world, and the study will focus on this type of TB. Pulmonary TB occurs when the lungs are colonized by the causing distress in the in the respiratory. The study needs to be conducted so as to intervene on the causes of TB and how it can be prevented. In Liberia, cases of TB reported in 2011 were an estimate of 53%. Background Tuberculosis is a human disease infection caused by the bacterium, bacteria. The bacteria that is responsible for tuberculosis is called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. According to evidence based on archeology, Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been appeared firstly around between past 20,000 years to 35,000 years (Daniel, Sep 2006).


Information System Strategies for Dealing with Competitive Forces

What is a firm to do when faced with all these competitive forces? And how can the firm use information systems to counteract some of these forces? How do you prevent substitutes and inhibit new market entrants? How do you become the most successful firm in an industry in terms of profit and share price (two measures of success)?

Basic Strategy 101: Align the IT with the Business Objectives

The basic principle of IT strategy for a business is to ensure the technology serves the business, and not the other way around. The research on IT and business performance has found that (a) the more successfully a firm can align its IT with its business goals, the more profitable it will be, and (b) only about one-quarter of firms achieve alignment of IT with business. About half of a business firm’s profits can be explained by alignment of IT with business (Luftman, 2003; Henderson, et al., 1996).

Most businesses get it wrong: IT takes on a life of its own and does not serve management and shareholder interests very well. Instead of business people taking an active role in shaping IT to the enterprise, they ignore it, claim to not understand IT, and tolerate failure in the IT area as just a nuisance to work around. Such firms pay a hefty price in poor performance. Successful firms and managers understand what IT can do and how it works, take an active role in shaping its use, and measure its impact on revenues and profits.

So how do you as a manager achieve this alignment of IT with business? In the following sections, we discuss some basic ways to do this, but here’s a summary:

  • Identify your business strategy and goals.
  • Break these strategic goals down into concrete activities and processes.
  • Identify how you will measure progress towards the business goals (e.g. metrics).
  • Ask yourself “How can information technology help me achieve progress towards our business goals and how it will improve our business processes and activities?”
  • Measure actual performance. Let the numbers speak.


Because the system replenishes inventory with lightning speed, Walmart does not need to spend much money on maintaining large inventories of goods in its own warehouses. The system also enables Walmart to adjust purchases of store items to meet customer demands. Competitors, such as Sears, have been spending 24.9 percent of sales on overhead. By using systems to keep operating costs low, Walmart pays only 16.6 percent of sales revenue for overhead. (Operating costs average 20.7 percent of sales in the retail industry.)

Walmart’s continuous replenishment system is also an example of an efficient customer response system. An efficient customer response system directly links consumer behavior to distribution and production and supply chains. Walmart’s continuous replenishment system provides such an efficient customer response. Dell Computer Corporation’s assemble-to-order system, described in the following discussion, is another example of an efficient customer response system.


Product Differentiation

Use information systems to enable new products and services, or greatly change the customer convenience in using your existing products and services. For instance, Google continuously introduces new and unique search services on its Web site, such as Google Maps. Apple created iPod, a unique portable digital music player, plus a unique online Web music service where songs can be purchased for $.69 to $1.29 each. Apple has continued to innovate with its multimedia iPhone, iPad tablet computer, and iPod video player.

Manufacturers and retailers are using information systems to create products and services that are customized and personalized to fit the precise specifications of individual customers. For example, Nike sells customized sneakers through its Nike iD program on its Web site. Customers are able to select the type of shoe, colors, material, outsoles, and even a logo of up to eight characters. Nike transmits the orders via computers to specially-equipped plants in China and Korea. The sneakers cost only $10 extra and take about three weeks to reach the customer. This ability to offer individually tailored products or services using the same production resources as mass production is called mass customization.

Table 3.1 lists a number of companies that have developed IS-based products and services that other firms have found difficult to copy.

Table 3.1 IS-Enabled New Products and Services Providing Competitive Advantage

Amazon: One-click shopping Amazon holds a patent on one-click shopping that it licenses to other online retailers
Online music: Apple iPod and iTunes An integrated handheld player backed up with an online library of over 10 million songs
Golf club customization: Ping Customers can select from more than 1 million different golf club options; a build-to-order system ships their customized clubs within 48 hours
Online person-to-person payment: Enables transfer of money between individual bank accounts and between bank accounts and credit card accounts

Focus on Market Niche

Use information systems to enable a specific market focus, and serve this narrow target market better than competitors. Information systems support this strategy by producing and analyzing data for finely tuned sales and marketing techniques. Information systems enable companies to analyze customer buying patterns, tastes, and preferences closely so that they efficiently pitch advertising and marketing campaigns to smaller and smaller target markets.

The data come from a range of sources—credit card transactions, demographic data, purchase data from checkout counter scanners at supermarkets and retail stores, and data collected when people access and interact with Web sites. Sophisticated software tools find patterns in these large pools of data and infer rules from them that can be used to guide decision making. Analysis of such data drives one-to-one marketing where personal messages can be created based on individualized preferences. For example, Hilton Hotels’ OnQ system analyzes detailed data collected on active guests in all of its properties to determine the preferences of each guest and each guest’s profitability. Hilton uses this information to give its most profitable customers additional privileges, such as late checkouts. Contemporary customer relationship management (CRM) systems feature analytical capabilities for this type of intensive data analysis (see Chapters 2 and 8).

Strengthen Customer and Supplier Intimacy

Use information systems to tighten linkages with suppliers and develop intimacy with customers. Toyota, Ford, and other automobile manufacturers have information systems that give their suppliers direct access to their production schedules, enabling suppliers to decide how and when to ship supplies to the plants where cars are assembled. This allows suppliers more lead time in producing goods. On the customer side, keeps track of user preferences for book and CD purchases, and can recommend titles purchased by others to its customers. Strong linkages to customers and suppliers increase switching costs (the cost of switching from one product or service to competitor) and loyalty to your firm.


The Internet’s Impact on Competitive Advantage

Because of the Internet, the traditional competitive forces are still at work, but competitive rivalry has become much more intense (Porter, 2001). Internet technology is based on universal standards that any company can use, making it easy for rivals to compete on price alone and for new competitors to enter the market. Because information is available to everyone, the Internet raises the bargaining power of customers, who can quickly find the lowest-cost provider on the Web. Profits have been dampened. Table 3.3 summarizes some of the potentially negative impacts of the Internet on business firms identified by Porter.


The Internet has nearly destroyed some industries and has severely threatened others. For instance, the printed encyclopedia industry and the travel agency industry have been nearly decimated by the availability of substitutes over the Internet. Likewise, the Internet has had a significant impact on the retail, music, book, retail brokerage, software, telecommunications, and travel industries. The chapter-ending case provides a detailed discussion of the Internet’s impact on publishing.

However, the Internet has also created entirely new markets, formed the basis for thousands of new products, services, and business models, and provided new opportunities for building brands with very large and loyal customer bases. Amazon, eBay, iTunes, YouTube, Facebook, Travelocity, and Google are examples. In this sense, the Internet is “transforming” entire industries, forcing firms to change how they do business.

The Business Value Chain Model

Although the Porter model is very helpful for identifying competitive forces and suggesting generic strategies, it is not very specific about what exactly to do, and it does not provide a methodology to follow for achieving competitive advantages. If your goal is to achieve operational excellence, where do you start? Here’s where the business value chain model is helpful.

The value chain model highlights specific activities in the business where competitive strategies can best be applied (Porter, 1985) and where information systems are most likely to have a strategic impact. This model identifies specific, critical leverage points where a firm can use information technology most effectively to enhance its competitive position. The value chain model views the firm as a series or chain of basic activities that add a margin of value to a firm’s products or services. These activities can be categorized as either primary activities or support activities

Primary activities are most directly related to the production and distribution of the firm’s products and services, which create value for the customer. Primary activities include inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, sales and marketing, and service. Inbound logistics includes receiving and storing materials for distribution to production. Operations transforms inputs into finished products. Outbound logistics entails storing and distributing finished products. Sales and marketing includes promoting and selling the firm’s products. The service activity includes maintenance and repair of the firm’s goods and services.

Support activities make the delivery of the primary activities possible and consist of organization infrastructure (administration and management), human resources (employee recruiting, hiring, and training), technology (improving products and the production process), and procurement (purchasing input).

You can ask at each stage of the value chain, “How can we use information systems to improve operational efficiency and improve customer and supplier intimacy?” This will force you to critically examine how you perform value-adding activities at each stage and how the business processes might be improved. For example, value chain analysis would indicate that Verizon, described in the chapter-opening case, should improve its processes for product development and quality control. You can also begin to ask how information systems can be used to improve the relationship with customers and with suppliers who lie outside the firm value chain but belong to the firm’s extended value chain where they are absolutely critical to your success. Here, supply chain management systems that coordinate the flow of resources into your firm, and customer relationship management systems that coordinate your sales and support employees with customers, are two of the most common system applications that result from a business value chain analysis. We discuss these enterprise applications in detail later in Chapter 8.

Using the business value chain model will also cause you to consider benchmarking your business processes against your competitors or others in related industries, and identifying industry best practices. Benchmarking involves comparing the efficiency and effectiveness of your business processes against strict standards and then measuring performance against those standards. Industry best practices are usually identified by consulting companies, research organizations, government agencies, and industry associations as the most successful solutions or problem-solving methods for consistently and effectively achieving a business objective.

Once you have analyzed the various stages in the value chain at your business, you can come up with candidate applications of information systems. Then, once you have a list of candidate applications, you can decide which to develop first. By making improvements in your own business value chain that your competitors might miss, you can achieve competitive advantage by attaining operational excellence, lowering costs, improving profit margins, and forging a closer relationship with customers and suppliers. If your competitors are making similar improvements, then at least you will not be at a competitive disadvantage—the worst of all cases!

Global Business and System Strategies

There are four main ways of organizing businesses internationally: domestic exporter, multinational, franchiser, and transnational, each with different patterns of organizational structure or governance. In each type of global business organization, business functions may be centralized (in the home country), decentralized (to local foreign units), and coordinated (all units participate as equals).

The domestic exporter strategy is characterized by heavy centralization of corporate activities in the home country of origin. Production, finance/accounting, sales/marketing, human resources, and strategic management are set up to optimize resources in the home country. International sales are sometimes dispersed using agency agreements or subsidiaries, but foreign marketing is still totally reliant on the domestic home base for marketing themes and strategies. Caterpillar Corporation and other heavy capital equipment manufacturers fall into this category of firm.

A multinational strategy concentrates financial management and control out of a central home base while decentralizing production, sales, and marketing operations to units in other countries. The products and services on sale in different countries are adapted to suit local market conditions. The organization becomes a far-flung confederation of production and marketing facilities operating in different countries. Many financial service firms, along with a host of manufacturers such as Ford Motor Co. and Intel Corporation, fit this pattern.

Franchisers have the product created, designed, financed, and initially produced in the home country but rely heavily on foreign personnel for further production, marketing, and human resources. Food franchisers, such as McDonald’s and Starbucks, fit this pattern. McDonald’s created a new form of fast-food chain in the United States and continues to rely largely on the United States for inspiration of new products, strategic management, and financing. Nevertheless, local production of some items, local marketing, and local recruitment of personnel are required.

Transnational firms have no single national headquarters but instead have many regional headquarters and perhaps a world headquarters. In a transnational strategy, nearly all the value-adding activities are managed from a global perspective without reference to national borders, optimizing sources of supply and demand wherever they appear and taking advantage of any local competitive advantages. There is a strong central management core of decision making but considerable dispersal of power and financial muscle throughout the global divisions. Few companies have actually attained transnational status, but Citigroup, Sony, and Nestlé are attempting this transition.

Nestlé S.A., the largest food and beverage company in the world, is one of the world’s most globalized companies, with nearly 280,000 employees at 500 facilities in 200 countries. Nestlé launched a $2.4 billion initiative to adopt a single set of business processes and systems for procurement, distribution, and sales management using mySAP enterprise software. All of Nestlé’s worldwide business units use the same processes and systems for making sales commitments, establishing factory production schedules, billing customers, compiling management reports, and reporting financial results. Nestlé has learned how to operate as a single unit on a global scale.

Global System Configuration

Figure 3.5 depicts four types of systems configurations for global business organizations. Centralized systems are those in which systems development and operation occur totally at the domestic home base. Duplicated systems are those in which development occurs at the home base but operations are handed over to autonomous units in foreign locations. Decentralized systems are those in which each foreign unit designs its own unique solutions and systems. Networked systems are those in which systems development and operations occur in an integrated and coordinated fashion across all units.





Competing on Business Processes

Technology alone is often not enough to make organizations more competitive, efficient, or quality-oriented. The organization itself needs to be changed to take advantage of the power of information technology. These changes may require minor adjustments in work activities, but, often, entire business processes will need to be redesigned. Business process management (BPM) addresses these needs.

What Is Business Process Management?

Business process management (BPM) is an approach to business which aims to continuously improve business processes. BPM uses a variety of tools and methodologies to understand existing processes, design new processes, and optimize those processes. BPM is never concluded because continuous improvement requires continual change. Companies practicing business process management need to go through the following steps:

  1. Identify processes for change: One of the most important strategic decisions that a firm can make is not deciding how to use computers to improve business processes, but rather understanding what business processes need improvement. When systems are used to strengthen the wrong business model or business processes, the business can become more efficient at doing what it should not do. As a result, the firm becomes vulnerable to competitors who may have discovered the right business model. Considerable time and cost may also be spent improving business processes that have little impact on overall firm performance and revenue. Managers need to determine what business processes are the most important and how improving these processes will help business performance.
  2. Analyze existing processes: Existing business processes should be modeled and documented, noting inputs, outputs, resources, and the sequence of activities. The process design team identifies redundant steps, paper-intensive tasks, bottlenecks, and other inefficiencies.



Database and Data Warehousing Design

Project Deliverable 3: Database and Data Warehousing Design

Due Week 6 and worth 120 points

This assignment consists of two (2) sections: a design document and a revised project plan. You must submit both sections as separate files for the completion of this assignment. Label each file name according to the section of the assignment it is written for. Additionally, you may create and / or assume all necessary assumptions needed for the completion of this assignment.

One of the main functions of any business is to transform data into information. The use of relational databases and data warehousing has gained recognition as a standard for organizations. A quality database design makes the flow of data seamless. The database schema is the foundation of the relational database. The schema defines the tables, fields, relationships, views, indexes, and other elements. The schema should be created by envisioning the business, processes, and workflow of the company. Since your company is an innovative Internet-based company, movement toward data warehousing seems to be one of the most viable options to give your company a competitive advantage; however, these concepts must be explained to the executive board in a manner to garner support.

Section 1: Design Document

Write a six to ten (6-10) page design document in which you:

1.Support the need for the use of relational databases and data warehousing. From a management standpoint, it may be important to show the efficiencies that can be gained for executive oversight.

2.Create a database schema that supports the company’s business and processes. Explain and support the database schema with relevant arguments that support the rationale for the structure. Note: The minimum requirement for the schema should entail the tables, fields, relationships, views, and indexes.

3.Identify and create database tables with appropriate field-naming conventions. Then, identify primary keys and foreign keys, and explain how referential integrity will be achieved. Normalize the database tables to third normal form (3NF).

4.Identify and create an Entity-Relationship (E-R) Diagram relating the tables of the database schema through the use of graphical tools in Microsoft Visio or an open source alternative such as Dia. Note: The graphically depicted solution is not included in the required page length but must be included in the design document appendix. Explain your rationale behind the design of the E-R Diagram.

5.Identify and create a Data Flow Diagram (DFD) relating the tables of your database schema through the use of graphical tools in Microsoft Visio or an open source alternative such as Dia. Note: The graphically depicted solution is not included in the required page length but must be included in the design document appendix. Explain the rationale behind the design of your DFD.

6.Illustrate the flow of data including both inputs and outputs for the use of a data warehouse. The diagram should map data between source systems, operational systems, data warehouses and specified data marts. Note: The graphically depicted solution is not included in the required page length.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.
  • Include charts or diagrams created in MS Visio or Dia as an appendix of the design document. All references to these diagrams must be included in the body of the design document.

Section 2: Revised Project Plan

Use Microsoft Project to:

1.Update the project plan (summary and detail) template, from Project Deliverable 2: Business Requirements, with three to five (3-5) new project tasks each consisting of five to ten (5-10) subtasks.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Describe the methods and best practices in implementing process change in IT organizations.
  • Describe the role and methods of technology-induced process improvement in organizations.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in information systems.
  • Write clearly and concisely about leadership issues and strategic insight of the Information systems domain using proper writing mechanics and technical style conventions.


Data Communications Course Help

Welcome to Data Communications.

A solid understanding of the fundamentals of data communications is essential for business and information management students. This course provides an overview of business data communication and networking technologies. It introduces the basic elements of data communications and describes the needs for data networks in the business environment . A thorough coverage of the layers of standards (protocols) that enable wired switched and wireless networks, and internet working, is provided. The challenges of network management and security and the practical techniques for addressing them are also discussed.

In today’s business environment, management and staff need a thorough understanding of information communications in order to assess needs; plan for the introduction of products, services, and systems; and manage the systems and technical personnel that operate them. This understanding must comprise the following:

  • Technology: The underlying technology of information communications facilities, networking systems, and communications software.
  • Architecture: The way in which hardware, software,and services can be organized to provide computer and terminal interconnection.
  • Applications: How information communications and networking systems can meet the requirements of today’s businesses.


Highlights of this course include areas such as TCP/IP and the Internet,wireless networks, high-speed LANs, network security, and issues concerning network management. This course enables students to make informed decisions about technologies that comprise the data communications field. The purpose of this course is to present the concepts of data andinformation communications in a way that relates specifically to the business environment and to the concerns of business management and staff. An important theme throughout this course is the essential role of standards, which are addressed in terms of their key groupings that are shaping the marketplace and that define the choices available to the decision-maker.


Course Goals/LearningOutcomes:

At the end of this course, student will be able to:

  • Recall and use the basic requirements for data communications and networking to support business information needs.
  • Make informed decisions between the various data communications components and networks available.
  • Determine optimal configuration, installation, and operation of a data communication network.
  • Describe network security issues and examine various encryption and authentication solutions.
  • Examine various network management systems and requirements.
  • Effectively communicate with other data communications professionals, and to participate in and make positive contributions to data communications projects.


Required Texts:

The following text is required for this course:

Raymond R. Panko andJulia L. Panko, Business Data Networksand Telecommunications (8th Edition), 2011. Pearson/PrenticeHall. ISBN-13: 9780136100126.


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Developing a Wireless Network Design Plan – Assignment Instructions

You will play the role of a wireless network consultant working for an organization of your choice. You have helped the organization determine that it is cost effective and beneficial to install a wireless network in their office building. The company would like to provide a wireless network that allows each employee with a laptop to be able to connect wirelessly to their network anywhere within the building. The next step is to present the organization with a plan that outlines how you intend to design their wireless network.

Develop a wireless network design plan for one building of at least 500 square feet of office space. Use the Internet to find a “free” office diagram to use with this lab. Your plan should cover the following:

  • Deployment Scenario:
    • Determine the correct deployment scenario for your network. Show your devices on your building diagram. You may use Paint or other program to draw in your devices or feel free to use clipart.
    • Provide reasoning for the deployment scenario you selected.
    • Identify the hardware components your wireless network will utilize.
    • Justify why you will use each component in your network.
    • Provide a rough cost estimate.
  • IEEE Wireless Network Type:
    • You have identified that an 802.11n LAN will be implemented.
  • Access Point Management
  • Location of Wireless Devices
  • Wireless Security Policy

DOES NOT HAVE TO BE EXTRAVAGANT! JUST NEED BASIC, FAST, & SIMPLE WORK! When submitting your work, make sure you include your diagram with your write-up.

Utilizing the Delphi technique

Assignment 6: VoIP Part 4 (Risk Register)
Due Week 9 and worth 80 points

Utilizing the Delphi technique, your team constructed the following risks register the VoIP project containing the risk, the likelihood of its occurrence on a scale of 1 (least likely) to 5 (most likely), and the potential negative impact on the project on the same scale. In addition, they recommended the appropriate response and identified its type for one of the risks identified.

# Risk Likelihood (1-5) Impact
Response Type Response
1 Project Delayed due to lack of resources 3 5
2 Project runs out of funds before completion 1 5
3 Users reject new system 2 2
4 Defective Hardware 1 5
5 New government regulations introduced during deployment increase the cost of running VoIP 2 3
6 Yearly renewal fee issued on the legacy system due to delay of over 30 days in deployment of the new system 1 4 Mitigation Schedule check 30 days before project deadline to determine if action needs to be taken to avoid delay. Decision tree will be utilized.

Write a three to five (3-5) page paper in which you:

  1. Explain risk management and its associated activities and defend the need for a risk management plan.
  2. Describe the Delphi technique used to identify risks and infer on types of projects where this technique is most accurate.
  3. Examine the four (4) types of risk response (i.e., avoidance, acceptance, transference, and mitigation) and determine the appropriate situation where each should be used.
  4. Complete the table with the risk response type (i.e., avoidance, acceptance, transference, and mitigation) and a description of the response.
  5. Create a decision tree with the software of your choice to address risk number 6. Assume that when you check the schedule on day 60 of the project, it becomes evident that two (2) additional engineers are needed to ensure on-time completion of the project. The engineers cost $25,000 each and a fee of $120,000 is issued by the legacy provider. The probability of completing the project on time is as follows: With the current personnel – 60%; With one (1) engineer – 80%; With both engineers – 98%.
  6. Explain the methodology utilized to create a decision tree and recommend the appropriate action to take based on your decision tree from criterion 5.
  7. Use at least two (2) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.
  • Include the decision tree created in your chosen software. The completed decision tree must be imported into the Word document before the paper is submitted.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Examine the human resource factors that can impact project management.
  • Summarize how the PMBOK® process groups and knowledge areas are involved throughout the project life cycle.
  • Compare and contrast the sources and mitigating factors of project risk.
  • Use project management and graphic software to plan and manage a project throughout the project life cycle.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in IT project management.
  • Write clearly and concisely about issues in IT project management using proper writing mechanics and technical style conventions

Click here to view the grading rubric for this assignment.

Models for Competitive Dynamics Assignment

Competition has, since the 90s, led to wider gaps between industry leaders and laggards. There are more “winner-take-all” environments and greater churns among industry sector rivals. We have witnessed sharp increases in quality and quantity of IT (Information Technology) investments. We’ve seen striking competitive dynamics, particularly in sectors that spend the most on IT. Some of the competitive dynamics models include the Destroy Your Business (DYB) strategy, the Grow Your Business (GYB) strategy, the Information Systems (IS) and strategic advantage, and the social business strategy.

Write a four to five (4-5) page paper in which you:

  1. Compare and contrast the DYB and GYB strategies in terms of the ability to sustain a business in the marketplace over the long term, to be competitive against rivals, and profitability.
  2. Examine the “cannibalization” strategy and determine if it is or is not a better strategy compared to the DYB strategy for growth, competitiveness, and market leadership. Provide two (2) business examples.
  3. Determine whether or not changes in business strategy should entail reassessment of IS. Provide three (3) reasons to support your position.
  4. Examine how firms can use social IT in alignment with organizational strategy and IS strategy. Consider collaborative capabilities, what, how, and who should use social IT for a social business strategy.
  5. Use at three (3) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the integration of enterprise systems with inter-organizational partners.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in enterprise architecture.
  • Write clearly and concisely about enterprise architecture topics using proper writing mechanics and technical style conventions.