Browse Month: April 2016

Essentials of Public Health

Module 1 Achievement in Public Health

Public health issues in the United States of America is nothing new and is a very hot and happening issue that prevails in the country. Public health in the US is a very large field that includes qualitative and quantitative analysis in various trades like environmental health, biostatistics, social and behavioral science, epidemiology and various others. Erin DeFriesBouldin along with some of his colleagues performed a research with his colleagues regarding public health in the United States of America and revealed various statistics regarding the issue (Chapman, 2007).
There have been major achievements in public health in the last decade according to Bouldin and these achievements are not small instead these achievements involve hard work of not only the government but also the people who fought against it. Tobacco control is one of the major achievements that occurred few years back and is still in progress to reduce the consumption to less (Burnett, 2004).
The first report regarding the consumption in US was published in the year 1964 and it was noticed that tobacco consumption is more than the consumption of some cereals and therefore the local, state and federal authorities came forward to reduce the consumption of tobacco and till date they are considerably successful (Moyer, 2005). The reduction is noticed in every report, in the year 1965 adult smokers constituted around 42.5% of the total population and according to the latest report in 2009 it has come down to around 20.5%. The reduction rate has fluctuated in every decade but at the end of the day reduction has occurred and that too considerably (Proctor, 2001).
The success has a more value compared to other issues because no state in the United States of America had a state law and with the latest report in 2009 the state excise duties in cigarettes started increasing and from 41.96 cents per pack in 2000 it became 1.44 dollars per pack in the year 2009. The average increase in the federal excise taxes was also noticed and it increased from0.76 dollars to 2.21 dollars per pack.2010 was the year in which the Federal authority went a step forward and formulated various anti-tobacco law which included ban of flavored cigarettes, prohibition of smoking in schools and institutions, youth access reduced and some more (Jha, 2000).
This achievement is a success and achievement of all the local, state and federal authorities in charge of public health in the United States of America. The tobacco issue was not taken seriously in the past but because of mass awareness programs from the government people has started taking seriously and are thinking of reducing the consumption. The government is also trying to eradicate the menace by various ways and imposing excise duty is one. Therefore if taken seriously fighting against a public health issue is no big deal.

Burnett, K (2004) Empowering action on international priorities
Studlar, D (2012) Global tobacco control
Chapman, S (2007) Public health advocacy and tobacco control
Jha, P (2000) tobacco control in developing countries
Moyer, D (2005) the tobacco book
Proctor, R.N. (2001) Smoking and health

Analytical Matrix Historical Views of Leadership

Historical Views of Leadership


Commonalities Disparities
Primary focus was on management, science and social psychology by researchers (Wren, 1995). Leadership Notions

Some of the theories perceived influence to be the main component of leadership, others considered attribute and then there were those that perceived leadership to be an exchange determined by power relations (Bennis & Nanus, 1985).

They all had a limited perspective because they ignored the leadership views developed by other disciplines such as Art, Philosophy, and History (Greenleaf, 1977; Burns & Peltason, 1966; Wren, 1995). Burns believed that followers of a leader are significantly involved in the leadership process, and leaders have to lead their followers in an ethically and morally upright manner.  Greenleaf on the other hand believed that servant leadership was key.  Warren and Burt believed that leaders pull, inspire and enable their followers to meet their needs as the purpose of leadership (Greenleaf, 1977; Burns & Peltason, 1966; Bennis & Burt, 1985).
These leadership theories were dominated by a leadership view that was pragmatic, linear, male oriented and Newtonian Perspectives (Bennis & Nanus, 1985; Greenleaf, 1977). Burns and Greenleaf leadership view have roots of the old system leadership where top down was the order of leadship whereas Warren and Burt attempts to view the followers as significant players who ought to take part in the decision making (Bennis & Nanus, 1985; Greenleaf, 1977; Wren, 1995).
These three leadership theories had tenets in the military leadership style where precision and hierarchy in decision making was highly considered.  For instance top down decision making structures were paramount (Burns & Peltason, 1966). Burns view of leadership was inclined more on military leadership and Bennis and Burt views were inclined more on the organizational leadership (Bennis & Nanus, 1985; Burns & Peltason, 1966).

Babies demonstrate language learning


Babies demonstrate language learning by imitating the sounds they hear. Language acquisition relies upon early introduction to the patterns of sounds heard in a child’s native language. Distinguishing the difference in sounds makes language meaningful. For children who are not sensitive to the phonological structure of language, determining meaning can be difficult. For this reason, phonological awareness for all children is high on the list of connecting spoken language with word recognition. Traditional learning strategies are not always sufficient for all students. Those with learning challenges (dyslexia, autism, etc.) need additional strategies to help them put together the picture puzzle of language.

Strategy 1: Syllable Awareness/Clapping and Tapping

Purpose: This strategy helps students become aware of the phonological structure of words. They will see that individual words are composed of many sounds and many syllables. This activity may be used with polysyllabic words as well as monosyllabic words. Not only do the students see the word, but they hear it with the assistance of physical movements.

To allow for different learning styles, such as kinesthetic, jumping can be substituted for clapping in this activity.

Task Analysis and Assessment: Several picture cards are needed for this strategy. Students are shown a picture of a baseball bat. They clap (or jump) each time they identify a phoneme in a word. For example, with the word bat, the sounds /b/ /a/ and /t/ would have three claps (or three jumps); one for each sound followed by pronouncing the word bat. Phoneme awareness is the “most complex of the phonological awareness skills” (Yopp & Yopp, page 14) for all students, but for students with reading disabilities in particular.

Following the sound structure activity, the activity is extended to syllables. Use a word such as “player.” The teacher shows the picture and reads the word. As the teacher reads, they clap for each syllable. Discuss the two parts (claps) with the students to be sure that they have heard both syllables. Then have the students clap as the teacher reads the word again. Then another two-syllable word such as singer is read and the same procedure is followed.

Assessment of this activity begins with observation. Then pairs of students may be given picture cards and asked to clap (or jump) the syllables for the word. Formative assessment is applicable as the teacher observes and moves among the paired groups who demonstrate their understanding by correctly completing the activity for several words.


Effective strategies for teaching phonemic awareness, (2002).  Retrieved


Strategy 2: Rhyming Memory Match

Purpose: This activity uses familiar nursery rhymes to demonstrate how sounds can be removed from one word and replaced with another sound to make a new word.  Replacing ending sounds or phonemes (or beginning sounds or phonemes) helps students to create word “families” and extend their vocabulary with new words. For example, “One-Two Buckle My Shoe” is a nursery rhyme which rhymes numbers with picture words. This gives the students a change to find rhyming words in a familiar setting which rhyme with even numbers. For example, one card will have the number 2 on it, and another card will have a picture of a shoe. A challenge for more advanced learners would be to find rhyming words for the odd numbers and create their own picture cards.

Once the student find the picture that rhymes with the number, they will say the words and say what the phoneme ending is that the two words have in common. Because this game is also a memory game, students must concentrate and remember where they find each picture and each number.

            Task Analysis and Assessment: Create a memory game with ten cards. The five numbered (2, 4, 6, 8, 10) cards should be mixed up in one row, and the picture cards (shoe, door, sticks, sticks in a straight row, hen) mixed up in a row beneath the first row.  Say the rhyme “One-Two Buckle My Shoe” either in unison or in an echo manner until you are certain the student knows the sounds of the words in the nursery rhyme. Explain the game to the student. Have them pick a card from one row to turn over and then pick a card from the second row to turn over to find the picture card which rhymes with the other card. Have the student continue until they have matched all cards.

The activity uses familiar rhyming words from nursery rhymes eliminating the need for struggling with pronunciation and/or comprehension. For the assessment, have the student write out the words that match. Have them underline the endings of the words that create the rhyme.


Essential Reading Strategies for the Struggling Reader: Activities for an Accelerated Reading Program, (2013). Retrieved from


Strategy 3: Sight-Word Search

Purpose: This activity helps students to locate sight words in a letter jumble puzzle. There are several web sites which allow you to choose the words you want in your letter jumble puzzle and what direction the words can be written. For younger children the words need to be left to right. For a challenged reader they should also go left to right. For advanced readers, they can be multi-directional. The whole word approach helps students to “recognize high frequency words without analysis.” (Polloway, Patton and Serna, Page 183)

Task Analysis and Assessment: Students should learn sight words both alone and in context. Choose a passage of text which contains sight words. Give the students a list of the sight words. Have them read the lists together in small groups to become used to the sound of the pronunciations as well as the visualizations. Individually, the students should use the word search worksheet to find the words. Working in groups is good for students with special needs since they feel supported. The teacher should be sure to put stronger readers in the groups with the readers who struggle.

For the assessment they should be able to read (pronounce) the word alone and find it in a selection of text. The student may or may not be able to find many words; therefore, this could be a formative assessment done by observation. The eyes need to be trained to identify commonly used words.


Essential Reading Strategies for the Struggling Reader: Activities for an Accelerated Reading Program, (2013). Retrieved from


Strategy 4: Sequencing

            Purpose: This activity helps students to break down the task of reading unknown words. Word recognition and comprehension are two difficult skills for students with learning disabilities. The teacher should provide assistance as needed after giving a simplified demonstration of sequencing. The student can be allowed to control the level of difficulty.

Task Analysis and Assessment: Students are shown flash cards on which both new and old words have been broken down by phonemes, blends, or by other means to help them to pronounce words. Starting with words that students have had previous success with encourages the student. As the words progress in difficulty, the teacher should assess the highest level of difficulty by using the hundred’s word list available from many sources such as sight words carefully chosen from The Dolch Words or the Fry 100’s word list.  Strategies for Teaching Learners with Special Needs (Polway, Patton and Serna) has several lists of words which could be used for this activity. The assessment for this activity would be to proceed past the first one or two words which the student cannot pronounce with the sequencing strategy, and then stopping if the student cannot progress further. This gives a numerical assessment.


Stanberry, K. and Swanson, L., (2009). Effective Reading Interventions for Kids With Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from

Strategy 5: Rhyme Connections

In the activity “Rhyme Connections” similar word endings can be identified by the students who will then answer questions about the sentence that is provided for them. To begin the activity, read this sentence to the student: “The happy frog walked through the fog and jumped over the bog on his way to send a blog to the dog.”   Read the sentence with the student and then have them underline all the rhyming words. Repeat the words that are underlined and have the student the rhyming sound. Reread the sentence and have the student visualize the action in the statement. Then ask a series of questions which will help the student to think about the rhyming words in a specific context.

Task Analysis and Assessment: Students are being assessed on their ability to find the rhymes and recognize word endings. Therefore, the teacher should give the student new sentences with the rhymes in them. They should first look through the sentences and underline the word endings that are similar.  They should then repeat the endings or write them down in their own rhyming notebook.

This type of activity provides regular rhyming practice which helps both struggling learners as well as those with learning disabilities with the oral and visual uses of language.  Additional help are the use of rhyming boards or word walls. This is a continual refresher for the learner. The class might also want to play rhyming games as a short exercise on a daily basis. One student can take a word from the word jar and the student next to them has to rhyme the word. If they successfully rhyme the word, the activity continues until there are no more words to rhyme. Then the last “rhymer” takes another word from the word jar and do the same thing.


Polloway, Edward, Patton, James, Serna, Loretta, (2008). Strategies for Teaching Learners with Special Needs (ninth edition). Pearson Lerning, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey


Reading interventions do work. However, it is more memorable if the intervention is mixed with a game or the activity is controlled by the student as some of these activities are. The key is giving each student the proper tools to improve their reading and comprehension abilities. Assessments should be mostly formative as the student’s gain confidence in reading fluency through increased word recognition. Children with learning disabilities will always have these disabilities, but through interventions such as these activities, they will develop the tools to allow them to read and comprehend.



Guidelines for Caring for Populations Milestone


The purpose of this PowerPoint presentation is to provide an opportunity to develop a community health nursing intervention and evaluation tool for your identified community health problem (described in Milestone 2: Assessment and Diagnosis) and identify the components of the nursing process as they apply to a community or population.

Course Outcomes

This assignment enables the student to meet the following course outcomes.


CO1: Apply principles of nursing theory to the public health system by analyzing determinants of health and the public health intervention wheel. (PO 1)

CO3: Plan prevention and population-focused interventions for vulnerable populations using professional clinical judgment and evidence-based practice. (PO 4, 8)

CO4: Evaluate the delivery of care for individuals, families, aggregates, and communities based on theories and principles of nursing and related disciplines. (PO 1)

Due Date

Submit your assignment to the appropriate basket in the Dropboxby 11:59 p.m. MT Sunday of Week 6.

Points: 250 points


You are a community public health nurse (C/PHN) working in your setting of choice. You have analyzed the data collected from your windshield survey and assessment and diagnosis assignments (the first two milestones) and identified one community health nursing problem. You have decided on onenursing intervention and need your organization’s approval for funding of this intervention. Your leadership team has agreed to listen to your proposal.


  • Watch the Milestone 3 tutorial by clicking this link. This tutorial is also available on Course Project page under Course Home as well as Week 6 Assignments page.
  • Choose a community health nurse setting.Some examples of settings are school nurse, parish nurse, home health nurse, nurse working in the health department (be specific to what area in the health department, e.g., WIC, STD clinic, health promotion, maternal-child health, etc.)
  • Introduction:Introduce the identified problem, the purpose of the presentation, and reiterate at least one or two important findings that demonstrate this problem in your community (average of 1–2 slides)
  • Proposed Intervention: Propose one community health nursing intervention that would address one or more of the major factors that contribute to the problem(average of 3–4 slides).
    • Describe your specific nursing intervention relating it to the public health intervention wheel (Nies& McEwen, 2015, p. 14, Figure 1-3)
    • Whois your target population?
    • Where is this intervention taking place?
    • Will it take place one time or multiple times?
    • How will you reach out to your target population?
      • How will you get your target population involved?
    • What is the CH nurse’s role in this intervention?
    • Will you collaborate with anyone (e.g., physician’s office, church, local resources, etc.)
    • Is anyone else involved besides yourself (C/PHN)?
      • If yes, are they paid or volunteers?
    • What level(s) of prevention is your intervention addressing (primary, secondary, or tertiary prevention)?
  • Intervention Justification: Justify why the problem and your nursing intervention should be a priority.
    • Based on what you have found in the scholarly literature, discuss why these interventions are expected to be effective.
    • Include summarized information from at least two professional scholarly sources from peer reviewed journals related to your intervention (average of 2–3 slides).
  • Proposed Evaluation Methods: Your presentation must include at least oneproposed quantitative or qualitative evaluation method that you would use to determine whether your intervention is effective. Outcome measurement is a crucial piece whenimplementing interventions(average of 2–3 slides)
    • Describe at least one quantitative or qualitative method you would use to evaluate whether your intervention was effective. (There is a helpful tool found in Doc Sharing to assist you with understanding qualitative and quantitative methods of evaluation).
    • Describe the desired outcomes you would track that would show whether your intervention was working.
    • Include a discussion about the long-term and short-term impact on your community if the intervention issuccessful.
  • Summary: The summary should reiterate the main points of the presentation and conclude with what you are asking to be accomplished; for example, “Based on ABC, it is imperative our community has XYZ. Thank you for your consideration.”
  • In addition to the slides described above, your presentation should include a title slide with your name includedand a reference slide.Remember, you are presenting to your leadership team, so the slides should include the most important elements for them to know in short bullet pointed phrases. You may add additional comments in the notes section to clarify information for your instructor.


  • Application: Use Microsoft PowerPoint 2010 (or later).
  • Length:The PowerPoint slide show is expected to be no more than 20slides in length (not including the title slide and reference list slide).
  • Submission: Submit your files via the basket in the Dropbox: Milestone 3 Intervention and Evaluation by 11:59 p.m. Sunday of Week 6.
  • Savethe assignment with your last name in the filetitle:example: “Smith Intervention and Evaluation.”
  • Late Submission:Seethe course policy on late submissions.
  • Tutorial: If needed, Microsoft Office has many templates and tutorials to help you get started.

Best Practices in Preparing PowerPoint

The following are best practices in preparing this project.

  • Be creative but realistic with your intervention and evaluation tool.
  • Incorporate graphics, clip art, or photographs to increase interest.
  • Slides should be easy to read with short bullet points and large font.
  • Review directions thoroughly.
  • Cite all sources within the slides with (author, year) as well as on the reference page.
  • Proofread prior to final submission.
  • Spell check for spelling and grammar errors prior to final submission.
  • Abide by the CCN academic integrity policy.

Grading Rubric: Caring for Populations: Intervention and Evaluation (250 points)





Outstanding or highest level of performance



Very good or high level of performance



Competent or satisfactory level of performance



Poor or failing or unsatisfactory level of performance

Problem identification

20 points

Presentation includes at least one slide that introduces the problem and significant findings in the community.

(18–20 points)

Problem is introduced but lacks support with findings.

(17 points)

Supportive findings discussed but problem identification not clear.

(16 points)

Problem is not introduced and does not include community findings.

(0–15 points)

Proposed intervention

85 points

One community health nursing intervention is proposed that would address one or more of the major direct or indirect factors that contribute to the problem. Intervention includes specifics:

*Intervention described and related to Public Health Intervention Wheel

*Community settingoutlined.

*Intervention location described.

*Timing of intervention (length and number of sessions) included.

*Outreach and engagement methods described.

*CHN role in intervention outlined.

*Collaborating with other disciplines or community leaders discussed (e.g., physician’s office, church, local resources).

*Level(s) of prevention addressed (primary, secondary, and/or tertiary).

(78–85 points)

One intervention is proposed but is missing one or two specific details from column one.

(71–77 points)

Intervention is missing more than two specific details from column one.

(65–70 points)

Intervention is not proposed or does not address any details in column one.

(0–64 points)

Intervention justification and application of evidence-based literature

30 points

Includes at least one slide that discusses why this intervention should be a priority based on two scholarly findings. Two or more quality references from peer reviewed articlesand their findings are summarized to show that the evidence supports your intervention.

(28–30 points)

Includes slide stating why the intervention should be a priority.Two references cited but references may be not be a scholarlyarticle or is not directly relevant to your rationale.

(25–27 points)

Intervention justification inadequate or fewer than two scholarly references cited.

(23–24 points)

Lacks slide on intervention justification.No references cited.

(0–22 points)


70 points

Presentation includes at least one proposed quantitative or qualitative evaluation method anddesired outcomes. Long-term and short-term impact on your community if the intervention is “successful” discussed.

(64–70 points)

At least one evaluation method adequately described but lacks discussion on long- and short-term impact on community.


Long and short term impact on community discussed, but evaluation method unclear.


Presentation lacks clear evaluation method and future impact.

(0–52 points)


20 points

Includes at least one summary slide that reiterates the problem and purpose of the presentation.

(19–20 points)

Summary does not clearly reiterate the problem or purpose.

(17–18 points)

Lacks reiteration of problem and purpose.

(15–16 points)

Summary slide not present.

(0–14 points)

Overall presentation

10 points

Presentation is presented in a clear and logical manner. PowerPoint is appealing to the eye and includes creativity. Bullet points with short phrases used instead of paragraphs. Font is easy to read.

(9–10 points)

Presentation is clear and organizedbut lacks creativity or slides are too busy.

(8 points)

Presentation is somewhat disorganized and lacks creativity.

(7 points)

Presentation is disorganized and difficult to understand.

(0–6 points)


15 points

Excellent mechanics with no more than two errors of the following:

– complete title slide

– correct grammar, spelling

-all sources cited in the text of slide

-all references listed on the reference slide and in APA format (hanging indent not needed for PowerPoint).


Three mechanical errors of elements listed in column one.

(13 points)

Fourmechanical errors of elements listed in column one.

(12 points)

More than fivemechanical errors of elements listed in column one.

(0–11 points)

Total points:         /250


Treatment versus Punishment – Juvenile Justice

Treatment versus Punishment – That is the Question! When looking at the relationship between social justice and juvenile justice, there are two over arching concepts when addressing juvenile delinquency – treatment and punishment. These two concepts have driven a cycle of changes in the juvenile justice system over the years. Your task is to support your premise that your state or city should either implement a philosophy of treatment or punishment for juvenile offenders for a specific crime or criminal justice issue identified in your paper. Explain the differences between the treatment and punishment concepts. Build the case for which one you believe has the stronger position based on your research and the crime or criminal justice issue you selected to study. Review the juvenile crime statistics between three cities or states in three different parts of the country (e.g., Boston, Chicago, and Seattle) for a crime or criminal justice issue. Incorporate a graphic display to present your findings. Be sure to include at least three demographic items, such as gender, ethnicity, race, education, or socio-economic status, in your analysis. Ensure you standardize your data (i.e., 1:1000; 1:10,000; or 1: 100,000) and incorporate the scale in a key for each chart. Identify the prevailing thought in the city or state: Is it treatment or punishment? Analyze the differences in the recidivism rates between the cities or states you have selected? Is recidivism the best indicator of success or failure or should we use a different indicator? In chapters 2 and 3 of the text, our author addresses biological, psychological and sociological theories to help explain juvenile delinquency. Evaluate which of these theories would best support your thesis. Support which juvenile justice intervention strategy would be effective to counter the crime or criminal justice issue based on your research? Conclude with a summary of which concept (treatment or punishment) best supports the over arching concept of social justice? The paper must be ten to twelve pages in length and formatted according to APA style. You must use at least six scholarly resources (at least four of which must be found in the Ashford Online Library) other than the textbook to support your claims. Cite your sources within the text of your paper and on the reference page. For information regarding APA, including samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center, located within the Learning Resources tab on the left navigation toolbar, in your online course. Writing the Final Paper The Final Paper: Must be ten to twelve double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Must include a title page with the following: Title of paper Student’s name Course name and number Instructor’s name Date submitted Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement. Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought. Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis. Must use at least six scholarly resources, including a minimum of four from the Ashford University Library. Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Robert, the sole proprietor of a consulting business

Maximizing Business Deductions


Robert, the sole proprietor of a consulting business, has gross receipts of $600,000 in 2012. Expenses paid by the business are:


Advertising                                                                 2,500

Employee Salaries                                                    150,000

Office Rent                                                                 24,000

Supplies                                                                      18,000

Taxes and licenses                                                      17,000

Travel (other than meals)                                             3,800

Meals and Entertainment                                             2,400

Utilities                                                                        3,800

Employee Health Insurance Premiums                                  6,600

Health insurance premiums for Robert                                               2,200


Robert purchased a new car for his business on May 15 at a cost of $28,000. He also purchased $50,000 of new 5-year equipment and $238,000 of used 7-year fixtures on August 1. Robert drove the new car 10,000 miles (8,000 for business and 2,000 personal miles).  He paid $200 for business-related parking and tolls. He also paid $1,000 for insurance and $1,200 for gasoline and oil for the new car. He would like to maximize his deduction.

Employment Discrimination Research

Employment discrimination law is about prohibiting or encouraging behaviors in the workplace regarding differences in people. It has evolved over the years significantly, and the passage of Title VII, the US. Civil Rights Act, has made more changes to how the US defines the right to work free from harassment and discrimination, than any other law, case, or regulation in the nation. This project has three parts. Part 1 asks you to answer eight questions about employment discrimination. Part 2 asks you to pick one US Supreme court case from a list, to discuss. Part 3 asks you to review pending legislation regarding employment discrimination, and provide a few details about one currently pending (i.e. not yet passed) bill in either your state, or the federal government. Remember, the focus of the project is on employment discrimination.

Project Part 1:

Answer each of the following 8 questions, in 1-2 paragraphs each. You can use your textbook, or other outside sources to answer these questions. Do not write a book – answer the questions succinctly.

What must a person who is claiming they were harassed in the workplace allege in order to first state a case with the EEOC for each of the following types of harassment: Sexual harassment – quid pro quo Sexual harassment – hostile environment Religious harassment Racial harassment Explain the difference between sexual harassment, gender discrimination, and sexual orientation discrimination, as those terms are used legally. How does GINA protect a person whose mother died of breast cancer from employment discrimination? Provide one example of a behavior that could be found to be both a hostile environment and quid pro quo forms of sexual harassment at the same time. Explain how a person could argue that this behavior at work was illegal. Give the main legal reason why every company should have a valid written policy against all forms of harassment (besides the fact it is the “right” thing to do.) Can an employer require that only females serve female customers and only males serve male customers? Explain your answer using legal terms. How many employees must an employer or company have working for it to be subject to: the ADA Pregnancy Discrimination Act Title VII IRCA GINA Assume you work for a company that has a sexual anti-harassment policy, but not a religious, sexual orientation, or racial anti-harassment policy. Write a one-two paragraph statement to your boss (the HR Director), as to why you believe it would make sense to revamp the policy to include other forms of harassment. Include one example of a real situation where a policy may have protected a company from liability or stopped harassment from happening. (You will find case examples on the EEOC website). Cite that case/situation in your memo to your boss. Provide the amount of damages/fines the company in your example case had to pay as a result of failing to protect an employee from discrimination. Project Part II. Employment Discrimination Cases.

Many court cases on employment discrimination have shaped, created, and changed the employment landscape. Some protect employees from discrimination, and many protect employers from liability. Settlements and trial court cases do not create legal precedent or changes in the law. However, appeals court cases, and especially the U.S. Supreme Court Cases, do change, shape, and create new law, when statutes are interpreted in binding ways. Pick ONE case from the following list. Read the case. Answer each of the FOUR questions following the list of cases and place them in your Project Part II. Be sure to identify WHICH of the cases you selected.

List of U.S. Supreme Court Cases: Vance v. Ball State University. University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center v. Nassar. Phillips v. Martin Marietta Corp. 400 U.S. 542 (1971). Espinoza v Farah Mfg. Co, 414 U.S. 86 (1973) Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services, 83 F. 3d 118

Questions for answering.

Explain briefly, the statute(s) (law or act) which was in question in your case, the facts of the case, and why the parties were in court. What was each party asking the court to do? What did the court decide in your case and what will be the results of that decision? (i.e. who won, and was the win final or did the court send the case back to the lower court system to re-decide an issue?) In what way did this case create, change, or shape the employment landscape for employers as a result of the decision made? Did this change help employers or employees the most? Explain. Do you agree with the decision in the case you referenced? In other words, do you think that employment law was made better and stronger, or weaker and less effective as a result of this case? Write at least one full paragraph that supports your opinion. Part 3. Legal Research into an Employment Law Pending Before Congress

Organizations such as the Society for Human Resource Management ( work hard to support, lobby against, or provide education to the public about laws that will affect workers and employers. These organizations significantly influence what laws pass. Savvy HR managers have SHRM on their desktops so they are familiar with the many changes being suggested at any time, as they could cost companies significant amounts of money if they are passed.

Each year, thousands of proposed laws are being discussed, debated, and either passed, ignored, or rejected in state legislators around the country, or in Congress. Find a proposed piece of legislation in the U.S. (or your state legislature) which interests you. This piece of legislation needs to regard employment law in some way (labor law, employment discrimination, ADA, PPACA, Title VII, GINA, etc.) Note that any bill that suggests changes to any current law will suffice, as well as a new law. Some examples you can use if you are interested are: the Fair Playing Field Act of 2012, the Religious Freedom Act of 2012, or a new bill regarding whether full-time employment under PPACA is 40 hours/week instead of 30 hours. (Since the time of writing this project, it is possible these examples of passed – be sure to check if you use any of them).

ADR and the Process of Negotiation

On May 1, 1995, the famed Boston rock and roll club Euphoria burned to the ground. Luckily, the fire began at 2:00 a.m. and no one was injured. The highly anticipated and sold out May 2, 1995, concert of the New York rock group Zephyr was cancelled by Jack Owens, the owner of Euphoria.

Owens received significant insurance payments following the fire that destroyed Euphoria. Owens also received and rejected numerous offers to rent space for the May 2, 1995 Zephyr concert.

A major dispute between Zephyr and Owens erupted when the May 2, 1995, concert was cancelled. This concert was the first in the “World Tour” of Zephyr, a rising alternative band that had its first hit in 1994 with its Gone Like the Wynd album. Owens refused to pay Zephyr its demand for full payment of the written contract performance fee in the amount of $55,000 for the cancelled concert. The contract provided for liquidated damages of $25,000 to Owens if Zephyr did not show but was silent on any cancellation contingency by Owens. In four years of work Zephyr had cancelled five concerts previously. Zephyr had played to a sold-out Euphoria audience once in 1994.

On May 7, 1995, Lynne Mann, attorney for Owens, contacted Zephyr and presented the group’s lawyer-agent, Sam Sharp, with a four-page legal memo that concluded that “there was no obligation of Owens to pay one cent to Zephyr.” The letter cited Massachusetts cases that had held that a contract lacking a cancellation provision could not be construed to provide cancellation damages and that performance had become impracticable. Mann visited Sharp’s hotel room unannounced, gave him the legal memo, and said “In spite of this we feel sorry for Zephyr and want to pay them for their trouble – $5,000.” Sharp’s reply was to bark “Holy _. You guys are in dreamland. You screw up our first gig – the world tour – and expect us to get nothing out of it. Get lost.” Sharp held open the door and Mann quickly left the room.

A few days later the band instructed Sharp “to file suit or negotiate with Owens to make the band whole.” The band members feel that their tour was set back badly at its start by Owens’ refusal to arrange an alternative Boston location for the concert. The tour’s end was designed to occur at the time of the release of Zephyr’s second album.

A few days later Mann called Sharp. She “apologized for leaving the hotel room so quickly.” She “offered to pay the Zephyr $15,000 to settle all claims relating to the cancellation of the concert.” Sharp’s reaction was to say “You’ve got to be kidding . . . . $15,000 is a drop in the bucket compared to what we’re going to get in court” and quickly hang up.

The next day Sharp filed a suit on behalf of Zephyr against Owens alleging breach of contract. Damages of $575,000 were alleged. Most of the damages were for lost profits over and above the concert performance fee. Mann then called to request a negotiation session with Sharp. She urged Sharp to “try to expand the pie and get beyond money in the solution of this problem.” They met later that week. Sharp began by urging Mann to “start the negotiation game.” Mann declined, saying “I’ve already made you an offer.” Sharp responded by saying “Alright, I’ll start, we want $575,000 representing lost profits from possible record sales from the Euphoria publicity and the base contract damages.” Mann responded with “Wow. You can’t be serious. The contract damages were only $55,000.” Sharp stated that “the Euphoria gig is traditionally important to any band and a real dealmaker for record companies and writers from Rolling Stone … O.K., we can take $400,000.” At this point Lynne Mann said, “I’m speechless with your unrealistic attitude” and was silent for a full one minute. When Sharp failed to respond, Lynne asserted that “maybe court is where we belong” and left the room.

factors that can be associated with the cause of violent crime

There are many factors that can be associated with the cause of violent crime. Research suggests that some of the factors include severe mental health abnormalities, children who are consistently exposed to violence at home, firearm availability, the independent subculture of violence, and the socialization process, just to name a few. In addition, it has also been found that when homicide occurs, there is often a preexisting relationship that is present. Some relationships include a romantic relationship, narcotic seller/narcotic buyer relationship, or a gang rivalry. Despite the understanding of the aforementioned, criminal justice professionals still have difficulty controlling homicides. Review Chapter 10 in your primary text, and watch the video Murder Capital USA Ganglands of Chicago, which discusses the high murder rates in Chicago and focuses on contributing factors (Siegel, 2015; Danzo1212, 2013). In your paper,

Critique a criminological theory that explains why homicides occur. Discuss ways to decrease and control homicides in the United States. Discuss some of the factors of focus of the various sociological schools of crime causation that explain why murder occurs. Your paper must

Be four to six double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Include a separate title page with the following: Title of paper Student’s name Course name and number Instructor’s name Date submitted Use at least five scholarly sources in addition to the course text and the article being evaluated. Document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Peace Officers Bill of Rights Guarantees

Content Philosophy Americans are captivated by sports events, where one team or athlete wins and the other team or athletes lose. A few managers view interaction with their subordinates in the same competitive way. They concede no ground, contest all intrusions, and concentrate on achieving total victory, even if it diminishes employee morale. Although competitiveness is an innate trait that is difficult to restrain, the subcommittee approached the content in a less confrontational way. It decided that it would recognize employee rights and prohibit management practices based on the following principles: 1. It would be a responsive statement. Personnel handbooks often address dozens of topics. The document focused on the principal issues that have been raised in POBR legislation. 2. Decisional law would be taken into account. If most courts or arbitrators had generally recognized an enforceable employee right or invalidated a management practice, the document embodied those holdings. Where courts have split on a right or practice, the subcommittee offered optional provisions or guiding commentary. An example is §10, the mandatory polygraph testing of employees, which has been struck down by courts in a few states, and upheld in many others. 3. It would focus on fundamentals. The objective of a disciplinary investigation is to gather facts in a nonbiased way. If the recognition of a right or the adoption of a practice is unlikelytoimpairortounreasonablydelaytheinvestigativeprocess,theunion’s position usually was accepted. An example was §5-C, allowing an employee to audiorecord an interview or to promptly provide him or her with an audio copy or transcript of the interview. 4. It would be reasonable and balanced. Good personnel practices foster professional behavior from management and employees. Harsh methods and arbitrary practices can undermine morale. The fact that no court had yet imposed a restriction on a management practice was not viewed as determinative. An example was §5-F, setting a reasonable time limit on the duration of an uninterrupted interview session. 5. It would recognize alternative ways of implementation. The subcommittee was 4 cognizant that rights can be established by statute, charter amendment, ordinance, personnel or civil service rules and through the collective bargaining process. [Note 6] 6. Civilians would be included within its purview. Many tasks that were traditionally performed by commissioned peace officers are now fulfilled by civilian employees. Community service officers may have the authority to issue traffic and ordinance citations. The director of training and heads of other support divisions could be unsworn. A retired or injured officer might continue to work as a reclassified civilian. The lines are blurred, and if protections are afforded to some and not others, morale is undermined and confusion in the disciplinary process can result, especially when the incident giving rise to an investigation involves both classes of employees. This approach differed from the usual POBR law. 7. It would cover both rights and responsibilities. Some rights are conferred on individuals by the state; others are agreed to by employees and management. Both parties have responsibilities to each other and to the communities they serve. Section 2, for example, imposed an affirmative duty to report misconduct and to cooperate in intraagency investigations. Rights and Responsibilities of Law Enforcement Personnel in Disciplinary Investigations IACP Subcommittee on Internal Affairs Legislation (1996) Part One – Basic Rights, Responsibilities and Procedures 1. Definitions. 2. Duty to Cooperate and to Report Misconduct. 3. Time and Place of a Formal Interview. 4. Statement of the Reasons for a Formal Interview; Identity of Complainants. 5. Conduct of Formal Interview Sessions. 6. Scientific and Financial Examinations. 7. Personnel Files: Access, Adverse Information and Dispositions. 8. Miscellaneous Provisions: A.Arbitration B. No Retribution C. Confidentiality D.Release of Photographs E. Waivers F. Immediate Obedience Required G.Criminal Charges H.Civil Claims 5 I. Tenure Part Two – Optional Rights and Procedures 9. Right to Consult an Attorney or Union Representative. 10. Polygraph Examinations. 11. Right to be a Candidate for Public Office. Prefatory Note Thisisaspecimendocument,andnota“Model.”Itisassumedthatthereare alternative policies and procedures that may be better suited for a particular agency or state. Method of Adoption The procedures which follow can be enabled in a variety of ways, including (a) a state statute,(b)a“homerule”ordinance,(c)acivilservicerule,(d)alabor-management “MemorandumofUnderstanding,”(e)provisions in a collectively bargained agreement, (f) inclusion in an agency handbook or employee manual, or (g) an Executive Order. The appropriate method of adoption depends on state law, historical labor practices and political considerations that may be unique to each jurisdiction. Method of Compilation This Statement is in two parts. The first covers those basic rights and responsibilities that (a) are generally accepted professional practices and/or (b) have been imposed by “mainstream”courtdecisions that have arisen in the course of due process appeals and litigation. The second part contains optional practices or procedures that are operative currently in some jurisdictions, but not others. They are treated separately because of their eristic nature. Part One – Basic Rights, Responsibilities and Procedures 1. Definitions A.“Agency”meansthedepartmentorunitofgovernmentforwhichanofficeror employee, as defined herein, provides occupational or professional services. B.“CriticalIncidentReport”meansawrittenreportrequiredtobecompletedand submitted by an officer to his or her superiors (or written at the request of his or her superiors) involving: a. the death or serious injury of an officer, prisoner or suspect; or b. the use of a firearm or impact weapon on a suspect, prisoner or other person by the reporting officer or by a fellow officer, or 6 c. the death or injury of a third person during the course of an arrest or while in pursuit of a fleeing suspect or prisoner, and d. such other events or incidents designated as critical by the agency that employs the reporting officer. Itincludesstandardizedformatreports(suchasanagency’s“useofforce”report)and nonstandardizednarrativereports(suchasan“incidentreport”). C.“FormalInterview”meansthequestioningorinterrogationofanofficeroremployee as part of a Formal Investigation. D.“FormalInvestigation”meanstheprocessofinvestigatingacomplaint or allegation of serious misconduct, when the inquiry is ordered by a superior or a management representative, and where the results might furnish the basis for disciplinary action against an officer or employee. E.“InformalInterview”meansameetingbetween an officer or employee and a superior for the purpose of learning facts or circumstances relating to an incident or event. It includesthemediationofacitizen’sorsupervisor’sminorcomplaint. F.“Officer”or“employee”meansanyperson,(a)who has been commissioned or certified as a peace officer, whether compensated or not, or (b) any compensated civilian employee of the agency that retains such peace officers, or (c) a civilian employee of the parent entity who is permanently assigned to an agency that retains police officers. “Officer”doesnotincludeprivatelyemployedspecialofficers.“Employee”doesnot include persons who are employed by private sector contractors that provide support services to an agency or its parent governmental entity. G.“SeriousMisconduct”meansanact,omissionorotherbehaviorwhichifproved, could result in (a) a disciplinary suspension of one or more days, or (b) a punitive interruption,loss,reduction,orrestrictionofanofficer’sprivileges,rights or promotional opportunities, or (c) an involuntary transfer, or (d) a demotion in rank, pay or status, or (e) other diminution of compensation, or (f) termination. Commentary 1. Application:California’sstatuteincludespolicechiefs,probationary police officers andcorrectionalofficersbutexcludestemporaryofficersandrecruits.Florida’sstatute includes full-time state and municipal law enforcement and correctional officers but not parttime officers or police chiefs. Deputy sheriffs are included within the procedural protections but lack tenure and can be terminated without cause. The Maryland statute is limited to officers with arrest powers and includes police chiefs and parttime officers. The Minnesota and Nevada statutes cover all licensed full or parttime peace officers. Virginia excludes chiefs of police and the Wisconsin act excludes state officers. 7 The Arizona Model Policy statesthat“everyfull-time permanent non-supervisory police employee has a property interest in continued employment which cannot be taken withoutdueprocessoflaw.”However,theproceduressetforthinthepolicyarenot restrictedandapplytoany“employee.” The Colorado Standards applytoall“peaceofficers.” These provisions apply to all peace officers, whether full or parttime, whether tenured or nontenured, whether paid officers or volunteers, and includes the chief of the agency. It includes court bailiffs and jailers who are peace officers. It excludes private sector persons who possess a special-police commission — such as store and hotel detectives, railroad special agents, bail bond enforcement agents, private process servers, etc. It also appliesto“civilian”employees,exceptthosewhoarepaidbyprivatecontractors. 2. Triggering Events: Informal interviews are outside the scope of these provisions, until such time as serious misconduct is suspected. Union leaders and their lawyers have long maintained that a compelled written report can be as intrusive as a formal interrogation.Anofficer’sresponsesinawrittenreportcanjeopardizehisorhercareer and expose him or her to civil liability in the same way as the answers to questions posed in a formal interview. Written reports are addressed in Section 9 of the document, as an optional right. 3. Included Penalties: These provisions follow court decisions that have recognized that there may be a significant penalty associated with non traditional disciplinary action, such as a transfer to an unpopular post or unit, the denial of a secondary employment permit, a prohibition against desirable overtime assignments or an involuntary shift changethatdisruptsanofficer’sfamilylife.Justastheexposuretodisciplinaryactionis a part of the professional life of law enforcement and correctional personnel, they ought to be subjected to adverse action only when basic due process has been fully accorded to them. 4.Thedefinitionofa“criticalincident”maybeomittedifOptionalSection9isnot included. 2. Duty to Report Misconduct and to Cooperate with Intra-agency Investigations. A. Every officer and employee has a duty to report promptly any and all information concerning any acts or events which constitute serious misconduct, or a violation of state or federal criminal laws, or a substantial conflict of interest, or a corrupt or fraudulent transaction or practice, or any other serious abuse of office, when committed (a) by any other officer or employee of his or her agency or its parent governmental entity, or (b) any person having business dealings with that agency or the parent entity, or (c) by any other person possessing peace officer powers [in this state]. The knowing failure of any officer or employee to report such acts or events shall be 8 cause for termination or such lesser sanctions that might be appropriately imposed. Unless otherwise directed, the information shall be given in written format to the chief executive of the agency, except that criminal matters may be referred directly to the appropriate prosecutor. An officer or employee who complies fully and promptly with the above reporting requirements shall not be subject to any disciplinary or other adverse personnel action, provided the allegations are reasonably believed to be true. B. Every officer and employee has a duty to cooperate fully with an internal investigation of misconduct, whether serious or minor, unless and until he or she becomes a suspect in a criminal investigation. Absent such a focus, every officer and employee must answer questions asked by a superior or investigator in a truthful and forthright manner, without equivocating or otherwise attempting to avoid disclosure of relevant information. Commentary “Seriousmisconduct”isdefined in Section 1. The other activities contained in 2-A are taken from N.Y. Executive Order No. 39 [Part IV-1] (1996) which is applicable to all Executive Branch officers and employees. They parallel a similar provision in the Arizona Model Policy [Part II-B] (1992). 3. Time and Place of a Formal Interview. Whenever an officer or employee is under investigation for serious misconduct, and is subjected to a formal interview at the request of management or a designated member of his agency, the interview will be conducted under the following conditions: A. It will be scheduled at a reasonable time, preferably when the officer or employee is on duty or immediately preceding or following his tour of duty, unless the seriousness of the inquiry is such that an immediate interview is desired. If the officer or employee is not on duty (or is on suspension), he or she shall be entitled to his usual compensation for call-back duty. B. The interview shall take place at (a) the usual duty station of the officer or employee, or (b) at the regular premises of the person in charge of the interview. Where the interview is to be conducted by personnel from two or more investigating agencies, it shall take place at the premises of one of the investigating parties. Unusual circumstances pertaining to an investigation will justify scheduling the interview at an appropriate time and place that is convenient to the investigating parties, such as when the incident giving rise to the inquiry involves officers from multiple jurisdictions. C.Management’sfailuretocomplywiththeforegoingprocedureswillnotexcusean officeroremployee’sfailuretoattendtheinterview,butmayformthebasisofa 9 legitimate grievance. Commentary The Arizona Model Policy prohibits home interviews. Colorado Standard §170.10 mandates the adoption of a written directive concerning (a) the place, duration, conduct, and documentation of IA interviews and (b) who is authorized to represent the accused officer. The Colorado Commentary prohibits threats, offensive language, and promises or rewards. It provides that officers are entitled to a copy of the audiotape or transcript. The Commentary also says: The interview should be conducted at a reasonable hour, preferably at a time when the peace officer is on duty, or during the normal waking hours for the peace officer, unless the seriousness of the investigation requires otherwise. If such interview does occur during off-duty time of the peace officer being interviewed, the peace officer should be compensated for such off-duty time in accordance with regular department procedures, and the peace officer shall not be released from employment for any work missed. 4. Statement of the Reasons for a Formal Interview; Identity of Complainants. A. An officer or employee shall be informed of the name and rank, title or position and agency of employment of all persons who participate in asking questions at a formal interview. B. An officer or employee who submits to a formal interview shall be informed : a. of the general nature of the inquiry; b. of the names and identities of any and all persons who have signed statements alleging misconduct by the concerned officer or employee, or alleging misconduct by another officer or person. The name of a complainant who refuses to make a public complaint, such as a confidential informant or an unrevealed undercover investigator, need not be released to the officer or employee, provided a superior informs the officer or employee that the complainant has requested anonymity. C. Superiors may question an officer or employee about the contents of a letter, telephone call or other communication made by an unknown person, but must, on request, furnish the officer or employee with a verbatim copy of the letter or a transcript of the telephone call or other communication. If an exact transcript was not kept, the officer shall be provided with a written synopsis of the allegations. Management may “sanitize”thecontents of the letter, call or communication by deleting those portions of the document that do not pertain to the current inquiry, or which allege misconduct by other persons not present at the formal interview. 10 Commentary Under subsection 4-B, management is not required to provide an accused officer or employee with a copy of a signed complaint and/or witness statement. The name(s) and identities of complainants must be revealed, if known, unless the complainant has requested anonymity or the complainant is an undercover investigator. Under subsection 4-C, if the complaint is made by an unknown person, the concerned officer or employee must be furnished a verbatim copy of the communication. A verbatim copy can be a transcription of the letter or other communication, rather than a photocopy, to prevent the accused officer or employee from recognizing the handwriting or typewritten style of the sender. 5. Conduct of Formal Interview Sessions. A. At a formal interview, on the request of an officer or employee being interviewed, no more than two persons shall ask questions during any segment of a interview, although the interview process may involve multiple segments. If more than two interviewers are physically present at the same time, the officer or employee may decline to reply. Apersonwhorecordsortranscribesaninterviewsessionisnotan“interviewer.” Management may authorize additional persons to simultaneously audit an interview via audio and/or video monitor devices placed elsewhere. B. Officers and employees who are interviewed in noncriminal matters shall be treated with dignity and respect. They must not be subjected to angry accusations, shouts, ridicule, unlawful threats or harassment. They shall not be improperlyoffereda“reward” for their responses. However, the persons conducting the interview may remind an officer or employee that he or she has a duty to answer pertinent, job-related questions and can be disciplined or terminated for a failure to do so. An offer of immunity from disciplinary action or from criminal prosecution is not a improper reward, provided the offer is in writing or the offer is audiotaped. C. Unless otherwise mutually agreed upon, no officer or employee shall be questioned for more than [50] minutes, without being given a rest break of at least [10] minutes. D. An officer or employee is entitled to (a) elaborate on a response, or to (b) clarify or explain an answer, or (c) to refute a negative implication which arises during the interview or arose at a previous session. E. If and when an inquiry is or becomes a criminal investigation, an officer or employee is entitled to remain silent and not answer incriminating questions until and unless he or she is advised that use immunity will apply. An officer or employee who is offered limited use immunity from criminal prosecution, by those conducting the 11 interview, shall answer fully and truthfully all questions posed at that interview, when required to do so. Even in the absence of an admonition concerning limited immunity, use immunity presumptively attaches by operation of law, whenever an officer or employee is compelled to be a witness against oneself in a criminal investigation. F. Unless waived by the parties, there shall be a verbatim record made of all formal interviews. The record may be by videotape, audio tape or stenotype transcription by [an independent court reporter]. If the interview is being conducted by the agency that employs the officer or employee being interviewed, the officer or employee is entitled to make his own audio recording of the proceedings, unless superiors arrange for two simultaneous recordings to be made and to offer one copy for the officer. Commentary 1. Courts have annulled the punishment given officers who have been subjected to abusive internal interrogations. See Oddsen v. Board of Fire & Police Cmsnrs., 321 N.W.2d 161 (Wis. 1982). Moreover, when an abusive interview has taken place, judges may assume erroneously that management was politically motivated, and the court may look for a technical reason to set aside all sanctions. Just as important, superior officers and internal investigators should reflect the same professional attitudes and demeanor that is required of their subordinates. 2. The Arizona Model Policy requires that an interview be conducted in a professional manner and prohibits ridicule, mockery or outrageous conduct. The Colorado Standard prohibits threats, harassment or a promise of reward. 3. The Arizona Model Policy has a 90 minute interrogation period; because most people are used to a 50 minute classroom period, the lower duration was selected. The proposedfederalversionrequiresa“reasonableperiod”fortheinterviewandrestbreaks. Because“reasonable”issubjecttowideinterpretation,thisdocumentoptsforafinite maximum of 50 minutes. 4. Subsection 5E restates the principles of law devolving from Garrity v. New Jersey, 385 U.S. 493, 87 S.Ct. 616 (1967) ; Gardner v. Broderick, 392 U.S. 273, 88 S.Ct. 1913 < > (1968); and Unif. Sanit. v. Cmsnr., 392 U.S. 280, 88 S.Ct. 1917 (1968). The presumptive nature of the immunity was recognized in Confederation of Police v. Conlisk, 489 F.2d 891/at 895 (7th Cir. 1974) and subsequent cases pertaining to the use of compelled statements. The Massachusetts Supreme Court has held that public employees who are interrogated in a disciplinary investigation are entitled to full and final immunity from prosecution. See Carney v. Springfield, 403 Mass. 604, 532 N.E.2d 631 (1988), and two companioncases.Noothercourtshaveadoptedtheviewthat“transactionalimmunity” applies. The U.S. Supreme Court favors the limited version; see Zicarelli v. State 12 Investigating Cmsn., 406 U.S. 472, 92 S.Ct. 1921 (1972). 5. The Arizona Model Policy and the Colorado Standard require an officer to pay for the cost of a transcript. He is permitted to tape the interview himself so long as the process is not disruptive. 6. Scientific and Financial Examinations. A. An officer or employee may be required to be photographed or videotaped or participate in a lineup for the purposes of identification by witnesses or complainants. B. Absent valid medical or religious reasons, an officer or employee may be required to submit to a medical, laboratory or other scientific examination at the sole expense of the agency. Unless restricted by law, an officer or employee may be required to disclose all drugs and medication he or she has taken. An officer or employee may volunteer to take a polygraph examination, but may not be required to do so. C. When the allegation involves unlawful financial transactions or the receipt of funds obtained by illegal means, a superior or management representative may issue a written order to the officer or employee directing him or her, generally or specifically, to prepare a list of assets and liabilities, and to obtain and disclose his or her bank and other financial statements and to explain all significant entries. Commentary 1. Colorado Standard §170.13requiresagenciestospecifywhen“medicalor laboratoryexaminationsareadministered.”InsomecasestheAmericanswith Disabilities Act, 42 U.S. Code §12101-17 (1990) may restrict or prohibit an employer from requiring an employee to disclose what prescriptive drugs he has taken. See Roe v. Cheyenne M.C.R., 920 F.Supp. 1153 (D.Colo. 1996). 2. A financial disclosure requirement is part of the Arizona Model Policy. The fourth part of Colorado Standard §170.13isoptionalandstatesthat“anemployeemaybe required to submit financial disclosurestatements.”TheCommentarylimitsthispower toinvestigationswherethedatais“materialtoaparticularinternalaffairsinvestigation.” Designated I.R.S. employees and persons with access to classified information are required to complete generalized federal disclosure forms. See Form SF-85P, upheld in N.T.E.U. v. Dept. Treasury, 25 F.3d 237 (1994) and Executive Order 12968, published at [1995] (2) U.S. Code Cong. & Ad. News (West) B80-B91 (2 Aug.1995). The requirement may be extended lawfully to state and local law enforcement personnel; see Barry v. City of N.Y., 712 F.2d 1554 (2d Cir. 1983), cert. den. 464 U.S. 1017. 3. As compiled, this Section 6 allows voluntary, and prohibits mandatory, polygraph examinations. Optional Section 10 would make them obligatory. If Sec. 10 is 13 incorporated into Sec. 6, the last sentence of Subsection B should be deleted. What is now in Sec. 10 would then follow. 7. Personnel Files: Access, Adverse Information and Dispositions. A. While in the continuous physical presence of a predesignated monitor, an officer or employee may view the contents of his or her personnel file during reasonable business hours. No items shall be removed from the file, except for photocopying purposes. B. The progress of an internal investigation or inquiry shall be kept in one or more confidential case files. No materials contained in or intended for investigative case files shallbeputinanofficer’soremployee’spersonnelfile,untiltheinternalinquiry concerning that person has concluded. No other item of a negative or disparaging nature shall be put in an officer or employee’spersonnelfile,withoutpromptlyadvisingtheaffectedperson.Anofficeror employee can submit a written response or letter of explanation concerning the contents of the document objected to. Such responses or letters will be kept in the personnel file as long as the adverse material is included. C. An officer or employee will be notified promptly of the disposition of allegations made against him or her. If an investigation will continue for the purpose of scrutinizing others, an officer or employee can be ordered to keep confidential those findings pertaining to him or her, for the duration of the inquiry. A closed investigation may be reopened when newly discovered evidence so warrants. The agency need not inform those officers and employees who were notified of the prior disposition, until such time as they are re-interviewed or otherwise are involved in the reopened investigation. Commentary Insections“O”and“Q,”theArizonaModel Policy allows an officer to access his own files, provides for giving notice of IAD dispositions, and permits him to insert a statement or comment in rebuttal to any adverse or derogatory information. Colorado has adopted an optional Standard (§171.2) which regulates the inspection of apeaceofficer’sownpersonnelfile.TheCommentarytothestandardallowshimorher “areasonableperiodoftimewithinwhichtofileawritten response to any adverse comment…[which]shouldbeattachedto…theadversecomment.”OptionalStandard §170.11coversnotificationofresults;theCommentaryspecifies“withinareasonable time.” 8. Miscellaneous Provisions. A. Arbitration: An officer or employee who is a member of a recognized or certified 14 bargaining unit shall use the grievance processes established by the enabling law and the employment agreement conferring those privileges. If the employment agreement includes final and bindingarbitration,theofficeroremployee’srighttojudiciallylitigate any complaints or grievances is waived irrevocably in favor of the grievance process. If there is no bargaining agreement or it does not provide for alternative dispute resolution, an officer or employee has the right to bring a civil suit against his employing entity seeking injunctive relief, and where appropriate, an award of damages for injuries suffered. B. No Retribution: No adverse action shall be taken against an officer or employee for the exercise of his or her civil and constitutional rights, provided the officer or employee’sactionsaretakeninareasonable,goodfaithmanner.Neithermanagement nor an officer or employee shall knowingly engage in an abuse of legal procedures or maintain vexatious litigation. C. Confidentiality: No management representative, superior or other officer or employee, who has knowledge of a complaint of misconduct by another officer or employee, shall publicly release the contents of (a) that complaint, or (b) any statements made in a formal interview until (a) the complaint or statements become a public record or (b) the investigation relating to the concerned officer or employee has been concluded and the officer or employee has been notified of the disposition. This subsection does not limitanaccusedofficeroremployee’srighttogainaccesstoinformationheisotherwise allowed to receive. D. Release of Photographs: Management shall not release to the news media a photograph or the home address of an officer or employee who is accused of misconduct, unless he or she has been formally charged with a criminal offense. E. Waivers: An officer or employee may irrevocably or conditionally waive some or all rights, privileges and protections accorded him or her (a) under any part of these provisions, or (b) set forth in any statute or other law, or (c) contained in a bargaining agreementor“MemorandumofUnderstanding,”ifany.Thewaivershallbeinwriting, unless made in the course of a recorded formal interview. F. Immediate Obedience Required: The rights, privileges and protections accorded an officer or employee herein shall be enforced as set forth in Subsection 8-A above. An officer or employee does not have a legal right to refuse to cooperate in an internal investigation or to participate in an interview, even if management has failed to recognize orprovidethoserights,privilegesandprotections;theofficeroremployeemust“obey now”and“grieveorcomplainlater.” However, admissions or confessions obtained during the course of any interview not conducted substantially in accordance with these provisions may not be used by management in any subsequent disciplinary action, except for the limited purpose of impeachingtheofficeroremployee’scredibilityfortruthfulness,shouldheorshe 15 subsequently testify at variance with those admissions or confessions. G. Criminal Charges: In the event an officer or employee is in custody or is facing criminal charges, he or she shall have all the constitutional and civil rights accorded other defendants. None of the enumerated rights, privileges and protections provided herein shall apply to a parallel criminal investigation or prosecution, unless elsewhere provided by law. H. Civil Claims: Nothing herein shall limit the right of an officer or employee to bring a civil claim or lawsuit for damages against any private citizen or private entity for the physical injuries, financial losses or mental suffering that was negligently or intentionally inflicted on the officer or employee as an individual, or while acting in his or her official capacity. I. Tenure: Nothing herein shall confer upon an officer or employee (a) tenure or a “propertyright”toone’sjoborposition,or(b)anexpectationofcontinuedemployment. Tenure depends exclusively on any applicable laws, rules, policies and contractual rights that might arise independent of these provisions. Commentary 1. Recently the U.S. Supreme Court has enforced arbitration agreements which replace the right to sue by all signatories. See Gilmer v. Interstate, 500 U.S. 20, 111 S.Ct. 1647 (1991) . Lower courts have enforced arbitration clauses contained in collectively bargained agreements, even if the concerned employee did not waive his right to sue. See Austin v. Owens-Brockway, 78 F.3d 875 (4th Cir. 1996), involving ADA statutory claims. While many police chiefs complain that arbitrators are too lenient in imposing punishment for misconduct, many employers would prefer to arbitrate claims of race, origin, gender or handicap discrimination and allegations of sexual harassment. 2.Anofficer’sreputationisruinedquicklyandsometimes irreparably when he is accused of brutality, corruption or sexual misconduct. A limited confidentiality clause protects an officer or employee in those frequently-encountered cases where the complaint is completely unfounded or the accuser drops the allegations. Similarly an officer or employee must be formally charged with a criminal offense before the agency can release his or her photo to the media. 3. Subsection 8-F reiterates the well-recognized rule than an officer or employee must “obeynow”and“grievelater.”Conversely,admissionsandconfessionsobtainedinan interview that is not conducted substantially in accordance with these provisions may not be used as evidence of guilt in a disciplinary hearing, except to contradict a subsequent denial or a fabricated excuse offered at that hearing. 16 Part Two – Optional Rights and Procedures 9. Right to Consult an Attorney or Union Representative. A. At a formal interview, an officer or employee is entitled to the assistance of an attorney or a representative of his or her union (or association) if any. The interview shall be delayed, not more than [three] business days while the officer or employee obtains professional assistance. A formal interview is a fact-finding inquiry and not an adversary proceeding. An attorney or other representative shall not be allowed to formally question his client, or to call or cross-examine other witnesses, or to introduce evidence favorable to his client. An attorney or other representative is entitled to ask his client to (a) elaborate on a response, or to (b) clarify or explain an answer, or (c) to refute a negative implication which arises during the interview or at a previous session. While an attorney or representative can object to a question, if he advises his client to refuse to answer, the officer or employee is subject to termination or other disciplinary action for such refusal, even if the allegations against the officer or employee are without substance. B. Unless serious misconduct is suspected, an officer or employee is not entitled to the assistance of an attorney or representative of his or her union (or association) at an informal interview. C. When directed or otherwise required to complete a critical incident report (as defined herein), an officer or employee is entitled to the assistance of an attorney or representative of his or her union (or association) if any. The report may be delayed, for up to [three] business days while the officer or employee obtains professional assistance. D. Notwithstanding the preceding paragraphs, for an appropriate stated reason, management may require an officer or employee to participate promptly in a brief, offthe-record interview, for the purpose of learning certain basic or preliminary information. No statements or admissions made by an officer or employee at an off-the-record interview may be used against him or her for any purpose whatsoever, and no transcription or audio recording shall be made during such interview. Appropriate reasons shall include, but are not limited to (a) actual or anticipated requests by the news media for information, or (b) the prevention of a potential crime or violent act, or (c) the flight or concealment of a criminal suspect, or (d) the loss or dissipation of evidence in a criminal or civil investigation or (e) other exigent circumstance(s). Nothing herein shall prevent management, during a subsequent and properly constituted formal interview, from repeating any questions asked in the course of a prior off-the-record interview, except that no reference shall be made to the responses given to any questions in the course of the off-the-record interview. 17 Commentary 1. In many states, legal counsel is entitled to attend disciplinary interviews of officers and employees they represent. Florida and Maryland police chiefs have adjusted to this right since 1975. The Maryland statute requires the attempted interrogation of a police officer to be suspended for up to ten days to allowhimtoemploy“counseloranyother responsiblerepresentative.” Also in 1975, the U.S. Supreme Court concluded that §7 of the National Labor Relations Act [29 U.S. Code §157] requires covered private employers to permit an employee’s“representative”tobepresentduringaninvestigativeinterview.N.L.R.B. v. Weingarten, 420 U.S. 251, 95 S.Ct. 972 (1975) . As of that year, 33 states had public employee-relations laws which were identical or similar to §7. Of those states, only West Virginia declined to follow Weingarten. However, in right-to-work states, a police officer does not have a legally protected right to the presence of counsel (or union representative) at a disciplinary interview. The Sixth Amendment [Right to Counsel] does not apply to disciplinary proceedings; L.A. Police Prot. League v. Gates, 579 F.Supp. 36 (C.D.Cal. 1984). Moreover,aninternalaffairsinterviewisnonadjudicatory.Since“nopossibilityof sanctions exists at thatpoint,”saidonecourt,“…thedueprocessclauseoftheFourteenth AmendmentprovidesnorighttocounselattheIADinterview.”Wilson v. Swing, 463 F.Supp. 555 (M.D.N.C. 1978), relying on Haines v. Askew,368F.Supp.369,aff’d94 S.Ct. 2596 (1974). The Arizona Model Policy issilentonthe“right”ofanaccusedofficerto representation during a formal interview. Colorado adopted as part of Standard §170.10 optional language requiring a written directive on who shall be authorized to represent peace officers who are interviewed. The Commentary to the optional provision states: Upon the filing of a formal written statement of charges, or whenever an interview focuses on matters which are likely to result in punitive action against any peace officer, that officer, at his request, should have the right to be represented by a representative of his choice to include legal counsel who may be present at all times during such interview. The Commentary to the Standard continues, and cautions that: This section should not apply to any interview of a peace officer in the normal course of duty, counseling, instruction, or informal verbal admonishment by, or other routine or unplanned contract [Sic] with, a supervisor or any other peace officer, not should this section apply to an investigation concerned solely and directly with alleged criminal activities. 18 2.Acting“undertheadviceofcounsel”isnodefensetoanofficerwhowillfully refuses to answer a question which is narrowly related and specifically directed to his employment or fitness for service. The refusal is made at the peril of an employee, although he might be able to collaterally challenge the question by an emergency civil action, as was done in Buege v. Lee, 372 N.E.2d 427 (Ill.App. 1978). 3.“CriticalIncidentReports”aredefinedinSection1.Somelawenforcement agencies have allowed an officer or employee to consult with an attorney before completing a use of force report. This subsection can be omitted, as an option within an option. A California appellate court has recognized that the assistance of counsel when completing critical incident reports is an important right, and if an agency has a past practice of allowing this, they must continue to do so during the life of a valid bargaining agreement or Memorandum of Understanding. The three-judge panel concluded also that the desire for an immediate report was not a managerial prerogative, and there was no public safety mandate which would impair or excuse the past practice. See Long Beach P.O.A. v. City of L.B., 156 Cal.App.3d 996 [at 1010-11], 203 Cal.Rptr. 494 (1984). A federal District Court issued a similarly worded opinion in Watson v. Co. of Riverside, 976 F. Supp. 951, 1997 U.S. Dist. Lexis 13797 (C.D.Cal.). Also, a Michigan arbitrator extended Weingarten to a written report that was requested by a police supervisor. Lansing (City of) and Capitol City Post 141, 106 LA (BNA) 761 (Ellmann, 1996). 4. Police chiefs and sheriffs are well-aware that the first media reports concerning an officer-involved shooting or other critical incident can generate irreversible public opinion. Subsection 9- Dallowsanimmediate“off-the-record”interviewforthepurpose of formulating a media response. 10. Polygraph Examinations. When consistent with (a) federal and state law and (b) any enforceable employment agreements, an officer or employee may be required to submit to a polygraph examination. The results are to be kept semi-confidential; they may be considered for non- evidentiary investigative purposes by management and internal investigators. The results shall not be made public without the consent of the person tested, and shall not be disclosed to an arbitrator, or a member of a disciplinary hearing panel, or a member of a duly constituted employment review board, or to any other disinterested person(s) who may be charged with the responsibility of adjudicating guilt on the basis of legally admissible evidence. Commentary 19 By statute or court decisions, compelled polygraph examinations are illegal in a few states. In other jurisdictions they are prohibited under existing collective bargaining agreements. The wording in this provision follows the Arizona Model Policy on this issue. Colorado Standard §1.714 is optional and limits polygraph examinations to those officers who consent to be tested. Colorado applicants and probationary officers are exempted and may be tested as part of the hiring process. In this document, an agency may use the polygraph to screen applicants, until they are appointed an officer or hired as an employee. 11. Right to be a Candidate for Public Office. A. Subject to any provisions or limitations of federal, state and local laws, an officer or employee is entitled to be a candidate for public office. If the office sought is (a) one within the parent government-entity of the employing agency, or (b) there is a statutory or common law conflict between the elected office sought and the agency position currently held, the officer or employee shall take a special, unpaid leave of absence while serving as an elected official. No agency benefits, including seniority rights, shall accrue while on special leave. When the term of elected office has been served or otherwise vacated, the person on leave shall, if otherwise qualified, be eligible for reinstatement with the agency of prior employment. However, the person returning from special leave shall be reinstated at the appropriate rank or position that he or she would be entitled to hold, based on the seniority rights held at the time the special leave of absence commenced. “Otherwisequalified”includesanygenerallyapplicable,job-related, physical, mental, educational or legal qualifications, including the completion of any omitted mandatory training or certifications. This means that an officer, who has been absent for a long period, might have to (a) pass a preservice physical exam and (b) receive extensive training before he is eligible for recertification and reinstatement. B. The above right shall not apply if the leave period is for more than [four] consecutive years. No agency is required to reinstate an officeholder if he or she does not apply for reinstatement within [thirty] days before or after leaving office. Commentary This subject was included as an optional section because it was one of the nine topics included by the National Association of Police Organizations on its Internet website. The rights of returning workers may be covered by (a) civil service rules or (b) is addressed specifically in a bargaining agreement or (c) may be a recognized past practice 20 enforceable under the labor agreement. The intent of this section is to prevent a person who returns, from a term as an elected official, from displacing a person who has accumulated greater seniority rights.

Criminal Justice Framework


This paper will be assessing the past, present, and future trends of the adjustments segment. It will likewise be examining the budgetary and administrative effect that it has on future trends including law authorization and the courts framework. The criminal justice framework will dependably be a noteworthy piece of social request.

Crime has no ontological reality; it is a “myth” of regular life. The defiance of any basic nature of which to convincingly characterize an occasion as crime is demonstrated by the mixed bag of crimes; burglary, charge card extortion, medication hawking, assault, insider exchanging, prostitution, plural marriage and endeavoured suicide to give some examples. They ought to involve discipline in the perfect circumstance. These circumstances can and do occur in amazingly different conditions and for clashing reasons. This stochastic variable makes it hard for the criminal justice framework to be foul confirmation and have a “perceived measuring standard” of crime to a level that fuses the aggregate viewpoint of different social gatherings (Digital Films, 2012). Any activity against the expression of God, the laws of a nation or one planned to cause damage and hardship to an individual or a general public is characterized as crime (Danny Dorling et al, 2005).



Two parameters decided general society’s impression of crime by and large; the most reported crimes in the standard media and the in all likelihood crimes they experience in their everyday lives. Most of the interviewees are more slanted to see a criminal in the terms of a “firearm – toting road criminal” not as a “perfectly dressed divider road investor”. Time and absence of information protects general society in terms of salaried, corporate and state supported crimes, which are more advanced and have much more extensive effect. As indicated by the Jones and Bartlett, a Gallup survey of 2009 discovered fifty percent of the respondents accepted road crimes, for example, theft, assault, homicide, medication hawking, attacks as the prompt genuine crimes they stress over most. Spending on security frameworks has been evaluated to be an upwards of ninety billion dollars and is regularly expanding (Jones and Bartlett Learning, 2011).

Crime is a mark of social collaborations. At the point when individuals cooperate, we defy occasions and through a methodology of comprehension, we take in the reasons and outcomes of enjoying certain human occasions. These occasions have uncommon qualities that stamp them for unique distinguish mint in the general public as crime. They cause unfriendly mischief and hardship to the general public all in all and stopped by burden of brutal punishments and withdrawal from satisfaction in certain societal freedoms, the idea of crime and discipline, the foundation of the advanced criminal justice framework (Morrison, 2005).

There exists an open misinterpretation that crime rates are higher among African American and Latino guys than the genuine real crime measurements on the ground authenticate. The media sustains this by depicting them as the guilty parties and the victimized person as white, and a ‘power of great’ in TV projects and crime stories despite the fact that most crimes include wrongdoer and casualty of the same race. A study by Los Angeles Times found that eighty percent of crime victimized people in LA were Latino or African American, homicides including a white exploited person emphasized all the more unmistakably in the news. The media reliably offers grub to the generalizations of racial profiling. This has prompted the misinterpretation by whites that they are much more secure around whites than African Americans or Latinos despite the fact that different whites perpetrate seventy-five percent of crimes against whites. In situations where the personality of a criminal was in uncertainty, seventy percent of white exploited people distinguished their guilty party as African American.

General society convictions about crime once in a while disregard the unpredictability of crime. People in general are more worried about road crimes than cubicle or corporate crimes, which are more destructive and cost more. The general public sees the discipline of a road criminal all the more as a vindication to a direct danger postured by the activities of his cooperation’s and sees this as more satisfying than pursuing the billions lost in cushy and corporate crime, which includes establishments instead of a solitary arrangement of people. Society sees crime as any human cooperation that tears the fabric of the general public. The media and the legislators have a tendency to “overdramatize” and put more accentuation on road crime, the savage nature, the racial generalizations and its consistency. The portrayal of crime shifts from area to locale however the shape sticks with it. Crime is anything that stances threat to the wellbeing and prosperity of people in general.

The world’s pioneer in detainment is the United States. Prisons and penitentiaries work around two rationalities of discipline versus restoration. The previous tend was isolation with no sympathy toward detainee recovery or any sympathy toward the prosperity of the prisoners. The majority of the increment has originated from the progressions in sentencing laws and approaches, however not in the wrongdoing rates. These trends have stemmed in jail congestion and money related weights on states to oblige a quick expanding corrective framework. The war on medications sentencing approaches brought about an extreme increment in imprisonment for medication offenses. There was additionally the “Three Strikes and you Out” laws. Serious sentencing laws, for example, compulsory essentials are in charge of wrongdoers to stay in prisons for a more extended times of time, likewise high recidivism rates. Lady in Federal and State prisons that have been detained for medication offenses has expanded. The ladies’ have histories of huge histories of physical, sexual ill-use, HIV, and substance ill-use. Despite the fact that fierce wrongdoing has been descending, the detainees that are serving life sentences keeps on growing (Carson & Sabol, 2012).

With the jail populaces expanding the new motivation is group adjustments. Over the previous decade the development of wrongdoer populaces has delivered changes in the way of discipline, which has an expanding request on the remedial order to create group based assents (Carson & Sabol, 2012). Option sentencing/group amendments is for peaceful criminals to have the chance to stay in the group and work. The judge can give a suspended sentences as well as probation, this is the point at which the litigant’s sentence is suspended penitentiary or jail time is put on hold. The respondent must agree to specific commitments of the suspended sentence or the judge can arrange the litigant to serve the first sentence. Some group rectifications projects are the work discharge programs, electronic observing/house capture. At the point when a judge sentences a guilty party to probation they must comply with all laws, report frequently to the probation office, no liquor or medication utilize just to give some examples. In the event that a man is gotten DUI, one of the option sentences can be is that the guilty party must introduce a Breathalyzer gadget in their auto, or they need to give addresses or go to addresses on the perils of liquor utilize and do weekend penitentiary time.

Jail security goes cutting edge, Prisons are assembled in a panoptic on plan. The jail incorporates a focal control room that furnishes the work force with a 360 degree perspective of prisoners. The new reconnaissance cams that screen prisoners are vastly improved than the used to be. These cams are shot safe and you can hit it with a sledge hammer. Observation makes jail more secure for prisoners and prison guards. New innovation in prisons are utilizing radio recurrence ID following. The detainees wear an electronic arm ornament that tracks his or her development all through the jail. On the off chance that a prisoner enters a restricted territory and is wearing an electronic arm ornament an alert will sound, it is additionally simpler to tally the detainees. This electronic arm ornament can give information on detainee’s development, so if there is a surprising measure of individuals setting off to one region it can alarm the staff. This information can be put away and utilized later to pinpoint who was available at a certain time and place particularly when researching an occasion. Biometric is an alternate propelled following instruments this sweeps the prisoners iris or fingerprints. Despite the fact that if there is a great deal of prisoners the expense could be high utilizing the biometric framework. A few prisons are utilizing electronic sound/feature innovation, video chatting and videoconferencing which permit detainees to show up in court remotely.

Budgetary and administrative effects that future trends will probably have on revisions: In this nation jail organization has changed the superintendent was the boss twenty five years back in the endeavour to attain to reorganization, disengagement, diligent work and contrition. The director of prisons today must oversee troublesome staff framework, packing foundations and cutting edge progresses in a viewpoint of expanded open and political examination. There are numerous difficulties of today with the expanding number of individuals entering prisons and correctional facilities. With the expanded utilization of illegalization of illegal medications, and privatizations of prisons. The prisons and the framework are much bigger today than they were twenty five years prior, there topping off with uneven number of minority detainees transcendently dark and Hispanic prisoners. In numerous locales jail packs have appeared with force and impact and is testing jail organizations the capacity to control jail environment (Riverland, 1999). Again expanded jail populaces, the real driver over the countries was an increment in law authorization regard for illegal medications particularly split cocaine, additionally expanded was the punishments for trafficking, and more sentences for fierce and sex wrongdoers. Not just does this support in the congestion of the prisons additionally to the budgetary and administrative effect and that is HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and hepatitis. The executives of prisons need to expect obligation regarding the recognizable proof, treatment, counteractive action and keep control of these illnesses in jail and correctional facilities (Riverland, 1999).

In the 70s and the 80s the courts assumed control as the real direction in jail organization. In the 90s the strategy creators assumed control from the courts. Jail overseer today arecantered around more extensive approach issues. The courts inclusion in prisons had a noteworthy impact on the jail organization in actuality and in observation. This activity remedied some genuine ill-uses and enhance the aggregate operations of prisons. It additionally constrained jail organization to meet sacred bits yet was extraordinarily affected and upgraded polished methodology at all levels of jail organization. The movement from a verbal to a composed approach and to a methodology situation improved the polished skill of amendments at all levels.

Electronic checking and its belongings, 5,034 medium and high hazard guilty parties. At that point there were the guilty parties that were not put on electronic observing 266,991. This was more than a six year period and the subjective information gathered through up close and personal meetings. It incorporated 105 guilty parties 36 regulating officers, and 20 overseers from fourteen areas in Florida. This shows that the quantitative examination the electronic checking lessens wrongdoer’s danger of disappointment by 31 percent and that worldwide situating framework observing results in 6 percent less supervision disappointments (Bales, Mann, Blomberg, Gaes, Barrick Dhungana, &Mcmanus, 2010).

In a late NIJ supported symposium, a few specialists offered their perspectives of what Criminal justice would look like in 2040. (Ritter, 2006) The specialists were Bryan J. Vila, a previous head of the NIJ’s Crime Control and Prevention Research Division; Christopher E. Stone, a teacher of practice of criminal justice at Harvard, and David Weisburd, educator of criminology at the University of Maryland. (Schmalleger, 2011) Vila said that he accepted that the future wrongdoing warriors will need to comprehend what he calls the co advancement of wrongdoing commission and wrongdoing battling. (Ritter, 2006) Technological advances will have a significant impact on wrongdoing battling, as per Vila. (Schmalleger, 2011). Improvements in reconnaissance, biometrics, DNA investigation and radio recurrence will have an incredible impact on wrongdoing battling. As indicated by Vila, the future will acquire upgrades frameworks that will permit authorities to talk electronically to each other in instances of crises and different circumstances that oblige the need. (Ritter, 2006). He has the conviction that the associations between the nationals and offices will prompt a decline in criminal open doors. (Schmalleger, 2011).

DNA profiling or DNA fingerprinting makes utilization of the human DNA for purposes of distinguishing proof. The DNA is found in individuals’ blood, spit, skin tissue, hair, bone and semen. The Justice Department takes note of that DNA confirmation is assuming a bigger part than at any other time in recent memory before in criminal cases all through the nation. This has been utilized to convict criminals as well as to permit the ones detained to be excused of unlawful acts they didn’t carry out yet were indicted. ( Through the years there have been numerous databases that have been produced to profile cases. This helps authorities discover a profile for a criminal that has been fingerprinted. The capacity to dissect DNA is getting to be more pervasive throughout the years. The capacity to have the capacity to confirm DNA relativity to a case in a timelier way will make for speedier conviction.

Some terrorist organizations are trying to get weapons of mass obliteration including conceivable concoction, natural radiological and atomic dangers. (Schmalleger, 2011). PC information robbery, and also endeavours to accumulate ordered information from the legislature’s PCs is extremely normal. There are various viral PC worms that terrorists endeavour to utilize attempting to close down government frameworks and military frameworks. (Schmalleger, 2011). There are better approaches for making weapons that are turned out to be harder to distinguish. It is getting to be simpler for criminals to get around the obstructions that we have now, and as time passes by it appears that there are dependably changes being made. It appears that the criminals are dependably one stage in front of the law implementation.

Recent Trends

The most recent innovation has moulded a complete new class for the different phases of crime. Police must utilize what is accessible with the innovation of today to proceed at the front line of potential criminals. Innovation has improved the capacity to perceive and take into guardianship people blameworthy of perpetrating crimes. Late trends, for example, correspondence methods have immensely expanded the cooperation identifying with law requirement and society.

There are a few improved gadgets that are utilized for the wellbeing of groups which are the Amber Alert and the Adam Walsh Act’s. These are strategies that each state partakes in the United States. These approaches make accessible to society the high need of information concerning tyke abducting. These strategies consider groups to draw together and help police in settling kid kidnappings. In spite of the fact that, criminals may advantage from innovation by utilizing it for criminal increase; law requirement likewise profit from the most recent innovation. DNA is an innovation that has built up a noteworthy effect on the perspective of the criminal justice framework. With DNA tests of a singular’s unique mark’s can be lifted from a crime scene. The achievement of DNA permits a man to be perceived through body liquid, hair, and finger impression tests to have the capacity to fathom a crime (Smith, 2004). DNA tests recognize associates yet one with the more constructive parts of DNA is demonstrating a man guiltless when he or she has been dishonestly detained. Contemporary issues are issues that have confronted the criminal justice framework.

Contemporary Issues

There are numerous contemporary issues confronting the criminal justice framework and effect has brought on issues, for example, with sentencing, courts, and rectifications. The congestion of prisons and more jail sentences are specifically identified with the “Three Strikes and You’re Out” laws (Muraskin& Roberts, 2009). Similar to the absence of restoration and re-entry preparing. There are hindrances that people must face when leaving jail and reappearing the overall population. These boundaries incorporate social, mental, and legitimate obstructions (Muraskin& Roberts, 2009). To totally comprehend what is required for detainees to reappear society and be fruitful, a gander at the past, present, and future of re-entry projects are required. The issues confronting sexual orientation separation in the middle of men and ladies; break even with security is obliged to dispose of any sex segregation.

Estimation of the Criminal Justice System

The estimation of the criminal justice framework in changing society is to present suggestions for ascending above injustice in the United States (Robinson, 2009). The criminal justice framework is to be fair-minded and diminish crime. Thusly, the criminal justice framework must change as society changes and keep on passing approaches when expected to battle new innovative crime. There must be a criminal justice set up to keep on being a feature of society that verifies justice is served, crime controlled, and break even with treatment to everybody.


What is corrections going to be in the year 2025, some say that the jail overseer still will be kept on being tested by staff limit issues. There will at present be issues of segregation, badgering and prisoner/staff connections. Privatization of prisons will be across the board in revisions when all is said in done. There will likewise be a ton of dependence on innovation in the organization of prisons. The impacts on today prisons organizations over the United States are comparative also are the difficulties. Could we expect that today’s issues will be significant drivers of tomorrow’s issues?

Throughout the following 50 years we could see numerous changes in the field of criminal Justice. There is no real way to anticipate the future, there are numerous things indicating toward change. There are such a variety of new improvements that occur in innovation, science and various instruments for examinations. These changes implies that we need to roll out improvements in the way we handle things, and this implies that the field of criminal justice have and will change with the times.

There are numerous changes that must be made in the future so as to stay aware of the changes in innovation and the persistent development in wrongdoing. As expressed before there are criminal acts that appear to be one stage in front of the arrangements. As law authorization has the capacity roll out the improvements with innovation and make things simpler for them, they will have the capacity to roll out improvements in the way we find the law violations and location them. I think there will be numerous things that will make law implementation more powerful. I believe that there is almost no change that will be impeding to law authorization. Nonetheless, I accept that with change there comes more change. There will never be an end to what needs to be carried out to take after the change.


President’s State of Birth The following table lists the presidents of the United States (as of October 2010) and their state of birth.

Birthplace of U.S. President
President State of Birth
Washington Virginia
J. Adams Massachusetts
Jefferson Virginia
Madison Virginia
Monroe Virginia
J. Q. Adams Massachusetts
Jackson South Carolina
Van Buren New York
W. H. Harrison Virginia
Tyler Virginia
Polk North Carolina
Taylor Virginia
Fillmore New York
Pierce New Hampshire
Buchanan Pennsylvania
Lincoln Kentucky
A. Johnson North Carolina
Grant Ohio
Hayes Ohio
Garfield Ohio
Arthur Vermont
Cleveland New Jersey
B. Harrison Ohio
Cleveland New Jersey
McKinley Ohio
T. Roosevelt New York
Taft Ohio
Wilson Virginia
Harding Ohio
Coolidge Vermont
Hoover Iowa
F. D. Roosevelt New York
Truman Missouri
Eisenhower Texas
Kennedy Massachusetts
L. B. Johnson Texas
Nixon California
Ford Nebraska
Carter Georgia
Reagan Illinois
George H. Bush Massachusetts
Clinton Arkansas
George W. Bush Connecticut
Barack Obama Hawaii
  • (a) Construct a frequency bar graph for state of birth.


  • (b) Which state has yielded the most presidents?


  • (c)Explain why the answer obtained in part (b) may be misleading.




9.Rolling the DiceAn experiment was conducted in which two fair dice were thrown 100 times. The sum of the pips showing on the dice was then recorded. The following frequency histogram gives the results.


  • (a) What was the most frequent outcome of the experiment?


  • (b) What was the least frequent?


  • (c) How many times did we observe a 7?


  • (d) How many more 5’s were observed than 4’s?


  • (e) Determine the percentage of time a 7 was observed.


  • (f) Describe the shape of the distribution.


55.Walt Disney Company The following data represent the stock price for the Walt Disney Company at the end of each month in 2010. Construct a time-series plot and comment on any trends. What was the percent change in the stock price of Disney from January 2010 to December 2010?

Date Closing Price Date Closing Price
1/10 28.71  7/10 30.72
2/10 28.99  8/10 31.55
3/10 31.34  9/10 32.68
4/10 35.01 10/10 36.13
5/10 31.00 11/10 36.51
6/10 31.36 12/10 37.51


  1. 60. Putting It Together: Which Graphical Summary? Suppose you just obtained data from a survey in which you learned the following information about 50 individuals: age, income, marital status, number of vehicles in household. For each variable, explain the type of graphical summary you might be able to draw to provide a visual summary of the data.



  1. 6. Car Accidents An article in a student newspaper claims that younger drivers are safer than older drivers and provides the following graph to support the claim. Explain how this graph is misleading.


8.New HomesThe time-series plot in the next column shows the number of new homes built in the Midwest from 2000 to 2009.

  • (a) Describe how this graph is misleading.


  • (b) What is the graph trying to convey?




24.Tour de LanceLance Armstrong won the Tour de France seven consecutive years (1999-2005). The following table gives the winning times, distances, speeds, and margin of victory.

Year Winning Time (h) Distance (km) Winning Speed (km/h) Winning Margin (min)
1999 91.538 3687 40.28 7.617
2000 92.552 3662 39.56 6.033
2001 86.291 3453 40.02 6.733
2002 82.087 3278 39.93 7.283
2003 83.687 3427 40.94 1.017
2004 83.601 3391 40.56 6.317
2005 86.251 3593 41.65 4.667


  • (a) Determine the mean and median of his winning times for the seven races.
  • (b) Determine the mean and median of the distances for the seven races.


16.Flight TimeThe following data represent the flight time (in minutes) of a random sample of seven flights from Las Vegas, Nevada, to Newark, New Jersey, on Continental Airlines.

282, 270, 260, 266, 257, 260, 267

Compute the mean, median, and mode flight time.


34.Flight TimeThe following data represent the flight time (in minutes) of a random sample of seven flights from Las Vegas, Nevada, to Newark, New Jersey, on Continental Airlines.

282, 270, 260, 266, 257, 260, 267

Compute the mean, median, and mode flight time.



36.Chebyshev’s Inequality According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the mean of the commute time to work for a resident of Boston, Massachusetts, is 27.3 minutes. Assume that the standard deviation of the commute time is 8.1 minutes to answer the following:

  • (a) What minimum percentage of commuters in Boston has a commute time within 2 standard deviations of the mean?
  • (b) What minimum percentage of commuters in Boston has a commute time within 1.5 standard deviations of the mean? What are the commute times within 1.5 standard deviations of the mean?
  • (c) What is the minimum percentage of commuters who have commute times between 3 minutes and 51.6 minutes?




106  92  98 103 100


106  92  98 103 100 102
 98 124  83  70 108 121


106  92  98 103 100 102
 98 124  83  70 108 121
102  87 121 107  97 114
140  93 130  72  81  90
103  97  89  98  88 103



40.Identical ValuesCompute the sample standard deviation of the following test scores: 78, 78, 78, 78. What can be said about a data set in which all the values are identical?





4.Living in Poverty (See Problem 3.) The frequency distribution on the following page represents the age of people living in poverty in 2009 (in thousands). In this frequency distribution, the class widths are not the same for each class. Approximate the mean and standard deviation age of a person living in poverty. For the open-ended class 65 and older, use 70 as the class midpoint.

Age Frequency
 0-17 15,451
18-24 6071
25-34 6123
35–44 4756
45-54 4421
55–59 1792
60-64 1520
65 and older 3433


12.Nut Mix Michael and Kevin return to the candy store, but this time they want to purchase nuts. They can’t decide among peanuts, cashews, or almonds. They again agree to create a mix. They bought 2.5 pounds of peanuts for $1.30 per pound, 4 pounds of cashews for $4.50 per pound, and 2 pounds of almonds for $3.75 per pound. Determine the price per pound of the mix.

Strategic Plan Part 1: New Product or Service

Strategic Plan Part 1: New Product or Service Innovation and creativity is a known reality in most business operation but to put innovation into actions and translate those innovation ideas into daily business reality, can bring long term success. For Pacific Gas and Electric Company, they provide electricity and natural gas to California customers and they deliver some of the nation’s cleanest energy to their customers (Pacific Gas and Electric Company, 2016). To continue to deliver clean energy and go above and beyond, a new and innovative company division has been established to create new services and sustain success. New Division and Product Alignment The division is responsible for the relationship between their customers and their energy efficient incentive programs specifically with the water company. Pacific Gas and Electric Company provide rebates and incentives for business customers that install energy efficiency measures that reduce overall gas and electric consumption. Since Pacific Gas and Electric Company is located in California and focuses greatly on the environmental impacts of the environment, most customers are looking for them to partner with local water agencies or water companies. The reason being is because California is going through a tremendous water drought and it was been advised that California mandated a conservation efforts to reduce 25 percent of water (, 2015). With this new mandate, Pacific Gas and Electric Company’s new Division is called the Water and Solutions department and it will allow the ability to provide rebates and incentives for customers that install water efficiency measures to save overall water consumption. Addresses Customer Needs and Achieves Competitive Advantage 3 In order to develop and maintain success the new division has created plans to address customer needs and achieve competitive advantage. The Water and Solutions department has agreed to use part of the SWOT tool to position themselves successfully; specifically, focusing on strengths, weaknesses, and threats. The new division believed that starting with a SWOT as the starting point can help add the base to the success because it will provide product information, any inexperience items, and demands. Once they gather information about their threats, weaknesses, and strengths, it decided to focus on the value chain because the SWOT analysis itself may not help sustain success over time; which is the ultimate goal. The value chain gives the department the opportunity to address customer’s needs and achieve competitive competition. Being able to create value creating ideas is essential for the company’s margin. In addition, meeting customer needs is crucial to continue business operation therefore having focus on customer perspective and incorporating internal business perspective will position the new division to ensure customer’s needs are met and satisfied. This drives the need to having a vision statement and business model. New Vision and how it aligns to Company’s mission and vision The vision is To lead in helping to protect and rejuvenate the environment. The Water and Solutions department aims to rejuvenate and protect the environment by driving customers to act accountability in their own actions to help protect the environment. Having financial incentives such rebate programs can help drive customer behavior. The newly developed division related their Vision similarly to the organization’s Vision in regards to protecting the environment. According to Pacific Gas and Electric Company (2016), “a healthy environment is also necessary for the well-being and vitality of our customers, employees, and the communities we serve.” Since serving electricity and natural gas to customers have a direct impact to the 4 environment, including the environment stewardship in all business models and vision is critical as aligning the same goal bring credibility. Pacific Gas and Electric Company has a great focus on the environment and need to exceed in environment success. According to Pacific Gas and Electric Company (2016), “PG&E and their customers have kept more than 168 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) out of the atmosphere, based on cumulative lifecycle gross energy savings.” This results in the new division ensuring the environment stewardship is also included in the new vision. As mentioned previously, the new vision’s plan is to incorporate energy savings and water savings to be eligible for a rebate or incentive resulting in saving water in California’s new mandate and drought awareness while incorporating ways to save cost on energy bills by updating new equipment to new energy efficient equipment. This drives and influences the customer behaviors to make changes on their own; resulting in accountability and team work. Environmental values are now the new demands of customer expectations on how the new division conducts business. Culture, Social Responsibility, and Ethics Ensuring that emphasis on responsibility on ethical behaviors is important for the new division. In order to achieve a leading culture in social responsibility and ethics within the division it requires effort and responsibility from the leadership stand point. The new division has created and incorporated integrity-based ethics programs on an ongoing basis. In addition, rewards, recognitions, and evaluation programs are the accelerators of motivated employees; which is a strong focus in the new division. Role models, code of conduct trainings, and policies and procedures programs are also a value that the new division focuses on. The new division also aligns their vision to the company’s overall vision in diversity and inclusion for their employees. According to Pacific Gas and Electric Company (2016), “they strive to provide an environment 5 where our employees are enriched by being here and able to do their very best work.” This is done by creating and promoting a diverse workforce; which is exactly the communities and customers they currently serve and provide natural gas and electricity to. Conclusion To achieve long term success there are many elements in the business that need focus and being able to satisfy customer needs will ultimately drive success to the business. It has been highlighted that innovation and creativity is crucial to the success of an organization. It is as crucial for the different divisions to also have their internal goals be aligned to the company’s long term success. To put innovation into actions and translate those innovation ideas into daily business reality, can bring long term success.

Organizational Psychology

NOTE: If a component is absent, student receives a zero for that component.










Assignment Components
Creates a PowerPoint slide that illustrates the benefits an I/O psychologist will bring to the organization in regard to job analysis (from both the organization and employee perspective).

(Course Objectives [CO1, CO2])

PowerPoint slide created but contains minimal information about the benefits that an I/O psychologist will bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective) and contains no speaker notes. PowerPoint slide created but the slide or speaker notes do not provide enough information for the intended audience or does not address the information from both the organization and employee perspective. PowerPoint slide demonstrates a good understanding of the benefits an I/O psychologist can bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective), and the speaker notes outline the most important talking points. PowerPoint slide demonstrates a thorough understanding of the benefits an I/O psychologist can bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective), and the speaker notes are a thorough outline of talking points.
Creates a PowerPoint slide that illustrates the benefits an I/O psychologist will bring to the organization in regard to employee selection (from both the organization and employee perspective).


PowerPoint slide created but contains minimal information about the benefits that an I/O psychologist will bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective) and contains no speaker notes. PowerPoint slide created but the slide or speaker notes do not provide enough information for the intended audience or does not address the information from both the organization and employee perspective. PowerPoint slide demonstrates a good understanding of the benefits an I/O psychologist can bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective), and the speaker notes outline the most important talking points. PowerPoint slide demonstrates a thorough understanding of the benefits an I/O psychologist can bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective), and the speaker notes are a thorough outline of talking points.
Creates a PowerPoint slide that illustrates the benefits an I/O psychologist will bring to the organization in regard to employee training (from both the organization and employee perspective).

(CO1, CO4)

PowerPoint slide created but contains minimal information about the benefits that an I/O psychologist will bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective) and contains no speaker notes. PowerPoint slide created but the slide or speaker notes do not provide enough information for the intended audience or does not address the information from both the organization and employee perspective. PowerPoint slide demonstrates a good understanding of the benefits an I/O psychologist can bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective), and the speaker notes outline the most important talking points. PowerPoint slide demonstrates a thorough understanding of the benefits an I/O psychologist can bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective), and the speaker notes are a thorough outline of talking points.
Creates a PowerPoint slide that illustrates the benefits an I/O psychologist will bring to the organization in regard to performance evaluations (from both the organization and employee perspective).

(CO1, CO2, CO5)

PowerPoint slide created but contains minimal information about the benefits that an I/O psychologist will bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective) and contains no speaker notes. PowerPoint slide created but the slide or speaker notes do not provide enough information for the intended audience or does not address the information from both the organization and employee perspective. PowerPoint slide demonstrates a good understanding of the benefits an I/O psychologist can bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective, and the speaker notes outline the most important talking points. PowerPoint slide demonstrates a thorough understanding of the benefits an I/O psychologist can bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective), and the speaker notes are a thorough outline of talking points.
Creates a PowerPoint slide that illustrates the benefits an I/O psychologist will bring to the organization in regards to employee satisfaction, motivation, and attitude (from both the organization and employee perspective).

(CO1, CO5)

PowerPoint slide created but contains minimal information about the benefits that an I/O psychologist will bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective) and contains no speaker notes. PowerPoint slide created but the slide or speaker notes do not provide enough information for the intended audience or does not address the information from both the organization and employee perspective. PowerPoint slide demonstrates a good understanding of the benefits an I/O [sychologist can bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective), and the speaker notes outline the most important talking points. PowerPoint slide demonstrates a thorough understanding of the benefits an I/O [sychologist can bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective), and the speaker notes are a thorough outline of talking points.
Creates a PowerPoint slide that illustrates the benefits an I/O psychologist will bring to the organization in regard to worker stress (from both the organization and employee perspective).

(CO1, CO5)

PowerPoint slide created but contains minimal information about the benefits that an I/O psychologist will bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective) and contains no speaker notes. PowerPoint slide created but the slide or speaker notes do not provide enough information for the intended audience or does not address the information from both the organization and employee perspective. PowerPoint slide demonstrates a good understanding of the benefits an I/O psychologist can bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective), and the speaker notes outline the most important talking points. PowerPoint slide demonstrates a thorough understanding of the benefits an I/O psychologist can bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective), and the speaker notes are a thorough outline of talking points.
Creates a PowerPoint slide that illustrates the benefits an I/O -psychologist will bring to the organization in regard to communication, group process, and employee behavior (from both the organization and employee perspective).

(CO1, CO5)

PowerPoint slide created but contains minimal information about the benefits that an I/O psychologist will bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective) and contains no speaker notes. PowerPoint slide created but the slide or speaker notes do not provide enough information for the intended audience or does not address the information from both the organization and employee perspective. PowerPoint slide demonstrates a good understanding of the benefits an I/O psychologist can bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective), and the speaker notes outline the most important talking points. PowerPoint slide demonstrates a thorough understanding of the benefits an I/O psychologist can bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective), and the speaker notes are a thorough outline of talking points.
Creates a PowerPoint slide that illustrates the benefits an I/O psychologist will bring to the organization in regard to leadership and organizational structure (from both the organization and employee perspective).


PowerPoint slide created but contains minimal information about the benefits that an I/O psychologist will bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective) and contains no speaker notes. PowerPoint slide created but the slide or speaker notes do not provide enough information for the intended audience or does not address the information from both the organization and employee perspective. PowerPoint slide demonstrates a good understanding of the benefits an I/O psychologist can bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective), and the speaker notes outline the most important talking points. PowerPoint slide demonstrates a thorough understanding of the benefits an I/O psychologist can bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective), and the speaker notes are a thorough outline of talking points.
Creates a PowerPoint slide that illustrates the benefits an I/O psychologist will bring to the organization in regard to legal and ethical issues (from both the organization and employee perspective).


PowerPoint slide created but contains minimal information about the benefits that an I/O psychologist will bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective) and contains no speaker notes. PowerPoint slide created but the slide or speaker notes do not provide enough information for the intended audience or does not address the information from both the organization and employee perspective. PowerPoint slide demonstrates a good understanding of the benefits an I/O psychologist can bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective), and the speaker notes outline the most important talking points. PowerPoint slide demonstrates a thorough understanding of the benefits an I/O psychologist can bring to the organization (from both the organization and employee perspective), and the speaker notes are a thorough outline of talking points.
Draws information from the online notes, textbook, and at least two scholarly sources to support the information presented. Does not support information presented or draws information from sources that are not from acceptable. Draws information only from course material or from questionable sources, or the references used do not support the information presented. Draws information from appropriate sources to support the information presented. Draws information from a variety of appropriate scholarly resources that bring new insight to the project.
Presentation Components

·        Tone

·        Audience

·        Word Choice

Visual design of presentation (i.e. background, pictures, etc.) is lacking or completely overpowers the presentation to the point of interfering with comprehensibility or design is inappropriate for the assignment. Design of presentation (i.e. background, pictures, text, etc.) upstages the writing or speaking at inappropriate times, or visual design is too understated at points, or design is inconsistent.


Design of presentation (i.e. background, pictures, text etc.) is clear, appropriate for the assignment and balanced, and it compliments both the writing and speaking throughout the presentation.


Visual design of presentation (i.e. background, pictures, etc.) is clear, appropriate for the assignment, and balanced, and it compliments both the writing and speaking throughout the presentation. Visual design engages its audience and does not distract from information.



·        Introduction

·        Transitions

·        Conclusion

Introduction is limited or missing entirely.


Transitions between slides are infrequent, illogical, or missing entirely.


Conclusion is limited or missing entirely.

Introduction is present but incomplete or underdeveloped.


Transitions between slides are sporadic.


Conclusion is recognizable, but incomplete or underdeveloped.

Introduction has an opening, provides come background information, and states the topic.


Transitions between slides are present.


Conclusion summarizes main argument and has a clear ending.

Introduction catches the audience’s attention, provides compelling and appropriate background info, and clearly states the topic.


Thoughtful transitions between slides are appropriate and help the flow of ideas.


Conclusion leaves the listener with a sense of closure and provides concluding insights.


Usage and Mechanics

·        Grammar

·        Spelling

·        Sentence structure



Any written portion (including writing on the slides and in notes) contains numerous errors in spelling, grammar, and/or sentence structure that severely interferes with readability and comprehension.


In any written portion (including writing on the slides and in notes), errors in spelling and grammar exist that somewhat interfere with comprehension.




Any written portion (including writing on the slides and in notes) follows conventions of spelling and grammar throughout.  Errors are infrequent and do not interfere with comprehension. The presentation is basically error free in terms of mechanics. In any written portion (including writing on the slides and in notes), grammar and mechanics help establish a clear idea and aid the reader in following the writer’s logic.



APA Elements

·        Attribution

·        Paraphrasing

·        Quotations

(when                appropriate or                assigned)



No attempt at APA format in presentation.


APA format is attempted to paraphrase, quote, and cite, but errors are significant. Using APA format, accurately paraphrased, quoted, and cited in many spots throughout when appropriate or called for. Errors present are somewhat minor.


Using APA format, accurately paraphrased, quoted, and cited throughout the presentation when appropriate or called for. Only a few minor errors present.



Preparation for Generating a Policy Proposal

Assignment 2: Preparation for Generating a Policy Proposal

Although some states and cities have passed laws to ban texting and using handheld phones while driving, there is no current law to ban all cell phone use while driving. However, according to the National Safety Council (2009), 28 percent of all crashes—1.6 million per year—are caused by cell phone use and texting by drivers. The mission of a new national nonprofit organization called FocusDriven, patterned after Mothers Against Drunk Driving, is to make phone use while driving as illegal and socially unacceptable as drunk driving. US Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood supports FocusDriven and its efforts.

According to the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, LaHood said that this movement would become “an army of people traveling the countryside” to push for bans on cell-phone use and tough enforcement (Schmitz, 2010). As a political advocate interested in this issue, you will be writing a policy proposal that utilizes the current research to propose a solution to the issue and submitting it in Module 5.

Annotated Bibliography: Effect of Cell Phone Use

Before you can write this proposal research, you will need to conduct initial research on the science behind this initiative. For this assignment, use the Argosy University online library resources to locate research reports from peer-reviewed journals that discuss the effects of cell phone use on vision, attention, perception, or memory. In selecting at least five research reports from peer-reviewed journals relevant to the topic, make sure they address one or more of the following issues: •How do texting, handheld phones, and hands-free phones compare with each other in their effects on driving? •How do other, traditional distractions compare to cell phone use in their effects on driving (such as eating, attending to children, talking to passengers, listening to music/news, etc.)? •Can cell phone use while driving be compared with drunk driving? Why or why not? •What other variables (such as age) can affect driving while using a cell phone?

Based on your reading of the five articles, create an annotated bibliography for each of the five sources. Each annotation should consist of the APA reference entry followed by a paragraph-long summary of the articles. In your summary, provide answers for the questions below. For the last question, think about how the research results could be generalized to fit other environments or not be generalized. •Summarize the main ideas in the reference. What were they investigating? •How were the studies conducted? What was the sample size? Is it appropriate? •Were the studies conducted in the real world or was a simulated environment used? •How might these methodological considerations affect the research findings and the conclusions drawn from them? How does this article fit in with your paper? How did it influence your own ideas about your paper?

Your annotated bibliography should be at 3–4 pages in length. Click here for the annotated bibliography template. This document will help you complete your paper more successfully.

Be sure to include a title page and reference page listing your articles.

The purpose of the Final Research Paper

The purpose of the Final Research Paper is to provide an opportunity to integrate your understanding of how you, as an international journalist, would choose to analyze and report the news, particularly as it relates to war coverage. This assignment requires you to research and evaluate the report of a single incident related to an international military conflict or war in any part of the world. The wars in Afghanistan or Iraq are obvious choices, but you may address other existing global conflicts, including those in Africa, Asia, Central America, or elsewhere.
This assignment should be written as a personal narrative in which you describe, in detail, how you would address the various social, cultural, and governmental challenges of being an “outsider” attempting to gain information from sources in your selected area of the world. Consider each area—social, cultural, and governmental—separately. Spend time analyzing the setting and discussing the obstacles you would encounter as you met with a person, group of people, or organization within each of the areas mentioned above.
Focus of the Final Research Paper
In eight to ten pages, discuss how you would present the facts and who your contacts would be. Ask yourself these questions as you complete the research project:
•What are the potential roadblocks to gaining the confidence of those who are in a different part of the world?
•Which sources would you trust, and why? How would you know you could trust them?
•Would you relinquish your ideas of democracy and freedom, and report the story from the political, societal, or cultural perspective of the place from which you are reporting?
•What steps would you take to protect yourself from harm?
Additional issues to consider include:
•Potential conflicts that will surface due to your understanding and practice of Western journalism theory compared to the theory and practice of journalism as it is conducted elsewhere in the world.
•How freedom of the press is interpreted in select countries and regions worldwide.
•Philosophical differences among national media systems that exist globally.
Be sure to describe in detail what it would be like to be embedded with the military. What special challenges would this bring? Would you consider winning the confidence of opposing military forces in order to “get the story”?

Although the Final should be written as a personal narrative, you should also include sources in your text. Incorporate at least one idea or concept from your textbook, International News Reporting, on each page.
•Must be eight to ten double-spaced pages in length and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the approved APA style guide.
•Must use at least five to eight scholarly sources in addition to the text, at least two of which are found in Ashford Online Library. Wikipedia is an example of a source that is NOT acceptable.
•Must include an introductory paragraph with a succinct thesis statement.
•Must conclude with a restatement of the thesis and a conclusion paragraph.
•Must include a Reference Page that is completed according to APA (6th edition) style as outlined in the approved APA style guide.

Developing Marketing Strategies

Pretend you have been hired as Director of Marketing and Planning in time for a company’s anticipated introduction of a new product or service. For your first assignment, you are asked to provide a rudimentary market analysis and promotion mix for the introduction of a new product offering. You will present this information to the Senior Vice President of Marketing, as well as to others in upper management. They will compare your suggestions to suggestions developed earlier and are hoping to receive fresh, new insights into how they will identify, attract, and capture their desired audience. Although you want to make a great impression, you also know that, since they very well may give the implementation of the plan back to you, your presentation needs to be as realistic as possible.

You must cite all resources used and include an APA-formatted bibliography. Your Activity responses should be both grammatically and mechanically correct, and formatted in the same fashion as the Activity itself. If there is a Part A, your response should identify a Part A, etc. (100 points) (A 3-page response is required for the combination of Parts A, B, C, and D.)

Part A Choose the type of company you work for and write a description of the company that includes the following.

1. The Industry You Operate In

2. Product Lines

3. Total Number of Employees

4. Annual Revenue

5. Top Competitor

6. Any Other Relevant Information

Part B Write an overall description of the new product you will be promoting. Include four (4) product features and one (1) benefit for each feature.

Part C Identify and describe the three (3) primary market segments (target markets) you will promote to; in each description, identify two (2) demographic and one (1) psychographic characteristic.

Part D Develop a list of five (5) marketing activities you recommend to promote this new product. Include the reason why you believe each of the marketing activities will be successful.

Critical thinking

In Week 3 you began the process of developing your Course Project by brainstorming a list of people who are leaders somehow related to your field of study and who might be good role models for you in your quest to become a leader in your career field. By this point you should have selected a role-model leader. Now you are ready to start gathering information and putting together your actual Course Project (due Week 8).

You will need to do some real research to gather information on the required elements as we explore the topic of leadership. Using the library databases (LexisNexis, EBSCO, ProQuest, etc.), you should identify and gather information from at least three good research sources. Use what you learned from your textbook (Chapter 5) and the Week 4 class discussion to help you find good sources.

Since this project is not just a biography of some famous person, you may only use one source from a biography database. Research to find and gather information on how your leader worked to become a recognized leader and how this person has demonstrated leadership in the field. You must also find information on the definition of leadership and key leadership skills, the role of individual accountability as it relates to leadership, and the process you might follow to develop leadership skills and become a leader.

For Week 5, you are to prepare an outline with a title page and a references page. This assignment will be scored out of 100 points. A thoughtfully-prepared outline will help you organize all of your ideas and establish a framework for your well-supported, meaningful research project.

Your outline should be one to two pages long and should cover all required elements of the project in a logical manner. Each body section of your outline must include cited, researched support from quality sources found in the academic databases.

You must use at least three sources now, though you will most likely use more in your final project since you are continuing to research and learn.

You must also include an APA-formatted title page and a references page listing all the sources you cited in the body of your outline.

Use the model and template in this document to help you decide what to research and how to write your properly APA formatted title page, outline and references page. Your outline can be similar to the model, but you should rewrite it in first person. Substitute the words and phrasing in this outline with ideas that reflect an overview of your project and the details you will include. EX: Change II. Your program area and intended career field to II. My Program: Justice Administration; My Career Goal: FBI Agent. You may add lines or condense sections in the model outline as you see fit.

Please remember that you must research and use source material to back up what you say. All sections marked on the model template with asterisks (*) should include researched information and parenthetical in-text citations.

[Title of Project] Outline

I. Introduction

A. Attention-Getter/Hook

B. Background: The purpose for your project

C. Brief introduction of the leader you have chosen

D. Establish your project’s thesis or overall main idea

E. Preview the project’s main areas

II. Your program area and intended career field

A. Why you chose this program and career field

B. When you expect to complete your program

C. Strengths/skills you will need to be successful in your career field *

III. Characteristics of an effective leader

A. Definition of an effective leader *

B. Positive leadership traits (including personal responsibility) *

IV. Your leader/role model

A. Brief biographical information on the leader *

1. Relevant formative details *

2. Current position/status as a leader and role model in the field *

B. Your reasons for selecting this person

1. Leadership qualities and evidence of personal responsibility *

2. Relevance to your intended path

V. Your own leadership qualities and success traits

A. Your personal strengths as a leader (based on assessments in course) *

1. What you learned about yourse

The Impact of Urban Migration Variables on Tuberculosis Prevalence in Monrovia

Introduction Tuberculosis is a human infection that is caused by the bacterium, bacteria. The bacteria that is responsible for tuberculosis is called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This bacterium is closely compared to Mycobacterium leprae, the bacterium that causes leprosy (Gupta, 2012). Tuberculosis affects anybody although it is more common in those whose people whom their socioeconomic status is low,est, people living with HIV, and people living in areas where one can get TB easily like psychiatric patients and prison inmates. The two types of TB are extra-pulmonary tuberculosis and pulmonary tuberculosis (Gupta, 2012). The most popular TB type is the pulmonary TB that is throughout the world, and the study will focus on this type of TB. Pulmonary TB occurs when the lungs are colonized by the causing distress in the in the respiratory. The study needs to be conducted so as to intervene on the causes of TB and how it can be prevented. In Liberia, cases of TB reported in 2011 were an estimate of 53%. Background Tuberculosis is a human disease infection caused by the bacterium, bacteria. The bacteria that is responsible for tuberculosis is called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. According to evidence based on archeology, Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been appeared firstly around between past 20,000 years to 35,000 years (Daniel, Sep 2006).

Casual Analysis Essay

In Module/Week 5, you will write a 1000-word (3–4-page) causal analysis essay in response to one of the following prompts: • Select an image(s) from an electronic source that exemplifies your position on the effect of television in American culture. Your argument must show that a cause-and-effect relationship does or does not exist between TV and behavior, health, intelligence, or morality, etc. • Select an image(s) from an electronic source that you think exemplifies your position on the effect of advertising on American youth. What do advertisements tell young people they should value? Argue a causal relationship between American advertising and the attitudes and behaviors of American youth.

Be sure to follow the writing processes guidelines: gather all of your information, plan the direction of your essay, and organize your ideas by developing a 1-page thesis statement and outline for your essay. Format the thesis statement and the outline into a single Word document using current MLA, APA, or Turabian style (whichever corresponds to your degree program). Submit the thesis and outline by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Monday of Module/Week 4 for instructor feedback.

As you compose your essay, be sure to: • Follow the writing style required by your degree program (MLA, APA, or Turabian). • Use in-text citations to cite works. • Integrate at least 4 quotations, 1 summary, and 1 paraphrase into your essay. • Include a references or works cited page containing any and all sources you cite in your paper, including images. You may use 1 or 2 images in your essay to support your argument, but each must not take up more than one-third of a page (with 1-inch margins), and they will not contribute to the total page count for the assignment. • Use the grading rubric, the Outline Suggestions document, and the proofreading checklist (provided below) to draft and revise your essay. • Include your thesis statement and outline on a separate page at the end of the document. • Type your degree program and which style of writing you are using (MLA, APA, or Turabian) on the title page of your so that your instructor can grade your essay accordingly.

Be sure to fully cite all quotations, summaries, paraphrases, and images. If you fail to give credit for outside material, it will be regarded as plagiarism and will result in a “0” on your essay and possibly course failure.

This assignment is due by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Monday of Module/Week 5 and must include a title page, the essay itself, a works cited/references page of any primary or secondary texts cited in the essay, and the thesis/outline page. Do not forget to write your degree program and whether you are using MLA, APA, or Turabian on the title page and in the “Submission Title” field when submitting your paper.

English review

Today, more than any other time in history, there is growing support to move away from nonrenewable resources towards developing renewable resources to meet current and future energy needs. Fossil fuels are nonrenewable resources that continue to negatively impact the environment. It is important to learn how these resources are formed since this process of formation is at the very heart of why fossil fuels are considered to be nonrenewable.

Using the readings for this module, the Argosy University online library resources, and the Internet, research the nonrenewable resource assigned to you:

Coal Natural gas Petroleum (oil) Note: You are assigned a resource based on the first initial of your last name. Last names beginning with A–J research coal, names beginning with K–R research natural gas, and names beginning S–Z research oil.

Respond to the following:

Describe how this nonrenewable resource was initially formed. Briefly explain where the major reserves of this nonrenewable resource are located and how it is extracted. Examine the environmental impact caused by the extraction process. Explain how this nonrenewable resource is used to produce energy, and identify the pollution problems that are caused from this energy source. Support your statements with appropriate examples and scholarly references.

Write your initial response in approximately 350–400 words. Apply APA standards to citation of sources.

__________last name start with a G ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________-

Each type of proposed renewable energy has its benefits and drawbacks. For example, hydropower has the benefit of relatively consistent results; however, it remains controversial due to its impact on aquatic environments.

For this assignment, select one renewable resource to examine its benefits and drawbacks.

Using this module’s readings, the Argosy University online library resources, and the Internet, respond to the following:

Describe the sources of this renewable resource. Explain how this renewable resource is harnessed for energy. Considering that it takes energy to make energy, identify the kind of energy needed to make electrical energy from this resource. State the average amount of energy this renewable source produces. For example, on average, how much energy does a single wind turbine produce in a year? Or, how much energy does a dam produce in a year? Or, how many wind turbines would be needed to produce the same amount of energy as the average dam? Compare and contrast the benefits and drawbacks of the renewable energy resource. Support your statements with scholarly references and appropriate examples.

Write your initial response in a minimum of 350–400 words. Apply APA standards to citation of sources.

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Writing focused topic sentences for each of your body paragraphs is an important step in creating a cohesive essay. A topic sentence is the first sentence of each body paragraph and introduces the main idea of the paragraph. Remember, each topic sentence should relate, in a more detailed way, to your thesis statement.

Each topic sentence represents a body paragraph that is yet to be written. In order for your essay to flow smoothly, you will need to successfully transition between each body paragraph.

Respond to this discussion with the following information:

Write your revised thesis statement so we know your topic. List the topic sentence for each of your body paragraphs, three sentences in all. Write a paragraph explaining how your topic sentences relate to your thesis statement and to each other. Include the type of organization you will use (refer to your textbook readings) and why that type of organization will help your reader see the connection between your paragraphs. List the specific words and phrases you plan to use, either in your topic sentences or in other places in your paragraph, to help guide the reader from one paragraph to the next. Your response should include four sentences (the thesis and the three topic sentences, one for each body paragraph) and your paragraph explaining your choices.

For this assignment, you should post four sentences: your revised thesis statement and the three topic sentences you’ve constructed. You also want to include a paragraph explaining how your topic sentences relate to the thesis statement, the type of organization you’re using (refer to our readings), and specific words/phrases you plan to use. Make sure you review the assignment guidelines before posting.

How manners have changed over time


Body paragraphs are centered around one main idea that relates to the thesis statement. Topic sentences make it easier to stay on topic and tell the reader what the paragraph is going to be about.

Helpful Hints: Topic sentences are like mini thesis statements for each paragraph. The topic sentence unifies the paragraph.

Sample Thesis Statement: In order to succeed in the classroom, college students need to utilize the resources available to them throughout their academic careers.

This thesis statement is clear, takes a position on how students need to succeed, and it provides how students can succeed (by utilizing available resources). Here are three topic sentences:

One important resource that all college students should utilize for success is tutorial services.

Another important resource for student success is frequent use of the library.

In addition to using tutoring services and the library, college students should consult with their advisor on a regular basis to monitor success and make necessary changes when needed.

Notice how the topic sentences not only help the reader know what will be written about in each paragraph, they also help the writer organize the main ideas of the essay. There are three support points that link back to what is being argued in the thesis statement while providing the reader with one resource per paragraph.

For this assignment, you should post four sentences: your revised thesis statement and the three topic sentences you’ve constructed. You also want to include a paragraph explaining how your topic sentences relate to the thesis statement, the type of organization you’re using (refer to our readings), and specific words/phrases you plan to use. Make sure you review the assignment guidelines before posting.

Return prospectus for revision

An evaluator has added a file to this evaluation.

Overall comments: Linda, Regretfully we are unable to approve the prospectus just yet and believe this can be revised to meet the requirements. We just need to see this again, see below and attached for suggested revisions and need for clarification. Please work with your chair and do appreciate your work on this prospectus. Nancy Rea, Program Director Linda, Thank you for the opportunity to read your prospectus. I think you have an interesting idea for a research study and that the majority of the documentation for that study is already contained in your prospectus. I have a few points that I would like to have you clear up before your prospectus can be approved. I’m particularly concerned that you did not include a Significance section in your prospectus and have not identified a gap in the literature you will fill or made any statement about positive social change. I’m also concerned that your theory does not align with your RQs. Please consider and respond to each of my comments in the document and post a revised version to the MyDR system. Please leave track changes on so I can identify all of your revisions easily. Your chair will need to review and approve your document and complete their rubric in the MyDR system, let the member know, then the member will need to review and approve your document and complete their rubric and then the MyDR system will again send your document to the Program Director. Please let me know if you have any questions or concerns – I’m always happy to receive your questions, comments, or explanations. Peace, Pete

Business Requirements

• Due Week 4 and worth 120 points This assignment consists of two (2) sections: a business requirements document and a project plan. You must submit both sections as separate files for the completion of this assignment. Label each file name according to the section of the assignment it is written for. Additionally, you may create and / or assume all necessary assumptions needed for the completion of this assignment. Documenting the existing IT network and system is an important first step, but you, the CIO, know that capturing the needed changes can be critical to your success as an executive. You know that procuring and documenting quality business requirements is an important step toward the design of quality information systems. Completion of a quality requirements document allows user needs and expectations to be captured, so that infrastructure and information systems can be designed properly. Using the requirements document provided in the course shell as a part of the requirements gathering process, you are to assess the needs of the company as it prepares to become a multinational organization. You must consider current and future trends and requirements; however, assumptions should be realistic and carefully considered. The needs of the organization should be documented. Later deliverables will focus on specifics of all requirements. Section 1: Business Requirements Document Write a four to six (4-6) page original business requirements document for the project plan using the template provided here. Note: The template can also be found in the Student Center of the online course shell. Describe the project needs, including the following: 1. Describe the scope and analyze how to control the scope. 2. Speculate and give justifications for how to control scope. 3. Identify possible risks, constraints, and assumptions. 4. Describe the needed integration with other systems and infrastructure. Note: Database and Data Warehousing, Cloud Technology and Virtualization, and Network Infrastructure and Security. 5. Assess the human capital that may be needed to complete the project, ensuring that necessary skill sets are identified. 6. Speculate on possible outsourcing or offshoring needs that may be required to accomplish project. 7. Define relevant terms that will be used throughout the project. 8. Include cost projections for staffing, infrastructure, and other resources. 9. Use at least two (2) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources. Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements: • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions. • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length. Section 2: Revised Project Plan Use Microsoft Project to: 12. Update the project plan (summary and detail) template, from Project Deliverable 1: Project Plan Inception, with three to five (3-5) new project tasks, each consisting of five to ten (5-10) subtasks. The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are: • Describe the integrative functions and activities within the information systems area, including the role of the CIO and technologies managed within the organization. • Evaluate how information technology (IT) is aligned with the strategy of the organization, and how to make appropriate choices about architecture in relationship to overall organization goals. • Use technology and information resources to research issues in information systems. • Write clearly and concisely about leadership issues and strategic insight of the Information systems domain using proper writing mechanics and technical style conventions


Create a balance sheet from a trial balance for a given scenario. Make sure you classify the accounts appropriately as current or non-current. Perform inventory valuations using LIFO, FIFO, and weighted average methods based on the following information. Explain the impact of each method on the cost of goods sold and ending inventory. The company imports microwaves from a supplier in China for the US market. At the end of the first quarter, 100 microwaves are in stock. The company purchased a total of 400 microwaves during the quarter at various prices: January: 100 units @ $75 February: 250 units @ $83 March: 50 units @ $87 The company had no inventory at the beginning of the quarter. If the company’s goal is to maximize net income, which evaluation method will you use and why?

Based on the financial information provided, calculate the following ratios and explain their purpose: Current Ratio Inventory Turnover Ratio Accounts Receivable Turnover Ratio Debt to Equity Ratio Return on Assets Ratio Asset Turnover Ratio Return on Equity Ratio Profit Margin Ratio Price-Earnings Ratio Dividend Yield Ratio

When a balance sheet amount is related to an income statement amount in computing a ratio, the balance sheet amount should be an average of that Criteria Points Assigned Points Earned Did you calculate the 10 ratios (8 points for each)? 80% Criteria Points Assigned Points Earned Did you explain which ratios could be used by a bank lending officer and why? Description/Requirements of Project Part Evaluation Criteria period. The average is calculated by adding the ending balances of this year and last year and dividing the result by 2. Describe how a bank lending officer might use ratio analysis. Select five ratios that would be most useful for the purpose and explain ththe rationale for your selection.


A Rook Jumping Maze is a game where one has to traverse through a square grid from start cell to goal cell. Maze consists of a square grid with each cell containing a jump number. The jump number specifies the number of steps one can move in the horizontal or vertical direction.


You are given a square grid of (N x N) as a Rook Jumping Maze with jump numbers specified in each cell, a start cell and a goal cell.  Write a program in Java to find a path from start to goal cell using Depth First Search method.

Result analysis


Result analysis requires the following to be printed:

  1. Number of states generated and examined
  2. Number of moves