Browse Month: December 2016

Is corporal punishment needed to discipline children

Final Paper

The summative assessment for this course is a Final Paper that is due in Week Five. For your Final Paper, you must demonstrate an understanding of a topic in psychology beyond the information presented in the course textbook. Incorporate material from across the course, by describing and applying psychology knowledge as you integrate new research findings, into a cohesive and well-written paper. This learning activity will facilitate the development of research techniques, critical thinking, and writing skills that are necessary to be successful in the field of psychology. You may include personal experiences as examples to explain concepts and inform your audience.

You will have already selected a research topic from the list below in Week Three of the course. You must continue to use your selected topic. The topics include: 

  • …….

•Is corporal punishment needed to discipline children?
•Does violence in the media contribute to violent behavior in children?
•What techniques have professionals used to treat insomnia, and how effective are those treatments?
•What does research show about the effectiveness of the major techniques for promoting weight loss?
•Are intelligence and personality stable across adulthood and into old age?

To begin, research the chosen topic using scholarly resources and craft a thesis statement regarding your selected topic. For assistance with creating a thesis statement, visit the Ashford Writing Center or the Ashford University Library. Your Final Paper must contain at least five references from scholarly sources that were published within the last five years and are cited according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Examples of scholarly sources include: peer reviewed journal articles, research studies, professional websites with authored material, and government websites. Popular internet sites (Wikipedia, Newsweek, New York Times, etc.) are not considered scholarly sources.

Then, address the following criteria as you write your Final Paper:
•Include a well-written introduction with a succinct thesis statement and a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
•Integrate research findings that address the selected topic.
•Discuss the key issues and controversies surrounding your selected topic.
•Discuss multiple perspectives on the selected topic, so that the discussion is balanced and not one-sided.
•Include a summary and analysis of the findings from the research.
•Include any additional research that could be done in the future, and provide solutions that could be implemented in the present regarding your selected topic. 

  • …….
•Consider the cognitive and behavioral implications might play a role in your selected topic. What learning principles could factor into the topic? What theories of motivation and personality could influence your insights into the topic?

Writing the Final Paper
The Final Paper:
1.Must be eight to ten double-spaced pages in length (excluding title and references pages), and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
2.Must include a title page with the following: a.Title of paper
b.Student’s name
c.Course name and number
d.Instructor’s name
e.Date submitted

3.Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
4.Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
5.Must end with a conclusion that summarizes your research and reaffirms your thesis.
6.Must use at least five scholarly sources.
7.Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
8.Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style

  • …….

Sweet Olivia, a consumer chocolate company, wants to develop a general profile of purchasers of its products in a certain trade area.

Discussion #1

Suppose your company is interested in introducing a new women’s facial care product. What secondary data would be useful in helping you to make the decision whether or not to introduce the product? Identify the specific secondary sources and the data they would provide. Develop a brief report on the data that you locate.

Discussion #2

Sweet Olivia, a consumer chocolate company, wants to develop a general profile of purchasers of its products in a certain trade area. What type of secondary data would be most useful for this purpose? Explain your answer.

Corrections Accreditation and Privatization

Write a 350- to 700-word paper in which you discuss corrections accreditation and privatization.

Address the following questions:

What is corrections accreditation? How does corrections accreditation affect the professional development of corrections officers? How can industry leaders plan for better correctional officer professionalization and accreditation?·

What is privatization as it relates to prisons? How does this affect state and federal prison systems? How well do privatized prisons meet correctional criteria and how do they compare to federal and state prisons?

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.


You can download a sample paper on privatization of prisons HERE 

Describes the results of your assessment of the work processes and key employees to be addressed in your final paper.

  • Describes the results of your assessment of the work processes and key employees to be addressed in your final paper.
  • Discusses how the organization will change while meeting its strategic challenges in the future.
  • Includes what kinds of workers will be needed; what knowledge, skills, and abilities will be appropriate; what is the compensation system and is it reflective of the market’s conditions?

In addition to the requirements above, your paper:

  • Must be double-spaced and 12 point font
  • Must be formatted according to APA style
  • Must include an introductory paragraph with a thesis statement
  • Must conclude with a restatement of the thesis and a conclusion paragraph
  • Must reference two scholarly resources
  • Must include a reference page written in APA format

Donald Sterling , Los Angeles Clippers And Social Controls – Sample Paper

Donald Sterling

  1. Determine whether or not you believe social controls played a significant role in Donald Sterling’s loss of ownership of the Los Angeles Clippers. Provide a rationale to support your position.

An American businessman and attorney, Donald Sterling, was the owner of the Los Angeles Clippers for 33 years from 1981 to 2014. The Los Angeles Clippers is a professional basketball franchise of the National Basketball Association (NBA). The National Basketball Association, in April 2014 imposed a lifetime veto on Sterling for his racist comments. The Association’s commissioner, Adam Silver, delivered an unpredictably tough set of sanctions against Donald Sterling and even compelled him to sell the Los Angeles Clippers (Swaine, 2014). The National Basket Association decided to ban Sterling from the team because he was telling his mistress, V. Stiviano, to refrain from bringing black guests to Clipper games. Sterling additionally raised complaints that Stiviano often posed with black people in photographs that she posted to her Instagram account. The fact that Sterling was banned from watching Clipper games, compelled to sell the team, and fined US $ 2.5 million for his racist comments, it is clear the National Basketball Association was against racism (Swaine, 2014). It is therefore evident that social controls really hurt Sterling in his fight to maintain ownership of the Los Angeles Clippers.

I believe that social controls played a significant role in Donald Sterling’s loss of ownership of the Los Angeles Clippers. According to Meier (1982), social control is a combination of methods used by a society to influence human behavior and maintain order. A stable society must have harmony and order. Absence of harmony and order leads to lack of a society because a society is formed when human beings exist in harmony (Meier, 1982). It is difficult to maintain an effective and social organization if there are no prescribed norms and conducts that govern people’s behavior. The National Basketball Association exercises control over its member, including its leaders, through its commendable stand against racism (Swaine, 2014).

According to the Association’s commissioner, Adam Silver, Donald Sterling’s racist comments were contrary to the principles of respect and inclusion that form the foundation of the multi-ethnic, multicultural and diverse league. As a punishment for violating the social controls governing the National Basketball Association, Donald Sterling was banned for life from maintaining ownership of the Los Angeles Clippers. Additionally, Sterling was further fined 2.5 million United States dollars as a demonstration of the league’s rejection of his racist comments (Swaine, 2014).

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IP2 Project Management

Because of your grasp of what needs to be done and your leadership skills, you have been chosen as project manager for this project. Your first order of business as the project manager is the development of the scope statement. Your boss has asked to see the sales deliverables. You have met with the sales manager and have a general sense of what support the sales team will require for the new product.

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Background on Winsome’s Sales Structure:

The home sales force is actually managed (and contracted) through Winsome’s sister company. This sister company purchases products from various manufacturers, brands them, educates the sales representatives, and markets the products to the home sales event customer. Winsome’s sales department is responsible for setting prices, generating sales forecasts, monitoring sales activities, helping the sister company incorporate new products, and identifying new sales opportunities. In some cases, Winsome’s sales department has attended the sister company’s quarterly branch manager sales events and presented information on new products. The marketing materials are jointly created by Winsome and the sister company.

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For the sister company to begin its branding and sales force education activities, it needs to have the product specifications, photographs of the product, pricing structures, and marketing materials.

You have a follow-up meeting with the managers of the sales and marketing departments next week. At that time, you will review a detailed write-up of the scope that describes what is included, as well as what is excluded.


  • In preparation for the meeting, create a 2–3 page description of the project’s scope only as it relates to the sales and marketing activities.
  • Describe the deliverables the team will produce, what type of information it will contain, and the level of detail expected.
  • Identify the exclusions to the scope.
  • Define any assumptions you are making about the rest of the project’s scope that impacts your decisions around the sales and marketing scope.
  • Include an additional page to identify key points you will share in your conversation with the managers, identify their possible objections, and detail your response to those objections. Emphasize the assumptions you are making, what you expect the sales department to do, and any follow-up that still needs to be done around the scope.
  • Compile your scope statement with deliverables, exclusions, and assumptions, along with your key points page for submission.

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Sagaworth Inc. reported the following information:

Sagaworth Inc. reported the following information:



Net Loss


Depreciation expense


Amortization expense


Accounts receivable






Prepaid expenses



Accounts payable



Accrued liabilities



Taxes payable



Determine Sagaworth’s net cash flow from operating activities for 2011 under the indirect method.

ignificance of the Somme relative to other engagements and its effect on the war?

Intro. What was the significance of the Somme relative to other engagements and its effect on the war?

I – Two pages on the Somme–what happened, casualties, etc.

II – Compare the Somme to other Battles.

III – How did the Somme Effect the balance of the war? Did it change anything fundamentally in the year it was fought.

Conclusion: Your thesis that the Somme really meant very little in the end.

Questions to answer within paper

What was the significance of the Somme relative to other engagements and its effect on the war? The battle is well remembered, but did it have significance for the outcome of the war?

Was anything gained by either side? Did the loss of men and materiel make a difference?

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Hotel Reservations and the Oracle® Database Express® Virtual Desktop Complete your logical design and create …….

For Expertsolution: 1. Resources: Service Request SR-bi-000 – Hotel Reservations and the Oracle® Database Express® Virtual Desktop Complete your logical design and create an Oracle® database that meets your logical design specifications. Create a DDL script by going to Utilities->Generate DDL and creating a script file with all tables, indices, sequences, and triggers in your database.

2. Write a 200- to 300-word short-answer response explaining why a database analyst should not skip the logical database design step and move directly into physical database design.

3. Write a 200- to 300-word short-answer response describing aspects of physical database design that are not found in logical database design.

Thanks in advance for your assistance.

How did Europe change after 1989? What are the implications today of the growth of the internet, computer ownership, and information technology in general?

1.How did Europe change after 1989?
2. What are the implications today of the growth of the internet, computer ownership, and information technology in general?


3. Consider the technology of transportation and communication in 1800 and in 2000. How can we use these differing technological systems to understand partially the different social structures found in western culture in 1800 and 2000?


4. What were the major historical processes that underlay changes in western civilization from 1800 to 2000? Why these processes?

5. What do you think are the primary achievements of western civilization in the two hundred years since 1800? What achievements are you not including? Support your choices with criteria and evidence.


6. As you think about the path that western civilization took over the past two hundred years you will note that some groups of people opposed this path. What kinds of groups opposed this path and what was their rationale? That is, what counter forces opposed the forces that ultimately were successful?

7. Since 1989 there have been political and social processes of unity and processes of fragmentation. Describe these processes.



Describe or draw the shape of the Treasury yield curve out through the three-year benchmark. (Note…

CFA Examination Level II

The shape of the U.S. Treasury yield curve appears to reflect two expected Federal Reserve reductions in the Federal Funds rate. The first reduction of approximately 50 basis points (BP) is expected six months from now, and the second reduction of approximately 50 BP is expected one year from now. The current U.S. Treasury term premiums are 10 BP per year for each of the next three years (out through the three- ear benchmark.)


You agree that the two Federal Reserve reductions described will occur. However, you believe that they will be reversed in a single 100 BP increase in the Federal Funds rate 2 1/2 years from now. You expect term premiums to remain 10 BP per year for each of the next three years (out through the three-year benchmark.)

a. Describe or draw the shape of the Treasury yield curve out through the three-year benchmark. (Note to Candidates: Be sure to label your axes and relevant data points carefully.)

b. State which term structure theory supports the shape of the U.S. Treasury yield curve described in Part a. Justify your choice.

Kent Lewis, an economist, also expects two Federal Reserve reductions in the Federal Funds rate but believes that the market is too optimistic about how soon they will occur. Lewis believes that the first 50 BP reduction will be made 1 year from now and that the second 50 BP reduction will be made 11⁄2 years from now. He expects these reductions to be reversed by a single 100 BP increase 21⁄2 years from now. He believes that the market will adjust to reflect his beliefs when new economic data are released over the next two weeks.

Assume you are convinced by Lewis’s argument and are authorized to purchase either the twoyear benchmark U.S. Treasury or a Cash/three-year benchmark U.S. Treasury barbell weighted to have the same duration as the two-year U.S. Treasury.

c. Select an investment in either the two-year benchmark U.S. Treasury (bullet) or the Cash/threeyear benchmark U.S. Treasury barbell. Justify your choice.


Marketing Business. Specifically Motivational Materials Business

Persuasive Business Letter. There are various business activities that one can get involved in for purposes earning a living. In this particular case, a sales business of motivational books and other similar materials is chosen. The books to be sold will not only be hardcopy type, but also electronic materials. In this letter, the reasons and supporting arguments as to why this business type is chosen are presented in the most detailed manner. This will go a long way in convincing financial institutions such as banks for purposes of obtaining loan to fund the business to get started. The pros and cons of the business are also outlined, so as to have those interested in the idea make the best choice


General Fund and Leasing in Government Accounting

General Fund and Leasing in Government Accounting

Submit your responses to the following questions in a 1-2 page summary MSWord document. Label each question clearly. For computations done in an Excel spreadsheet, please copy and paste your work into your MSWord document, For written answers, please make sure your responses are well written, use APA formatting, and have the proper citation, if needed.
1. If the General Fund of a certain city needs $6,720,000 of revenue from property taxes to finance estimated expenditures of the next fiscal year and historical experience indicated that 4% of the gross levy will not be collected, what should be the amount of the gross levy for property taxes? Please show all computations in good form.
2. How does one determine whether a particular lease is a capital lease or an operating lease? What entries are required in the general journals of a government fund and governmental activities at the government-wide level to record a capital lease at its inception?

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Personal Ethics Paper

As the benchmark assignment for this course, you are required to write a 10–12-page paper, applying course principles to your personal experience, background, and/or vocation. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize the various elements discussed in this course, forming a set of principles that you could use in your particular leadership role. Organize the paper according to the principles that you have learned, using different principles for each heading. 


You will submit an outline of your paper by 1:00pm. Your outline must incorporate the guidelines 1 and 2 from the list below; when you submit the outline, you must have clearly articulated course-related principles as your topical headings, with supporting evidence as the subheadings. This outline is an imperative step for developing a well-planned ethics paper.

Your paper must be formatted in current APA style and follow the specific guidelines described below. Be sure to review the Personal Ethics Paper Grading Rubric to improve the quality of your paper. The final version of the paper must be submitted in LiveText by 1:59 p.m. (ET) on Wednesday, August 6,2014.


From the list below, choose the topic that best fits your experience:
• Principles & Ethics for Educational Leaders (this is the generic topic if none of the ones below fit you)
• Principles & Ethics for College Administrators
• Principles & Ethics for College Professors
• Principles & Ethics for High School Administrators
• Principles & Ethics for High School Educators “THIS IS THE ONE I CHOSE FOR THE OUTLINE YOUR DID EARLIER
• Principles & Ethics for Middle School Administrators
• Principles & Ethics for Middle School Educators
• Principles & Ethics for Elementary Administrators
• Principles & Ethics for Elementary Educators

Follow these guidelines in your paper:
1. Organize it into topical headings (leadership principles).
a. Each heading must be a leadership principle that you have learned in the course and a guiding principle for the leader (topic) you have chosen.
b. Under each heading, include (as citations) where the principles are found in the various assignments and how they all fit together.
c. Be sure that all the paragraphs under each heading relate directly to the principle being discussed.
2. Under each heading, include examples of the principle from the following:
a. Blackaby & Blackaby text


b. Rebore text
c. Prayer Reflection Report
d. Proverbs readings and presentations
e. Related reading assignments
f. Course presentations
3. Format your paper in current APA style and follow scholarly writing standards.
a. Do not use first-person perspective.
b. Use double-spacing in the paper.
c. Include an abstract.
d. Use internal citations. (Any in-text citations must have corresponding references in the reference list.)
e. Include a properly cited reference list. Some reminders:
i. Cite references from the various materials from the course (and any other references) that support your choice of principles.
ii. Do not use underlining.
iii. The words in the titles of a journal article or a book are not capitalized (except for the first word, proper nouns, and the first word following a colon).
iv. References must have corresponding in-text citations.
4. Incorporate Bloom’s Taxonomy.
a. The content must reflect higher-level thinking skills—synthesis, analysis, and evaluation.
b. The content must demonstrate an understanding of the principles and ethics of the Christian educational leader.
5. Do not write less than 10 pages or more than 12 pages. Quality, not volume, is required.
6. Thoroughly edit your paper for correct spelling, grammar, and punctuation, clear sentence structure, and precise word choice.


What a query execution plan?

What a query execution plan?

  1. Discuss the reasons for converting SQL queries into relational algebra queries before optimization is done.
  2. Explain the three factors that influence the cost of a query.
  3. A file of 4096 blocks is to be sorted with an available buffer space of 64 blocks. How many passes will be needed in the merge phase of the external sort-merge algorithm?
  4. In a particular transaction, the number of file blocks of data to be fetched is 6 while the size of entire file is 2048 blocks; evaluate the number of initial runs the transaction has to make.
  5. How does a query tree represent a relational algebra expression? What is meant by an execution of a query tree? Discuss the rules for transformation of query tree, and identify when each rule should be applied during optimization.
  6. Query optimization is a misnomer. Explain
  7. Consider the following S table from a students’ database;

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strategies and Tactics to build media relations ON NIKE INC.

strategies and Tactics to build media relations ON NIKE INC.

Communication Planning Final Project:
•?Complete written plan (10%) (one compiled version for the group) – Due Week 7.
Based on the paper submitted for week 7 (Complete Plan ON NIKE INC).

•?Prepare 15 power point slides with speaker notes that present the material from week 7: Complete Plan

Strategy Objectives for the PR Campaign media relations’    plan including
o Media relations’ strategy
o Identify the organization’s publics
o Identify the risks in the strategy.
o Write a media release and create a media distribution list for the media release
Tactical plan utilizing at least five of the PR tools listed below:
o Event planning
o Open house
o Press conference
o Community event
o Sponsorship
o Corporate newsletter (internal and/or external)
o Direct mail
o Internet/intranet
o Social media
o Promotional items
o Promotions – sweepstakes
o Spokesperson

How you will evaluate the business implications of your PR Campaign

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Global business and the mutinational firm

Discuss the main reason that simply multiplying the country’s expected per capita consumption by its population doesn’t necessarily lead to a good estimate for potential demand, and why this is an important consideration in the global business environment. You are expected to use some comparisons across different countries to help to illustrate your arguments. The essay must demonstrate that you have achieved the following learning outcomes: Identify and analyse the key factors driving business toward global operations and the implications for managerial practices and organisational change. Assess the development of critical perspectives and analytical skills to question the assumptions underpinning globalisation, international trade, international finance, international competitiveness, and exchange rate issues. Analyse how environmental issues impact/influence international business. Effectively articulate rational and logical arguments on the merits and demerits of international business issues such as: cross cultural management, corporate social responsibility, and international trade. Effectively communicate the impact of the political, economic, social/cultural, and legal characteristics of the world’s various marketplaces on business.

environmental policy blog 7

The two blog posts you’ll be doing for the course should run in the 250-500 word range (that is, 1-2 pages in a regular paper format), and don’t have to be hyperformal, but should have proper grammar and spelling. For all but the first blog, you will be choosing the topic you post on.
You have several choices of topics. You may blog on any of the readings for the course, providing reactions and responses. You may also locate topical materials in the news, online, in social media, or elsewhere, and comment upon and analyze them.

You’ll want to conceive of these blog posts as having several functions: 1) to briefly summarize or report on material of interest to you; 2) to demonstrate your ability to analyze some aspect of environmental policy from multiple perspectives; 3) to contextualize the material you are discussing in historical terms or in terms of its implications for future research or policy. Obviously, you do not need to accomplish all of these things with each blog–you’ll want to let the material dictate the direction you take.

You’ll earn up to 5 points per post, and, where appropriate, you will want to define key terms, provide a summary of the work you’re discussing, including the names and affiliations of any researchers, provide an opinion or reaction to the subject, raise questions that need to be answered or considered, and give a link to the source/s of information upon which you’ve based the blog.

Blog standards

Top scoring blog posts should include at least five of the following:

A link to the source

Data supporting an argument

Summary of the research/study/policy situation

Some historical context

Assessment of implications


And they should be written in a accessible language, possibly with visuals, and don’t need to be as formal as regular academic papers (humor is also okay).
The most important : the blog topic should relate to environmental policy. and could be international environmental policy and some interesting topic in  environmental policy


Typical State Court System.


Assume that the higher on this chart the case is the more expensive it is for all parties.

Write a memo on a state (not federal) level business dispute. Describe as if you were writing a “white paper” for your boss who wants to know how a case like the one you have chosen would be processed throughout the various legal phases in a state court system.

Because most cases never make it to trial, it is also important to consider alternative methods of dispute resolution. Suppose your selected case was initially submitted to ADR. What methods of ADR would be available to pursue? Which of these ADR methods do you think would be the most appropriate? Why?

Required elements: Discuss the differences in costs and benefits of going through traditional litigation and pursuing ADR in this case (Consider for example, why one of the parties in the case you’re looking at may have preferred keeping the case out of court). No more than 700 words. Format is consistent with APA guidelines

Economics: Problem of Rising Cost in College Tuition

1)    State the issue and/or research problem/question.  What is the intent of your analysis?  It is good to formulate your question with a “how” or “why” question.  For example:  1) How do immigrant laws affect assimilation into the labor market? Or, 2) How does increased traffic law enforcement decrease fatalities?
2)    In four or five double-spaced paragraphs, justify why this is an important topic. Envision submitting the idea to a government agency or corporate client for funding.  Address the following questions:  1) Why is research necessary on this law and economics topic?  2) How will it help lawmakers develop good policies or change existing policies?  3) How will it contribute to the growth of knowledge of law and economics?

3)    Prepare a synthesis of the findings from the literature.  The process begins with a survey of the scholarly literature in the selected research area:  the literature will help conceptualize and operationalize your issue of importance and /or research question.


Schizophrenia In Australia

Project description

  1. Stigma in Australia in regard to Schizophrenia
  2. What is the impact on children growing up (informed by theories of child development) with a parent who has Schizophrenia?
  3. How might a person’s life be different if they had engaged in treatment in the prodromal phase of schizophrenia?
  4. How would you treat a person who has schizophrenia if they had grown up in an Indigenous-European-Australian family? What questions would that raise for you in relation to their professional care?


  • Bland, R, Renouf, N and Tullgren, a (2009). Social work practice in mental health: An introduction, Allen & Unwin, Crow’s Nest, Australia.
  • Ben-Zeev, D, Young, MA and Corrigan, PW.(2010)., ‘DSM-V and the stigma of mental illness’, Journal of Mental Health, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 318 – 327, (online Ebscohost).
  • Sheldon, M 2001, ‘Psychiatric assessment in remote Aboriginal communities’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 435-442, SOWK13012 course resources online.
  • Barker, J. & Hodes, D. 2007. The Child in Mind: A child protection handbook. 3rd edition. Routledge. Oxon.

Music Appreciation Papers

Music Appreciation Papers

Give a summary of your proposed paper topic.  This should not exceed one-page.  Please put some thought into your topic.  Make sure it is a topic that interests you.  The proposal is to help you focus on your paper topic and not wait until the last minute to begin your research.  It will also give me the opportunity to guide you better, should you have any questions or problems.
Choose the topic of your research paper. Make sure it is neither too broad to be covered in the length you have been assigned nor so specific that you won’t have enough to say. Find a few reliable sources to be sure you can support what you are going to write in the paper. You should have at least a general idea of what you are going to write about.

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Why is the increased incarceration rate of women such an issue in jails across America? What four factors have had the most influence in female offender behavior?


The increase in the number of women who undergo incarceration in America is of a concern because statistics reveal that more women have been going to prison as compared to their male counterparts. For instance, between the year 2000 and 2009, the percentage of women who went to prison during that time increase by a margin of 21.6 percent as compared to men who only had 15.6 percent (Currie, 1998). If the statistics are anything to go by then it means that more women will be expected to go to either the state or the federal prisons in the future. The resulting effect of having more women go to prisons is that there are more families that get torn apart than what was witnessed in the earlier years.

The issue of women going to jail is of a great concern because most of those who get jail sentences are young women who have not completed their secondary education. Therefore by the time they complete their jail terms, they are normally of age and cannot therefore go back to school. The economy is therefore dealt a big blow because such characters are not able to contribute to the economic growth of the country.

Apart from that, incarceration leads to an increase in the number of women with mental problems (Smykla, 2015). Additionally, statistics show that 2.4 percent of the women who were imprisoned in the year 2004 were diagnosed to be HIV positive.

The factors that mostly contribute to women getting incarcerated include their involvement in either property or drugs related crimes. Moreover, there are those who get sentenced as a result of taking part in violent criminal activities (Sheets, 2007). Finally, there are those women who are sent to jail as a result of taking part in inner city crimes that are in most cases caused by both social and economic isolation.



Briefing Sheets (2007). Women in the Criminal Justice System. 514 Tenth Street, NW Suite 1000, Washington, DC

Elliott Currie (1998). Crime and Punishment in America. New York times. Web. Http:// Accessed 7 January, 2015.

Schmalleger, F., & Smykla, J. O. (2015). Corrections in the 21st century (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education

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Literature Review : What Is The Efficacy Of Art Therapy On Females Diagnosis With Schizophrenia


Schizophrenia is an extreme emotional instability influencing up to one in a hundred individuals sooner or later in their lives. The problem presents with constructive manifestations, for example, mental trips and dreams, numerous individuals likewise experience negative side effects, for example, lack of concern and diminished organizational aptitudes that can extraordinarily debilitate their regular functioning (Leurent et al, 2014). Art therapy, a manifestation of psychotherapy which utilizes the medium of craftsmanship to encourage individual statement and understanding of feelings (Drapeau and Kronish, 2007), has been demonstrated through one exploratory trial to be connected with change of negative manifestations observed in people diagnosed with schizophrenia (Patterson et al., 2011). The purpose of this paper is to give a literature review on the efficacy of art therapy on females diagnosed with schizophrenia. The paper seeks to answer one question: Does art therapy improve symptoms for women diagnosed with schizophrenia? Several researchers have conducted investigations with the objective of finding out the effectiveness of art therapy on individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia.

Literature review

Although there are quantitative and qualitative studies examining the adequacy of art therapy for female adults diagnosed with schizophrenia, a great part of the writing is somehow descriptive.  A few researchers have also used a mixture of both qualitative and quantitative methods to investigate the efficacy of art therapy for women diagnosed with schizophrenia (Schindler et al., 2006). Leurent et al., (2014) portrayed the profits of utilizing group therapy

treatment with schizophrenic in-patients. The researchers observed that the utilization of paintings and representations amid group art therapy sessions helped the patients’ capacity to address emotions of surrender and insecurity regarding whether they would survive. Drapeau and Kronish (2007), talk about how taking an interest in art therapy empowers schizophrenic patients in a psychiatric ward to express and speak to curbed emotions. Crawford et al. (2012), uncovered that group art therapy is useful in making the move from the hospital to a home environment. They additionally found that patients become more perceptive about the motivation behind their treatment and are additionally tolerate living with emotional instability after group art therapy sessions.

While it is hard to find controlled investigations of any sort of art therapy particularly with individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, one such study was directed by Richardson et al. (2007). It was an exploratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) of art therapy situated in the group, and reported a huge lessening in negative symptoms after just 12 sessions, which these specialists considered an absolute minimum fundamental for remedial effect. The treatment model was group mental art therapy. While this methodology was at first demonstrated on group mental psychotherapy, with its spotlight on art therapy communications, Schindler et al (2006) have pointed out that psychotherapy practically speaking can fuse a scope of psychodynamic speculations, with contrasting degrees of spotlight on transference and counter-transference.  This incorporates the investigation of groups’ past encounters, and making psychoanalytic translations of the oblivious importance of their articulations, fine arts, and conduct.

In order to find out whether effectiveness of art therapy is directly related to the severity of negative schizophrenia symptoms, Leurent et al. (2014) used a total of 649 participants. The median age of participants was 41 years old and 32 percent of them were females diagnosed with schizophrenia. The participants had been suffering from schizophrenia for 15 years on average, and more than 90 percent had been on antipsychotic medication for a while. Only 29 percent of the participants had previous experience of art therapy. The effect of art therapy did not differ between patients with more severe and less severe schizophrenic symptoms. However, participants recorded improvement of symptoms following art therapy intervention. According to Leurent et al. (2014), art therapy is effective on females diagnosed with schizophrenia and the extent of efficacy is not linked with the seriousness of negative symptoms.

In their study, Crawford et al. (2012) revealed that not all people diagnosed with schizophrenia should be referred to art therapies. The researchers used 649 participants who were subjected to art therapy for a period of 19 months. This sample size allowed for detection of significance on the international assessment of functioning scale at a period of 24 months. The researchers conducted statistical analysis with the aim of treating principle. In this randomized trial the mental wellbeing and worldwide functioning of individuals with schizophrenia was not enhanced by offering a weekly art therapy notwithstanding their standard consideration. Those randomized to weekly group art therapy had comparative levels of global functioning and mental wellbeing as those randomized to an action control group over a two year period, with the exception that the movement control group had a more prominent decrease in positive manifestations of schizophrenia at 24 months. Individuals offered a spot in group art therapy were more inclined to go to sessions than those offered individual interventions (Crawford et al., 2012).

In a different study, Richardson et al. (2007), investigated the effectiveness of art therapy as an adjunctive treatment for in-patients and out-patients with serious and constant schizophrenia, both males and female. He utilized a randomized controlled examination outline to quantify the adequacy of art therapy group projects on enhancing patients’ personal satisfaction and working, diminishing manifestations, and expanding the utilization of health care institutions. The researchers assessed all patients on a range of symptoms and measures including quality of life and social functioning, with six-month follow-up. They concluded that art therapy generated statistically significant positive impacts on negative schizophrenia symptoms (Richardson et al., 2007). Since effectiveness of art therapy was observed on both females and males, modern counseling institutions should utilize art therapy on females diagnosed with schizophrenia to improve symptoms.

In hypothetical terms, art therapy would permit individuals who have had generally little chance to discuss and attempt to deal with life injury and delayed burdens at various times to start to express their unarticulated and muddled feelings through the moderately protected medium of art. This has been depicted clearly by administration clients with a finding of marginal identity issue (Ruddy and Milne, 2005). A steady group background may empower members to relate to one another’s visual depictions of troublesome feelings without promptly examining them inside and out, and in addition basically appreciate innovativeness and the tactile incitement of the art materials (Crawford et al., 2010).

The imparted movement towards art therapy steadily fabricates common help so that group members diagnosed with schizophrenia can pace their examination toward oneself and personal well being (Patterson et al., 2011). For individuals who have been minimized and barred from interacting with the society, on top of harming early encounters, this methodology may require some investment (Smeijsters and Cleven, 2006). To the degree that common gratefulness and delight is communicated through artistic manifestations, negative symptoms of schizophrenia can be managed (Crawford et al., 2010).

The motivation behind a study conducted by Schindler at al. (2006) was to analyze if grown-ups diagnosed with serious and persevering schizophrenia and who went to a group mental health focus exhibited enhanced errand and interpersonal abilities and social parts following administration of art therapy. The study utilized a solitary subject detailed analysis design with pretest and posttest follow-up for a period of eight weeks (Schindler at al., 2006). Qualitative research questions at pretest and posttest were utilized to supplement quantitative discoveries. A total of seven participants were used in the study, three men and four women.

This design was selected to proceed with the evaluation of part improvement in an alternate setting such as an inpatient setting and with a more centered view on the procedure included in part and expertise advancement (Schindler at al., 2006). Expert’s level understudies led the treatment mediation and took an interest in week after week supervision to keep up devotion to the treatment intercession. The researcher found out that art therapy fosters personal growth and development. These findings support conclusions made by Leurent et al. in their study conducted on schizophrenia patients in (2014).

In its 2009 rules on schizophrenia management, NICE prescribed offering expressions treatments, especially art therapy to individuals with severe negative symptoms. This suggestion was focused around the 2009 rules (NICE 2009), which explored six randomized trials of expressions treatments. The trials were of changing quality, however for the most part proposed that innovative treatments were connected with lessening of negative side effects . The majority of these trials explored music treatment, however one exploratory trial of art therapy likewise demonstrated an impact on negative indications. Negative manifestations of schizophrenia may be connected with trouble taking part in mental treatments, and art therapy might in this manner be a suitable non-verbal option for such patients (Leurent et al., 2014).

In principle, it may be normal that intercessions focused around non-verbal interpretation that incorporate a social connection component, for example, intuitive group art therapy, could affect decidedly on the negative side effects of schizophrenia, for example, poor social compatibility and passionate withdrawal. Again, the principle examination of the MATISSE randomized trial did not discover any impact of art therapy on negative side effects at 12 and 24 (Crawford et al., 2012).  Crawford et al., (2010) further discovered that art therapy was not compelling for those with more serious negative side effects. These findings contrast those that were found by Richardson et al. (2007).

There are various reasons why the discoveries from the MATISSE study of 2012 may have contrasted from those reported by Richardson et al (2007). First, the study conducted by Richardson et al. (2007), was an exploratory trial with high faults and various results. The distinction seen between groups in evaluations of negative indications was around factual critical conditions and may have been seen by chance alone. Additionally, the manifestation of art therapy conveyed may have contrasted from that conveyed in the MATISSE study, despite the fact that they were both focused around comparative rules. In conclusion, results in the MATISSE study were surveyed longer after recruitment (12 months) than in the study conducted by Richardson et al. (2007) (6 months) and accordingly, any starting clinical additions noted by Richardson et al.  (2007) may have disseminated over the long run.

Art therapy helps individuals express encounters that are so troublesome that they cannot put into words, for example, a judgment of a mental illness such as schizophrenia. Some individuals with schizophrenia investigate the implications of past, present, and future of art therapy, subsequently coordinating mental problems into their biography and providing meaning for it. Stuckey and Nobel (2010) utilized drawings as a part of a push to comprehend encounters of wellbeing and disease, inspected how 32 moderately aged women with schizophrenia comprehended their condition. After an individual meeting, every member was asked to explain how she understands the illness. Utilization of color, spatial association, and piece were investigated among all participants. The drawings were considered as both visual results of the women’s information about schizophrenia and procedures of typified learning creation. It was inferred that having people draw how they envisioned their condition was an astute technique with which to investigate understandings of ailment, such as schizophrenia (Stuckey and Nobel, 2010).

Art therapy can be a shelter from the exceptional feelings connected with illnesses such as schizophrenia. There are no restrictions to the creative ability in discovering innovative methods for communicating anguish. Specifically, shaping earth can be an influential approach to help individuals express these emotions through material association at a physical level, and in addition to encourage verbal correspondence and cathartic discharge and uncover oblivious materials and images that cannot be communicated through words (Leurent et al., 2014).

Women joining in a qualitative study concentrating on disease portrayed progressing schizophrenia-related symptoms, for example, hopelessness, torment, restlessness, part misfortune, action confinement, decreased self-esteem, and changed social relationships. Engaging in diverse sorts of visual arts (materials, card making, arrangement, ceramics, watercolor, acrylics) helped these ladies in 4 noteworthy ways. To begin with, it helped them concentrate on positive backgrounds, easing their progressing distraction with tumor. Second, it improved their self-esteem and character by furnishing them with chances to exhibit progression, test, and accomplishment. Third, it empowered them to keep up a social character that opposed being characterized by schizophrenia. At long last, it permitted them to express their sentiments in a typical way, particularly amid drug use (Stuckey and Nobel, 2010).

Implications for further research

An investigation conducted by Patterson et al. (2011) on the effectiveness of art therapy, especially in connection to diagnosis of schizophrenia, has exhibited intricacy and assorted qualities in advisors’ developments of idea and practice. Underpinning difference discovered an unerring duty to the potential of art therapy to help enhancements in mental wellbeing and prosperity of individuals seen as having an insane mental structure and enduring acknowledgement of the uniqueness of experience and results (Holttum and Huet, 2014). Ramifications of these discoveries ought to be considered with reference to the way of the study, which in its adaptable approach and appreciation of the lavishness and assorted qualities of experience, imparts much with art therapy interventions (Patterson et al. 2011).

Stuckey and Nobel (2010) draw on the encounters of a chosen group of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, the universal provision in connection to speculation must be made. Hypothetical examination and accomplishment of immersion cannot be made certain that there is full range of specialist perspectives and that such investigations would not have caused discoveries to be reinvestigated. The recurrence of which any given case trademark, process or experience is observed in our participants ought not be seen as a measure of recurrence in different settings. In any case, that current discoveries are reliable with perspectives communicated by specialists in a late national review (Patterson et al., 2011) recommends that they are should be investigated further.

Further, whilst several researchers affirm distinct and genuine precision, qualitative examination is naturally subjective, obliging inventiveness and astute judgment from scientists (Gersch and Sao, 2006). The representations of researchers’ perspectives reflect complex impacts including particular expert and individual foundations and the connection within which various studies were carried out. However, different methodologies involved continue to be subjected to various procedures of significance making the basic examinations complete. Reliable with its constructivist underpinnings, as opposed to present this record as ‘truth’, our objective is to support elaboration and refinement of the “story” of workmanship treatment and schizophrenia. To start this procedure we talk about two interlinked concerns standing up to the craftsmanship treatment calling and individual specialists inside the current ‘proof based’ mental human services connection.

As indicated by NICE (2009), direction now incorporates a suggestion that referral to art therapy be considered for women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and the existing data should be used to help thought of referral. Psychologists should offer the most appropriate advice for females diagnosed with schizophrenia. The potential advantages of art therapy portrayed by advisors are reliable with those proposed by NICE (2009): individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia may be empowered to experience themselves contrastingly and to create better approaches for identifying with others, they may be served to communicate and to sort out their experiences into a fulfilling tasteful structure and served to comprehend emotions that may have developed amid the imaginative procedure (NICE, 2009).

Beneficial as these points may be, and regardless of boundless acknowledgement of the criticalness of patient experience and customized consideration, those accused of authorizing administrations are obliged to report against hard results. This is on account of assets are limited, rivalry for financing is extreme and assets are allotted where potential effect is most noteworthy. Coupled with the apparent non-abrasiveness of points of art therapy, this must be a variable in the inconsistent procurement of interventions to individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia (Patterson et al., 2011). Counselors and specialists are faced by strains identified with keeping up with the available alternativeness (Gersch and Sao, 2006), that is at the heart of art therapy and valid to the thought that the methodology of treatment is out of hand whilst showing productivity and expense adequacy. Questions must be raised about some information about adjusting the philosophical center of art therapy and responsibility to remaining nearby underestimated populaces and empowering them to talk with the pragmatics of consideration procurement. As Gersch and Sao, 2006 fights, art therapy confronts a genuine test in situating of itself within mental health institutions where the practice should be logically grounded to assist women diagnosed with schizophrenia.

It is right  to say that further research is expected to create an understanding of the mental and psychosocial qualities of individuals, especially women who experience schizophrenia, which patients make for a decent fit with art therapy, and what results can sensibly be impacted. Clarity must be made because the quality of art therapy inescapably attracts thoughtfulness regarding the troubles characterizing and measuring results in the midst of the astounding erratic complexities of schizophrenia. This thus posts incredible difficulties to the confirmation of ideas that presently exist in published literature (Crawford et al., 2012).

Given that a large portion of the restricted hypothetical premise for art therapy referred to by Crawford et al. (2010) and Crawford et al. (2012) was from books distributed initially in 1992-1993 and republished a few times (Leurent et al., 2013), one needs to ask what new hypothetical improvements have been made in art therapy since 1993. One other content is said by Crawford et al. (2012), and like the past ones it was not outfitted particularly to mental illness. A volume altered by Ruddy and Milne, (2005) is specifically concerned with schizophrenia and other schizophrenia-like illnesses, and a section by Crawford et al. (2012).

Nonetheless, it appears fundamental not just to have an agreeable understanding of art therapy systems in addition to components happening for individuals given a conclusion of schizophrenia: the instruments keeping up their social rejection and handicap, for example, segregation (NICE, 2009) and medication (Moncrieff and Leo, 2010). There is a requirement for studies that expand on that of Patterson et al (2011) and Crawford, et al. (2010) in discovering specialists’ understanding of their practice, and about patients’ encounters. This expansion must include shared methodologies between staff and women diagnosed with schizophrenia, for example, that of Schindler et al. (2006). This could expand on existing research to some degree on the hypothetical structure of the relationship between art therapy and schizophrenia management as illustrated by majority of researchers.

Levels of participation at art therapy may be higher when individuals are accepting inpatient treatment, and the effect of the therapy conveyed in most research settings ought to be contemplated. Aftereffects of randomized trials of other inventive treatments for individuals with schizophrenia, for example, music treatment and body development treatment, are more promising (Schindler et al., 2006). These mediations join innovativeness with different methodologies particularly when giving a charming background, invigorating physical development, and expanding communications with others. Despite the fact that it has been contended that inclusion in imaginative exercises is intrinsically useful for mental wellbeing, it might be that for individuals with serious emotional instabilities, for example, schizophrenia it is just when such exercises are utilized as a part of blend with different mediations that advantages are realized.


Art therapy is a manifestation of psychotherapy where the methodology of making pictures plays a focal part in the connection of the psychotherapeutic relationship. It has been generally connected to the treatment of patients and administration clients with schizophrenia and over all spectra of seriousness. It can be conveyed to all age assembles in an assortment of organizations counting those of individual, gathering, couples and family treatment; and has been connected as both a transient and a long haul intercession. Art therapy may be especially appropriate to the needs of administration clients who discover trouble in communicating verbally, in a valuable and non-ruinous way, their tricky sentiments and life encounters, as is every now and again the case among the extremely rationally sick. Its nonverbal angles may make it exceedingly applicable to females diagnosed with schizophrenia across dialect and ethnic foundations. As an extra to the work therapists handling women diagnosed with schizophrenia, art therapy may offer a potential means both to enhance the nature of consideration of treatment and to upgrade clinical results.

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Characteristics of Organizational Culture

Characteristics of organizational culture

Emphasis on outcome

Organization that places weight on the results, but not on how they attain the results, give lots of focus on this value of organizational culture. An organization that instructs its sales force to get sales orders by doing all that it takes would place a high value and emphasize on the outcome characteristics.


Organizations that are high centred on the team spirit in executing their business rather than the individual way places focus on the teamwork organizational culture (Pettigrew & Fenton 2000). Individuals in this kind of organizations tend to develop a positive relationship with the mangers and co-workers.


This feature of organizational culture dictates whether the group members are expected to show assertiveness or to be easy-going when dealing with other organizations they are competitors in the marketplace. The culture of aggressiveness as adopted by specific organizations make the organizations to place a high value on being very competitive in the market and outdoing the rest of the competitors.

Concern on the people

As argued by MacCarthaigh (2008), organizations that shows an organization culture of giving lots of emphasis on the people recognize a great deal of significance on the course of decision making and the effects of such decisions on the people in the organization. Such organization places lots of emphasis on treating their employees with dignity and respect.

The stability characteristics

Organizations with the culture of ensuring their operational stability tend to be rule-oriented, bureaucratic, and predictable in nature (Murray, 2006, p. 60-62). These organizations naturally provide predictable and consistent levels of output and operates best in market conditions that are relatively not changing.

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