Month: December 2016

Donald Sterling , Los Angeles Clippers And Social Controls – Sample Paper

Donald Sterling

  1. Determine whether or not you believe social controls played a significant role in Donald Sterling’s loss of ownership of the Los Angeles Clippers. Provide a rationale to support your position.

An American businessman and attorney, Donald Sterling, was the owner of the Los Angeles Clippers for 33 years from 1981 to 2014. The Los Angeles Clippers is a professional basketball franchise of the National Basketball Association (NBA). The National Basketball Association, in April 2014 imposed a lifetime veto on Sterling for his racist comments. The Association’s commissioner, Adam Silver, delivered an unpredictably tough set of sanctions against Donald Sterling and even compelled him to sell the Los Angeles Clippers (Swaine, 2014). The National Basket Association decided to ban Sterling from the team because he was telling his mistress, V. Stiviano, to refrain from bringing black guests to Clipper games. Sterling additionally raised complaints that Stiviano often posed with black people in photographs that she posted to her Instagram account. The fact that Sterling was banned from watching Clipper games, compelled to sell the team, and fined US $ 2.5 million for his racist comments, it is clear the National Basketball Association was against racism (Swaine, 2014). It is therefore evident that social controls really hurt Sterling in his fight to maintain ownership of the Los Angeles Clippers.

I believe that social controls played a significant role in Donald Sterling’s loss of ownership of the Los Angeles Clippers. According to Meier (1982), social control is a combination of methods used by a society to influence human behavior and maintain order. A stable society must have harmony and order. Absence of harmony and order leads to lack of a society because a society is formed when human beings exist in harmony (Meier, 1982). It is difficult to maintain an effective and social organization if there are no prescribed norms and conducts that govern people’s behavior. The National Basketball Association exercises control over its member, including its leaders, through its commendable stand against racism (Swaine, 2014).

According to the Association’s commissioner, Adam Silver, Donald Sterling’s racist comments were contrary to the principles of respect and inclusion that form the foundation of the multi-ethnic, multicultural and diverse league. As a punishment for violating the social controls governing the National Basketball Association, Donald Sterling was banned for life from maintaining ownership of the Los Angeles Clippers. Additionally, Sterling was further fined 2.5 million United States dollars as a demonstration of the league’s rejection of his racist comments (Swaine, 2014).

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Why is the increased incarceration rate of women such an issue in jails across America? What four factors have had the most influence in female offender behavior?

Answer

The increase in the number of women who undergo incarceration in America is of a concern because statistics reveal that more women have been going to prison as compared to their male counterparts. For instance, between the year 2000 and 2009, the percentage of women who went to prison during that time increase by a margin of 21.6 percent as compared to men who only had 15.6 percent (Currie, 1998). If the statistics are anything to go by then it means that more women will be expected to go to either the state or the federal prisons in the future. The resulting effect of having more women go to prisons is that there are more families that get torn apart than what was witnessed in the earlier years.

The issue of women going to jail is of a great concern because most of those who get jail sentences are young women who have not completed their secondary education. Therefore by the time they complete their jail terms, they are normally of age and cannot therefore go back to school. The economy is therefore dealt a big blow because such characters are not able to contribute to the economic growth of the country.

Apart from that, incarceration leads to an increase in the number of women with mental problems (Smykla, 2015). Additionally, statistics show that 2.4 percent of the women who were imprisoned in the year 2004 were diagnosed to be HIV positive.

The factors that mostly contribute to women getting incarcerated include their involvement in either property or drugs related crimes. Moreover, there are those who get sentenced as a result of taking part in violent criminal activities (Sheets, 2007). Finally, there are those women who are sent to jail as a result of taking part in inner city crimes that are in most cases caused by both social and economic isolation.

 

References

Briefing Sheets (2007). Women in the Criminal Justice System. 514 Tenth Street, NW Suite 1000, Washington, DC

Elliott Currie (1998). Crime and Punishment in America. New York times. Web. Http:// http://www.nytimes.com/books/first/c/currie-crime.html. Accessed 7 January, 2015.

Schmalleger, F., & Smykla, J. O. (2015). Corrections in the 21st century (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education

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Literature Review : What Is The Efficacy Of Art Therapy On Females Diagnosis With Schizophrenia

Introduction

Schizophrenia is an extreme emotional instability influencing up to one in a hundred individuals sooner or later in their lives. The problem presents with constructive manifestations, for example, mental trips and dreams, numerous individuals likewise experience negative side effects, for example, lack of concern and diminished organizational aptitudes that can extraordinarily debilitate their regular functioning (Leurent et al, 2014). Art therapy, a manifestation of psychotherapy which utilizes the medium of craftsmanship to encourage individual statement and understanding of feelings (Drapeau and Kronish, 2007), has been demonstrated through one exploratory trial to be connected with change of negative manifestations observed in people diagnosed with schizophrenia (Patterson et al., 2011). The purpose of this paper is to give a literature review on the efficacy of art therapy on females diagnosed with schizophrenia. The paper seeks to answer one question: Does art therapy improve symptoms for women diagnosed with schizophrenia? Several researchers have conducted investigations with the objective of finding out the effectiveness of art therapy on individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia.

Literature review

Although there are quantitative and qualitative studies examining the adequacy of art therapy for female adults diagnosed with schizophrenia, a great part of the writing is somehow descriptive.  A few researchers have also used a mixture of both qualitative and quantitative methods to investigate the efficacy of art therapy for women diagnosed with schizophrenia (Schindler et al., 2006). Leurent et al., (2014) portrayed the profits of utilizing group therapy

treatment with schizophrenic in-patients. The researchers observed that the utilization of paintings and representations amid group art therapy sessions helped the patients’ capacity to address emotions of surrender and insecurity regarding whether they would survive. Drapeau and Kronish (2007), talk about how taking an interest in art therapy empowers schizophrenic patients in a psychiatric ward to express and speak to curbed emotions. Crawford et al. (2012), uncovered that group art therapy is useful in making the move from the hospital to a home environment. They additionally found that patients become more perceptive about the motivation behind their treatment and are additionally tolerate living with emotional instability after group art therapy sessions.

While it is hard to find controlled investigations of any sort of art therapy particularly with individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, one such study was directed by Richardson et al. (2007). It was an exploratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) of art therapy situated in the group, and reported a huge lessening in negative symptoms after just 12 sessions, which these specialists considered an absolute minimum fundamental for remedial effect. The treatment model was group mental art therapy. While this methodology was at first demonstrated on group mental psychotherapy, with its spotlight on art therapy communications, Schindler et al (2006) have pointed out that psychotherapy practically speaking can fuse a scope of psychodynamic speculations, with contrasting degrees of spotlight on transference and counter-transference.  This incorporates the investigation of groups’ past encounters, and making psychoanalytic translations of the oblivious importance of their articulations, fine arts, and conduct.

In order to find out whether effectiveness of art therapy is directly related to the severity of negative schizophrenia symptoms, Leurent et al. (2014) used a total of 649 participants. The median age of participants was 41 years old and 32 percent of them were females diagnosed with schizophrenia. The participants had been suffering from schizophrenia for 15 years on average, and more than 90 percent had been on antipsychotic medication for a while. Only 29 percent of the participants had previous experience of art therapy. The effect of art therapy did not differ between patients with more severe and less severe schizophrenic symptoms. However, participants recorded improvement of symptoms following art therapy intervention. According to Leurent et al. (2014), art therapy is effective on females diagnosed with schizophrenia and the extent of efficacy is not linked with the seriousness of negative symptoms.

In their study, Crawford et al. (2012) revealed that not all people diagnosed with schizophrenia should be referred to art therapies. The researchers used 649 participants who were subjected to art therapy for a period of 19 months. This sample size allowed for detection of significance on the international assessment of functioning scale at a period of 24 months. The researchers conducted statistical analysis with the aim of treating principle. In this randomized trial the mental wellbeing and worldwide functioning of individuals with schizophrenia was not enhanced by offering a weekly art therapy notwithstanding their standard consideration. Those randomized to weekly group art therapy had comparative levels of global functioning and mental wellbeing as those randomized to an action control group over a two year period, with the exception that the movement control group had a more prominent decrease in positive manifestations of schizophrenia at 24 months. Individuals offered a spot in group art therapy were more inclined to go to sessions than those offered individual interventions (Crawford et al., 2012).

In a different study, Richardson et al. (2007), investigated the effectiveness of art therapy as an adjunctive treatment for in-patients and out-patients with serious and constant schizophrenia, both males and female. He utilized a randomized controlled examination outline to quantify the adequacy of art therapy group projects on enhancing patients’ personal satisfaction and working, diminishing manifestations, and expanding the utilization of health care institutions. The researchers assessed all patients on a range of symptoms and measures including quality of life and social functioning, with six-month follow-up. They concluded that art therapy generated statistically significant positive impacts on negative schizophrenia symptoms (Richardson et al., 2007). Since effectiveness of art therapy was observed on both females and males, modern counseling institutions should utilize art therapy on females diagnosed with schizophrenia to improve symptoms.

In hypothetical terms, art therapy would permit individuals who have had generally little chance to discuss and attempt to deal with life injury and delayed burdens at various times to start to express their unarticulated and muddled feelings through the moderately protected medium of art. This has been depicted clearly by administration clients with a finding of marginal identity issue (Ruddy and Milne, 2005). A steady group background may empower members to relate to one another’s visual depictions of troublesome feelings without promptly examining them inside and out, and in addition basically appreciate innovativeness and the tactile incitement of the art materials (Crawford et al., 2010).

The imparted movement towards art therapy steadily fabricates common help so that group members diagnosed with schizophrenia can pace their examination toward oneself and personal well being (Patterson et al., 2011). For individuals who have been minimized and barred from interacting with the society, on top of harming early encounters, this methodology may require some investment (Smeijsters and Cleven, 2006). To the degree that common gratefulness and delight is communicated through artistic manifestations, negative symptoms of schizophrenia can be managed (Crawford et al., 2010).

The motivation behind a study conducted by Schindler at al. (2006) was to analyze if grown-ups diagnosed with serious and persevering schizophrenia and who went to a group mental health focus exhibited enhanced errand and interpersonal abilities and social parts following administration of art therapy. The study utilized a solitary subject detailed analysis design with pretest and posttest follow-up for a period of eight weeks (Schindler at al., 2006). Qualitative research questions at pretest and posttest were utilized to supplement quantitative discoveries. A total of seven participants were used in the study, three men and four women.

This design was selected to proceed with the evaluation of part improvement in an alternate setting such as an inpatient setting and with a more centered view on the procedure included in part and expertise advancement (Schindler at al., 2006). Expert’s level understudies led the treatment mediation and took an interest in week after week supervision to keep up devotion to the treatment intercession. The researcher found out that art therapy fosters personal growth and development. These findings support conclusions made by Leurent et al. in their study conducted on schizophrenia patients in (2014).

In its 2009 rules on schizophrenia management, NICE prescribed offering expressions treatments, especially art therapy to individuals with severe negative symptoms. This suggestion was focused around the 2009 rules (NICE 2009), which explored six randomized trials of expressions treatments. The trials were of changing quality, however for the most part proposed that innovative treatments were connected with lessening of negative side effects . The majority of these trials explored music treatment, however one exploratory trial of art therapy likewise demonstrated an impact on negative indications. Negative manifestations of schizophrenia may be connected with trouble taking part in mental treatments, and art therapy might in this manner be a suitable non-verbal option for such patients (Leurent et al., 2014).

In principle, it may be normal that intercessions focused around non-verbal interpretation that incorporate a social connection component, for example, intuitive group art therapy, could affect decidedly on the negative side effects of schizophrenia, for example, poor social compatibility and passionate withdrawal. Again, the principle examination of the MATISSE randomized trial did not discover any impact of art therapy on negative side effects at 12 and 24 (Crawford et al., 2012).  Crawford et al., (2010) further discovered that art therapy was not compelling for those with more serious negative side effects. These findings contrast those that were found by Richardson et al. (2007).

There are various reasons why the discoveries from the MATISSE study of 2012 may have contrasted from those reported by Richardson et al (2007). First, the study conducted by Richardson et al. (2007), was an exploratory trial with high faults and various results. The distinction seen between groups in evaluations of negative indications was around factual critical conditions and may have been seen by chance alone. Additionally, the manifestation of art therapy conveyed may have contrasted from that conveyed in the MATISSE study, despite the fact that they were both focused around comparative rules. In conclusion, results in the MATISSE study were surveyed longer after recruitment (12 months) than in the study conducted by Richardson et al. (2007) (6 months) and accordingly, any starting clinical additions noted by Richardson et al.  (2007) may have disseminated over the long run.

Art therapy helps individuals express encounters that are so troublesome that they cannot put into words, for example, a judgment of a mental illness such as schizophrenia. Some individuals with schizophrenia investigate the implications of past, present, and future of art therapy, subsequently coordinating mental problems into their biography and providing meaning for it. Stuckey and Nobel (2010) utilized drawings as a part of a push to comprehend encounters of wellbeing and disease, inspected how 32 moderately aged women with schizophrenia comprehended their condition. After an individual meeting, every member was asked to explain how she understands the illness. Utilization of color, spatial association, and piece were investigated among all participants. The drawings were considered as both visual results of the women’s information about schizophrenia and procedures of typified learning creation. It was inferred that having people draw how they envisioned their condition was an astute technique with which to investigate understandings of ailment, such as schizophrenia (Stuckey and Nobel, 2010).

Art therapy can be a shelter from the exceptional feelings connected with illnesses such as schizophrenia. There are no restrictions to the creative ability in discovering innovative methods for communicating anguish. Specifically, shaping earth can be an influential approach to help individuals express these emotions through material association at a physical level, and in addition to encourage verbal correspondence and cathartic discharge and uncover oblivious materials and images that cannot be communicated through words (Leurent et al., 2014).

Women joining in a qualitative study concentrating on disease portrayed progressing schizophrenia-related symptoms, for example, hopelessness, torment, restlessness, part misfortune, action confinement, decreased self-esteem, and changed social relationships. Engaging in diverse sorts of visual arts (materials, card making, arrangement, ceramics, watercolor, acrylics) helped these ladies in 4 noteworthy ways. To begin with, it helped them concentrate on positive backgrounds, easing their progressing distraction with tumor. Second, it improved their self-esteem and character by furnishing them with chances to exhibit progression, test, and accomplishment. Third, it empowered them to keep up a social character that opposed being characterized by schizophrenia. At long last, it permitted them to express their sentiments in a typical way, particularly amid drug use (Stuckey and Nobel, 2010).

Implications for further research

An investigation conducted by Patterson et al. (2011) on the effectiveness of art therapy, especially in connection to diagnosis of schizophrenia, has exhibited intricacy and assorted qualities in advisors’ developments of idea and practice. Underpinning difference discovered an unerring duty to the potential of art therapy to help enhancements in mental wellbeing and prosperity of individuals seen as having an insane mental structure and enduring acknowledgement of the uniqueness of experience and results (Holttum and Huet, 2014). Ramifications of these discoveries ought to be considered with reference to the way of the study, which in its adaptable approach and appreciation of the lavishness and assorted qualities of experience, imparts much with art therapy interventions (Patterson et al. 2011).

Stuckey and Nobel (2010) draw on the encounters of a chosen group of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, the universal provision in connection to speculation must be made. Hypothetical examination and accomplishment of immersion cannot be made certain that there is full range of specialist perspectives and that such investigations would not have caused discoveries to be reinvestigated. The recurrence of which any given case trademark, process or experience is observed in our participants ought not be seen as a measure of recurrence in different settings. In any case, that current discoveries are reliable with perspectives communicated by specialists in a late national review (Patterson et al., 2011) recommends that they are should be investigated further.

Further, whilst several researchers affirm distinct and genuine precision, qualitative examination is naturally subjective, obliging inventiveness and astute judgment from scientists (Gersch and Sao, 2006). The representations of researchers’ perspectives reflect complex impacts including particular expert and individual foundations and the connection within which various studies were carried out. However, different methodologies involved continue to be subjected to various procedures of significance making the basic examinations complete. Reliable with its constructivist underpinnings, as opposed to present this record as ‘truth’, our objective is to support elaboration and refinement of the “story” of workmanship treatment and schizophrenia. To start this procedure we talk about two interlinked concerns standing up to the craftsmanship treatment calling and individual specialists inside the current ‘proof based’ mental human services connection.

As indicated by NICE (2009), direction now incorporates a suggestion that referral to art therapy be considered for women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and the existing data should be used to help thought of referral. Psychologists should offer the most appropriate advice for females diagnosed with schizophrenia. The potential advantages of art therapy portrayed by advisors are reliable with those proposed by NICE (2009): individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia may be empowered to experience themselves contrastingly and to create better approaches for identifying with others, they may be served to communicate and to sort out their experiences into a fulfilling tasteful structure and served to comprehend emotions that may have developed amid the imaginative procedure (NICE, 2009).

Beneficial as these points may be, and regardless of boundless acknowledgement of the criticalness of patient experience and customized consideration, those accused of authorizing administrations are obliged to report against hard results. This is on account of assets are limited, rivalry for financing is extreme and assets are allotted where potential effect is most noteworthy. Coupled with the apparent non-abrasiveness of points of art therapy, this must be a variable in the inconsistent procurement of interventions to individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia (Patterson et al., 2011). Counselors and specialists are faced by strains identified with keeping up with the available alternativeness (Gersch and Sao, 2006), that is at the heart of art therapy and valid to the thought that the methodology of treatment is out of hand whilst showing productivity and expense adequacy. Questions must be raised about some information about adjusting the philosophical center of art therapy and responsibility to remaining nearby underestimated populaces and empowering them to talk with the pragmatics of consideration procurement. As Gersch and Sao, 2006 fights, art therapy confronts a genuine test in situating of itself within mental health institutions where the practice should be logically grounded to assist women diagnosed with schizophrenia.

It is right  to say that further research is expected to create an understanding of the mental and psychosocial qualities of individuals, especially women who experience schizophrenia, which patients make for a decent fit with art therapy, and what results can sensibly be impacted. Clarity must be made because the quality of art therapy inescapably attracts thoughtfulness regarding the troubles characterizing and measuring results in the midst of the astounding erratic complexities of schizophrenia. This thus posts incredible difficulties to the confirmation of ideas that presently exist in published literature (Crawford et al., 2012).

Given that a large portion of the restricted hypothetical premise for art therapy referred to by Crawford et al. (2010) and Crawford et al. (2012) was from books distributed initially in 1992-1993 and republished a few times (Leurent et al., 2013), one needs to ask what new hypothetical improvements have been made in art therapy since 1993. One other content is said by Crawford et al. (2012), and like the past ones it was not outfitted particularly to mental illness. A volume altered by Ruddy and Milne, (2005) is specifically concerned with schizophrenia and other schizophrenia-like illnesses, and a section by Crawford et al. (2012).

Nonetheless, it appears fundamental not just to have an agreeable understanding of art therapy systems in addition to components happening for individuals given a conclusion of schizophrenia: the instruments keeping up their social rejection and handicap, for example, segregation (NICE, 2009) and medication (Moncrieff and Leo, 2010). There is a requirement for studies that expand on that of Patterson et al (2011) and Crawford, et al. (2010) in discovering specialists’ understanding of their practice, and about patients’ encounters. This expansion must include shared methodologies between staff and women diagnosed with schizophrenia, for example, that of Schindler et al. (2006). This could expand on existing research to some degree on the hypothetical structure of the relationship between art therapy and schizophrenia management as illustrated by majority of researchers.

Levels of participation at art therapy may be higher when individuals are accepting inpatient treatment, and the effect of the therapy conveyed in most research settings ought to be contemplated. Aftereffects of randomized trials of other inventive treatments for individuals with schizophrenia, for example, music treatment and body development treatment, are more promising (Schindler et al., 2006). These mediations join innovativeness with different methodologies particularly when giving a charming background, invigorating physical development, and expanding communications with others. Despite the fact that it has been contended that inclusion in imaginative exercises is intrinsically useful for mental wellbeing, it might be that for individuals with serious emotional instabilities, for example, schizophrenia it is just when such exercises are utilized as a part of blend with different mediations that advantages are realized.

Conclusion

Art therapy is a manifestation of psychotherapy where the methodology of making pictures plays a focal part in the connection of the psychotherapeutic relationship. It has been generally connected to the treatment of patients and administration clients with schizophrenia and over all spectra of seriousness. It can be conveyed to all age assembles in an assortment of organizations counting those of individual, gathering, couples and family treatment; and has been connected as both a transient and a long haul intercession. Art therapy may be especially appropriate to the needs of administration clients who discover trouble in communicating verbally, in a valuable and non-ruinous way, their tricky sentiments and life encounters, as is every now and again the case among the extremely rationally sick. Its nonverbal angles may make it exceedingly applicable to females diagnosed with schizophrenia across dialect and ethnic foundations. As an extra to the work therapists handling women diagnosed with schizophrenia, art therapy may offer a potential means both to enhance the nature of consideration of treatment and to upgrade clinical results.

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Organizational Culture And It’s Characteristics

Definition Of Organizational Culture

The debate over the organizational culture is one that cuts across varied facets within an organization’s setup and operations,not excluding the great input of the workforce behind the organization’s progress, notes Grey (2005). Though the aspects of organizational culture has got some level of universal agreement on its exist and the crucial part it plays in shaping the behaviour in organizations, there have been little consensus on what exactly organizational culture actually is, not minding the influence it has on the people’s behaviour and whether leaders can change it.

Robbie Katanga defines organizational culture as how the organization ‘do things’. Culture is considered to be the observable and consistent patterns of behaviour in organizations. That is, we tend to be what we repeatedly do.

Each and every organization has its ‘unique personality’ referred to as the culture. In a group set-up individuals work together, organization culture becomes an invisible but a very powerful force that influence the group members’ behaviours. Thus organization culture is a system of shared values, assumptions, and beliefs that are governing how individuals behave in an organization.These shared values have great influence on individuals within the organization and dictate the way they act, dress and perform their jobs. Let’s now look into the elements making up the organization’s culture (MacCarthaigh, 2008, p. 47).

Characteristics of organizational culture

Emphasis on outcome

Organization that places weight on the results, but not on how they attain the results, give lots of focus on this value of organizational culture. An organization that instructs its sales force to get sales orders by doing all that it takes would place a high value and emphasize on the outcome characteristics.

Teamwork

Organizations that are high centred on the team spirit in executing their business rather than the individual way places focus on the teamwork organizational culture (Pettigrew & Fenton 2000). Individuals in this kind of organizations tend to develop a positive relationship with the mangers and co-workers.

Aggressiveness

This feature of organizational culture dictates whether the group members are expected to show assertiveness or to be easy-going when dealing with other organizations they are competitors in the marketplace. The culture of aggressiveness as adopted by specific organizations make the organizations to place a high value on being very competitive in the market and outdoing the rest of the competitors.

Concern on the people

As argued by MacCarthaigh (2008), organizations that shows an organization culture of giving lots of emphasis on the people recognize a great deal of significance on the course of decision making and the effects of such decisions on the people in the organization. Such organization places lots of emphasis on treating their employees with dignity and respect.

The stability characteristics

Organizations with the culture of ensuring their operational stability tend to be rule-oriented, bureaucratic, and predictable in nature (Murray, 2006, p. 60-62). These organizations naturally provide predictable and consistent levels of output and operates best in market conditions that are relatively not changing.

Attention to detail

Organizations in exercise of this feature of culture mostly give some level of dictatorship to which employees are supposed to be accurate in doing their work (Murray, 2006). A culture placing a great attention to the detail anticipates that their employees perform their work with highest level of precision.

Innovation

This is a characteristic in which an organization exercises a culture of innovation thereby encouraging the employees to beinnovative and be risk takers in process of performing their work (Grey, 2005). In organization where the culture of innovation is not given any emphasis, employees are expected to perform their jobs just the same way as they have been trained to do them, and shy away from inventing ways to create an improvement on their performance.

Tracking of cultural change

Tracking of cultural change is significant in terms of doing an assessment whether there is any misalignment of the culture in terms of subgroup cultures’ practices, or if any case there are challenges or issues to be addressed. These are challenges and issues considered to be undermining the cultural ethos and the underlying assumptions of the organization. This entails undertaking an effective exercise on the concept of organizational culture mapping (Parker & Bradley, 2000).

CEO and Organizational Culture Profile Research Paper 

Choose one (1) of the following organizations to research: Google, Zappos, Southwest, Hewlett Packard, Xerox, W.L. Gore, DuPont, or Procter & Gamble. Use a variety of resources (company Website, newspaper, company blogs, etc.) to research the culture of the selected organization. Note: Use Question 6 as your conclusion. An abstract is not necessary for this assignment.

Write a five to six (5-6) page CEO and organizational culture profile research paper in which you:

1. Provide a brief (one [1] paragraph) description of the organization you chose to research.

2. Examine the culture of the selected organization.

3. Explain how you determined that the selected organization showed the signs of the culture that you have identified.

4. Determine the factors that caused the organization to embody this particular culture.

5. Determine what type of leader would be best suited for this organization. Support your position.

6. Imagine that there is a decline in the demand of product(s) or services supplied by the selected organization. Determine what the change in culture would need to be in response to this situation.

7. Use at least five (5) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

 Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.

 Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

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Mechanisms of liberal bias in the news media versus the academy

Ideas exert immense influence on life, as observed by thinkers as diverse as John Maynard Keynes and Ayn Rand. Modern models of democratic politics incorporate the citizens’ policy preferences, but the available ideas in society ultimately shape these preferences and the citizens’ views of how policies affect outcomes. In the long run, the market for ideas significantly affects economies.

The market for ideas and information has two segments: the generation of ideas and the transmission of these ideas to the general public. Ivory tower academics and the news media arc important components of the market for ideas. Given the influence of ideas on policy, it is not surprising that many observers have expressed concern over the apparent left-liberal bias in both the media and the academy favoring greater government direction of society:

Journalism is inherently subjective; a journalist’s approach to a story invariably reflects his opinions. No one would accept the statement of a Ku Klux Klansman, in line for a judgeship, that he was capable of applying the civil rights laws objectively, without regard to his personal opinions. Yet the argument is advanced by members of the media that a reporter can cover

George Bush fairly even if he believes that Bush is a tool of fascist warmongers and racist plutocrats. (Bozell and Baker 1990, 1)

[P]art of what really bothers so many liberals … is that there even exists a more conservative alternative to the mainstream news outlets. Liberals … had the playing field to themselves for so many years, controlling the rules of the game, that to them it had come to seem the natural order of things. (Goldberg 2003, 12)

With a few notable exceptions, most prestigious liberal arts colleges and universities have installed the entire radical menu at the center of their humanities curriculum at both the graduate and undergraduate levels. Every special interest … and every modish interpretive gambit … has found a welcome roost in the academy, while the traditional curriculum and modes of intellectual inquiry arc excoriated as sexist, racist, or just plain reactionary. (Kimball 2008, 5)

The radical cohort … is now a large and influential presence and in some cases an imposing majority on liberal arts faculties and the governing bodies of national academic organizations. As a result, it has been able to transform significant parts of the academy into agencies of political and social change. (Horowitz and Laskin 2009, 9)

Political bias in the market for ideas is in essence a claim concerning the performance or efficiency of this market. Concerns about left-liberal bias among intellectuals arc not new; Ludwig von Mises ([1956] 1972), Friedrich Hayek (1960), and Robert Nozick (1998) discussed this topic. (1)

The available evidence clearly establishes that more journalists and academics in the United States are Democrats or liberals than Republicans, conservatives, or libertarians (Lichter, Rothman, and Lichter 1986; Weaver and Wilhoit 1996; Cardiff and Klein 2005; Klein and Stern 2005) and that this disparity of numbers may affect the substance of research, writing, and teaching (Groseclosc and Milyo 2005; Kimball 2008; Horowitz and Laskin 2009; Gentzkow and Shapiro 2010). Yet such evidence is the equivalent of circumstantial evidence in criminal proceedings and not totally satisfying. Work product, for instance, may not reflect political views; both journalists and academics employ methods designed to keep personal views out of their work. Positions on specific issues also depend on the facts. News stories that take global warming as a fact and research by health economists in support of government-run health care are not necessarily biased; without independent access to the “truth,” we can never demonstrate biased misrepresentation of the truth by news coverage or academic research. An examination of the news industry’s and the academy’s institutions and incentives therefore usefully supplements the available evidence. In other words, discovery of a compelling motive can make circumstantial evidence look much stronger.

In this article, I present a comparative institutional analysis of news reporting and the academy to help provide perspective on charges of bias in each sector. Three differences appear significant. The first is in the nature of the marketed product. The media markets news to a general audience, generating revenue either directly through audience payment or indirectly through advertising. Either way, attracting customers is closely tied to revenue generation. In contrast, academics produce student credit hours and research reports consumed primarily by other academics. Neither product results in substantial feedback in the form of revenue from the larger society. The second difference is the nature of employee compensation. On-the-job consumption in various forms seemingly constitutes a larger share of professors’ total compensation. If bias in research and teaching were to reduce universities’ revenues, this reduction would be offset by professors’ lower monetary compensation. The third difference is the lack of a residual claimant for nonprofit private or public universities compared with private ownership of the media. Although the lack of a profit motive might be thought to be the major difference between the sectors, its effect is primarily to increase the persistence of bias when or if it develops. The lack of a residual claimant reduces the likelihood of radical measures to overhaul a poorly performing, bias-ridden university department. The lack of a profit incentive can combine with the almost nonexistent revenue effect to create scope for administrators to indulge bias or other prejudices in hiring. (2)

Mechanisms of liberal bias in the news media versus the academy

News Media Bias

The news media market a product, whether it be a newspaper, a magazine, a TV broadcast, or Web site material. The media in the United States (and now in most countries around the world) are privately owned for-profit companies with residual claimants. The owners’ interest limits the potential for liberal bias if this bias reduces the audience for news. A liberal bias across most or all outlets in a segment of the news market will likely result in lower revenues, owing to alienation of conservatives and libertarians and a division of the remaining audience (Sutter 2001). The reduced revenues can result either directly through reduced consumer purchases or indirectly through lower advertising rates. The reduction in profits at some point will provoke action by the owners to limit bias. Managers need not be perfect agents of owners, and owners may not respond immediately, but lost revenues and profits will eventually provoke action by owners to control a liberal news bias.

Two factors can offset news owners’ incentive to limit bias. First, liberal news may not significantly reduce the audience, either because consumers fail to discern the bias or because potential consumers are disproportionately liberal (Goff and Tollison 1990) or because a left-liberal orientation makes for more interesting and marketable stories (Sutter 2004). Many news consumers may be unable to detect partisan bias in a story or unaware of alternative potential stories or angles. Customer preferences explain bias only if liberal news produces a greater audience than unbiased news, and if we are to explain bias across most or all media outlets, the audience must be extremely liberal; if there are three news outlets, moderates and conservatives cannot make up more than one-third of the news audience (under standard assumptions of a spatial model) for all three outlets to maximize revenue by supplying liberal news. Bias that does not adversely affect the audience might be regarded as benign, but this conclusion is not necessarily correct. By affecting the information that news consumers receive, hidden bias can affect voters’ policy preferences on specific issues.

Second, bias can potentially reduce costs. The most likely means by which biased reporting lowers cost is if liberal reporters value indulging bias in their work. If reporters accept lower salaries in order to report with a liberal bias, or, alternatively, if news organizations have to pay a compensating wage differential for neutral or conservative reporting, bias can lower cost and potentially offset any loss in revenue. The prevalence of liberals among the ranks of reporters provides plausibility to the compensating-wage-differential hypothesis. But although surveys consistently reveal that more journalists self-identify as liberal than as conservative, typically fewer than 50 percent of reporters identify themselves as liberal. (3) Thus, the median reporter does not appear extremely liberal, which should limit the size of the wage differential. In addition, many journalists also value being good reporters, which involves reporting the news without bias.

A force exists to limit bias in the news media: the incentive of owners of for profit news companies and entrepreneurs who might exploit an opportunity to provide unbiased or conservative news. Thus, liberal bias in the commercial news media provokes its own reaction as long as bias eventually reduces revenues and profits. The response need not be perfect, but the greater the bias, the greater the reduction in profit and the greater the likelihood that owners will respond.

How the Academy Differs

The academy differs from the news market in three main ways. First, the vast majority of colleges and universities comprises either nonprofit organizations or public (or quasi-public) enterprises. Therefore, universities have no residual claimant to benefit from correcting bias that hurts organizational performance. Second, academics do not produce a product sold directly on the market, and hence there is no representative audience that might be alienated by a biased product, as in the case of news reports. Liberal bias produces much weaker feedback for a department or university than for a news media company. Third, research is in large measure a consumption good, and many academics want to indulge their ideology in their research and teaching. Academics accept lower lifetime earnings relative to fields such as business, law, and medicine, and nonpecuniary or on-the-job consumption benefits constitute a larger share of their total compensation.

Although lack of a profit motive might appear to be the most significant difference between the universities and the news media, it is not the most important difference, at least as commonly interpreted. Universities have constituencies who value reputation–administrators (whose job prospects depend on their university’s U.S. News & World Report ranking), alumni, and faculty–and who create pressure for performance. Nonprofits face scarcity, so administrators must balance competing demands for resources (for example, faculty lines) across departments. In a nonprofit environment, administrators may lack the information and incentive to calculate the most efficient use of resources, but the loss of efficiency, given the proxies of value available (for example, student demand for a major), is relatively modest. The lack of a residual claimant plays a secondary role, combining with the nature of faculty outputs to create space for bias and to reduce administrators’ incentive to take action to counter bias once it has been established. (4)

The “Marketing” of Faculty Products

The two main faculty products, research and teaching, are not sold on a market in the same fashion as news reports or most other products. Peer review stands at the heart of academic publishing. Research is produced for other practitioners to earn prestige rather than to accrue a direct cash payment (Thornton 2004). Academic researchers derive value by making their peers think highly of their work, expertise, and creativity. Division of knowledge and specialization implies that nonexperts–persons outside the academy or the discipline–may not perceive the value of scholarly research. Research builds on society’s stock of knowledge, which does not depreciate; advances in knowledge today require extreme specialization. Outsiders’ failure to appreciate the value of esoteric research does not mean that such research lacks value. The “consumers” of research are other academics, so external feedback is modest. Scholars in traditional fields such as economics, political science, and geography are now experts in only a part of their discipline. Only a few dozen scholars worldwide might be able to judge whether a specific academic publication is seminal or pedestrian. Because academics produce research primarily for other academics, research that impresses other academics generates a reputation, which allows a researcher to acquire resources within the academy.

Two factors potentially limit academics’ writing for other academics. The first is the value research might have to persons (consumers) outside of the academy. External value is most common in science, engineering, and medicine, where new products can originate in academic labs. But policy disciplines also have consumers outside the academy; for example, the work of labor economists on the effects of unions will interest labor unions and businesses. Scientific research of policy relevance (for example, climate science) also has external constituencies. External audiences in these cases can affect research content, with potential funding altering the content of research in subtle or not so subtle ways. (5)

The cost of research is the second factor that limits insularity. Research in science, medicine, and engineering is expensive; a new faculty member requires $100,000 or more in startup funds. Universities typically expect to recover much of this cost from grants made by government or industry. Academics who undertake expensive research may need to appeal to external constituencies. External funding will not necessarily bring a nonacademic focus to research. The National Science Foundation, for example, draws heavily on academics to review and evaluate funding proposals (Greenberg 1999), so this externally funded research will still be aimed largely at other academics.

If research is primarily a consumption good for faculty, why do colleges and universities tolerate, encourage, and support faculty research? Colleges and universities market faculty expertise to students and their parents. The connection is difficult to quantify with precision, but student applications (particularly from top high school students) depend on a university’s reputation, which is closely tied to its faculty’s reputation (Clotfelter 1999; Winston 1999). Faculty research is even more important in attracting students for graduate study. Academic publications provide a tangible signal of expertise, just as colleges used to report the percentage of faculty with Ph.D.s. Faculty research provides this value even to nonresearch universities. The value of faculty research to a university, however, depends little on the content of the research (except in attracting external funding). A liberal arts college needs faculty publications to display for prospective students and their parents on campus visits. Esoteric, jargon-laden titles convey expertise, but a book or article’s specific content is almost irrelevant to prospective students and parents. News consumers are far more responsive to the content of stories. A boring story may lead TV viewers to change the channel, and an interesting headline may spur sales of hard-copy media. (6) The extent to which news consumers or prospective students and their parents respond to ideological or political bias has yet to be conclusively established. Nonetheless, the elasticity of demand with respect to the content seems substantially greater for news than for faculty research. In most circumstances, university administrators will care little about the content of faculty research.

The other faculty product is teaching. Departments must produce student credit hours to justify faculty positions, and failure to attract students will eventually lead to a department’s demise, even in a nonprofit university. Yet the impact of bias on enrollment seems relatively modest, especially in comparison with its impact on news. Faculty bias may actually help to attract majors and graduate students who want to study in the field, and bias may attract students committed to social justice or to exposing the evils of business in some fields (see Woessner and Kelly-Woessner 2009), thereby helping to generate credit hours. Universities offer numerous majors, and attracting one hundred (or fewer) out of twenty thousand undergraduates to a particular department may be sufficient to avoid a shutdown. A department major may need to attract only one-half of one percent or less of students. The change in the number of students majoring in a subject if, say, a department becomes a hotbed of Marxist scholarship might be small and possibly even positive. A department can also produce credit hours by teaching required courses for other majors. The flexibility typical of curriculum requirements (for example, take five classes out of a list of ten) can help a biased department because students likely to be offended can avoid the politicized classes, just as news consumers can avoid a news product that clashes with their worldview. And a department that offers ideologically driven courses can improve the attractiveness of its offerings in other dimensions–such as the day and time of class offerings, the amount of work required, and grades given.

The preceding discussion presumes that students will perceive biased teaching as of lower quality, but this perception may not occur. F. A. Hayek noted of socialist intellectuals that “it seems to be true that it is on the whole the more active, intelligent, and original men among the intellectuals who most frequently incline toward socialism” (1960, 379). If such is also true about left-liberal professors, they may offer entertaining and engaging courses. Faculty who teach ideological courses can invest more in their teaching to ensure that students pay attention to their important message. Complaints by some students about content will have less traction with administrators if by other measures the courses are well taught and well received.

To test whether bias hurts how a class is perceived, I examined David Horowitz and Jacob Laskin’s (2009) list of the 150 “worst”–that is, having the greatest left-liberal bias–classes in America. I then searched out the ratings of the faculty members identified by Horowitz and Laskin on RateMyProfessors.com, a Web site with publicly accessible student evaluations of faculty and courses. The ratings must be interpreted with caution because the students who choose to evaluate faculty on such a Web site are a small, nonrandom sample of all students the professor has taught. Nonetheless, Forbes uses evaluations from this Web site as part of its college rankings, indicating that the ratings are perceived as informative.

A total of 127 different instructors taught the 150 classes identified by Horowitz and Laskin, and I found ratings for 69 faculty (graduate student instructors were excluded). Table 1 reports averages for the “Overall” rating of faculty, which uses a five-point scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). Because students at different universities have no firsthand experience with instruction at other schools, a 4 rating at different schools may not convey the same quality of instruction. Therefore, I constructed a normed score for each faculty member, which is that person’s rating minus the average overall score for all faculty at that person’s university. Table 1 reports means for both scores as well as weighted averages based on the number of student evaluations; the weighted averages track the overall average closely in each case. The mean rating of the professors of these liberal courses is 3.6 out of 5, or almost a half-point above their school’s average. In addition, only 19 of the 69 faculty had an overall rating below their university’s average. Liberal bias in the classroom does not appear to produce a negative reaction from student customers, although the ratings obviously reflect the views only of students who take these classes and then provide the evaluations.

Biased courses are most likely to harm a department if “indoctrination” results in complaints from students and their parents (who may also be donors). But universities must be structured to tolerate some student complaints, and this tolerance helps to insulate biased professors. The student-customer cannot be king in higher education because students would demand higher grades and less work, at least for themselves, if not for their classmates. Students lack the expertise to design the reading list for each course, and thus administrators must be prepared to tolerate some student criticism of course content. If faculty members further apply some simple economic calculus to their offerings, we would expect to see bias in courses where marginal benefits are greatest and marginal costs are least. Faculty will have the most influence on the thinking of majors and graduate students, and because of self-selection the potential for student complaints will be lower. The marginal cost of bias will be higher in large introductory classes, where more students can be offended. (7)

Consumers of news reports can change the channel or stop reading if they encounter a story that clashes with their values. Thus, the elasticity of demand for bias is likely higher for news than for faculty work products. Although publications certify the faculty expertise for which students are expected to pay a high tuition, the content of this scholarship is largely irrelevant to students. Numbers of majors and enrollments affect the allocation of faculty positions across departments, but curriculum requirements weaken this feedback. Also, feedback in the academy usually occurs only in the future because faculty reallocations typically occur through attrition. Professors who bias their teaching today may bring about a reduction in the size of their department only after a lag of ten or twenty years. Indeed, bias in teaching may lead to a faculty member’s position being lost by the department only when that person retires–surely a more modest constraint than layoffs in the news industry.

Bias as Compensation for Faculty

Different occupations in equilibrium must offer equivalent compensation packages to the marginal worker. All of the many elements of a job–working conditions, safety, job security flexibility of hours, and so forth–factor into the compensation package. Workers are heterogeneous: some value monetary compensation more, whereas others care more about flexible hours or the nature of the work. That workers compare the full compensation of different jobs is the key to a well-functioning labor market and explains, for example, why employers incur enormous expenses beyond the dictates of government regulation to provide a safe working environment.

People who earn Ph.D.s and enter the academy are as a group intelligent and hardworking. They typically rank near the top of their college graduating classes. Students capable of earning Ph.D.s in anthropology, physics, philosophy, and economics have numerous, high-paying alternative career paths available to them–after all, this same pool of top students contains the persons who pursue careers in law, business, and medicine. A student who might excel in law school and become a partner in a large law firm but instead earns a Ph.D. in history or philosophy and teaches at a liberal arts college reveals by his choice that he considers the lifetime full compensation of a professor to equal or exceed that of the corporate lawyer. Because the history professor’s monetary earnings are a small fraction of the lawyer’s earnings, future professors evidently value highly the professorial lifestyle or the study of history. The professorial life offers many amenities, such as prestige, autonomy, and an unhurried work routine, and different people are attracted by different components of the package. Many are attracted by intellectual curiosity and the opportunity for scholarly pursuits.

Many also may be motivated by a desire to change the world (or to work in some way toward that end) through the power of ideas. As Hayek (1960) emphasizes, people content with the status quo in capitalism are likely to pursue a career as part of this society–say, in business. Those who believe that capitalism is unjust (but are unwilling to become revolutionaries) might well pursue a career in ideas, preaching about what they perceive as the evils of the system. Universities can pay lower salaries if faculty can take compensation in other forms, including the opportunity to indulge ideological bias in research and teaching.

How substantial might the salary differential be for the opportunity to do research? Faculty salaries across disciplines provide a clue. Comparison of faculty salaries across disciplines cancels out the value of the professorial lifestyle. Table 2 reports average salaries by rank relative to salaries in engineering, from a 20082009 survey for selected disciplines. Differences in salaries depend in part on the value to people of studying different fields; a field that people find more intrinsically interesting will have lower salaries, everything else equal. Differences in demand can also affect relative salaries, of course, especially in the short run, and so to control for this effect, table 2 reports comparisons at both the professor and new assistant professor ranks. The difference in the differential between the ranks is very small in most cases, and so the salary differentials appear stable over time. Fields such as philosophy, history, English, and foreign languages have salaries 25 percent lower than fields such as engineering. Although these simple comparisons hardly rule out other explanations, by comparing salaries across the disciplines in the academy, years of education and the professorial lifestyle are eliminated as possible differences. Table 2 does not compare academic to nonacademic salaries, and therefore it does not show how much the person who has a Ph.D. in engineering or management might have made by studying medicine or business. The opportunity to study and conduct research on a subject of interest, I contend, represents a substantial portion of academics’ full compensation, and universities can pay lower salaries as a result.

Compensating wage differentials provide a perspective on bias in the academy. Employers compare wage differentials with the cost of providing various amenities in the work place; for example, firms weigh the cost of making the workplace safer against the cost of paying workers to assume the risk. In workplaces where it is very difficult to eliminate risk, efficient production involves paying high salaries and letting workers assume the risk. Faculty members value doing research, and so universities weigh the cost of faculty research (reduced teaching loads, libraries, and other types of support) against the benefits–the payment of lower salaries and the contributions of research to the school’s reputation. Toleration of left-liberal bias might be part of the job conditions that colleges are willing to provide faculty members in exchange for their lower salaries. Administrators might allow anyone willing and able to earn a Ph.D. and work (usually quite hard) for the salaries paid for humanities faculty to write articles and books on whatever topics they wish. Universities are “straddling organizations” as described by Gus di Zerega (2010): organizations that participate in two or more spontaneous orders. They supply higher education and host practitioners in various scholarly disciplines. Being in such straddling organizations contributes to the discretion faculty possess to pursue research of their own choosing. Teaching generates the revenue to cover their salaries, and research certifies the expertise being sold in the classroom. Because the content of research is largely irrelevant to universities, the cost of ideologically motivated research is low. (8)

Faculty in highly ideological and politicized fields may face a prisoner’s dilemma. Each individual faculty member wishes to indulge biases in his own teaching, but the bias reduces overall department enrollment and numbers of majors. With no unbiased course offerings available, enrollment plummets, and the department loses faculty lines. No one faculty member, however, may be willing to forgo bias in his teaching because the value of expressing one’s ideology and occasionally attracting a new major outweighs the inability to hire an unknown colleague at some point in the future. Because tenured faculty members currently face little danger of losing their jobs owing to declining enrollment, a department may not bc able to implement a voluntary solution to this prisoner’s dilemma. Classes in highly ideological fields ironically may end up being even more biased than desired by the faculty as a group. (9)

The Lack of a Profit Motive Revisited

Consider how the lack of a profit motive contributes to the environment for bias in the academy. Lack of a profit motive is probably not the major contributor to the conducive setting for bias in the academy. Resources are still scarce, leading departments to compete against one another for available resources, and when administrators make more efficient decisions, they will have more resources to meet these demands. (10) Colleges do take efficiency-enhancing measures. Degree programs that fail to attract undergraduate and graduate students eventually get shut down, and faculty lines are reallocated to disciplines where student demand is high. Ph.D. programs in economics have been cancelled, as Frank Scott and Jeffrey Anstine document (1997, fig. 6). Universities aggressively try to improve their standing in (or perhaps game) the influential U.S. News college rankings. Colleges increasingly use non-tenure-stream instruction to deliver instruction at low cost and to provide greater flexibility in the face of budget cuts or enrollment declines in specific subjects. Less recognized but probably more significant has been the creation of teaching-specialist positions at research universities (Mateer 2010). Teaching specialists may or may not be in the tenure stream, can be well paid, and can significantly upgrade the quality of undergraduate teaching and advising yet still offer cost savings relative to research-oriented faculty. Universities have pursued distance-learning and continuing-education opportunities in an entrepreneurial fashion. On the research side, they have entered sometimes controversial, innovative arrangements with industry (Washburn 2005). I do not contend that nonprofit universities make exactly the same decisions they would make if they had a residual claimant, but instead that the small cost of bias to a university is a more important factor.

The lack of a profit motive can interact with other factors to create a more conducive environment for bias than in the commercial media. As discussed previously, faculty work products do not directly generate revenue for a university, and the lack of a tangible stake combined with nonprofit status reduces the cost from administrators’ standpoint of faculty discretion in hiring. Rex Pjesky and I (Pjesky and Sutter 2010) document a significant difference in the prestige of the pedigree of law school faculty versus lawyers for elite law firms. A preference for pedigree can be one form of faculty discretion. Indulging a preference for pedigree in hiring may hurt a law school or university over time, but at no time is there a strong feedback to administrators in the form of lost cases or defection of clients. The incentive for administrators to restrict faculty in hiring colleagues is weakened, and administrators are not residual claimants for the long-term decline in value. In contrast, university administrators exert more control over selection of coaches for revenue-generating sports. Sports teams have a tangible output–unambiguously measured success in competition–and generate substantial revenue that might be lost as a result of subpar performance on the field.

The lack of a profit motive also helps bias to persist over time. The university’s nonprofit structure diminishes the incentive for administrators, alumni, donors, state legislators, and regents and trustees to take innovative action to alter left-liberal domination of departments. Profit creates the potential for substantial rewards from risky, innovative action. In contrasting for-profit management and bureaucratic management, Mises observes, “The virtue of the profit system is that it puts on improvements a premium high enough to act as an incentive to take high risks. If this premium is removed or seriously curtailed, there cannot be any question of progress” ([1944] 1983, 68). Each step in the establishment of bias might have only a small (if any) adverse impact on the university and may be imperceptible at the time owing to the indirect marketing of faculty work products. But inefficiencies build over time, and the lack of a residual claimant diminishes the incentive for bold action to change course. Administrators have an incentive to follow the herd to avoid damaging their reputations (see, for example, Scharfstein and Stein 1990). Deviating from the herd is always potentially very costly personally for a manager, and without a residual claimant to profit from the action and share the gains, university administrators have no incentive to take bold steps to control bias. Weak incentives for risk taking appear to be a recurrent problem for administrators. Many commentators attribute the inefficiencies of higher education to tenure. As Ryan Amacher and Roger Meiners (2004) point out, however, the tenure system includes procedures to fire grossly deficient professors; administrators choose not to do so in part because they lack strong incentives. Charles Clotfelter (1996) notes the “live and let live” rule dominant among disciplines in the academy; without a profit motive, administrators have insufficient incentive to break this system.

Consider in detail how the lack of a profit motive assists a bias-ridden department that attracts few majors, has low enrollments in general education classes, and is viewed unfavorably by many students, alumni, and other constituencies. The university might shut down such a poorly performing department, which would allow the dismissal of tenured faculty. Such a radical move, however, would create controversy and criticism from across the campus and the nation. Rankings based on impressions of quality can easily be hurt by the ensuing bad press if a university shuts down its anthropology or English department. The reaction might negatively affect administrators’ future employment prospects. This action is therefore a costly and risky one for administrators, for which they will need compensation. Yet no “owners” stand ready to capture the increased profits and reward administrators for their bold action. In contrast, the owners of a newspaper with declining circulation because of left-liberal bias are more likely to try something radical to change the paper’s image and content. Television executives fire anchors and cancel programs in pursuit of ratings. The lack of a profit motive helps to sustain liberal bias in the academy relative to the news-reporting industry, but it probably contributes less to creation of the bias.

Conclusion

The academy and the news media are key segments of the markets for ideas and information. Many observers have accused both reporters and professors of a left-liberal bias. The difficulty of precisely documenting bias suggests the value of analyzing whether the institutional environment is conducive to bias. Such a comparative analysis indicates that the academy’s institutional environment is particularly favorable to supporting and sustaining bias. News products are marketed directly to consumers, who, even if they do not pay out of pocket for the product, must be convinced to read or view it. Bias that affects content will generally affect revenue adversely. In contrast, academic faculty members’ two main products, research and teaching, are not marketed in a standard fashion. Research is produced primarily for other academics and benefits the university by certifying faculty expertise, and the content of research in many fields is irrelevant to administrators (and to students and parents). Bias in teaching may affect student demand for courses, but course requirements attenuate this response, and a decline in demand typically affects a department only in the long run. In addition, the professorial life appears to provide significant nonmonetary compensation, in particular the freedom to pursue research on topics of personal interest. Faculty members certainly may view the opportunity to do research aimed at refining and promoting their ideology as part of their overall compensation. Finally, private ownership of the news media creates a residual claimant with an incentive to control or correct profit-reducing bias. Lack of residual claimants in private nonprofit and public universities substantially reduces the incentive for action to correct bias.

My analysis in this paper is positive in spirit, comparing the conduciveness of the institutional environments for bias. I have not analyzed whether bias in either the media or the academy harms the larger society. However, my analysis does offer a few insights for critics who seek to limit ideological bias (or at least its consequences) in the academy. Professors receive a substantial portion of their total compensation in nonpecuniary forms, and to the extent that the professorate attracts people who seek to change the world, bias is likely to be extremely persistent. Academics’ lower salaries (relative to corporate executives, lawyers, and doctors’ salaries) also reduce universities’ incentive to take action. Nonetheless, prisoner’s dilemma and time-horizon problems suggest that the level of bias in politicized disciplines may be greater than the professors themselves desire, with the effect of reducing enrollments and faculty positions over time. This situation may create an opportunity for moderate faculty members to teach classes without offending students. The greatest impact of bias in a discipline occurs if it attains a monopoly position. Daniel Klein and Charlotta Stern (2009) identify professors’ primary loyalty as being to their discipline, not to their university, which helps to entrench groupthink. Reformers might focus their efforts on reducing pressures for conformity across a discipline. Administrators often push departments to mirror the leading departments in a discipline (Holcombe 2004; Cantor 2009), but this conduct simply strengthens groupthink across the academy. If conservatives and libertarians are going to be a minority in the academy for the foreseeable future, reformers should ensure that university administrators appreciate and value nonconformist scholars and departments.

Impact of legislation, social policy, society and culture on how individuals with disabilities receive services

There has been a significant improvement in the socio-economic experiences of people living with disabilities in the last two decades. The government policies on people with disabilities have also improved. Individuals working in decision making bodies have influenced the shift in policies that affect people who have disabilities. People in the decision making bodies have made maneuvers across the policy agenda to influence policies. This has led to changes in policies that disadvantage disable people. The society has adjusted its language to suit the prevailing discourse on disability. There has been a significant change in the social model of disability. Various predominant concepts of disability that have greatly influenced how disabled people receive services include ‘independent living,’ ‘co-production,’ and ‘user involvement.’ These ensure that people who have disabilities live a fulfilling independent life. In the past, people who had disabilities used to rely on family members to perform even simple tasks. However, in the contemporary world, people with disabilities can live independently. This reduces the burden they place or their family members. Disabled people are also involved in the formulation of various policies that target them. Involving them increased the efficiency of the policies. This is due to the fact that disabled people can clearly articulate the challenges they faces.  This helps policy makers to make more policies that are effective. In addition, removal of policies that disadvantage disabled people has enabled them to engage in various economic activities. This has increased their input on the economy. They do not simply do not rely on handouts from the government (Sowers & Colby, 2008).

The Americans with Disability Act (ADA) is the major piece of legislation that led to fundamental changes in how people with disabilities receive services. This piece of legislation has helped in improving the lives of people with disabilities. It has increased the access of disabled consumers to good and services from businesses and state and local governments. It has made people accept the use of service animals within their business premises. It has also led to increased availability of relatively cheap assistive technology for people with various forms of disability. This has increased community participation of people with communication impairment. It has enabled people with mobility impairments have increased access to transportation and government agencies that provide them with various services. Disabled employees also have increased access to accommodation. In addition, they are less likely to be fired by their employers due to disability (Scherer, 2011).

Despite the above factors, many parties do not clearly understand the provisions of ADA. Employment provision is one of the least understood provisions. According to ADA, employers should provide equal opportunities to people with disabilities. In addition, employers should have standards that prohibit against people due to their disability. However, disability should not have adverse effect on the ability of people to perform basic roles in their employment. This ensures that organizations do not jeopardize their operations in order to simply ensure that they provide people with disability equal employment opportunity. Other countries such as the U.K. also have various legislations that prohibit discrimination against people on the basis of their disability. This has helped in improving the welfare of people with disabilities by reducing barriers to work (Sowers & Colby, 2008).

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Entrepreneurial banking dilemma- sole proprietorships

Read the entrepreneur’s dilemma and the questions that follow. Identify the legal issue(s) and apply legal concepts and possible arguments for each question. Prepare a solution for each question using laws, cases, examples and/or other relevant materials. Identify potential ethical issues and propose a solution for each issue. Support your answers with information from the textbook and at least two outside scholarly sources. prepare a 6 to 9 page paper that identifies the legal issues and potential solutions and answers all questions presented, supported by relevant legal authority. Properly cite all sources using APA format.

The Dilemma

Lauren started a new business, Critter Sitters, a sole proprietorship, that includes walking, feeding, grooming, training and providing other services for pets while their owners are out of town or unable to care for them due to illness or long work hours. In addition to her business, Lauren currently attends college part time.

One of Lauren’s new customers leaves her a check for $120, made payable to Lauren and signed by her customer. Lauren takes the check to the bank after she completed the services and found that the bank had issued a stop payment on the check. What are Lauren’s options?

Lauren places an online order for $750 in training supplies from Pet Wholesale Warehouse (PWW). Lauren acknowledges the terms and conditions, provides her credit card information and selects FedEx to deliver the goods. She does not purchase any additional insurance. FedEx delivers one box containing a dog crate valued at $35, but does not deliver the remaining boxes.

Since Lauren is a student, she does not have much capital and seeks to save money where she can; therefore, she only uses one bank account for her personal and professional funds. Lauren frequently monitors her account using the online portal furnished by her bank. On Friday night, Lauren noticed that $451.43 had been withdrawn from her account on two separate occasions that day. Lauren knows that she did not spend that amount of money one time, much less two times in one day. She is afraid that someone has accessed her account. Assume that the following Monday is a holiday and banks will be closed; however, one branch will be open for four hours on Saturday. On Saturday morning, Lauren discovers a check for $93.52 cleared the bank. She is able to view a copy and sees that the check was written using another party’s name and address, yet the bank account number belongs to her.

Assignment:

Based on the different situations described in the scenario, create a 6 to 9-page Microsoft Word document that includes the answers to the following questions:

  1. What are Lauren’s options for operating her business? Select the type of business organization you believe is best for Lauren and provide support for your choice.
  2. What are Lauren’s options related to the stop payment on the customer’s check?
  3. What are Lauren’s options related to the undelivered goods?
  4. What course of action would you advise Lauren to take on Friday night and/or Saturday morning? Will Lauren be liable for the moneys withdrawn from her account? Explain why or why not.
  5. According to your text, what laws govern business and consumer banking transactions? Provide a short summary of how the law(s) affect Lauren.
  6. Identify and explain any ethical concerns Lauren may face related to the topics covered.
  7. Conclude your paper by providing suggestions for Lauren to help prevent future occurrences of these types of legal and ethical problems.

Support your answers with appropriate research, reasoning, cases, laws, and other relevant examples.

APA format and properly cite sources on a separate page using APA.

Alaska Airlines Strategic Plan – Sample Paper

Alaska airline is one of the several Airlines that are based in The United States. The airline is owned by Alaska air groups, and it has its headquarters based in the suburb regions of Washington. Te first time the airline launched its service under the name Alaska airlines was way back in the year 1944. The airline has been able to grow far and wide over the years. Moreover, it currently covers areas such as Mexico, United States, Hawaiian Islands and Mexico. Statistics show that the Alaska airline has been responsible for the ferrying of passengers between the United States and Alaska more than any other airline has ever done so (Alaska Airlines). The current base of operation is the Seattle-Tacoma International Airport. The airline has a sister airline known as Horizon air that is also owned by the Alaska Air groups and the two share a lot of common flight destinations. One year ago, the airline was ranked as the best airline when it comes to the satisfaction derived by the customers who use the flight services.

Objectives

Being one of the leading airlines in the United States, has several objectives that it aims at achieving both in the short and the long run. For instance, it has an objective of generating revenue of upto 50 percent of the sponsorship it gets from its sponsors. One of the ways that it can generate such kind of money is through offering travelling services to the Seattle Mariners. Furthermore, any other teams that travel to attend away games normally do so via the use of Alaska airlines. The customers are able to get discounts from the company anytime they participate in their team web sites and other sites that are legally accepted by the airline.

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Biological Theory – Personality Theories Blogpost

Biological theory and how it is used to conduct assessment

For thousands of years, many theorists have strongly maintained that the genetic make-up of humans determines their personality. These theorists argue that physical characteristics such as body type, height, eye color and general looks are strongly determined by biological component. Even though biology does not play a direct role in the personality of human beings, the way people look certainly affect how individuals view themselves and how they interact with others. This is a form of indirect effect that plays a big role in how human beings develop and who they are as adults. These statements explain why biological theory has stood out as one of the major personality theories for several years (Eysenck, 1967).

Several studies that utilize correlation studies have determined that certain aspects may be directly linked to genetic make-up of humans. However, the idea of inherited traits has been found to be partially correct. Even though biology plays a big role in acquired traits such as inherited intelligence, it is difficult to ignore the significance of the environment. Hans Eysenck is one theorist who believes that biological theory greatly determines personality of individuals, and he is one of the best known biological theorists in terms of personality development (Eysenck, 1967).

Biological theory has been used to conduct assessments in organizations to determine human qualities possessed by employees and managers, with the aim of understanding matters related to leadership, empathy, motivation, self-development, helping others, how they relate with others, and general behavior. According to Hans Eysenck, human traits can be divided into three dimensions namely; Introversion/Extraversion, Neuroticism/Emotional Stability, and Psychoticism.Direct attention to inner experiences is referred to as introversion, while focusing attention to the environment and other people is what extraversion entails. This dimension of Eysenck’s biological theory holds that an individual high in introversion might be reserved and quiet, while a person high in extraversion might be outgoing and sociable (Eysenck, 1967).

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Autoclave Research Paper

Heat generated by applying high temperature disrupts membranes and denatures nucleic acid and proteins, a process known as sterilization. The autoclave is a pressure sterilizer that completely destructs or removes all microorganisms that can contaminate objects. Examples of micro-organisms that can be destructed or removed using an autoclave are non-spore forming bacteria, spore-forming bacteria, protozoa, fungi and viruses (Yazici, Deniz and Baradan, 2013).

            The pressure in an autoclave can influence the temperature and therefore the timing of the sterilization process. According to Yazici, Deniz and Baradan (2013), if steam is trapped and compressed, its temperature rises as the pressure increases. When pressure is exerted on a gas or vapor to keep it entrapped within an area, concentration of energy of the gaseous molecules occurs. This energy exerts similar amount of pressure against the opening force. Therefore, the temperature of steam rises sharply if the steam is trapped within a chamber and a high pressure is exerted.  The autoclave uses the same principle for effectiveness of the sterilization process (Yazici, Deniz and Baradan, 2013).

In an autoclave, time and pressure are the two essential factors that influence heat sterilization. As far as pressure factor is concerned, it is the intensity of temperature that sterilizes in the autoclave as the pressure applied only helps to create the intensity. An autoclave is normally sealed to force steam or dry gas to accumulate. As steam rushes into the autoclave, the cool chamber is pushed forward and down via an air discharge line. Pressure continues to build as the more steam is forced into the chamber. Similarly, the temperature of the chamber rises as pressure continues to build up. The intensity of temperature influences timing that must also be measured based on the amount of load in the chamber (Yazici, Deniz and Baradan, 2013).

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Eye Infections Research Paper

Eye infections can be described as being ailments that are primarily caused by either bacterial or viral agents. Additionally, there also exist some fungal agents that are also responsible for the cause of eye infections. However it is worth noting that eye infections are caused by different things that also call for the use of different treatment processes. The eye is a single unit that is subdivided in to various sections and parts and each section is bound to get infected at some point in time due to their vulnerability.

The eye infections can either occur on one side or even on both eyes. Moreover, the age of an individual does not matter when it comes to eye infection. Anyone of any age is vulnerable to eye infections. Some of the symptoms that can occur in a person who has got infections include irritations, reduced vision and discharge from the eye. For the above mentioned symptoms, the treatment process would differ depending on the type of infection and the cause of that infection.

Causes of eye infection

One of the causes of eye infection is the conjunctivitis that is mostly witnessed among children especially those in the day care centers as well as classroom environments. Conjunctivitis is normally a type of infection that is spread in children through the either a viral or a bacterial process (Adams, 1979). Furthermore, it is possible for kids to pick the conjunctivitis infections through birth if the parent had been a victim of sexual transmitted infections at the time of giving birth.

Another cause of eye infection is the lack of enough supply of oxygen to the cornea of the eye especially for those who wear contact glasses. Additionally, those who use contact lenses may suffer from eye infections due to the bacteria that build up on their eye contacts lenses when they are not cleaned up in the correct way as it is required. One of such type of infections is the trachoma that is mostly witnessed in the developing or third world nations.

It is believed that the trachoma infections can result at times result in blindness if it is not handled properly.

There is the viral keratitis that occurs primarily due to the victim getting exposed to the virus that is known as simplex virus. The fungal keratitis is majorly common for those who use contact lenses. The fungi that is responsible for the infection is called fusarium fungi that normally exist in the form of an organic matter. That fungus can find its way into the eye through injuries like the ones caused by a scratch from a tree branch.

Since there has been a large increase of eye infections especially for those who use contact lenses, it is appropriate for them to get lessons on how to take care of them through conducting thorough cleaning. Additionally, the lenses should have the discard date that is prescribed by the manufacturers. The date of discarding such lenses should be included alongside the expiration date of the same.

Defense mechanism

The eye is normally capable of defending itself from infections through the use of the eyelids that serve to protect the eye from ocular surface. The lashes are normally responsible for the involuntary blinking of the eyes, a process that protects the eye from airborne particles. Additionally, the blinking of the eye is also triggered by the tactile stimulation of the cornea of the eye. Apart from that, there are the lipids that are normally secreted through the meibomaian glands. The glands are responsible for the stability of the tear film (Smolin, 1996). Finally, the eye protects itself from immune diseases through the supply of the vascular to the front surface of the eye.

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Statement of Work Example – CONTRACT AND PROCUREMENT

Statement of Work

This procurement offers a chance to the potential bidders to carry out the process of relocating our headquarters that are located in point A. The headquarters need to be relocated to a new site B that is located around four kilometers from where the current headquarters is located.

Potential bidders are hereby required to explain how they are going to carry put the whole process, putting in mind that the size of the current headquarter occupies a 100 square meters of land. Additionally, the successful bidders should explain how the office equipments will be fitted in the new office that occupies a land of 1600 square meters.

The transportation facilities that are going to be used to carry out that process should also be stated keeping in mind that the current office has fifteen desks together with their associated chairs. Apart from the chairs, the facility also has three sofas and ten arm chairs as well as three coffee tables that also need to be transported to the new site.

There are also other small items that will be packed in small cardboard boxes that will range from 120-160. Furthermore there are close to fifteen computers that will also need to be transported to the new site. Each computer has its own monitor. Finally, there are thirty four framed pictures that must also be ferried to the new site where they will be used.

Bidders are therefore to explain how they are going to facilitate the transportation and relocation of the above mentioned equipments. One factor that all bidders must know is that there is limited finance to facilitate the exercise. To be precise, only $ 100 dollars is available for the process. So those who wish to be considers for the exercise should have their budgets not exceeding the mentioned figure.

Finally, the exercise should be completed within a span of six hours due to the busy nature of the organization.

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Benefits of Healthcare Information Technology

Introduction

Changes in the healthcare industry have necessitated healthcare facilities to implement cost-cutting measures by improving the efficiency of their operations. Declining reimbursements is one of the major factors that have led to the changes. Failure to implement cost-cutting measures poses a significant threat to the financial viability of healthcare organizations. Most healthcare organizations rely on information technology to improve the efficiency of their operations. IT also improves the competitiveness of the healthcare organizations. However, IT is a significant financial investment. Therefore, failure of IT to improve the performance of a healthcare organization may increase the rate of its decline. Due to the above factors, it is vital to determine the payoff of healthcare information technology. There is a raging debate on the payoff of the healthcare information technology. The debate is referred to as the ‘IT productivity paradox.’ It is vital for research to measure to the impact of IT on organizational performance. The success of IT implementation is dependent on the environmental factors within an organization. These include quality indicators and financial indicators. This research would strive to determine the impact of IT on the performance of a healthcare organization using the nature and extent of the process redesign initiatives. The research would strive to analyze literature on effectiveness of IT and process redesign (Boutros & Purdie, 2013).

During the 1970s, productivity declined compared to the previous two decades. This is despite the fact that the decline occurred when organizations started making significant investments in IT. There was a similar pattern of decline in productivity during the 1980s and early 1990s. During this period the output of workers declined by more than 10%. This trend discouraged organizations from deploying IT within their processes. However, there are studies that show that investment in IT actually increase the productivity of organizations. Investment in IT is one of the major factors that fuels GDP growth of modern economies.

At the firm level, investment in IT improves the productivity. It helps in improving the efficiency of the organization. This reduces wastage within the organization. Ultimately, it helps in improving the profitability of the organizations. This makes contemporary organizations be eager to implement IT in its processes. Business process reengineering also helps in improving the productivity and efficiency of organizations. It helps in determining processes that have wastage. Therefore, it is vital for organizations to combine business process reengineering with IT investment. IT investment should support the business process investment. Combining investment in IT and business process reengineering leads to a significant improvement in the efficiency and financial viability of organizations. This is regardless of the industry of operation of the organizations (Boutros & Purdie, 2013).

The research hypothesizes that organizations, which have environments where there is significant investment in technology and business process reengineering initiatives have improved performance. Therefore, the null hypothesis is that significant investment in technology and business process reengineering do not improve the performance of an organization. The research would test the fit between technology and business process reengineering using various variables for technology and business process reengineering.

Research Design

The research collected data of 4 hospitals that are in the health system for a period of 36 months that had implemented a decision support system (DDS) to help in evaluating their contracts. DDS helps in estimating the costs of expected services in comparison to the results of the services. It also helps in identifying areas that a hospital should cut costs and the operational improvements that a hospital should undertake to improve its financial viability. Time series data from a cross-sectional set of hospital would help in determining the impact of IT on profitability and quality.

Decision Support Systems (DDS)

Decision support system (DDS) is a computer system whose major function is to improve the productivity and effectiveness of managers. It has models that can help in evaluating the policies and alternatives of an organization. Therefore, it enables hospital managers to gain insights into the operations of the hospital and consider alternatives. This helps the managers in the development of business strategies. DDS is critical in operational decision making, managerial decision making, and strategic decision making. Operation decision making involves resource allocation and decisions that strive to improve operations at the patient care level of the hospital. On the other hand, managerial decision making involves cost containment, profitability of the department, and integration of the services of the department with those of other departments within the hospital. Finally strategic decision making involves contracting decisions, decision on whether the hospital should merge or acquire other hospitals, and pricing decisions (Sauter, 2011).

Hospital that took part in the study relied heavily on DDS in analysis of data and identification of areas for business process reengineering. DDS of the hospitals is designed to store financial, clinical, quality outcomes of all patients admitted in the hospital. It was also designed to store the duration of stay of the patients. DDS analyzes the data to determine best practices. It enables the hospital to measure its performance in comparison to the performance of other healthcare organizations (Sauter, 2011).

Data Analysis

Dependent Variables

Measures of profitability and quality

The research used revenues as a measure of the profitability of the hospitals that took part in the study. This is despite the fact that traditional measures of profitability deduct costs from the revenues. However, in a healthcare setting this is difficult due to various reasons. This includes the fact that most healthcare organizations do not have accurate cost accounting systems. The healthcare organizations mainly use a constant ratio of costs to charges (RCC) to find out the costs of services they offer. In addition, in a healthcare setting costs are affected by the different contractual agreements between hospitals and other parties. Hospitals may offer discounts to healthcare insurance providers or offer free charity care (Berger, 2008).

To prevent bias due to the varying length of stay of patients, the research used net revenue per day and the net revenue per admission as the measures of revenue of the hospitals. The revenues of the hospitals were multiplied by a certain constant to protect the confidentiality of the financial information of the healthcare facilities.

Customer satisfaction and mortality rates were the major measures of quality of the hospitals. Customer satisfaction was measured by determining the percentage of customers who tick the top box, which signified they were highly satisfied with the services, during the period duration of the research. On the other hand, mortality rates refer to the number of people who dies within 30 days of undergoing an operative procedure within the hospital divided by the number of operative procedures that the hospitals conducted during the period of the study.

Independent Variables

Technology Investment

The researchers collected monthly costs related to IT capital, labor and support for all the hospitals that were part of the study. In the research IT labor included all the costs associated with salaries, wages and other expenses involved in the management and supervision of DDS. IT support referred to consulting fees, programming of the DDS, software support, and maintenance of the DDS. IT capital referred to the costs of procuring DDS software and its associated modules.

Statistical Analysis

A chi square test of independence was used to analyze the data from the research. Chi square test is generally used to determine whether certain data sets follow certain patterns. The chi square test of independence is the most common chi square test. It classifies the variables into a two-way contingency table. The table contains the variables in a combination of row and column categories for easy analysis. The chi square test determines if there is a relationship (dependence) between the variable in the columns and rows (Geher & Hall, 2014). Below is the data of the study arranged in a two way contingency table:

H1 H2 H3 H4 Total
revenue per day 500 750 900 950 3100
revenue per admission 6 8 10 12 36
customer satisfaction 30 50 80 100 260
mortality rates 10 8 5 3 26
IT capital 10 20 30 40 100
IT labor 10 15 20 28 73
IT support 6 8 10 12 36

For the purpose of conducting a chi test of independence only the revenue per day and IT capital were considered. Therefore, the results of the study are listed below:

H1 H2 H3 H4 Total
Revenue per day 500 (494.06) 750 (745.94) 900 (900.94) 950 (959.06) 3100
IT capital 10 (15.94) 20 (24.06) 30 (29.06) 40 (30.94) 100
Total 510 770 930 990 3200

The Chi square of the above table would be

((500-494.06)2/494.06) + ((750-745.94)2/745.94) +……..((40-30.94)2/30.94) = 5.76

The value of chi square is small. Therefore, there is no major difference between observed and expected results. From the above table, the degree of freedom is (number of rows -1) (number of columns -1). Therefore, in this case degree of freedom is:

(4-1) x (6-1) = 3 x 5 = 15

The degree of freedom is 15

From the table testing the alpha level of 0.05 makes the critical chi square would be less than the calculated chi square. Therefore, we reject the null hypothesis of the study.

Results and Discussion

Below are the results of the study.

H1 H2 H3 H4 Total
revenue per day 500 750 900 950 3100
revenue per admission 6 8 10 12 36
customer satisfaction 30 50 80 100 260
mortality rates 10 8 5 3 26
IT capital 10 20 30 40 100
IT labor 10 15 20 28 73
IT support 6 8 10 12 36

From the above results, it is clear that technology investment had a significant effect on the quality and profitability of hospitals. Increased investment in technology reduced the mortality rates of the hospitals. Hospital 4 (H4) had the highest technology investment. In addition, the labor investment of the hospitals had a significant effect on the revenue per day of the hospitals. Investment in IT capital had an effect on the patient revenue per day and the revenue per patient of the hospitals that took part in the study. However, there IT support activities did not affect the profitability of the hospitals.

IT labor investment had a significant on the mortality rates of the hospitals. However, IT support investments did not have a significant effect on the mortality of patients. From the research, business process reengineering had a significant effect on the patient mortality and patient satisfaction. Business process reengineering had a significant effect on the financial performance of the hospitals.

Significance of investing in IT

The results of the study show that investing in IT has a significance effect on the profitability of organizations. It improved the financial viability of organizations. The study showed that investment in IT does not improve the financial performance of organizations immediately after its implementation. Organizations started seeing the benefits of investing in IT after 3 or more months. The research determined that the link between IT and profitability is stronger when one considers the customer or patient’s profitability. However, the research found varying support for investment in IT and support services. IT investment in consulting and other relevant support services did not have a significant effect on the profitability of the hospitals. IT investment had a significant effect on the quality within organizations. Therefore, the research proved the hypothesis as true.

Significance of business process reengineering

Business process reengineering initiatives attract heated discussions and controversy within organizations. The research showed that business process reengineering initiatives reduced mortality and increased patient satisfaction within the hospitals. However, organization cannot experience the benefits of business process reengineering immediately. Organizations experience the benefits a few months after undertaking business process reengineering. However, business process reengineering alone does not improve the financial viability of an organization (Boutros & Purdie, 2013).

Significance of business process reengineering with IT investment

Business process reengineering leads to significant changes in the processes of an organization. Modifications in the processes may make it face stiff resistance from the employees of an organization. This is due to the fact that it leads to significant changes in the roles of employees of an organization. Therefore, it is vital for business process reengineering to have management support. The combined effect of business process reengineering and IT investment improves the profitability of organizations. In fact, IT support and business process reengineering have the strongest impact on the profitability of organizations. However, business process reengineering and IT labor investment do not have a significant effect on the profitability of organizations. IT capital and business process reengineering affect the profitability of organizations especially if IT is used as an enabler of the business process reengineering of the organization. This is due to the fact that they improve the efficiency of the patient care.

Conclusion

The research highlighted the importance of IT investment in the profitability of organizations. IT investment and business process reengineering improve the efficiency of organizations. Improved efficiency reduces the operational costs and wastage, which in turn lead to an increase in the financial viability of organizations. The research proved the hypothesis was true. Testing the alpha level of 0.005 showed that the critical chi square was less than the calculated chi square. Therefore, the research rejected the null hypothesis.

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Application of Graph theory in Computer Science

Application of Graph theory in Computer Science

This paper on the graph theory is aiming at presenting what is considered to be the basic material, combined with broad variety of applications, to other branches of mathematics and also to the real world problems. An overview of two applications of graph theory are tackled within the scope of this paper in the context of computer science professionalism.

Relevance of graph theory to ad-hoc networks

This covers the discussion of the role the graph theory play in relation to the issues pertaining to the Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETS). The Adhoc networks consider issues as routing, scalability, modelling the network, connectivity and simulation (Jajodia, 2013). The capability of the network being modeled as a graph, the analysis of these issues can be done through the model. Graphs are algebraically represented in form of matrices. Networks too can be automated through algorithms. Issues involving nodes mobility, node density, packet routing and link formations between the nodes have to be simulated. The simulation of these concepts uses the random graph theory. The issues of connectivity are analyzed by use of graph spanners. For instance, the initial introduction of a k-spanner graph or a k-spanner or a geometric spanner as a weighted graph over some sets of points as vertices with every pair of vertices being a path between them having the weight at most k times, and the spatial distance between the points, for a fixed value of k. another way of analyzing the connectivity issues is through sparsification, proximity graphs, and spectral graph theory. The proximity graphs are generally graphs in which the connection of the two vertices is done by an edge if and only if thevertices satisfy specific geometric requirements. There are also numerous algorithms available for the analysis of the congestion in MANET’swhere the modeling of these graphs is done on the basis of graph theoretical ideas.

Computer Network Security

The second application of the graph theory within the context of computer science is the algorithm of the graphs in computer network security. The vertex over algorithm recently have been used to slate the transmission of stealth worms on the large computer networks thereby designing optimal strategies to protect  the network from such types of virus attacks in real-time.

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Migration Globally and Immigration In US

This paper explores immigration patterns, and dwells intensively on global migration and US immigration. According to the assertions of Roza (2011), there has been a sporadic shift in in the remittances and global migration in the past few years despite the increase in the immigrant numbers as well the amounts of money they send back to their homes. It is worth noting that, throughout the entire history of global migration, the United State has had an immigration heritage that is worth celebrating. The only worry regarding this issue of immigration has been the uncertainty that the immigrants may initiate in terms of cultural, political and economic quarters (Roza, 2011).

Following increased globalization in the present era, it is inevitable that there would be increased global migration. One of the main factors contributing to increased global migration include, among others, foreign policy and economic decisions of the US such as the declaration of war on Iraq, which lead to the increase of immigration and migration (Alicea, 2004). Another factor leading to increased immigration into the US is the Free Trade Agreements (FTA). An appropriate example is the Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) and the North American Free Agreement (NAFTA) has affected nations like Mexico leading to increased numbers of political and economic refugees (Roza, 2011).

The United States is inclusive to immigrants. This is due to the existence of The National Immigration Law Center to defend, uphold and advance the rights and freedoms of immigrants together with their families (Alicea, 2004). Immigrants do have opportunities to access community policing, workers’ rights, driver’s licenses and higher education.

For the US, the positive aspects of immigration are that it provides cheap sources of labor, which in turn enables the immigrants to acquire improved standards of living (Roza, 2011). This, in turn, leads to the growth of the US economy. The negative aspects of immigration, is that there are usually inadequate job vacancies for American citizens; therefore, increased immigration fuels competition for the few available jobs (Roza, 2011).

In conclusion, one of the main factors contributing to increased global migration include, among others, foreign policy and economic decisions of the US. The United States is inclusive to immigrants. The positive aspect of immigration is that it provides cheap sources of labor for the US economy. The negative aspect of immigration is that it leads to increased competition for the few available job vacancies.

References

Alicea, M. (2004). Migration and immigration: a global view (a world view of social issues). New York. Greenwood.

Roza, G. (2011). Immigration and migration (The story of America). New York: Gareth Stevens Publishing.

 

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Current Health Care Delivery Structure Research Paper

Research the current health care delivery structures—both private and public—within your state (Maryland). Write a 6-8 page paper in which you:

1. Analyze the current health care delivery structure in your state. Compare and contrast the major determinants of healthcare market power.

2. Analyze the main competitive forces in the your healthcare delivery system in your state, and compare the major factors that influence the fundamental manner in which these competitive forces determine prices, supply and demand, quality of care, consumerism, and providers’ compensation.

3. Evaluate the positive benefits and negative aspects, respectively, of HMO managed care from the provider’s point of view—i.e., a physician and a healthcare facility—and from a patient’s point of view. Provide a rationale for your response.

4. Assess the efficiency of the types of economic incentives available to providers in the delivery of healthcare services in your own state.

5. Propose who bears the financial risk of a capitation payment system: the provider, the patient, or the consumer-driven health plan itself.

Use at least five (5) current references. Three of these references must be from current peer-reviewed sources to support and substantiate your comments and perspectives. Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements: Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.

Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

Explain how selected economic principles apply to the health care market and the provision of health care services.

Analyze the factors that are influencing the demand and supply of health care services in the U.S. Assess current economic trends that influence the cost, quality, and access to care.

Use technology and information resources to research issues in health economics.

Write clearly and concisely about health economics using proper writing mechanics.

Large Quantity Generator Facility Compliance Steps

For a site to qualify as a Large Quantity Generator, there are certain steps and actions that need to be done to achieve compliance. The first step that needs to be taken to bring the site into compliance as a Large Quantity Generator is identification of waste streams.  The site must determine whether the waste generated is hazardous or nonhazardous. The second step is determination of generator category. A site is considered a Large Quantity Generator if it generates 2,200 pounds or more of hazardous waste or more than 2.2 pounds of acute hazardous waste per calendar month. The third step is to obtain an Identification number issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Step four involves marking and labeling waste containers and placard vehicles that carry the collected wastes. In step five, the site must ensure that it properly stores its accumulated wastes.  Proper accumulation and storage of waste is important because they ensure that wastes are not carelessly disposed (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1996).

The sixth step involves selection of hazardous waste transporters, as well as disposal or recycling facility. The next step is obtaining a multi-copy form known as a manifest that is used for shipping hazardous wastes from the site. In step eight, the site must develop a program for emergency planning and response. The site must have a clear plan stating how it will do in case of emergency. In step nine, the site should conduct personnel training to direct its employees on how to manage wastes accumulated and stored by Large Quantity Generators. Step ten concerns Reporting where the site has to submit its Biennial report to the regional the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The last step is that of record keeping. The site must keep records of its operations for at least three years (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1996).

References

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (1996). Hazardous Waste Requirements for Large Quantity Generators. United States of America: Washington, DC.

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Inventory Reorder Points and the Quantities per Order

All businesses have unique characteristics. It is vital for the business to understand and evaluate the characteristics especially when establishing the inventory levels. The characteristics determine the optimum inventory level of the business. When determining the inventory levels it is vital to consider whether the commodities are readily available or common. If the commodities are readily available, a company should not hold much inventory. The reverse would be true if the products are custom made. A business should also consider the turnover of products when determining the level of inventory and the inventory reorder points. The inventory levels of products that have a fast turnover are treated differently from those that have slow turnover. A business should also consider the shelf life of the product when determining the inventory levels. Products that have a short shelf life should have low levels of inventory. The reverse may be true for products that have a long shelf life. The order lead-time is one of the major factors that determine the inventory levels. Order lead-time refers to the time between when a company places an order and the time when it receives the order. The inventory lead-times determine the amount of inventory that a company should hold (Hatten, 2010).

Get There Navigation Technologies (GTNT) engages in the manufacture of navigation technologies use by car rental and transportation industry. Therefore, their products are not perishable. The company can keep as much inventory as it wants. The company intends to sell 45,000 units of its new product, Get Me There. Considering the fact that it currently manufactures only 15,000 units of the product, the product has a fast turnover. The order lead time of the product from subcontractor A is 45 days, whereas for subcontractor B it is 35 days. This is a significantly higher order lead time considering the specifics of the company. Ideally, the company should hold inventory that would cover the 45 days, which is the maximum time that the subcontractors would take to deliver the orders to the company. Therefore, the company should initially order 15,000 units from each subcontractor. After 45 days, it would have enough inventory to meet the demand for Get Me There. 15 days after making the first order it should make another similar order to the subcontractors. It should continue this practice until it has enough inventory to cater for any events that may limit the ability of the subcontractors to deliver the products within the specified period (Hatten, 2010).

The Place of Scripture in Evangelical, Liberal and Neo-Orthodox Thought

The Place of Scripture in Evangelical, Liberal, and Neo-Orthodox Thought

Since the beginning of the twenty- first century the authority and nature of the scripture has elicited major debates and issues in relation to the Christian faith eliciting various illegitimate expressions and forms of authority that have emerged from a “postmodern mindset of selfishness” (Mayhue, 228). This paper will seek to compare and contrast the views regarding the nature and authority of Scripture with reference to three theological movements: Evangelical, Liberal, and Neo-Orthodox.  Moreover, look at the strengths and weaknesses of each.

The Issues

The liberals viewed themselves as the ones who would save an obsolete version of Christianity. They said that they aimed at connecting with people and bringing them into faith rather than scare them with a set of rules (Bingham 149). The founder of liberalism was Friedrich Schleiermacher who was a preacher in the 18th century. Friedrich argued and felt that doctrines and scriptures of faith had no major importance regarding practice of Christianity and therefore they were not needed in our daily lives. The liberals did not put focus on the holiness of The Trinity but emphasized more on the doctrines of grace and sin and the emotional aspect of faith. According to the liberals, Jesus was a historical figure that the church can learn from spiritually and the Bible being a complement as a source of knowledge on the history of Christianity (Bingham 152, 153). This movement viewed that being a Christian is nothing but a feeling and an experience. According to this movement, the facts taught in the Bible do not matter much as believers feel they are saved by faith and thus ordained to heaven (Lane 238).

Conversely, Evangelicalism has a connection to Pietism and Puritanism and it traces its origins in the eighteenth century back in Britain and British colonies. The people who had beliefs in this movement had five convictions.

One is that the Bible is the supreme authority for faith and practice. Secondly, the essential of new birth includes conversion via grace. Thirdly, the “centrality of the redeeming work of Christ”. Moreover, the pressing need to evangelize the world and lastly the Holy Spirit indwells among the church, which comprises a community of believers (Bingham, 162). This movement believes that the biblical Gospel should not be distorted. Many theologians have had their views regarding evangelicalism such as Warfield who suggested the Bible to being “the inspired and infallible word of God”. He also suggested that the Bible as “breathed out by God” and therefore God is the author of it (Lane, 256). Interestingly it is notable that though evangelicals are united by their doctrine of Scripture they tend to hold different doctrines. For example, Lane has the view of Warfield representing a middle ground. (258).

On the other hand, Neo-orthodoxy is the most recent theological movement. It was first discovered by Karl Barth in 1916 and it was considered to present a strange new world within the bible where it overtook modernism as the most dominant theology of the mid twentieth century that came with a another unique aspect of the Bible (Kantzer, 17).The Neo-orthodoxy came to being as a reaction to Liberalism. This movement holds that the Bible itself is not a revelation but a record of the revelation (Kantzer, 20). Moreover, they claim that the Bible is an objective document but God does not inspire it and therefore it is not God’s word until God lets it be his word (Kantzer, 21).

The Implications

Each of the three movements to the place of scripture has its strengths and weaknesses that make them be either true or false. Lane observes that evangelicals are always concerned with the truthfulness of the scripture though there have been debates on “infallibility” and “inerrancy” of the Bible. This movement has lead its focus is on subject matters of debates of “hermeneutics” and “the science of interpretation” of the Bible (Lane, 260). Strengths of the movement are the belief in evangelizing the world that is spreading of the word of God to all regions. Beliefs of evangelicals have greatly influenced the Christian orthodoxy and orthopraxy. The core of this movement is that a Christian should spread the word of God to other regions helped by other Christians.

On the other hand, the liberal movement as per their founding father Friedrich Schleiermacher several aspects of Christian orthodoxy and orthopraxy emerge. Friedrich Schleiermacher was largely influenced by the Pietist thought thus he was taught that ““religion is more than merely theology and ethics, knowledge and action, knowing and doing the right thing” (Lane, 237). Based on this background, Friedrich went beyond what he was taught and stated, “Religion involves more than knowledge and action”, but instead “sees it as something distinct from knowledge and action” (Lane, 238). Friedrich is seen to have divided theology and religion. According to Lane, the Liberal movement “has a combination of an inadequate view of human sinfulness, leading to a defective view of the work of Jesus Christ, leading in turn to a low view of his person” (240).

Neo-orthodoxy also has its share of weaknesses and strengths as well as impact on Christian orthodoxy and orthopraxy. According to this movement, it is important to emphasize the unity of scripture and renew interests in hermeneutics. It is closely related to the Christian faith living as well as practice and thought one of the movements theologian, Karl Barth asserts that theology should only be based on the word of God and not human philosophy. It disregards all other aspects of natural theology, which is based on human, and creation reason (Lane, 275). This movement brought about contributions by other theologians such as the one wrote by Dietrich Bonhoeffer that distinguished concepts of cheap and costly grace, which ended up influencing many Christians into the thought that discipleship has a cost.

Having looked at the three movements, I find evangelicalism to have more weight than the others do. Having said that I do not agree with all its aspects but I do believe in the five convictions that this movement drew its arguments. It is my belief that every Christian should contribute to evangelism and spread the word of God to as many people as possible in the whole universe.

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Nursing Ethics and Medical Futility on Organ Transplant

Nursing Ethics and Medical Futility on Organ Transplant

Introduction

The first successful organ transplant was undertaken in 1954 between two identical twins. Since then organ transplant has become one of the most important procedures to treat diseases that are otherwise considered untreatable. Organ transplantation provides patients with a gift of life when vital organs fail. Organ transplant requires other people – to dead or alive – to donate organs to the organ recipient. However, the organs available cannot meet the demand. This has led to a significant increase in waiting list for organ transplants. However, organ transplant faces several ethical issues that the medical profession has to tackle. Prior to discussing the ethical issues surrounding organ transplant, it is vital to provide a concise definition of organ transplant. Organ transplant refers to a surgical operation where a failed or damaged organ in a human is removed and replaced with a new organ. An organ refers to a body of specialized cells and tissues that perform a certain function within the body collaboratively. Some of the major organs in a human body include heart, eyes, kidney, liver, and skin. A graft is similar to an organ transplant. However, in grafting, a certain tissue is surgically re-implanted to replace certain tissues within an organ. Therefore, grafting does not involve the surgical removal of a whole organ. It is not possible to transplant all organs.

Ethical Issues

Shortage of Organs

The major ethical dilemma on organ transplantation comes from the shortage of available organs. Therefore, not all people who need an organ transplant ultimately ends up getting on. According to the United Network for Sharing (UNOS) website (www.unos.org), the U.S. has more than 80,000 people who are waiting for organs.

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Mercury Posioning Scenario

Cindy, who is a big fan of shush, is worried that she may have mercury posioning due to all of the “big fish” she has been consuming at the various sushi resturant nearby. Cindy read that silver cholride is used as a antidote for mercury posioning and would like to use her chemistry skills to make herself some. please help cindy determine how she will make the 5.0mg of silver cholride she needs. To do this properly you need to let cindy know which chemicals she will need to react to form sliver cholride and what type of reaction will allow this to occur. You will also need to tell cindy how much of the reactant she will need (in g).. which should she use as a limited reaction and which should be used in excess and why?

Design A Supply Chain And Implement A Program To Monitor Its Performance

An organization has asked you to design a supply chain and implement a program to monitor its performance with respect to sustainability. They have also asked you to give recommendations for improving upon your plan as the organization grows. The chief executive officer (CEO) has asked you to present your design and recommendations in a PowerPoint presentation at a meeting with the executive management team.

Instructions:

Your presentation should include the following information:

  1. Evaluate the organization’s facilities with regard to capacity and location. Determine whether the organization has enough capacity and whether or not the facilities are strategically located.
  2. Conduct an inventory analysis of the firm.

o    Evaluate the firm’s ERP system.

o    Evaluate the firm’s inventory management systems.

o    Identify the firm’s inventory costs.

o    Determine the firm’s optimum order quantities.

o    Identify the firm’s seasonality adjustments and reorder points.

  1. Describe the systems used to monitor the performance of the suppliers.

o    Identify the key performance indicators (KPIs).

o    Describe the firm’s risk management strategies.

  1. Identify the firm’s conflict management strategies.
  2. Recommend strategies, tools, etc. the organization can use to improve or expand upon the supply chain in the future.
  3. Identify any potential ethical issues that could have a negative impact on the organization and make recommendations to address them.

In addition to the slides in the presentation, include a detailed outline in the speaker notes section explaining the content on each slide. Use at least three (3) scholarly sources to support the information in your presentation. Be sure to cite the sources for your information.

Make sure your presentation adheres to the following Presentation Guidelines:

  • Create a presentation that is professional and visually appealing.
  • Include a combination of text and graphics.
  • Do not write out your entire presentation on the slides. Use bullet points of keywords and short phrases instead of long sentences and paragraphs.
  • Create your presentation (slides and Speaker Notes) using language that can be easily understood by the intended audience.
  • Use APA formatting for your slides and Speaker Notes (outline).

Develop a 10–15-slide presentation (including the title slide and reference slide) in PowerPoint format. Apply APA standards to citation of sources.

Low Cost Inventory Management System Plan

Your sister owns a small clothing store. During a conversation at a family dinner, she mentions her frustration with having to manually track and reorder high demand items. She would like an automated Inventory Management System but has a very small budget so you a Low Cost Inventory Management System will be the best for her.

Write a 4-5 page paper in which you create a plan for a low-cost automated inventory system in which you:

  • Describe all the necessary equipment for the low cost inventory management system
  • Explain the costs involved in the creation of the system.
  • Describe the ongoing maintenance that will be required.
  • Provide a workflow diagram in Visio or equivalent software to illustrate how the low cost inventory management system will work.

Your assignment must:

  • Be typed, double-spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.
  • Include charts or diagrams created in Excel, Visio, MS Project, or one of their equivalents such as Open Project, Dia, and OpenOffice. The completed diagrams/charts must be imported into the Word document before the paper is submitted.

 

low-cost-inventory-management-system-plan
Low Cost Inventory Management System Plan

The specific Course Learning Outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Describe the types of business needs that can be addressed using information technology-based solutions.
  • Create requirements for a system through a formal technique that enables a productive change in a way the business is conducted.
  • Use contemporary CASE tools in process and data modeling.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in systems analysis and development.
  • Write clearly and concisely about Systems Analysis and Development topics using proper writing mechanics and technical style conventions.

 

Critical and Creative Thinking Skills – Presentation

Critical and Creative Thinking Skills

A presentation by

UniqueWritersBay

Introduction

  • Most of those considered effective at making decisions are the few individuals with the ability to choose the most appropriate option from an array of alternatives in consistence.
  • The decisions of such persons are well informed, imagined, defensible and reasoned.
  • Through the application of creative and critical thinking, one is usually able solve very complex problems as well as understand the implications of their thought process.

Definition

  • Though used alongside each other, there stands out a significant difference between the two terminologies.
  • Critical thinking is the persistent, careful and active consideration of any form of knowledge, belief, the logics supporting it and the eventual conclusions that follow.
  • Creative thinking, on the other hand, entails the generation of new ideas across or within realm of knowledge, deliberately breaking or drawing upon the established symbolic measures and rules.

Real-life scenario that required critical and creative thinking

  • client proposes a mansion to be designed for them.
  • Problem: getting the client satisfied.
  • Implications:

    having a design that could be workable with the capital available, while at the same time, seeing to it that the self esteem of the client was maintained.

    To advise for a smaller mansion would imply undermining the client’s ability.

    At the same time, recommending cheep unreliable materials would result in the long term negative                      portraiture of the company name.

 

Decision making process

  • At one point in life or the other, one has to be involved in a situation whereby they have to make a decision.
  • The choices of the decisions made, as posited by Mather and McCarthy (2009), have very heinous implications on the events that follow. 
  • Therefore, one has to take their time to see to it that they make only the most appropriate and effective decisions. As such, sufficient time had to be taken before advising the client accordingly.

 

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