Month: January 2017

Quadrennial Homeland Security Review Policy Statement

Quadrennial Homeland Security Review Policy Statement Instructions

In your capacity as an EM Planner, you have impressed the Director of County Emergency Management with your knowledge of existing federal policy and doctrine. You recognize that at the county level, operators often focus on operations, tactics and skills sets. But you’ve also learned through your education that strategic plans and frameworks can be essential for laying the foundation and provide a baseline from which plans et al. can be drawn. The strategic framework that is provided in the quadrennial homeland security review (QHSR) presents a common focus as well for every community, to help align the goals and objectives of entities at all governmental levels, in all sectors, and including individuals or collectives of citizens and groups.

The quadrennial homeland security review also serves to present users with a better understanding of concepts that were never previously well-defined, including that of homeland security. Essential principles, priorities, and vision are incorporated, reflected the basic components of a solid strategy. Remembering that strategy is broad, conceptual, and in this case the means for providing a framework, it should not be confused, nor used for specific procedures, prioritization, nor any thorough understanding of a given organization’s (other than DHS) roles and responsibilities.

For this unit’s individual project, you will read the entire quadrennial homeland security review. After reading the QHSR, choose two of the five missions that are discussed within it to examine and apply to your community. Pay close attention to the goals that are subordinate to each mission as well. (You would normally apply all five missions, but in this case, time and space are limitations.)

After reading the QHSR, you will draft a policy statement for it. Note that a policy statement is intended to reflect the evaluation of a policy’s relevance or applicability for specific usage. In this case, you will craft a policy statement revealing your evaluation of the QHSR and its value for guiding the county in preparing emergency response plans. Your policy statement will serve to educate members of your county’s EM team and also provide a means for you to offer specific recommendations relating to those portions of the quadrennial homeland security review that you consider most meritorious for the county’s consideration.

In a 5–7 page policy statement, you will do the following:

  • Provide a brief review of the purpose of the quadrennial homeland security review and your assessment as to its potential value for the county as it rewrites old plans and develops new ones.
    • As you have a page limitation, this assessment should not exceed one full page.
  • Consider and capture, in your own words, a definition and the usefulness of various terms in the quadrennial homeland security review, including homeland securitypreparedness, and homeland security enterprise. Add other terms as you deem necessary.
    • Tie these terms to other strategies, frameworks, policies with which you are familiar, or which you studied in this course.
    • The National Response Framework (NRF) and National Incident Management System (NIMS) are two strategic documents that you might use.
  • Select two of the five missions—and each one’s listed goals—that are outlined in the QHSR that you will advise your county to begin with, aiding the team members to become educated about the strategic framework and its many elements and making connections from strategy to local community operational use. In choosing which missions you select, you might contemplate some of the following components:
    • Mission 1: Preventing Terrorism and Enhancing Security
      • This mission is very expansive, as is each subordinate goal
      • Think about whether terrorism is a truly likely threat—of course terrorism can occur everywhere, but limited resources compel communities to allocate these judiciously with maximum benefit for least cost
      • Think about the likelihood of weapons of mass destruction, or chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) capabilities being used in your county
    • Mission 2: Securing and Managing Our Borders
      • Consider whether your county is reasonably concerned with border issues
      • Does your county include ports (air, sea, rail, or land)?
      • What prevalence is there of transnational criminal activity?
    • Mission 3: Enforcing and Administering Our Immigration Laws
      • Is immigration a concern for your county or state? Could it be in the future?
      • Which population seems the greatest concern, if any?
    • Mission 4: Safeguarding and Securing Cyberspace
      • Cyber threats exist for all critical infrastructure and operations that support communities.
      • This may be especially critical if information technology is an industry in your region.
    • Mission 5: Ensuring Resilience to Disasters
      • If your county has any likely natural (or manmade or accidental) threats or vulnerabilities, this mission can readily be tied to the county’s needs and objectives
  • Choose your two missions and summarize each one and its goals briefly in your policy statement.
    • For each mission, make clear and direct connections to the missions and goals and the county’s needs, objectives or capabilities.
      • Needs could include threats, hazards, or vulnerabilities as you assess them.
      • You will not need to have first-person or source information to provide details related to the County—you may use your own critical analysis skills and determine what these might be (For example, flooding is unlikely if the county is primarily composed of drought-prone plains.)
  • Do not exceed seven pages for the body of your paper. Use your own words to make these summaries to the greatest extent possible—but if you lift any material directly from the QHSR, make certain to properly reference it. Do not make your product an opinion piece. While it is based on your perspectives, write affirmatively, using a professional and official tone and language. The words Iourweyou, (and the like) should not appear anywhere.

Quadrennial Homeland Security Review Policy Statement – Sample Paper


Securing the borders is an important task that the county needs to consider though it has not greatly dealt with the security problem facing the country. Texas borders Mexico a country that borders the United States. Mexico is associated with a lot of crimes that usually affects the people in Texas (Guerette & Clarke, 2005). The gangs from Mexico form groups in Texas that provide a hard time to the Texan government and its constituents.  Therefore being on the border requires various measures to be executed to ensure security is maximized and that no more gangs gain entry into the country. Various measures can help in handling border security and ensure that any leaks in the borders are dealt with to prevent any mishaps affect that may eventually affect the state.

Cross Country Involvement

The two countries and the Texan county should be greatly involved in various meetings that will help deal with various criminal gangs. Homeland Security should ensure that it call on the Mexican government and law enforcement agencies in Mexico to help them deal with the increasing crime rate in Texas (Longmire, M & Longmire, S., 2008). The cooperation will help the government identify the various tactics that the criminals use and help homeland security to be more effective in finding criminal gangs in Texas. Such criminal groupings eventual move to other states posing problems eventually to the whole country and, therefore, dealing with the root of the problem.

Increasing of Security Checks and Border Patrols

Increasing the workforce at the border is important for the safeguarding of the border. The main issue in increasing security is to ensure that no one accesses Texas illegally especially focusing on criminals from Mexico who are operating in Texas to a small extent. Since Texas County borders, Mexico security should be beefed when compared to other states. The increasing criminal activity associated with the gangs affects the security of Texas, and the killings paint a negative picture on the security agencies. Texas as a county has not much concern for the border about the large numbers of gangs in the county who are a security risk to the constituents of Texas. The ports into Texas are the entry points that form the border points bordering Mexico. Entry points are through land and air.


The legislation is needed in place to support the inclusion of more police officers on the border. This will help in ensuring that the border is secure especially by creating legislation that increases police on the border and helps to ensure that a lot of tools are used especially those that are related to technology including cameras and computers. Technology has proved to capture various things that people would not note and, therefore, using them at the border would increase efficiency in securing it. The legislation would, in dealing with transnational activity involving crime, help greatly in combating crime especially international crime since Mexico is known for the many drug and crime cartels that operate internationally.


Security is a central concern to the county, and, therefore, it should be considered and taken with a great necessity to ensure that no criminals or illegal entries are made into the county. The national government should improve border security in counties that border other counties like Mexico. Texas should, therefore, be considered in being given additional assistance to increase security, and since Mexico has various criminal cartels, the government should focus on providing financial assistance to ensure that the various tools are obtained. Therefore, it is important that the county consider the border issues, and the various ports into the county have loopholes. The loopholes like illegal entry especially involving criminals should be sealed to prevent crime in Texas and in general to America.

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Public Communication Programs, Processes, Systems, Efforts, and Plans


There are many processes, efforts and various communicational procedures that take place for the purpose of public education. Many processes help in the communication of various risks that affect the public. The risk communicators, therefore, had to go through various efforts like ensuring that the languages used are appropriate and are not imposing to the public. Various efforts are pout in risk communication to ensure that the public understands what is taking place in their environment. The efforts are made in educating the public using seminars or organizing for local meetings with the affected people.  The communication to the public should be clear and concise to the people involved.

An example of a public communication tool is that developed by the World Bank that deals with the privatization programs that will help in mitigating development and development risk. Various approaches are used in the management of risks and even communicating to the affected people who are mostly affected by various environmental hazards. The various approaches are usually in dealing with the agents especially in the release, use and exposure to the various agents. Various efforts and actions are geared towards educating the public in making decisions. The various processes including being open, frank, honest and truthful. The purpose of the various efforts like honesty is to ensure that they listen and understand the public concerns and be sensitive to their needs or grievances. The rules of communication by Covello. Most people may have mistrust against the experts.



Risk Communication

The core principles of the public education are many, include mental, and trust determination theory. There are various efforts that have been progressed by eth government in the event of enraging that the various organizations dealing with chemicals and manufacturing practices educate the public on the effects of the chemicals and whether their lifestyles will be changed in any way (Sellnow, 2009). The government has through various policies and regulations the regulations and laws are set in place by the nation government and in the respective local governments. Therefore, the governments contribute greatly to the welfare of the people in putting the industries into account.  Risk research has been carried out to find out the various risks affecting most publics and how such messages can be communicated to them. Risk communication entails various aspects that provide clarity to the targeted audience and thus makes sure that the affected people get to understand the various impacts such companies may have on them. Some of the aspects are getting the numbers right, informing the public of the meaning of the numbers, explaining the meaning of the numbers, make the public conversant with the past risks that they have accepted, explain the cost versus the benefits associated with the risks, and promote respect towards the public. Lastly, the companies should collaborate with the public to ensure that there are involved in many of the workings of the companies and, therefore, increase transparency.

Theories, Processes and Efforts of Communication to tThe Public

Situation theory publics helps communication towards the intended to be effective.  The theory helps in identifying the stakeholders who should be reached out to and how communication should be carried out especially to the publics. As a result, it clearly identifies the public and then goes forward to determine whom they should be communicated to. The theory has three aspects, which are the extent of involvement, constraint recognition and problem recognition. Information processing and seeking are the core characteristics of the theory used to forecast behavior. The theory, therefore, encompasses communicative practice in dealing with various problems that may arise concerning the publics. The theory helps in making sure that risk analysis and assessment is carried out to ensure that the people understand the various risks associated with any companies operations (Crouhy et al., 2000). The company thus gets to air out the various consequences without possibly reduce the impact of the risks associated with the institutions and organizations.

The heuristics systematic model helps greatly in ensuring that the publics are educated to a greater extent. The various efforts are put into play to ensure that those who educate the public have the necessary information by using the model to predict the behavior of the publics. Another model is the deliberate process model that helps the institution and organizations identify and forecast the public’s motivation and behaviors in processing the various risk messages involved. The model centers various actions and measures that help in processing the risk messages and helping the public to understand the risks associated with the various organizations.

Risk analysis is also carried out to determine the resultant effects of various risk analysis. Risk analysis entails control, evaluation and recognition of a risk (Arvai, 2014).  Most of the areas that focused on public education include public health, geology and earth science, and environment stewardship. Therefore, the companies carry out risk analysis to ensure that they make the public and the government at large understand the various risks involved.  There are many institutions, which are involved in the disseminating important information regarding the various companies and the chemical effects.

The Red Cross organization has many branches globally and deals with related health problems. It has been instrumental in public education specifically in health related matters. The Red Cross is educated people on the various health related matters globally. The Red Cross provides information that is relevant to the communities they operate in. It is mostly centered on various disasters that take place throughout the world and help to ensure that people who are affected by various floods or natural disasters like tsunamis and earthquakes are rescued. Therefore, the Red Cross is a multifaceted organization that helps in dealing in not only dealing with not only health but also rescue and educating the public on various risks. Another approach to educating the public is the crisis and emergency risk communication. It is an emergency awareness program (Vose, 2013).


Most of the models in place and efforts usually help the institutions in ensuring that they predict the various outcomes that may happen when the public get the risk messages. The models and processes help in ensuring that the organizations come out clearing on the various negative impacts and in the prediction of the public’s behavior. As such, the public should be more involved in the decision process especially regarding companies that have extremely negative consequences should they be set up. The government should come up with legislation that is people centered and that required the companies to have the environmentally friendly and health conscious practices that ensure that the publics have little concern on these issues. Companies should, therefore, be accountable to the public in following the laid down procedures by the national government and the local governments in place.


Arvai, J. (2014). Effective risk communication. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.

Crouhy, M., Galai, D., & Mark, R. (2000). Risk management. New York: McGraw Hill.

Vose, D. (2013). Risk analysis: A quantitative guide. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.

Sellnow, T. L. (2009). Effective risk communication: A message-centered approach. New York: Springer.

Rulemaking Authority of Foreign Administrative Bodies and Their Effect on U.S.

Foreign Administrative Bodies

International trade plays an essential obligation in the prosperity and growth of the United States. Similar to how the open trading among the 50 states of America develops extensive benefits, open trading enhances great benefits at global level.  Trade promotes technology transfer, creates competition, and permits businesses and consumers access to the global best products. This yields to income rise, higher productivity and innovation all around. The foreign administrative bodies are highly involved in regulating international trade operations. The international trade administration is involved in developing export strategies creating limits to the international trade. This include developing rules and regulations that control countries relation in international trade. This paper evaluates how the foreign administrative bodies’ rulemaking authority influences the US global businesses.

The Foreign Administrative Bodies’ Rulemaking Authority Influences the US Global Businesses.

The foreign administrative bodies’ authority to make rules regarding international business gives them the ability to control the international business. This implies that they can develop a role to favor trade relation between countries in a certain region and to stop malicious business act among members of countries to be involved in trade agreements. They are basically involved in setting international trade policies that should act as a guidance to business operation among different countries. This simply means that the foreign administrative bodies with authority to make laws can highly influence international trade in the United States. They set trade requirements, and thus, they highly influence what can be exported to certain countries whose global business operation they protect. This include the procedures to be followed to enhance international business relation, the quality standard of exports and imports in different countries.

The international regulation cooperation is important to the US government for two main reasons. First it assists the regulatory agencies of the US attain their missions of statutory regulatory domestically. Actually, in some aspects such as drugs and food safety regulation, where the biggest portion which are US imports, participation and awareness in processes of foreign   regulatory participation might be important to guarantee the safety of the goods getting into the US market. International regulatory cooperation can also eliminate non-tariff barriers to exports and trade, enhancing U.S. competitiveness and global commerce. Furthermore, the international regulatory cooperation benefits are consistent. This implies that they can frequently be employed in unison (McCarthy, 2011).).

Although the global regulatory cooperation demonstrated some advantages to the country, it still create some key barriers to the US international trade, both practical and legal barriers. A number of agencies in the US claim that with global regulatory cooperation, they lack the constitutional power to constitute international impacts when making governing decisions. High level leaders and agency officials demonstrates that the foreign administrative bodies gives them low priority since it limits the visibility of their success. Information sharing legal restrictions can hinder cooperation at international level. Agencies coordination in the government of the United States is a challenge, especially for regulatory agencies independency in order for agencies to center on competitiveness and trade are not permanently aware of the other federal regulators activities (McCarthy, 2011).

TTIP also play a major part in enhancing cooperation between nations. These bodies set rules that enhance the growth of International Corporation and also eliminate any form of acts that would results malicious practices. They set production standards for goods to be traded in certain international. The international trade administration empowers the U.S. industry competitiveness, promote investment and trade and guarantees fair trade via the rigorous trade agreements and laws enforcement. It operates to enhance global business settings and to assist U.S organizations contest at abroad and home market. It assist in supporting the national export and recovery agenda initiated by President Obama (Stewart, 2015).

The rulemaking ability of the foreign administrative bodies defines a better business environment for the US in the international market. For instance the ITA in the US is structured into three different though complementary units of business. They include the unit of global market, the unit of industry and analysis, and the compliance and enforcement unit. The global market unit integrates the ITA’s regional and country experts, domestic and overseas field stand and particular programs of trade promotion to offer the US companies full particular country export suit promotion services as well as advocacy to market access, while indorsing the US as an investment destination.  The analysis and industry unit unites the ITA’s economic experts, trade and industry to advance US industry competitiveness via the execution and development of investment policies and international trade as well as promotion techniques. The analysis and industry leverage ITA’s association with services and manufacturing industries to raise U.S. exports. The compliance and enforcement unit promotes the responsibilities of ITA to enforce the trade laws in the US and guarantee compliance with negotiated trade agreements for US industry (Trade, 2015).

The foreign administrative bodies also develop rules to protect country’s local industries from facing unhealthy competition from the foreign investors and traders. This is done by developing laws such as antidumping laws that restrict the prices of imports into a country selling substitutable goods. This protect the local industries from facing competition from companies that can manage to sell their products at cheaper prices. The bodies’ administrative role give them the power to control the pricing of foreign goods (Edwards & DeHaven, 2009). This gives the United States a great advantage in different foreign markets in the world. This it does not only protect the local countries with unhealthy completion, but also the US products competition over other exporters from countries with low production cost. For instance, production of an electronic product in China would be cheaper as compared to production of a similar product in the US. In this regard, without prices regulation, exporting this product to another country the two producers would recover their production cost and profit. Thus, the product imported from US will be expensive than a product imported from China and thus this would make most consumers to prefer the China manufactured product. However the antidumping laws may force China produced product to raise their prices to prevent unhealthy competition with local companies, an aspect that benefits other exporters.


The foreign administrative bodies’ ability to make rules gives them a great ability to influence the United States global business operation. The bodies can set rules that can positively or negatively influence business operation in the United States. However, based on the above analysis, the bodies have demonstrated that their rules have highly enhanced the US global business operations. Although there are a few limitations, their ability to make global business rules have highly facilitated positive business relation between different countries.


Edwards, C., & DeHaven, T. (2009). International trade administration. The Federal Government. Retrieved from< >

McCarthy, M. (2011). International regulatory cooperation, 20 years later: Updating ACUS recommendation 91-1. Retrieved from <>

Stewart, R. B. (2015).  US administrative decision making procedures and international regulatory cooperation. Retrieved from<>

Trade. (2015). About the international trade administration. Retrieved from <>

Film Proposal Essay


This film is created by the DMX family, one of the best film writers and directors within the California region. DMX has been in the film industry for a very of close to ten years. The unit has been successful in its previous script writing and it has even won three awards. The first award was awarded as the runners up in script writing and later two awards were won as the best script writers in California. Some of the scripts that were previously written by DMX family have featured on some of the local television stations due to the message of the contents and the quality of the plays. Moreover, the level of creativity has been appreciated in the past not only by the producers but also by the fans that enjoy watching the plays. DMX level of creativity and dynamism goes beyond the expectations of the viewers because a lot of research is done before a play is fully composed. This unit also derives its creativity from watching a lot of plays especially on the national theatre as well as getting ideas from the daily occurrences that happen in the society.

Title of the Film

The film has been given the title “love infidelity”. The title gives a brief explanation about what the film is all about since it primarily focuses on the infidelity that most families go through in this century. The film is all about three young men who are married to very beautiful wives whom they love so much. One of the men is a banker, the other one is a basketball player while the third one is a taxi driver. All the three men are never at home during daytime due to the tight schedule that they go through on a daily basis. Their wives on the other hand are equally employed with an exception of one who runs her personal business venture within the city.. Coincidentally, the three wives are all cheating on their husbands with three other men. Every woman creates for both the husband and the “side dish” almost on a daily basis. The women find time to hang around with their other men either during the daytime, or later in the evening before they drive back home. Once they get home, they give their husbands the full attention that they need as if nothing had just happened before they got back home. The husbands on the other side are non-suspecting of the foul play by the wives. In the long run, the tricks played by these beautiful women come crashing when their husbands learn of the dirty games the women have been playing behind their backs.  The expose puts the marriages through turmoil for a very long period until that point when they all decide to file for divorce papers because the marriages cannot work anymore. The “side dishes” also disappear once they realize that the women were hanging out with them yet they were married. The end result is that the children are left in such a confused scenario where they have to live without the care and love of both parents.


The budget of the film is expected o be a little expensive considering that the some scenes will have to be shot in some of the five star hotels within the city. Moreover, the film will have to be shot within a span of one week for it to be complete. The estimated amount needed for the entire process will be at least $ 250, 000. The money will be used for various purposed during the shooting process. For instance, part of the cash will be used to settle rental fees for the hotel rooms that will be used by the crew members for the one week period. Additionally, part of that money will be used to cater for the computer graphics and imagery. The cameras that will be used during that process will be hired using weekly rates. Apart from that, the cash will also be used for talent and marketing purposes so that the film can able to sell to the end co0nsumers once it will be completed.

Film Contract

The contract to this film will be guided by the following terms and conditions.

The writer of the script will be engaged in the in all the production stages of the love infidelity film.  The producer should be in agreement that the writer be included in the production stages from the star to the end. The producer should also agree that his work will be done according to the stipulations of the terms and conditions of the agreements.

The creator, DMX family hereby gives the producer, Doughty producer the position of being the executive producer of the love infidelity film. Both parties agree to play their roles as per the already mentioned agreements

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Contract Clause – Dispute Resolution Clause

Contract Clause


The contract clause to be considered in this case is dispute resolution clause. Dispute resolution clause is a section in a contract or agreement that sets out the techniques for solving disputes between two or more contractual parties. The agreement scope is resolute in clause drafting. The dispute resolution clause requires to be unambiguous and clearly drafted. This highly determined if the clause can be used to resolve any contractual conflict or can just be dismissed as irrelevant due to a high level of ambiguity. A good dispute resolution (DR) clause constitutes of contingent in what the parties anticipate to attain from the inclusion of clause of such kind in their agreement. The DR clause need to forestall future issues and efficiently have provisions which resolves the issue satisfactorily in a way that is advantageous to both parties. Therefore, a suitable DR clause will be founded on a different variables which include the parties’ relationship and interest, the contract nature and subject matter and the respective bargaining power of the parties.  In this regard, DR clause need to be deliberately drafted, instead of routinely, with every contract customization in order to attain the most desired outcome of the parties. Thus, there is no any single DR clause which can handle all agreements (Bihancov, 2014).

Legal Issues regarding Dispute Resolution Clause

According to Bihancov (2014), a suitable DR clause must be enforceable, be a condition model to litigation, be certain and clear as to the process and mechanism to be followed, be able to foresee the issues that might arise as far as possible and be able to preserve the association of disputing parties. Different to arbitration, there is basically no basis of legislative for an agreement enforcement to mediate. Thus, a good DR clause which integrate processes of dispute resolution for instance mediation must be created to address the enforceability needs, else the insertion of a clause of that nature is objectively purposeless. The DR Clause enforceability guarantees that parties try to perform their duties under the DR clause prior to considering litigation. The probable outcomes from obligations of breaching under the DR clause gives incentives to try to resolve a conflict without litigation.

An enforceable DR Clause should not expel the court’s jurisdiction, but instead it should state clearly that the process of dispute resolution is a situation practice to litigation. This clause must be clear on the procedure to be followed to resolve a dispute and the strategies to be used to choose a third party to assisting in resolution process. The clause must also provide a clear steps to be taken in case there will be no a compromising position attained with the intervention of the third party. The clause must foresee all possible problems that they may occur which may result into unresolvable disputes in the future. Problems definition and DR clause drafting must be done to suit the expected problems which will highly be determined by the interest of individuals needing protection and representation as well as the agreement. This is a very extensive scope that expects any probable problem that include contract breach, subject or validity matter associating to the agreement, and contract termination. Finally, an enforceable clause need to enhance the preservation and maintenance of the contractual parties’ relationship. Designing the dispute progress via a suitable DR clause might assist the parties in preserving their association and finding it to be more valuable as compared to the matter of the dispute (Bihancov, 2014).

Application of Dispute Resolution Clause in Real property Management

In real property management, disputes are common between the landlord and the tenants based on different aspects. These aspects include the use of the property, the rent payment, property maintenance, property lighting, and the shared utilities among other disputes. Basically, the tenant and the landlord may develop a contract on how to resolve their issues. The contract may be drafted by the landlord and a tenant may be required to sign upon agreement. In this case, signing of the contract implies that the tenant agree to be guided by the structured contract. In case of unresolvable dispute, both the tenant and the landlord will employed the dispute resolution clause to identify the third party to assist in resolving the issue. The third party will then review the contract that binds the two and listen to the case. In this case, the third party will try to assist them resolve the case. In this case, the two parties will be anticipated to compromise to reach an agreement. The DR clause will be used to ensure that the dispute is settled without destroying the association between them, since they both need each other. In case the problem is not resolved even with the aid of a third party. In case the problem even with the aid of the party, the dispute resolution clause, the clause should guide on how they two can settle their issue in a litigation. However, this will try to be avoided by ensuring that the clause addresses all problems that can occur between a landlord and the tenant or a buyer and a seller in case the property is being sold (Scott, 2014).


Bihancov, A. (2014). What is an example of a good dispute resolution clause and why? Australian Center for Justice Innovation Civil Justice Research Online, 2, 1-19

Scott, M. (2014, 14 Jan). Dispute resolution in real estate contracts. Retrieved from <>

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Smallpox Biological Attack Dissemination Strategies

Overview of the Threat

Smallpox is a contagious, acute, and most cases fatal diseases that is caused by an orthopozvirus variola virus. It symptoms include body and head aches, high fever, and in some cases vomiting. This is followed by a unique rash that spread in the body and eventually pus-filled blisters and bumps which scab, crust and fall off approximately three weeks after, leaving a bumpy scar. Although most people infected by the virus recover, the disease can cause 30% death to the total number of the infected individuals. Majority of survivors are left with permanent scars on most parts of their skin particularly face while some turn blind. There is no yet any treatment for the disease though there is vaccine. The only possible measures are drugs to control fever and antibiotics to prevent secondary bacterial infection. However, research is going on to establish possible cure for the disease (CDC, 2009).

Smallpox is spread through fairly and direct prolonged physical contact. The virus can also be spread via air in enclosed environment such as trains, buses, and buildings. However, it can also be spread via direct contact with contaminated object that include clothing and bedding or infected fluids from dead bodies. The disease is infectious during the fever onset and turns to be more contagious on rash onset. One remains contagious until the last scab of the disease falls off. The disease has incubation period of about 12 days. Previous research demonstrates that administration of smallpox vaccine within 4 or 3 days after exposure could substantially reduce the disease severity or abort the disease despite of the immunity level of an individuals. The disease was said to be eradicated in 1980 though the United States government has been taking precautions regarding the possibility of its use as a bioterrorist weapon since 2001 terrorist event in the country (CDC, 2009). The current threat should thus be taken serious and preventive measures employed. The possible means of spreading the virus is through air in enclosed settings. Therefore the public should consider avoiding mall and other enclosed regions one week from now.

Prevention of Mass Hysteria within the Population

Mass hysteria refers to swift development of heighted anxiety and fear that translates into immense disruption to the activities and behavior of the involved individuals. Mass hysteria can be very destructive and thus, it should be prevented. The best way to prevent mass hysteria is by identifying the best channel to alert the public about the threat and the right message to give structured in the right way (Balaratnasingam & Janca, 2006). Therefore, the government should ensure that this information is not reported carelessly by the media. Instead, the government should call for a media briefing and address the Los Angeles’ state and the nation in general.

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Ethics in Action Scenario Review

Ethics in Action Scenario

According to respondeat superior, principal or employer has legal role for the agent or employee wrongful act if this act happens in the agency or employment scope. This is irrespective of whether the act was reckless or accidental. Based on this provision, the employer has an ethical obligation to take preventative or corrective action if he or she know that an employee poses danger to others. Being the employee commander and supervisor, an employer has the ability to control the employee’s move and actions through supervision and tight jobs scheduling. Moreover, employers have been provided with the rights to develop the organization policies and action measures to be taken in case one fails to act based on the polices and the identified employees code of conduct. Thus, employee is supposed to rule the employees’ behaviors and to discipline any employee who poses danger to others (Duffy, 2008).

Although the employer is the principle of the employment place, employees also have rights that protect them from any form of mistreatment or unjust dismissal or unjust punishment. This right provide them with an opportunity to contest any form of mistreatment from their employer. In this regard, the employer can never interdict or discipline the employee with simple speculations. Just like any other litigation that needs evidence and proof, the employer need to have enough proof before taking any action. In case the employee is suspicious of the employee’s action, ability or plan to cause any danger to others, the employer has the responsibility of carrying out an investigation, or a close monitoring to prevent the danger from taking place. In addition, the employer should also do own investigation to obtain enough prove to be able to discipline the employee as required. However, the suspicion is enough to employ measures to ensure no danger is caused by the employee. The employer may never have proof, but that only prevent the employer from accusing the employee and punishing the employee for any mistake. However, the employer must take precautions to ensure that the suspicion does not come true and cause harm to employees. The proof provides the employer with the right to punish the employee while the suspicion only pushes the employer to investigate and employ measures to prevent any form of suspected danger (Duffy, 2008).

The employer has an ethical duty to take preventive or corrective action to all employees in the company and the customers who are attended by the employees as well as the surrounding community. The employer has a role to ensure employee safety in their work place. According to the law, the employer should protect its employee from any form of discrimination and harassment. In this regard, the employer should ensure that the environment is conducive enough for all workers environment. The employer is also responsible of protecting the employees against sexual harassment which is a form of discrimination (SHRM, 2014). Employees have the right to equal treatment and should not be discriminated based on their gender. This can only be assured by the employer by enhancing good supervision and scanning the employees conduct before employment. Good work policies and code of conduct should also be employed to enhance promote good behaviors in the working environment.

Employer also has a duty to the society to ensure that he act for the best interest of the society. This is defined as utilitarianism theory where the employer is demanded to act for the best interest of the society irrespective of whether the society best interest will interfere with the company’s wellbeing (Bilych, 2014). However based on the profit maximization theory, the employer is entitled to do all that is possible to maximize the profit of the company. However, this should be done without interfering with the rights of the employees or the best interest of the society. In this regard, an employer is needed to balance the situation to ensure that the company maximizes on its profit, ensure that the society interest is satisfied and that the workers’ rights are effectively employed in its operation. Thus, the employer has ethical obligation over the society, the workers and company’s wellbeing (Hussain, 2012).

In this case, an employee is involved in sexual assault during the working hours. However, the case does not clearly state whether this happens in the workplace or outside the workplace. In case this happened in the workplace, the employer will definitely be responsible since the employer has ethical obligation of ensuring anybody in the work place is safe. However, if this happened outside the workplace, the employer never had control of the employees’ acts outside the workplace. However, if they were involved in work mission at the place where the act took place, the employee is surely responsible under the respondent superior doctrine. On the other hand, the employer may not be able to force moral behaviors in an employee and thus, the employer may not be able to control the situation and thus, he or she may not be liable (Women UN, 2012).

There are a number of torts demonstrated in this case. They include the intentional tort of battery committed by the employee. There is also a tort of negligence where the employer neglected the role of supervision, an act that resulted to the sexual assault.

In this case, an employee of XYZ is involved in sexual assault which is definitely an act away from the employee’s job description. In this regard, it is clear that the employee was not working for the interest of the employer but for personal interest. However, the act takes place in the jobs regular working hours which means, the act happened when the employee was entitled to employment role and maybe to customers who anticipated good services as directed by the company. The ability to be involved in such a crime during working hour demonstrates poor supervision and thus a fail to the employer’s responsibility. With supervision, this could have been prevented. In this regard, both the employee and the employer has a liability to the crime.



Bilych, G. (2014). The theory of justice and profit maximization. Business and Economic Research, 4(1), 188-210.

Duffy, J. (2008). Prevention and correction of retaliation in the US workplace. Management Practices Group Best Practices Series. Retrieved from <>

Hussain, W. (2012). Corporations, profit maximization and the personal sphere. Economics and Philosophy, 28(3), 311-331.

SHRM.  (2014). What are an employer’s obligations under California law with regard to sexual harassment prevention? Retrieved from <>

Women UN. (2012). Employer obligations under law. Retrieved from <>

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Technologies in Department of Homeland Security Cyber Security Division

Technologies in Department of Homeland

Department of Homeland Security plays a big role in strengthening the security of America. One of the branches of the Department of Homeland Security is Cyber Security Division. Cyber attackers pose a big threat not only to the United States government, but also to private organizations. As the use of internet technology continues to rise in critical infrastructure sectors, many people aim to gain profit from it through hacking, espionage, and many other tactics. In order to prevent negative impacts that may arise from cyber attacks, the United States needs to enhance the security and resilience of its Internet system. Cyber Security Division of the Department of Homeland Security strives to promote cyber security through application of advanced technology (United States Department of Homeland Security, 2015b).

The mission of Cyber Security Division is to enhance security and resilience of America’s critical information infrastructure and its Internet systems by fulfilling a number of objectives. First, Cyber Security Division seeks to develop and deliver new technologies and techniques that will enable the Department of Homeland Security and the United States to protect its current and future infrastructure against cyberattacks. Second, Cyber Security Division aims at conducting and supporting technology evolution (United States Department of Homeland Security, 2015b).

Third, Cyber Security Division leads and coordinates research and development to improve the security systems of the internet in collaboration with both public and private agencies. Generally, Cyber Security Division intends to improve critical vulnerabilities that exist in the cyber security landscape including internet infrastructure security, critical infrastructure resources, national research infrastructure, leap-ahead technologies, cyber security education, identity management, cyber forensics, and software assurance. Cyber Security Division is adequately prepared to fight the next-generation cyber threats such as digital provenance and enterprise-level metrics.

In order to accomplish its mission, Cyber Security Division applies various forms of modern technology as a way of protecting the United States’ critical infrastructure systems and the Internet from cyberattacks. The three technologies employed by Cyber Security Division include mobile apps archiving technology, Federated Malware Analysis System, and AMICO and ZeroPoint technologies. Cyber Security uses these technologies well and this explains why many cyberattack plans on the United States internet systems are detected before they are executed.

The Department of Homeland Security developed mobile apps archiving technology purposely to track copyright violations in mobile apps across various applications available in the mobile app market such as iTune, Google Play, and Amazon. Currently, the Cyber Security Division uses mobile apps archiving technology to secure mobile applications by using it to conduct cyber-crime investigations, infrastructure defense, and forensic techniques. The main advantage of mobile apps archiving technology is its ability to discover approximately 19, 000 apps across Android and Windows app platforms that associated with copyright infringement (Kimery, 2015).

One major disadvantage of using mobile apps archiving technology in preventing cyber attacks is high cost associated with its implementation. Since the Cyber Security Division began to use mobile apps archiving technology, the rate of e-crime in relation to copyright infringement in the United States has greatly reduced. This is a clear indication that mobile apps archiving technology is used well by the Cyber Security Division (Kimery, 2015).

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Intelligence Gathering And Informational Sharing Within Al Qaeda

Intelligence Gathering

Al-Qaeda, a global terrorist network, was founded by Osama bin Laden more than ten years ago. This terrorist network remains a major threat across the United States, Middle East, and Africa. Al-Qaeda’s leaders understand that they are being targeted by the United States government. For this reason, they often use every means possible to share information and gather intelligence in order to make necessary preparations on how to fight their enemies whenever they strike (O’Neil and Gray, 2011). Traditionally, Al-Qaeda largely relied on the local population to gather intelligence. In addition, the terrorist network used basic communication strategies such as face-to-face communication to share information (Global Security, 2015).

However, with technological advancements in the contemporary world, Al-Qaeda now uses technology to share information and to gather intelligence. Moreover, Al-Qaeda currently implements various technological concepts similar to those employed by the United States such as, communication networks, fusion centers, information sharing environment (ISE), detection tools, and surveillance capabilities. Al-Qaeda is unconcerned about ethics and it unethically employs technology in its attempt to attack the United States and its allies. The United States has powers to employ technology in similar ways as a strategy towards defeating Al-Qaeda (Global Security, 2015).

The five main technological tools used by Al-Qaeda with regard to information sharing and intelligence gathering include mobile phones, Skype, emails, various websites on the Internet, and different forms of media such as television, radio, and newspapers. According to Theohary and Rollins (2011), Al-Qaeda largely uses mobile phones, emails, Skype, and the media to spread terrorism-related information and to gather intelligence from their sympathizers distributed in different countries globally. In addition, various websites on the internet provide very good platforms where Al-Qaeda delivers threats that are meant to instill fear among the United States citizens and their allies.

Al-Qeada also uses videotapes to disseminate horrific images of their actions and attacks to members of the public to render them helpless. Moreover, Al-Qaeda leaders spend their time examining national websites in order to gather intelligence that can assist them to stay safe from attacks planned by the United States. Since counterterrorism plans are sometimes documented in various forms of media, Al-Qaeda currently find the radio, newspapers, and television to be very good sources of intelligence gathering (Theohary and Rollins, 2011).

In order to Al-Qaeda to be successful in implementing their attack plans on America, they have to maintain a status quo which is only possible through rigorous recruiting, resource acquisition, training, surveillance, targeting, communication, attack, and spread of propaganda (O’Neil and Gray, 2011). The most important component on the list is communication. As the United States used network technologies to facilitate effective communication in order to counter terrorism, Al-Qaeda employs the same strategy including mass media and the internet to spread messages of attack. The group has a strong multi-national network that involves Islamic militant in Kosovo, Afghanistan, Eritrea, Germany, Somalia, and Algeria, just to mention but a few (Global Security, 2015).

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Mass Casualty Incident and their Psychological Impact


Mass-Casualty Attacks

Bali Nightclub Bombings, Indonesia (2002)

Bali Nightclub bombing is an incident that took place on 12th of October 2001. Two bombs blasted a few minutes past 11 pm on Bali Island in Indonesia. The blast completely destroyed two bars in the Kuta Beach in the holiday resort in the tourist district. The explosion resulted to the death of about 202 individuals who originated from 21 different nations. In this case, over 300 individuals were also injured. Tourists were the most affected individuals in this blast. The injured were assisted by a number of volunteers who took a number of the casualties to various clinics and hospitals on Bali. Most of the casualties were treated at Sanglah General Teaching Hospital at the Bali largest hospital. Initially the casualties were taken care of by the hospital staffs as well as the volunteers. However, there was reinforcement in terms of the medical personnel from different hospitals in Indonesia and international hospitals (Brookes et al., 2014).

Most individuals who were directly affected by the Bali bombing were psychologically affected. They witnessed a lot of unfolding which include the death of their friends or other people who they were faming fun with. They also experienced injuries and fear of death. Some got unconscious and even lied next to dead people who were only pronounced dead in the emergency room. Moreover, there were no paramedics to give them any good attention and thus, the incident created tension, confusion and uncertainty. In this regard, most directly involved individual were anxious and they most suffered from posttraumatic stress disorder later on. Among the common symptoms demonstrated by these individuals include nightmares, intrusive memories, development of negative thoughts regarding tourisms, change of emotional reactions, and reacting to any small sound that demonstrate danger in their surroundings and the feeling of insecurity (Stevens et al., 2013).

The incident also impacted those that are indirectly affected by the incident. This includes family members, friends, colleagues and countrymen of the victims. Some of these psychological impacts include development of touring fear, development of stress based on the need for money to assist with treatment and to assist the victims related to them to receive proper treatment as well as proper counseling. They also suffered from fear of uncertainty and thus, turning to be anxious since no one was sure of the fate of their beloved ones. The family members experienced a state of confusion due to lack of exact information regarding the situation or the status of their loved ones. Accepting the new life after the incident which includes living without a family member, friend or colleagues for those that lost their loved ones and living with the injuries impacts and disabilities for those who survived the attack also resulted to the development of stress and to some extent depression (Brookes et al., 2014).

Basically, the treatment of each victim depends on the specific injuries that a patient incurred. However, it is important to realize that all individuals who were directly involved in the incident were traumatized in one way or another. In this regard, apart from the medical or physical treatment, the victims will require psychological therapy that will enable them to overcome the psychological problems that developed as a result of the incident. This will also help them accept the new changes that came about as a result of the incident, and accept the new normal. This includes any form of disability or loss associated with the incident and that the victims or the family members have to live with. Thus, a continuous therapy would be highly required among the incident survivors and their family members to assist them overcome the shock, to heal from PTSD and other psychological conditions, and also to ensure that their life perception is not highly influenced by the incident.

Natural MCI: Tsunami, Indian Ocean (2004)

Indian Ocean Tsunami took place on 26th of December 2004. The Tsunami was initiated by an earthquake which was believed to contain 23, 000 energy of Hiroshima-type atomic bombs. The earthquake had 9.0 magnitude quakes, with its epicenter situated in the Indian Ocean close to the Sumatra west coast. The aggressive movement of the tectonic plates of earth displaced a huge volume of water, passing strong shock waves in all directions. The rupture was over 600 miles long, relocating the seafloor a few yards vertically and horizontally by 10 yards. This resulted to movement of rock measuring trillions tons resulting to the biggest magnitude earthquake in a period of 40 years. The Tsunami was very destructive. It is approximated that it caused the death of 230,000 people. There was also an extensive destruction of properties where more than 500000 individuals were left homeless where approximately a third of the casualties were children. The Tsunami created a great change in the life of people living along the Indian Ocean coast with destruction of properties, loss of life and injuries among other changes.  People displacement resulted to scattering of families and thus, most people were left without families (Frankenberg et al., 2008).

The Tsunami created great distress to the victims since they lost a lot in life. The loss of life left most children without parents, parents without children, villages completely destroyed. This resulted to great trauma since most of them had to be relocated and to continue with life without what they lost. The main psychological symptoms for the victims were stress and depression. Other symptoms include panic disorder particularly among children, schizophreania, posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety or fear of the unknown (Agustini & Matsuo, 2012).

The incident will also impact the psychological health of the victims that were not directly affected such as friends, family members, neighbors and others with one or more association with the victims. One of their major psychological conditions includes stress and anxiety due to uncertainty regarding the condition of their friends, families and their close associates. In addition, the family members will experience the fear of the unknown due to the uncertainty of the news that they are most likely to receive regarding their loved ones (Frankenberg et al., 2008).

The long term treatment plan for the victims include assisting them with material needs, social needs, and physical needs before considering providing them with psychological needs. Basically psychological wellbeing is enhanced by providing the victims with a new life, a place to live in; food, medical attention and social or new community where one can fell secured. After all this, the victims will be engaged in a psychological therapy which will include personal counseling, group or community therapy, and family therapy based on individual losses. This is a process that will take place for a while to ensure that victims have accepted what happened, their losses and that they have accepted it and that they are ready to move on.



Agustini, E. N., & Matsuo, H. (2012). Children and Adolescents-Survivors of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami: Prevalence of Long-Term PTSD and Coping Strategies (chapter 3). doi: 10-5772/51478

Brookes, G., Pooley, J. A., & Earnest, J. (2014). Terrorism, trauma and psychology: A multilevel victim perspective of the Bali bombings. Routledge

Frankenberg, E., Friedman, J., Gillespie, T., Ingwersen, N., Pynoos, R., Rifai, L. U., Sikoki, B., Steinberg, A., Sumantri, C., Suriastini, W., & Thomas, D. (2008). Mental health in Sumatra after the Tsunami. American Journal of Public Health, 98(9), 1671-167.

Stevens, G. J., Dunsmore, J. C., Agho, K. E.,  Taylor, M. R., Jones, A. L., Ritten , J. J., & Raphael, B. (2013). Long-term health and wellbeing of people affected by the 2002 Bali bombing. Medical Journal of Australia, 198(5), 273-277.

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