Month: February 2017

The Marketing Mix: Promotion

Case Assignment Instructions

Write a 4 page paper in which you respond to the following case question:

Select TWO products from the list of product categories below and using the teaching materials and any additional research explain what you think would be an approrpiate promotions strategy for both them. In doing so compare and contrast the two promotions strategies explaining why you think they would be similar or different.

Select TWO products from the following product categories:


Illustrate your answer by refering to specific brands within each of the two product categories you have chosen.

Assignment Expectations

Ensure that you repeat the case question in full and verbatim on the title page of your submission.

Excluding your title and reference pages, your paper should be no more than four pages long. Please submit your case for grading by the end of this module.

In answering this case question aim to demonstrate your learning not only of the materials from MOD04, but also those from MOD01-03. Use information from the background readings and any good quality sources you can find. Cite all sources and provide a reference list at the end of the paper.

The following will be assessed:

  • Your demonstrated understanding of the marketing concepts central to the case question.
  • Your demonstrated understanding of factors related to the development of an effective promotions strategy through the analysis you conduct in the context of the case.

In particular one of your required readings on developing a promotional strategy at the website indicates that the following four factors are fundamental to the development of a promotions strategy:

  1. Segmentation – dividing the marketing into distinct groups
  2. Targeting – deciding which of these groups to communicate with, and how to talk to them
  3. Positioning – determining how you would like the product or brand to be perceived by the target groups
  4. Messaging – delivering a specific message in order to influence the target groups

and thus it is expected that you will demonstrate your understanding of these concepts and their relationship to the development of a promotions strategy in the context of your assignment.

The criteria used for assessment will be those explained on the MOD01 Home page, namely:

  • Focus.
  • Breadth.
  • Depth.
  • Critical thinking.
  • Effective and appropriate communication skills.

NR360 – Smartphone and Social Media Use in Healthcare


Smartphones and social media have become central to everyday lives of many people. Many people use smartphones and social media sites to fulfill different tasks both at home and at their places of work (Gill, Kamath and Gill, 2012). For examples, clinicians greatly use smartphone photography to evaluate medical conditions for efficient healthcare delivery. Readily available smartphones may lead to the capture and storage of patient images that may later be exchanged through the social media. The market penetration of social media sites and smartphones is increasing at a very rapid rate in every professional field and industrial sector, particularly in the field of healthcare. This is bringing with it a number of ethical, professional, and legal dilemmas (Kirk et al., 2014). In the healthcare setting, smartphone and social media use can become security and privacy risks, making it wise to formulate policies that will guide their overuse and abuse by employees at work.

Discussion regarding HIPAA regulatory requirements

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, (HIPAA), of 1996 contains standards for privacy and security of patient information. The Act seeks to protect identifiable health information, thereby ensuring security and privacy of patients’ information (United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2015). The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act summarizes the regulatory requirements that all healthcare professionals, including nurses must adhere to in order to help protect identifiable health information. Under the privacy rule of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, healthcare professionals are required to provide patients with complete information on how their health information is disclosed and used. This is achieved by issuing patients with a Notice to Privacy Practices that documents how one’s information may be shared or used. The document also explains the legal rights of the patient as well as those of the healthcare provider with respect to protected health information (United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2015).

Additionally, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act states that patients have the right to scrutinize, review, and have a copy of their health information that is held by a healthcare institution. Every healthcare provider that is covered by the Health Insurance and Portability Act must comply with the patients’ request for access of their information (United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2015). Again, under the Health Insurance and Portability Act, patients have the right to request healthcare institutions to amend their health information, particularly when the information held is either incomplete or inaccurate. Moreover, patients have a right to obtain an account of disclosures showing that the healthcare organization has shared an individual’s health information with an external institution under the Health Insurance and Portability Act (United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2015).

In addition, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act states that all patients have the right to request a healthcare institution to disclose their protected information to individuals or organizations for treatment purposes. The Act also established civil and criminal sanctions for violating its requirements. Violation of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulatory requirements is considered unprofessional, unethical, and illegal. Healthcare professionals, including nurses, must therefore understand and put these requirements into practice for effective protection of patients’ health information (United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2015).

Selected conclusion

Healthcare professionals who use smartphones and social media must adhere to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulatory requirements. In the given scenario, taking Jerod’s photos as well as his personal information during medical assessment is professionally, ethically, and legally wrong. Focusing on the third conclusion, posting Jerod’s pictures taken using a smartphone on Instagram and Facebook is considered unprofessional, unethical, and illegal. The act is a complete violation of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2015).

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act limits and prevents nonconsensual use and revelation of patients’ health information. The moment Jerod’s picture is posted on Facebook and Instagram, it will be available to millions of people who are also members of these social media sites. The fact that Jerod’s pictures were taken when he was unconscious and half-way dressed is a clear indication that Jerod is not aware that his pictures are being distributed by the healthcare professional. The act is therefore punishable under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2015).

Advantages and disadvantages using smartphones and social media in healthcare

One example of technological advancement in healthcare is the use of smartphones and social media by healthcare professionals. The use of smartphones and social media in healthcare has got a number of advantages and disadvantages. One of the advantages is that, smartphones and social media enable managers of healthcare institutions to disseminate relevant information to a large group of people in the shortest time possible. In addition, healthcare professionals use smartphones and social media sites to expand their horizons and learn more about patient care. Again, healthcare professionals enjoy educational opportunities where research and creative ideas are presented on the internet and social media sites. Physicians, nurses and other healthcare experts build professional networks using smartphones and social media sites (Hasley, 2010).

The use of smartphones and social media sites may pose privacy and security risks to both workers and patients who may have their details posted on the internet and other social media sites. In addition, healthcare professionals may use smartphones and social media sites to discuss the behavior of their colleagues as well as those of patients. Furthermore, healthcare professionals may take pictures of patients using smartphones and later post them on social media sites. Generally, the use of social media and smartphones may bring about numerous improvements on the nature of care received by patients, and at the same time ruin the professional, ethical, and legal relationship between a healthcare professional and his or her patient (Hasley, 2010).

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Capital Purchase Research Paper – Section I of the Capital Project

Capital Expenditure

The Home Health Care Agency has resolved a proposal backing a capital expenditure for an electronic medical record is necessary. The cost of the iPatientCare HER by iPatientCare will be annual Software license $1600, implementation costs $3400, cost of support $1500, and hardware cost will be $6600. This will make the total initial cost of implementing the software $13,100. Subsequent costs will be Software license that will be incurred annually, $1,600, cost of support to be incurred annually, $ 1,500 and hardware cost to be incurred every 3 years, $6,600 (Wang, 2013).

This cost will include training and all maintenance costs. This proposal describes how the agency’s management supports the vision of purchasing the iPatientCare HER software and how the software’s implementation will advance the organizational goals of fostering a healthy economic environment.

Executive Summary

An electronic medical record system is a system thatcontains all the medical and clinical information relating to a facility’s patients in one collective place. Electronic health records do more than collecting data to containing all-inclusive patient history (Ruther & Helbing, 1988). When used effectively, electronic medical record systems can potentially provide extensive benefits to the entire organization and its stakeholders including the physicians, the patients and other external sources that the facility associates with.

Electronic medical record systems can simplify workflow and increase the quality of care provided to patients and enhance patient safety(Wang, 2013). According to the Institute of Medicine, the incorporation of information technology into health care is one of the key ways to advance health care quality (Institute of Medicine Committee, 2011). Due to these benefits, the Home Health Care Agencythat I work for is considering implementing the outpatient electronic medical records. The software under consideration is the iPatientCare HER by iPatientCare. The main objective of this report is to determine the necessity and costs of adding electronic medical record software to the Home Health Care Agency. This report will reveal the software’s financial benefits as well as operating costs reduction benefits.

The Home Health Care Agency is an organization that offers health care to patients in their homes. The agency in question provides both medical and non- medical services for adult patients in their places of residence.The agency is accredited to offer specialized home care and private nursing. The services offered by the agency are divided into two broad categories, skilled nursing and therapeutic services, includingpediatric nursing, chronic illnesses care, orthopedic disorder care, genetic disorder care, monitoring vitals, infections control, physical therapy, and pediatric therapy.

Over the years, the agency facilityhas been performing soundly financially but it has been incurring high labor costs and low revenue due to low productivity, which is associated with inefficient record keeping system that is currently in use. Implementing electronic medical record is expected to counter some of the expenses and improve quality of health care provided by the agency. An electronic medical record system will be more beneficial than the current paper records system. It will facilitate long-term data tracking; help care providers recognize the patients who are due for preventive appointments; help monitor patient’s parameters such as blood pressure readings; and improve the quality of care provided.

One of the main goals of the agency is to become the leading home healthcare provider in the area by providing high quality services at reasonable costs to its patients. Being a modern health facility, agencymain source of income is the fee paid by patients for services provided onsite. Consequently, delays caused by a poor record keeping and sharing system causes low productivity coupled by loss of existing customers and reduced referrals owing to reduced patient confidence and patient satisfaction affects the agency’s financial position adversely.

The agency employs 2 doctors, 8 registered nurses, and 13 care assistants. The agency offers care 16 hours a day and there are two registered nurses on call 24 hours a day, every day of the week. Each care provider is expected to visit around 8 to 10patients a daydepending on the nature of the procedures beingperformed. Introducing a more effective record keeping and information sharing system will help the agency serve its patients without delays hence reducing the average time spent onsite while increasing customer satisfaction at the same time.

With the current system, sharing information within the stakeholders is challenging. Patient’s medical information requires to be shared between the agency’s health care providers, the patients, and with external stakeholders. In some occasions, the patient’s health records even require to be printed and dispensed to external specialists via fax or mail. This is not only time consuming but also increases expenses. All the stakeholders can access information stored in electronic medical record without need for paper transfer. This also means that patients can access their health records whenever they wish and thus improving convenience.

Reducing the time each nurse spends onsite will increase the overall number of patients served while boosting customer satisfaction and increasing referrals, all these will increase revenue. Electronic medical record gives patients access to the information relating to their health thus allowing patient to participate in his or her health care.  When patients can participate in their care, it improves the quality of the care outcome significantly. Sharing health information with the patient in a manner that the patients can relate to it will also improve communication between the agent and its patients and there is likely to be an increased engagement rate. This would improve patient’s trust, quality of services provided and patient satisfaction.Additionally, the electronic medical record will reduce the errors made, reduce expenses associated with record keeping and improve efficiency and thus reducing expenses (Rector, Nowlan & Kay, 1991).

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As vice president of sales for a rapidly growing company, you are grappling with the question of expanding the size of your direct sales force .

Complete this essay in a Microsoft Word document, with a minimum of 300 words, APA formatted

Part 1

Samuelson and Marks, Chapter 2, Discussion Question, p. 58.

As vice president of sales for a rapidly growing company, you are grappling with the question of expanding the size of your direct sales force (from its current level of 60 national salespeople). You are considering hiring from 5 to 10 additional personnel.

How would you estimate the additional dollar cost of each additional salesperson? Based on your company’s past sales experience, how would you estimate the expected net revenue generated by an additional salesperson? (Be specific about the information you might use to derive this estimate.) How would you use these cost and revenue estimates to determine whether a sales force increase (or possibly a decrease) is warranted?

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Part 2

A television station is considering the sale of promotional DVDs. It can have the DVDs produced by one of two suppliers. Supplier A will charge the station a set-up fee of $1200 plus $2 for each DVD; supplier B has no set-up fee and will charge $4 per DVD. The station estimates its demand for the DVDs to be given by Q = 1,600 – 200P, where P is the price in dollars and Q is the number of DVDs. The price equation is P = 8 -Q/200.

A. Suppose the station plans to give away the videos. How many DVDs should it order? From which supplier?

B. Suppose instead that the station seeks to maximize its profit from sales of DVDS. What price should be charged? How many DVD should it order from which supplier?

Directions: You must solve two separate problems, one with supplier A and one with supplier B, and then compare profits. As the textbook explains (P. 42-47), maximum profit is found where Marginal Revenue (MR) to Marginal Cost (MC). Here, you need to set MR=MC for each supplier and compare the maximum profit attainable for each.

To calculate MR, you can look at the bottom of page 44 in the book. It shows how to get it from the inverse demand equation (P=a-bQ).

The marginal cost (MC) is what each supplier charges to produce an extra DVD. This can be directly deduced from the text of the homework (the equations provided for the cost of suppliers). If you are not sure, one easy way is to calculate the cost for 1 DVD and the cost for 2 DVD. The difference would be the marginal cost.

Complete this assignment in a Microsoft Word document, APA formatted and then submit it as Assignment 3 by midnight, Day 7. Make sure to show your work. There is no length requirement given the mathematical nature of this assignment.

Note: If you need a refresher of the algebra needed to solve this assignment, a good source is:

In the search area of their website, type ‘Linear Equations 1’. It is the first of four videos that explain the concepts well.

Text Book,

                Managerial Economics 7th Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. William F. Samuelson & Stephen G. Marks. (2012).

1619-1965 African American Civilization

Multiple events affected the American political status from 1619 to 1965. The events led to the decolonization of American and eventual freedom of the black people. According to various sources, the first African sources could have arrived in the country around 1620. The following two centuries characterized intense slavery and slave trade. Able and strong African men and women were taken to the Americas to work as gardeners, constructors, domestic workers, and entertainers.

However, these events changed in 1808 where there was a subsequent ban on trans-Atlantic slave trade. Although the banning was appropriate, the slaves already in the Americas were facing significant problems. For that reason, in 1850 the Congress initiated the fugitive slave act, therefore criminalizing slave trade. The subsequent years were followed by intense political rivalry between the northern slave sympathizers against southern gangs, the Klu Klux Klan. In 1861, a Civil War began between the two factions. In January 1, 1863, Emancipation Proclamation was engaged. In 1863, the Civil War ended. The Congress further developed the 13th Amendment, which abolished slavery. In 1865, the American Civil War ended harmonizing the two factions.

As a gesture of unity, in 1866, Klu Klux Klan established a missionary association at Fisk University in Nashville. In 1876-1896, the Congress and the Supreme Court mentored a number of laws that sought an end to racism (Fandrich, 2007, p. 1249). In fact, by 1909, black people were able to form their political parties. In 1954, the Supreme Court presided over Brown v Board of Education prohibiting segregation. Subsequently, in 1955, mass protest took American cities by storm for arrest of Rosa Parks. Rosa Park refused to give up her seat to a white man. In 1964, Civil Rights Act passed enabling more rights in voting. In 1965, the 13th Amendment was established.

Case Study – iPhone’s Effect on the Wireless Industry

IPhone’s launching and rapid diffusion of a radical innovation

IPhone is a product of Apple Incorporation that was introduced to the June 2007. Although there had been several smartphone before it,the iPhone has had a great impact on the telecommunication service industry. Since its announcement in January 2007, the iPhone received an overwhelming response. By March of the same year, the term ‘iPhone’ generated over 60million suggestions on Google (West& Mace, 2007). When the phone launched in June, stores were flooded with customers trying to purchase the iPhone, with sales exceeding 500,000 units in the weekend of its launch. Since then, there have been millions of iPhone sales across the globe making the iPhone arguably the most successful smartphone.

How the iPhone changed the relationship between the carriers and the handset manufacturers

Apple’s affiliation with Cingular had a tremendous influence on its alteration on how phone manufacturers relate to wireless carriers. During the first year of the affiliation, the two companies shared the subscriber’s monthly revenues (Vogelstein, 2008). Although this arrangement only lasted for a short period of time, it marked the beginning of a new era for both handset manufacturers and wireless carriers.The post-iPhone period is characterized by a number of key trends. These trends are discussed below.

The iPhone shifted power balance between handset manufacturers and carriers in favor of manufacturers. Preceding the iPhone’s introduction, carriers had controlled the wireless world. They dictated how manufacturers designed phones, the features that could be installed on those phones, and their pricing. This was especially evident in the United States carrier-centric market. Apple was the fist manufacturing company to break this model when it produced the iPhone, a phone that did not have a carrier branding(Sliwinska, Ranasinghe&Kardava,2012).This demonstrated that if a high quality handset attracts customers even if it is pricey. This meant that manufacturers could take risks at producing quality handsets with features that serve the end user’s needs and approach the carrier with it instead of producing handsets that the carriers approve of but one that might not meet the customers’ expectations and needs.

The Apple’s model requires the carrier to only provide the wireless connection while the manufacturer provides everything else. The model puts the handset manufacturer in the forefront of the relationship between the user and the service provider, a position that was previously held by the carrier (Vogelstein, 2008). Carriers that previously could offer application downloads freely are now left to submit them through the handset manufacturer stores.

Another way that Apple upset the relationship between carriers and handset manufacturers was by increasing the amount of money that carriers were prepared to pay to manufacturers in order sell their smartphones (Vogelstein, 2008). Apple got a subsidy of $400 for each iPhone from carriers. This is above the amount that carriers used to pay for feature phones pre-iPhone. During a debate on whether carriers would cut the subsidies with time, Apple CEO Tim Cook said that he did not expect them to since the iPhone provides carriers with a number of benefits including encouraging users to upgrade from feature to smart phones(Eaton, 2009).

How target market selection, pricing, promotion, content provision, and technology standards affected the success of the iPhone launch

  • Technology standards– Apple is renown for its competence in product innovation (West &Mace, 2007). The incorporation used this to design a highly functional and user-friendly device. Although analyzing iPhone’s technology in details is beyond this paper’s scope,there are some technology related factors that significantly contributed to the phone’s success. The first factor is the simple arrangement of its buttons that appeals to users who have been overwhelmed with phone features including icons and menus among others (West & Mace, 2007). User preference shows that customers avoid devices they deem as complicated. IPhone’s innovative and intuitive interface makes users suppose that the phone is user friendly thus countering the user preference challenge. Another factor is the high comparative quality of mobile surfingexperience as compared to other smartphones. IPhone uses Safari browser that enables it to reduce web pages without having to create specialized mobile versions of the pages(Eaton, 2009). This is an important feature especially for users who want to duplicatethe experience of using fixed lineInternet on a phone.
  • Content Provision – Apple did not permit other firm’s software to be installed on iPhone during before the introduction of the App Store in 2008. Currently, Apple allows other software to be used on the iPhone but only if they are distributed through the incorporation’s App store. Although Apple gave up iPhone’s software development control,it maintained firm control over the distribution of the phone’s software. This strategy allows Apple to play the gatekeeper role for its customers ensuring that all applications downloaded are safe and do not pose a threat to either the device or the user. Key players including Facebook, Twitter, and eBay among others distribute their applications through the App Store. This increases applications available to iPhone users but still maintains high level of security, which increases customer interest and boost user’s confidence and loyalty.
  • Target Market Selection – Apple targeted the right user group for the iPhone. The standard iPhone user is expected to be young professional male between the age of 25 and 34 years old, and with an income that is above $100,000 (Sliwinska, Ranasinghe&Kardava,2012). Additionally, 75% of the iPhone users were individuals who had previously used Apple products (Sliwinska, Ranasinghe&Kardava,2012). This target group is closely similar to the standard iPod and iTunes customer profile, a market that Apple had previous experience and success in. The incorporation exploited the experience gained from selling products to the iPod and iTunes target market to successfully market the iPhone.
  • Promotion–Apple is famous for its marketing abilities based on the success of its products. Marketing has even been cited as one of the incorporation’s core competencies (West &Mace, 2007). IPhone was promoted as a service more than it was marketed as a product (Eaton, 2009). Majority of the iPhone advertisements stress on the phone’s capabilitiesand the applications it supports rather thanconcentrating on the device’s technology itself. Apple employed a branding strategy, similar to the one used to make iPod synonymous with MP3 players, to create a loyal user base. This consumer loyalty led to user attachment to the iPhone, which not only boosted demand for the already existing phones but created a build up demand for future ones too.
  • Pricing– IPhone’s pricing followed the standard Appleapproachto pricing, skimming and versioning. The phone’s prices were initially sethigh to enable the incorporation to gain great profits from early product adopters and then the prices were dropped to increase general public reach. By partnering with AT&T, Apple was able to version iPhone’s pricingto as low as $99, down from its $599 launch price. Thisallowed the general public users to have easier access to the iPhone, which increased sales.

Since joining the market in 2007, the iPhone has changed the telecommunications industry and enjoyed exceptional success. With Apple’s history of effective innovation and marketing strategies, these trends are expected to continue into the foreseeable future.

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PHS 606 – Measures of Association and Impact – Questions And Answers

Part 1

Falls in older adults are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, with substantial negative impacts on quality of life and health care costs. You have been involved in promoting physical activity programs for older adults and have seen positive impacts of these programs. However, the risks of such physical activity programs in potentially increasing falls continue to concern you. You are thus pleased to be invited to be part of a public health team conducting a prospective cohort study of falls in older adults related to their level of physical activity. A total of 800 adults 65+ years without a history of falls were enrolled and all were followed for a year.

At baseline, 250 reported being physically active; at follow-up 20 of these had fallen at least once during the year compared to falls in 65 of the non-active participants.

  1. Construct a 2×2 table, completing all cells using the information above.
Fell Engaged in physical activity


  Yes No
Yes 20 65
No 230 485


Part C

  1. Children who watch more than four hours of screen time daily are significantly more likely to demonstrate problem behaviors in school. Thus, television viewing causes problem behavior.


  1. Is this conclusion warranted? Yes.

Television violence usually affects viewers negatively. It imparts viewers with aggressive attitudes, desensitizes them to violence and increases theapprehension of being victims of violence. All these factors increases incidence of behavioral problems among individuals who watch television for long hours on regular basis (Özmert, Toyran & Yurdakök, 2002). Furthermore,children are at still developing cognitive abilities and thus their interpretation of what they see on television varies from how mature viewers interpret similar messages. At a young age, it is difficult for children to differentiate between fantasy from reality, as well as match actions to their consequences (Özmert, Toyran & Yurdakök, 2002). It is thus safe to conclude that television viewing causes problem behavior.

  1. Suggest one variable that may have confounded this association, and provide a briefrationale. Poor social skill

Although television contributes to poor social skills, individual with poor social skills tend to watch television for long hours. Consequently, it is difficult to differentiate the difference between individuals who portray behavioral problems as a result of watching television and those that portray behavioral problems and watch television for long hours due to poor social skills.

  1. Briefly describe how this variable meets the definition of a confounder.

A confounder is any variable outside the variables of interest that makesan experiential exposure seemto be associated with the outcome even when it might not. Poor social skills fit into this criterion because its impact on individuals can be easily mistaken for those of television viewing (Birnbaum & Mellers, 1989). In addition, it meets all the conditions of a Confounder including being a risk factor for the outcome; it is related to the exposure; it is not an intermediate step in the customary passage; and finally it is not surrogate for exposure(Birnbaum & Mellers, 1989).

  1. A telephone survey is conducted on substance use among adolescents. Describe twomajor biases that you should be concerned about.

Human interviewers usually carry out traditional telephone surveys. When it comes to interviewing illicit drug users, this form of data collection usually have low prevalence due to a number of biases including majority of respondents are uncomfortable divulging their drug use or abuse to human interviewers for fear of being judged (Turner, e.t. al., 2005). In addition, human interviewers tend to be opinionated about illicit drug users. Majority of respondents are aware of this and it makes opening up and difficult (Turner, e.t. al., 2005). Interviewers may also behave or speak in a manner that makes the respondent feel judged, uncomfortable and even defensive thus reducing prevalence, quality and accuracy of the data collected.

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Political and Legal Influences of Robotic Engineering

Robotic engineering deals with the design construction, and application of robots. High reliability accuracy and increased speed of operation are some of the major benefits of robotics. Robotics also leads to higher productivity. Use of robotics may have a negative impact. They may directly or indirectly inflict injury on humans or destroy property. The injury could be accidental due to wrong human instructions on the robotics. On the other hand, robotics may lead to indirect harm on workers. This is due to the fact that use of robotics results in job redefinition or job displacement. While, they are not as effective, robotics are a much better improvement on the society today because of the ability to work in environments that are unsafe or inhospitable for humans, freedom from human characteristics like boredom and the ability to do dangerous tasks. Through their creations, a robotics engineer helps to make jobs safer, easier, and more efficient, particularly in the manufacturing industry (Bogue, 2014).

Despite the fact that robots are seen as a replacement to humans, in most instances, humans would continue to be in control. They may be in control of the robots or veto the course of action that the robot should take. Robots would also be able to interact with humans. For example unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can fly for a longer period that humans can endure. However, they are still controlled by humans who have to stay awake for hours while controlling them. This makes some UAV operators experience fatigue due to being overworked, which increases the risk of errors in judgment. Even when people do not have fatigue, they are prone to make bad decisions. Critics of UAVs claim that UAV operators may control the drones thousands of miles away. Therefore, they may become and lack care of killing people due to the long distance between them and the people. This may make people have unjustified strikes (Pagallo, 2011).

Robots that have defensive or offensive capabilities raise several concerns on compliance with international humanitarian law – the laws of war. For example, various parties claim that it is illegal for robots to make their own decisions on whether to attack a certain area as some robots currently do. This is due to the fact that the robots do not have the technical ability to make a distinction between combatants and noncombatants. This principle of distinction can be found in various laws of war such as the Geneva Conventions and the ability to engage in a just war. This requires people not to target noncombatants in war. However, it is difficult for a robot to make a distinction between a terrorist with a gun and a girl pointing an ice cream towards it. In fact, even humans find it difficult to make a distinction between a shepherd who has gun meant to protect his flock of goats and a terrorist with an AK-47.

The use of lethal robots may also lead to disproportionate use of force in relative to the military objective of the strike. This leads to collateral damage or unintentional death of civilians. This raises the question as to what is acceptable number of innocent civilians that should be killed for every bad guy killed. Is it 2:1 or 10:1. It is difficult to come up with a consensus on the number. It is likely that a certain target may pose a great threat that even a rate of collateral damage of 500 to 1 may be acceptable to certain parties.

Even the above problems are solved other problems are likely to arise. For example if a robot that targets only combatants without leaving any collateral damage is created, another problem may arise. This is due to the fact that the International Committee of the red Cross (ICRCR) bans the use of weapons that lead to a mortality rate of more than 25% and a hospital mortality rate of more than 5%. A robot that kills every human it targets would have a mortality rate of almost 100%. This would be much higher than the 25% threshold stipulated by ICRC. Creation of such a robot may be possible since robots have high levels of accuracy. This robot would be fearsome and deadly. This would violate the principle of a fair fight in war. Poisons were also banned since they were inhuman and too effective. Creation of such a robot would also raise ethical questions as to whether it is right for people to create machines that kill other people (Anderson & Waxman, 2012).

Various issues are related to the use of enhanced warfighters. For example, it is wrong to torture an individual who can resist pain using robotics or genetically engineered drugs. This raises the question as to whether cutting the limb of a robot would be referred to as torture. Since soldiers do not take away all their rights when they are recruited, it is vital to determine what kind of consent is required to involve soldiers in biomedical experiments. Use of robotic enhancements also raises the question as to whether the soldiers should be treated differently. In addition, it is vital to determine how the use of enhancements on certain soldiers affect the cohesion of a unit if the enhanced soldiers work alongside normal soldiers (Anderson & Waxman, 2012).

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MGT301 – Balanced Scorecard Approach Implementation – Walmart Vs Metro Group

The Balance Score Card

Organizations have used the balanced scorecard to overcome different issues that may affect business performance including measurement of effective performance, effective management of intangible assets, and the increasing challenges experienced in strategy implementation (Niven, 2006). From literary analysis, it is clear that Metro Group, one of the leading retail and wholesale companies in the world implements the Balances Scorecard (Ali, 2012). Like Metro Group, Walmart, one of world’s wholesale and retail companies, applies the Balanced Scorecard approach in performance evaluation and strategy formulation. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast how Metro Group and Walmart have implemented the Balanced Scorecard approach. Analysis will be based on four perspectives of the Balanced Scorecard namely; customer, financial, process, and learning and growth. Based on extensive review of existing literature, it is evident that Walmart has done a better job of implementing the Balanced Scorecard approach than Metro Group.

A far as finance perspective is concerned, issues that will be focused on include return in assets, sales, and net profit margin. Under customer perspective, this paper will look at issues related to customer satisfaction and customer retention rates. The number of new service items, sales performance, and transaction efficiency will be focused on under internal process perspective. As far as learning and growth are concerned, issues of concern will include; responses to customers service, professional training, organizational competence, and employee stability (Niven, 2006). Both Metro Group and Walmart have made significant steps as far as implementation of the Balanced Scorecard is concerned. However, the progress that Walmart has made is better than that of Metro Group (Ali, 2012).

Metro Group deals in a variety of business systems including wholesale trade, hypermarkets, department stores, consumer electronic stores, and online trading. The company has done well in leveraging its learning and growth perspective. According to Ali (2012), Metro Group has successfully implemented a Radio Frequency Identification that enables it o register customer data through radio waves as frequently as possible. This information technology tool enables Metro Group to track customer data automatically without human intervention. This allows the company to maintain highly accurate inventory records, customer data, employee data, and advanced shipping notices. This way, Metro Group has managed to reduce transaction errors, incorrect product identification, product shrinkage, and misplaced products. In addition, the Radio Frequency Identification has enabled Metro Group to increase sale, raise net profit margin, improve customer satisfaction, reduce customer complaints, and improve organizational competence. It is clear therefore that Metro Group has made some step in implementing the Balanced Scorecard approach.

When compared to Walmart, one can conclude that Walmart has done better than Metro Group in implementing the Balanced Scorecard approach. Walmart has established a stronger relationship between its financial, customer, internal process, and learning and growth perspectives than Metro Group (Ali, 2012). The company has concentrated much in leveraging the learning and growth perspective as a way of improving performance in other areas (Fishman, 2006). For instance, Information Technology plays a very important role in supporting Walmart’s business. The company has gone an extra mile in advancing its Information Technology systems, and the degree of advancement is higher than that of Metro Group. Over the recent past, Walmart has invested a lot in a central database, a satellite network, and a store level POS system (Ali, 2012).

By combining external information affecting sales and sales data, Walmart has been able to provide additional support to customers, which has helped it to ensure more accurate purchasing forecasts as compared to Metro Group. Walmart also uses Retail Link, one of the world’s biggest civilian databases. This link helps Walmart to keep data of every sale made over a prolonged period of time (Fishman, 2006). Through the Retail Link, Walamart allows its suppliers to access real-time sales data from individuals up to store level. Walmart also adopted the Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment in 1990 that allows it to share critical information related to the supply chain such as inventory levels, daily sales and promotion data (Ali, 2012).

Walmart uses a Vendor-Managed Inventory (VMI) program that enables suppliers to manage their inventory levels in all distribution centers of the organization. This form of technological advancement has not been implemented at Metro Group, making Walmart to be in a better position than Metro Group as far as implementation of the Balanced Scorecard is concerned Ali (2012). Like Metro Group, Walmart has tried its best to leverage its Information Technology system by implementing Radio Frequency Identification systems. This form of technological advancement has enabled the company to collect sales and customer data automatically. However, the Radio Frequency Identification system has brought about more efficiency at Walmart than at Metro Group.

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Medical Tourism Among Americans

There has been a significant increase in medical tourism Americans. More than 1 million Americans are expected to travel outside the U.S. to seek medical treatment this year. Some of the most common treatments sought by Americans include dental procedures, coronary bypass, and cosmetic surgery. Canada and Mexico are some of the popular destinations of American medical tourists. Americans move abroad to seek medical treatment that is not available in the U.S. or for which the patients are not eligible. For example, an individual may travel to Mexico to remove a certain part of the stomach to facilitate weight loss if the individual is not eligible for the medical procedure in the U.S. In addition, certain technology that has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may be available in other countries. Therefore, Americans may travel to the countries to access the technology. Medical tourism raises several ethical issues that should be addressed. It raises the question as to whether doctors or patients should be held accountable for undertaking medical procedures that are illegal in the home countries. However, since medical tourism helps in improving the health status of Americans it should be encouraged (Hall, 2013).

Electronic medical records contain information that is beyond the standard clinical data. It provides information from all clinicians that take part in patient care. All authorized clinicians who are involved in care of the patient have access to the information. The clinicians may share the information with other healthcare providers who may include laboratories and specialists. On the other hand, personal health records contain information that is similar to the information contained in electronic medical records but can only be set up and accessed by the patient. Patients use personal health records to manage their health. They can store the information in secure environment. Personal health records also contain information from different clinicians (Iyer, Levin & Shea, 2006).

Healthcare is one of the most personal services. Yet despite the personal nature of the service, it is vital for various people to have access to health information to provide appropriate care. Patients must be free to reveal personal information. However, this would not be the case if the patient feels that the confidentiality of the personal information is compromised (Killion & Dempski, 2006).



Restrictive Airway Disease Vs Obstructive Airway Disease

Interstitial Lung Disease

Airway diseases can be classified as either obstructive or restrictive. Obstructive airway disease makes it difficult to exhale all the air from the lungs, while restrictive airway disease prevents the lungs from expanding to accommodate more air. Both obstructive and restrictive airway diseases have two common symptoms namely; exertion and shortness of breath. However, the two types of airways diseases have got some differences in signs and symptoms (Mannino, Ford and Redd, 2003).

The most common symptom of restrictive and obstructive airway diseases is cough. The cough is normally dry or may produce white sputum. People with severe cases of restrictive and obstructive lung diseases may present with coughs with huge amounts of colored sputum. Shortness of breath is also observed among people with obstructive and restrictive lung diseases (Mannino, Ford and Redd, 2003). Other symptoms of restrictive and obstructive airway diseases are anxiety and depression. These symptoms are observed when the disease condition brings about change in lifestyle and activity. In order to confirm presence of restrictive lung disease and rule out that of obstructive airway disease, the patient needs to have the above named symptoms together with progressive exertional dyspnea. Determination of the level of dyspnea can help in telling the severity of the symptoms. People with restrictive airway disease also present with wheezing caused by the forceful breathing. Chest pain is another symptom of restrictive lung disease (Mannino, Ford and Redd, 2003).

Any condition that results into stiffness in the lungs causes restrictive airway disease. Such conditions may also cause stiffness of the chest muscles and damaged lungs, thereby restricting the lung from expanding. A number of conditions are believed to be the common causes of restrictive airway disease and they include sarcoidosis, interstitial lung disease, obesity, scoliosis, and neuromuscular diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or muscular dystrophy. Restrictive lung disease may also occur from inhalation of large volume of dirt normally associated with occupation (Mannino, Ford and Redd, 2003).

Normally, reduced total lung capacity is the main feature of restrictive lung disease. Total lung capacity refers to the amount of air available in the lungs after taking the deepest possible breath. When restrictive airway disease in present, the lungs are prevented from expanding fully and a person cannot take a complete breath. Diagnosis of restrictive airway disease can therefore be achieved by measuring the total lung capacity because it gives the correct information about the existence of a true restriction. In addition, measuring the total lung capacity helps the physician to quantify the extent of restriction (Gulati, 2011).

Total lung capacity can be obtained by adding the vital capacity to the residual volume of air. Residual volume of air refers to the amount of air that remains in the lungs after a deep exhalation, and the vital lung capacity is the amount of air that a person exhales in one breath. Vital lung capacity may also be defined as the maximum amount of air that a person can forcibly exhale after taking the deepest possible breath. Total lung capacity is measured by carrying out a laboratory test. Restrictive airway disease can also be diagnosed using imaging tests such as Chest X-ray film and Computed Tomography of the chest. The doctor may also recommend a bronchoscopy in some people to diagnose restrictive lung disease. When conducting a bronchoscopy, an endoscope is used to check inside the airways and obtain samples of lung tissue (Gulati, 2011).


Incompleteness of American Capitalism and American Dream

There are complex relationships between American capitalism and American Dream. Contemporary researchers have with time justified this relationship in light of other subsequent factors. Their findings have been benefited other philosophers and authors. For example, in the play the Death of a Salesman, the themes of a failed American dream and the nature of American capitalism are heavily analyzed.

Basing on Miller ideas, the following ideas can, therefore, be generated. Miller focuses on attainability of the American Dream. As well, Miller examines the defects of capitalism and the business world, the problems posed by technology and progress of the society.

Contrary to the much-publicized stereotype that defines America’s dream as a land of democracy, there are subjective elements that exist. The two themes signify tyrannous tendencies. Tyrannos is a Greek word known as Tyranny, and is commonly known as oppression. American dream can be said to be a tyrant society where only a specific group of individuals benefit. Reflectively, Miller draws particular attention to the dominance of capitalism in American by making the protagonists, a salesman subject to divergent believes. In particular, the sales is edged when continuously persuade people to buy his products. Thus, the promised American dream of freedom and comfort is replaced by a ruthless capitalist society where masculine competition is on the forefront.

The American system has condition its citizens to live in a fast-lane world. Living a dream requires working hard. For example, the sales person is dependent on the contacts he maintains. This meant that the salesman had to make himself accepted and likable as possible. As quoted,


Happy: But I think if you just got started – I mean – is there any future for you out there 10

Supportively, Terkel believes that patronages of the American dream were obliged to market themselves and not their contribution to the society 49. This can further be related to Greek society where tyranny of ideas took center stage in most critical ideas. In that society, a man’s greatness might have been measured by the strengths in his arms or his skills with a sword but in the American dream, greatness is measured by who can make the most money.

However, the differences between a tyrant Greek society and tyrant American society is that the possibility of failure was imminent on the American side. For example, on page 4 of the play, Willy returning home after aborting a business trip is a principle indication of failure. To elaborate on this context, Miller uses superior stage directions to ensure that the audience understand Willy present context. A failed American dream means that the personality is not in a position to compete effectively as other persons.

The dream further fails, and negative capitalism takes center stage when Willy’s view of success is stereotypically male. Similarly, from the tyrant regimes existing in the Greek societies, the view of success significantly changes. For Willy, the American Dream takes a bifurcated road, one that is adventurous good fortune, and charm. Besides, the American dream encourages people to act in a Chauvinistic manner. For example, Willy’s tyrant thoughts, which are generated by a depressing society, encourage the development of immoral behavior. Having affairs with different women while he is outside for a business trip can be considered an aspiration to be a successful and likable man. As quoted

Willy: Just Wanna be Careful With Those Girls, Biff that’s all Don’t Make any Promises 16

Arguably, success with women happens to be a form of trophy, and the woman in Willy’s memory seems to add to his self-image. In particular, his impatience with Linda is manifested when she scolds Linda to shut-up. In any case, Willy believes that women did not have equal rights with men since they did not contribute much economically.

Besides, the American dream and capitalism does not allow complex relationship development. According to pages 15 and 37, the two men lacked ethical guidance since they had little respect for family. In any case, survival and most especially living the American was most significant. Willy’s relationship with Biff does not prosper as expected. Given that Willy is economically better than Biff, he is convinced pleasing Willy will naturally expand the number of favors he receives. Biff a former inmate for theft, attempts to convince Willy that he can be trusted. In their conversation,


Biff :You don’t care where I get anything does you

Willly: You are not a thief

Biff: I found it, heh? You’re already convinced that I found it on Forty-Second Street.


Convincingly, the quality of this relationship is presumably a surprise to the audience as well as Willy. Biff’s approach to capitalism is rather decisive. Reflectively, if Biff is to represent a hopeful alternative to the crushing law of success, he must have got beyond the tortured emotions and the moral confusion of the Loman family. In fact, Biff contemplates that in order to survive in the capitalist society, he must seem cooler, gentler and in charge as he moves to replace Willy values. Miller fathoms Biff character as one, which is accomplished at the end of whole and conveyed on different context. After it is a capitalist society where how one benefits counts it all. Therefore, the relationship between Willy and Biff is a production of subsequent competition, inclination, and capitalism.

Besides, we understand from the play that American dream and capitalism displaced social obligation. Both Willy and Biff are what they are since they lacked decisive father guidance. Willy’s father deserted him while Biff deserted his father to please Willy. As quoted

Biff: What he Say about Me (Willy)

Happy: I can’t make it out




Court Proceedings And Correctional System In USA

Treatment of Juvenile Offenders in the American Criminal System

While appraising the law as it appertains to minors, the American criminal system classifies crimes committed by minors as status offenses. Status offenses refer to a class of wrongdoings that only apply as such to juvenile offenders; they do not apply as such to crimes committed by adults (Raine, 1993). As a juvenile offender is arraigned in court, the key purpose is to reform and rehabilitate the minor in a way that is likely to reduce the reoccurrence of a repeat crime. The key goal, as stipulated in the US Constitution as it appertains to juvenile offenders is to reform and rehabilitate as opposed to retribution. The treatment of a first time juvenile offender is likely to be more lenient as opposed to that of a repeat offender. Professor Annabel McKinley, a legal tutor at the University of Columbia, explains that juvenile courts virtually never incarcerate first time status offenders; usually, the courts incarcerate juvenile offenders for repeat offenses (Ryan et al, 1997). This is to say, for instance, that if a minor is caught peddling marijuana or in a habitual consumption of alcoholic beverages, the minor can be found delinquent under the auspices of a juvenile court system. In the US States of Georgia, New Orleans, and Washington DC, the law requires people aged below 18 years to be home before 11pm; those found out after this designated curfew are held at truancy centers before a guardian or parent can claim them (Raine, 1993).

The court will respect the rights of the accused; this has been an issue of contention since the Miranda case where the guilty defendant’s confession became inadmissible based on a technicality; they failed to notify the defendant of his Fifth Amendment right to assistance of counsel. In order to avoid a repeat of the same, US Courts treat the rights of the accused as a priority, which include the right not to self-incriminate by volunteering incriminatory evidence, the right to have an attorney present during questioning, and that the State would provide one in case the suspect cannot foot legal costs. The law unequivocally states that any suspect must be informed on this basic procedures failure to which the case would be thrown out under the auspices of the decision in Miranda.

Prisoner Experience Behind Bars

The experience behind bars in America is probably just as bleak as it is in other developed nations. The most common experience is harassment of first timers. This harassment may be in the form of coercion, duress, and threats as well as solicitation of sexual favors. Jails are full of bullies showcasing their might to rein terror and often factions emerge demanding allegiance. Besides violent experiences, the state of the prison facility itself may cause equally psychological torture.

As budgetary constraints persist, the quality of prison service is likely is wear thin as correctional officials struggle to meet soaring costs amid creeping inflation. As projected in various reports, a growing number of technical violators of parole and other terms of release is presently causing further strain in federal budget. This brings about the problem of overcrowding and strain in shared facilities within the prisons. Sending offenders back to prison, especially those who are technical violators of community service and supervision conditions has escalated in recent years, which consequently adds to the problem of overcrowding.

Ethical Concerns

Legal considerations aside, the issue of capital punishment is a moral issue as well since it involves the termination of human life through the infliction of death through medical or any other artificial method. Respect for the sanctity of human life is perhaps the only value that appreciates human dignity. However, debate rages on whether it is moral to respect the life of a person who does not respect the life other human beings. This is where the law comes in – to establish a middle ground depending on the circumstances of each case. Capital punishment therefore poses an ethical dilemma (Pierce 89).

The judicial ethical code requires the court system to uphold the letter of the law without fear or favor. Information retrieved from the annals of juvenile trial law, the American court system has breached the ethical code in the treatment of juvenile offenders involving serious crimes. The law unequivocally revokes the application of the death penalty to a class of offenders who lack ‘legal sanity.’ One such case involved the execution of a minor Scott Hain in Oklahoma. The defendant – Scott Hain – was 17 years old when he was arrested an arraigned in court where he faced felony murder charges. According to the US Constitutional dispensation, individuals below age 18 are considered minors and as such, they have no legal competency to be tried as adults notwithstanding the motive or nature of the crime. In view of the above, Scott Hain committed the alleged murders as a minor and should therefore have been tried as a juvenile offender (Pierce 89). There is no denying – given the facts of the case – that Scott Hain committed a heinous crime; capital felony murder is a serious act even in the eyes of international law. However, there are mitigating circumstances both in the US Constitution and in international law. No court should order the infliction of death as a way of punishing defendants who fall in the restricted category of offenders. Such offenders include the mentally insane and juvenile offenders. The issues of mitigation for juvenile offenders are based on the fact that they are considered immature people whose judgment, cognitive abilities and impulse control are not fully developed.

In the correctional system, there is an ethical issue arising from the incarceration of convicted offenders in privately owned facilities. Amid claims of crime profiteering, the UN Human Rights Watch has expressed concerns with the privatization of criminal incarceration, which is a pervasive trend in the United States. The drive for profit makes owners overlook the problems inmates face in the facilities and look forward to convicting more of them.

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Causes Of Detroit Rebellion – Michigan 1967

The Detroit rebellion that took place in Michigan in 1967 was considered as one of the most violent urban riots in the 20th century. Police brutality was the main cause of Detroit rebellion. This was influenced by certain underlying conditions including rising black employment and segregated schools and housing. On July 22, 1967, an unlicensed bar called “blind pig,” was raided by the Detriot Poloce Vice Squard officers. The “blind pig” is located on the corner of Clairmount Avenue and 12 Street in the city’s neighborhood. At the time of the raid, a party was ongoing to commemorate the comeback of two black servicemen from Vietnam. The police officers expected to find a few people at the party, but they managed to arrest everyone in the party which totaled up to 80 people (Allen, 1969).

As the police officers were transporting these people from the bar, a group of 200 people gathered nearby feeling agitated that the police officers used excessive force when conducting the raid. An empty bottle and a waste basket were thrown into the rear side and front side of the police car respectively. Twenty minutes later, an additional group of police officers arrived at the 12th Street to curb the growing riot. People continued to loot stores and to smash windows of buildings located along 12 Street. The violence continued for close to five days as the number of injuries continued. During the five days of violence and fights, more blacks than whites were reported dead, approximately 1,200 people were injured, and more than 7,000 people were arrested. Several stored were looted and huge property damaged. The Detroit rebellion stands out as the largest urban riots of the 1960s (Stephan and Abigail, 1997).



Develop an entire home network with a budget of $5,000.00

Your configuration must assume the purchase of associated hardware for access to both wireless and wired connections and a broadband connection. For the purpose of your configuration you must assume the network will be used by four (4) individuals.

Write a two to three (2-3) page paper in which you:

  1. Describe the hardware you will purchase or build (inclusive of computers, memory, storage, video cards, printers, routers and cabling). Justify your hardware selection.
  2. Develop a spreadsheet or table within the two to three (2-3) page paper that itemizes the costs from the online retailer(s) of your choice.
  3. Summarize and support the approach you will use to back up your devices.
  4. Suppose you were provided an additional $2,000.00 to enhance your network. Explain the changes you would make to grow your infrastructure. Support your response inclusive of memory, storage, networking and redundancy solutions.
  5. Use at least two (2) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Explain how the components of information technology systems interrelate.
  • Illustrate the use of information and communication technologies to solve problems as an information technology professional.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in security management.
  • Write clearly and concisely about the theories of security management using proper writing mechanics and technical style conventions.

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Optimal Decisions Using Marginal Analysis


First you do the calculation of the of the salesperson’s average sales hourly by subtracting any sales commissions due from the gross dollar amount of sales, then divide it with the number of hours worked. The hours that the salesperson was doing non-sales duties should not be included. This calculation yields a dollar amount of sales for every hour. The computation is not sufficiently reliable when the goods being sold are expensive goods sold on credit basis, due to the risk of buyer defaulting (Prokopenko& International Labour Office, 2007).


This entails determining the salesperson’s average transaction by dividing the gross dollar amount of sales per week by the number of transactions completed by that salesperson on that week.


You find out the salesperson’s average number of items per transaction by taking the total number of items that were sold during the week and dividing it by the total number of transactions.


This step involves determination of the average profit of the salesperson per transaction, through the calculation of the company’s profit from each of the items sold by the salesperson in a particular week. Summation of these profits is done and then they are divided by the total number of transactions (Bragg, 2011). The deduction made if there is a low average profit per transaction is that the salesperson is facing difficulty in building the customer’s trust to a level that could convince him to purchase the expensive merchandise.


The level involves examination of the four of the foregoing calculations in order to obtain a clear picture of the strengths and weaknesses of the salesperson. A high average hourly sales besides a low average transaction, would indicate that the salesperson is sufficiently aggressive but fail to be adequately resourceful (Baumol, 2012). A more comprehensive picture of the overall potential and performance of the salesperson can be obtained through the consideration of other factors, for example, the number of days of credit extended, long-term potential of his customers among other opportunities and risks associated with the sales.


At this last stage, an evaluation of the conversion rate of the overall sales staff by taking the number of the transactions completed in a particular week and dividing by the number of the customers getting to buy from the company. A low number would mean that the company’s sales staff is insufficiently aggressive, although factors like the prices of products could also factor in.

Development A Building’s Specifications Plan – Peach Computer Company Case Study

Major Facts

The Peach Computer Company has been involved in a number of structural challenges where the company has been unable to provide the essential services as required. Ideally, the company has not been in a position to integrate a performance management strategy as part of the central decisions plan. After looking carefully, one will notice that the company lacks coherence since top management does not properly coordinate with bottom management. In particular, Don attempts to explore a technological without the substantial backing of the top management. For that reason, the company might lose funds if it invests in a redundant technology. As well, there is a risk that the company might loose the goodwill of the current if it not exact on the choice of technology.

Another fact being presented is that the company is not properly familiar with the choice of a procurement technology. As noted, the company loads one department alone, which is left in making critical decisions. The method of specification for acquiring a new building depends on the choice of technology being applied. Don is basing his strategy on previous projects. Such an approach is appropriate; however, this particular projects changes with the changes in choice of technology. The problem is that bid price might change, possibly lower if the client is presented with an incoherent proposal.

Major Problem                                 

There are structural and mechanical factors that threaten the firm’s strategy. Researchers, for instance, Parnell (2014, p. 45) have found that with the overall strategy tends to have similar functional strategies there are different viable configuration of overall strategic development as well as functional strategies. Decisively, the policy of coherence needs to be treated seriously. In fact, the strategy might accommodate a number of viable of strategic patterns, which is not possible. The organization need to be alert to changes. Thus, the approach being applied by the firm tends to be prototypical.

The inability to communicate delimits problem-solving techniques hence constrains the potential willingness to communicate and share knowledge with other departments. As a result, Don is unable to share pertinent information prior to commencing of the project. For that reason, it becomes impossible to compare the project expectations and other key factors affecting the project. Nurmandi (2012, p. 47) contends that professionals are likely to minimize communication in a situation that threaten the value of a communication strategy.

Possible Solutions and Alternatives

Although some problems are harder to solve than others are, the problem necessarily needs to engage creativity in order to limit the overall consequences of the project.. The more difficult problems when designing are the project context, which are found in the lifecycle of the project. Ideally, creativity is needed when developing concept design than when working on the detailed solutions to the chosen concept. Ideally, there lacks less freedom in detail a possible design process one that is expected to create a solution.

There are possible approaches to the way in which the design work can be organized. Convincingly, the option chosen will have an implication for the selection of team members. Ravasi and Philips (2012, p. 103) believe that it is almost inevitable that the design process chosen will have to match all members expectations. The managers design the need for mismatch and motivate environments with a greater approach to integrating team manager strategy. Hence, communication will engage the project comprehensively thus empowering the interactivity process. Given the increased communication between different team members, it will be possible to determine the functions of the design solutions, as well as their physical structures. Likewise, it will be possible to elaborate a specification for dealing with underperforming management. As well, it will be possible to search for solutions and principles of the strategy. Finally, it will be possible to develop layouts in project management. Equally, it will be possible to search and develop layouts involved in the process of design. Equally important, it will be possible to divide design work into realizable modules.

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Assessing Companies Eligible For A Government Contract

Recent contract awards


Boeing Company has recently been a beneficiary of a major contract that it was awarded by the Army through the Department of defense. The contract that was awarded to Boeing was worth $ 714 million with a responsibility bestowed upon the Boeing to make modifications on twenty six manufactured CH-47F Chinook helicopters (Boeing). Apart from that, the company was also bestowed with the responsibility of making modifications on four new CH-47S helicopters that belong to the military. The contract also gives the company an option of constructing two new CH-47s aircrafts for the military operations. The contract also provided appropriate funding for Boeing for the period during which it will be conducting the exercise. The recent tender that was awarded to Boeing is currently ongoing with its completion date expected to be somewhere around the year 2020.

Space X

Space X Company has been a beneficiary of recent contracts with its first contract being earned in the year 2005 where the company made an announcement that it had been an indefinite contract. The contract was awarded to space X by the United States Air Forces with a sole responsibility of delivering responsive small space lifts. The contract was one that could allow the air force an opportunity to purchase flights that are worth ten million U.S dollars from the space X Company.

Apart from that contract, the company was also awarded a launch service contract by NASA. The contract was supposed to be fulfilled by space x through its delivery f falcon 1 and falcon 2. The total worth of the contract was worth a whooping I billion U.S dollars but it also depended on the number of missions that were going to be awarded to the company. That contract between NASA and space X was supposed to cover the launches that were going to be delivered by space x by the end of June in the year 2013. Additionally, it was supposed to cover the launches that were going to accomplished by the same company by the end of December of 2012. In the year 2008, the company got several contracts beyond its working capabilities. By that time, space x had other contracts that it was working on, so it was forced to sell upto fourteen contracts for flights to other companies (Dinkin, 2006). Most of the contracts that it sold out were majorly on the falcon vehicles.

In the year 2012, the company landed its first ever contract with the department of defense where the air force space and the missile systems space were all involved in the contracts. Space x were awarded the two contracts that were primarily to deliver expandable launch vehicles. The contract also involved the delivery of space climate observatory that was supposed to be launched on the falcon 9 vehicle. Finally, the contract was also inclusive of the space test program that was intended to be launched on the falcon heavy.

In the year 2010, the company made an announcement that it had an intention of launching the middle sized communication satellite using the falcon nine vehicles. The mission that the company had in place eventually materialized on the third day of December 2013. SES 8 was the first contract that space x had been given within the geostationary communications satellite. Another large contract was also awarded to space x in June of the year 2010 where the company was to launch the largest commercial space aircraft. The total worth of the contract was believed to be four hundred and ninety two million dollars. That contract saw the company launch its first Iridium satellite with the help of the falcon 9 rockets.

Based on the analysis that has been provided above, the two companies may be eligible for different types of contracts. To begin with, Boeing being a large company that has been in the game for long might be eligible for costs reimbursement contracts. The reason is because the company has the financial capability of carrying out the contracts from the beginning to the end and getting reimbursement at a later date. In most cases, the company has been manufacturing commercial aircrafts for its international customers where the customers only pay for the crafts after the completion of the manufacturing process.

Space x on the other hand, can be said to be a company that may only be awarded the fixed cost contracts since it has no financial capability of bearing the entire costs of the contract without getting a financial boost. Additionally, from the explanations and examples mentioned above, it can clearly be seen that the company started getting most of its contracts in the recent years. The company therefore still needs several years for it to be able to move into the cost reimbursement category.

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The connection between the protest movement in Selma, Alabama, in 1965 and the passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act

The voting right Act passage in Selma, Alabama 1965 was engineered by the three peaceful demonstrations that were done by the African American to protest on racial segregation, poverty and obstruction of voter registration for Negros in South America. It was led by several activists like James Reeb; a Unitarian Universalists minister from Boston, Jimmie Lee Jackson; an activist and a deacon and Martin Luther king Jr. However, these activists were treated ruthlessly and even were murdered by the white as they tried to present African American grievances, for instance, activist Jimmie Lee Jackson was brutally killed on February 26, 1965, after a peaceful demonstration held at Marion Alabama (Mohl, 2002). This led to the conduction of the first march which took place on March 7, 1965 organized by, Bevel, Amelia, Boynton and others. They incited people to attack unarmed marchers using tear gas and Billy club after passing the line and this event was known as the “Bloody Sunday” where Boynton was beaten unconsciously by law enforcement, later her picture lying wounded on the bridge was publicized on the media worldwide.

Unfortunately, Activist James Reeb met his death on a night of March 9, 1965, after the police, troopers and marchers confronted at the county end of the bridge but later the troopers stepped aside and Rev. Martin Ruther king led marchers back to the church. Additionally, Reed death and the Bloody Sunday incidence led to protesters demand protection from ruthless Selma marchers and a new voting rights law to enable African Americans to vote without harassment. This was the second protest which initiated a national history televised about President Lyndon Johnson announcing that, the joint congress session the society of saint Edmund catholic and he will commit to support and  protect the African American from marchers, also asked for the introduction of the bill of voting right Act passage.

The Chicago Freedom Movement chooses to focus its efforts on housing in Chicago

In 1965, Chicago civil rights group invited martin Luther king to lead a demonstration against racial segregation in education, employment and housing. As the leader of this movement, he focused its effort on achieving fair housing practices resenting racial discrimination in housing. African American demonstrators faced racially fueled hostility which resulted the objection of open housing program by the racist white working class.

Fortunately, After Martin Luther king Jr.  Negotiating with various housing boards, a summit agreement was announced on which Chicago housing authority gave the measurements required to build a public housing regardless of race. On the same, mortgage Bankers Association also concurred with the Chicago summit agreement to make mortgages available without racial segregation, this was the most significance program that was never seen before and it made open housing to become a reality in Chicago according to Martin Luther king Jr.

In march24, 1967, martin Luther king televised that the public agencies supported the agreement and gave credence to all claimers of the agreement as the batch of false promises. However, this was a bombshell on the whites, especially the working class who perceived African Americans as an inferior race living in slums, although most of the city officials failed to take concrete steps pertaining housing issues despite the fact that Martin Luther king got into summit agreement with the Chicago housing authority

In conclusion, Chicago freedom movement of 1996 is not merely a historical exercise; the social problems which include racially segregated housing, job opportunities inequalities and education addressed forty years ago are still a pressing problem today. However, understanding the root cause of this problem and the challenges that was faced by Chicago organizers is vital in formulating an effective solution today.

Complete Home Network Design – Budget 1000 USD

Building a Home Network



Item Qty Hardware Level Source Company Cost
UPS 2 VR 1500i APS 40 dollars
Item Qty Hardware Level Source Company Cost
UPS 2 VR 1500i APS 40 dollars
Computers 2 Think Station S10 Toshiba 500 dollars
Filtering Routers 1 Wireless Linksys router Linksys 60 dollars
Secondary Routers 1 Wireless Linksys  router Linksys 80 dollars
screens 1 Samsung 42 nch Toshiba 80 dollars
Video Cards 1 GeForce 8400 GS NVIDIA 20 dollars
Operating system 1 Kubuntu Linux Open source (Free) N/A
Filtering Router software 1 Open WRT Open source (Free) N/A
Secondary router 1 Open WRT Open source (Free) N/A
Wireless device 2 TL-WN725N TP-Link 20 dollars
Quagi Antenna


  ü  Hockey stick

ü  Welding rod

ü  Nuts and bolts

ü  Coaxial cable

ü  Connector

ü  RJ 45 (6)


ECE shop 200 dollars


Although the total costs of building the project is largely dependent on my home size, my approach is justifiable since I have tried to keep cost down. Spending more money in building a network does not mean that the network is going to be perfect, but one can spend little and still achieve top quality if the appropriate hardware is initiated. As you can see, cost have been minimized by choosing lesser hardware, minimizing the amount of cabling required in building the network, as well sourcing free open source software. Nonetheless, like most equipment, the price typically goes up with added features, such as external antenna connector, higher output power, a more sensitive radio with bells and whistles. Once the network is selected, I determined the kind of setting that was responsive in building the network. I further integrated a TP-Link wireless dispenser to ensure that I connected my two PC desktops. Additionally, individuals who had smart hardware devices would also enjoy the network. After surveying the site, I realized that the number of rooms in the house limited the wireless network connectivity. Yes, cabling is an effective strategy of building however its costs and redundancy metrics limits the genuine productivity of the network.

However, I realized that the more I tried to eliminate the path between my access points and my devices, the more complex the network became. Given my amount of money, I realized that I was not in a position to get rid of every obstacles, hence minimizing the possibility was limited. I therefore, choose to use TP-Link for its 802.11b technology. The technology sources 2.4 GHz radio emissions showing up as noise on the signal strength meter (Deng et la., 2014, p. 150). The technology minimizes transport by moving using up the access point, using a directional antenna. I further realized that 1EEE 802.11b specifications details 11 minimized possible overlapping frequencies on which communications took place. I, therefore, minimized costs by setting low range overlapping cells with a high omni-directional antenna.

Likewise, my approach was responsive given the nature of my house. As I enrolled out my wireless equipment, I found my self-being directed in a different way by the existing conditions inside my house. For example, air conditioning ducts, pipes, microwave ovens, power lines and other sources influenced my choice of hardware leaping into the foreground as I walked around (Sklavos amd Koufopavlou, 2012). By the time I decided to set up a couple of nodes, I realized that the network had constant sources of noise and that was reflected in the area I was attempting to cover. However, I decided to extend the range, as in several mile point-to-point links where I engaged a survey the outlying environment other than walking the entire route in the network.

As you can see from the network, I lacked a very important component, security. From my budget, I lacked a provision for a firewall. In my small home network, I plan to operate critical company documents thus security is very important given that I will be operating a wireless network as well. Peterson (2000, p. 74) believes that a firewall in a computer network performs a role, which is very similar to that of a firewall in a building. My network firewall has to protect against many different attacks. These attacks include viruses, worms, denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, hacking and break-ins attacks with names like SQL-Slammer, Code Red and NMDA, which can appear in the network. I will therefore, engage changes where I will optimize an inclusive of memory, storage, networking and redundancy solutions.

I will therefore use the additional $ 1.000 dollars to build a firewall around the network, add more server space for redundancy and enroll a CCTV surveillance to limit physical break-ins. The mini table below indicates how I plan to use the extra $ 1,000 dollars.


Item Qty Hardware Level Source Company Cost
Linux Firewall 1 Net Gear Pro Safe Net Gear 181 dollars
Laptop 2 Toshiba Toshiba Satellite C55D-B5308 563 dollars
I.P Camera 4 I.P Network Camera For Home Funlux 256 dollars

I realized that security was the single most problematic issue, thus while investing more on memory, storage, networking and redundancy solutions I invested more on computer hardware. Furthermore, I realized that it was important to grow my infrastructure, by adding two more laptops.

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How To Use an Integrated Campaign to Reach Target Audience?

This paper is part of a Team project.
Create a 12-18 month communication strategy for your client. You may use a communication strategy template, or you can create your own.   the subject is;
Health Spa Launching a new weight loss treatment
 And this part is a research on  How you will use an integrated campaign to reach your Target Audience?

Communication Strategy

An integrated campaign is one which uses multiple, credible platforms to ensure that their messages reach the target audience. This is a reasonable approach for the Health Spa that is just about to launch a new weight loss treatment, as it will ensure that more people get the message. Using this approach, however, is not just as simple as picking any different platforms. It should be used carefully to ensure that the best options are made.

The first step to take to ensure the target audience is reached, is to determine who the target audience is. By doing so, their attitudes, interests and behaviors are identified, hence it will be easier to come up with a key message that will indeed apply to them (Romaniuk, Beal & Uncles, 2013). Identifying the target audience will also enable the effective choice of platform to be used. Not every target audience are on Facebook, just as not all read the newspaper. However, by identifying their characteristics it will be simpler to determine which channel will reach them effectively.

Second, to ensure the same message reaches the target audience through various platforms, it is important to maintain consistency, in terms of looks and sounds. This means that when a target customer reads about the product on the newspaper, and later finds the same on the internet, the result is that he will know instantly that it is from the same company with the same product (Romaniuk, Beal & Uncles, 2013).

In conclusion, the major factors that will ensure the integrated campaign successfully reaches the target market involves knowing the exact characteristics of the targets, and ensuring that the message is consistent to avoid confusion.

Cyberethics – RIM: We’d Shut Down BBM Under Government Order


The 21st century has been characterized by rapid technological advancements. The advancements have led to increased focus on cyberethics. Cyberethics refers to the study of ethics that relate to computers and how user behavior affects other individuals in the society. Technological developments have improved the ability of people to share information with other people who may be thousands of miles away. However, the government may censor certain information if it deems the information to contain foul language, pose a threat to national security, piracy or if the information contains grotesque images. There are generally two types of censorship. These include censorship by suppression and censorship by prohibition. In both instances, a certain group of people must have the perception that the information violates moral, political or other grounds that are vital in the peaceful coexistence of the society. Censorship by suppression prevents the publishing or circulation of information that is deemed objectionable. This may be done through the blocking of the material, destroying the material, or making the material inaccessible to people. On the other hand, censorship by deterrence does not prevent the publishing or circulation of the material. In fact, the material may be accessible to many people. Threats of arrest, conviction, and severe punishments against people who acquire the material are some of the major features of this form of prohibition. Threats of various forms of social disenfranchisement may also deter people from acquiring the material ((Spinello, 2013).

In the case in question, blocking of BlackBerry Messenger (BBM) by the U.K. government would amount to censorship by suppression. It would ensure that people cannot access their BBM’s if there is civil unrest. This would infringe on people’s right to free speech and information equality. It is wrong for the U.K. government to use censorship by suppression. This is due to the fact that the use of information technology among children is the only one that should be monitored. As for adults, they have the right to choose the courses of action they should take upon receiving certain information. In addition, they know the risks that their choices face (Zeman, 2011).

It is wrong for the U.K. government to use national security as the major reason for censorship. This is due to the fact that if the government is not doing anything wrong it should have anything to fear in ensuring its citizens have free speech. Blocking BBM would prevent people who use the messenger for their own economic or social reasons from accessing it. Therefore, it is wrong for the government to use blanket condemnation of all people who use BBM in undertaking their daily activities. The cell phone is critical in the lives of many people in the contemporary world. The article highlights some of the positive uses of the cell phone. In case of emergencies, one may use the cell phone to request for help. If people who are affected by the blocking of BBM face emergencies, they may be unable to call for help. BBM enables them to share information cheaply by circumventing the operator SMS charges (Zeman, 2011).

The U.K. government may have used censorship by deterrence to reduce the impact of the censorship on people who use BBM. This would necessitate the government to formulate laws that prohibit people from sending messages that would cause civil unrest. The government should ensure that it accesses conversation records of people who it suspects were responsible for civil unrest. The jurisprudence of the cyberspace strives to balance individual rights and public good. However, it is a fact that libel, pornography, and hate speech and threats are all negative forms of free expression that pose significant challenges to the jurisprudence of the cyberspace. Ideally, people should regulate their own expressions by desisting from intimidating people, engaging in hate speech, or disseminating pornographic material to children. However, in the absence of such behavior relevant parties must ensure that people do not use information technology to engage in activities that violate moral, political or other values that are the glue of the society (Spinello & Tavani, 2004).

Government regulation is one of the methods of tackling the above problems. The government should also implement complex filtering devices. Improved precision and accuracy of the filtering devices would enable the regulatory bodies determine violations to the regulations easily. However, all the measures that strive improper use of information technology tools must respect personal autonomy and align with other moral values. This increases the need for the ethical reflection on how universal moral standards can be adhered while developing constrains that help in tackling deviant behavior in the cyberspace. Failure to consider this would result to tyranny of laws in the cyberspace (Spinello & Tavani, 2004).

Another option is failure to take action against people who engage in deviant behavior in the cyberspace. Governments should give people the right to engage in controversial forms of speech in the cyberspace. This would require people to tolerate all forms of speech just as they do in the real world. This is due to the fact that censorship is usually characterized by difficulty in distinguishing constructive speech from harmful speech (Spinello, 2013).


Safety in Social Work Practice – Questions And Answers



  1. Are there risks to confidentiality when conducting on-line counseling? If so, what are they, and what would you do to safeguard your interactions?
  1. Are there specific risks to you, the counselor, when conducting on-line counseling? What are they, and what steps would you take to minimize these risks?
  1. How would you respond to a client who wants to “friend” you on a social media website?
  1. Imagine you are meeting with an agitated client and are concerned that you may be verbally and/or physically assaulted. Please describe how you would handle this
  1. What specific steps should you take to protect yourself and clients in the case of a fire, earthquake, or other emergency situation that might occur while you are in session?
  2. If your client verbalizes suicidal and/or homicidal ideation during your meeting, what steps should you take to assess the situation and assist your client in seeking safety?
  3. If you suspect that a client is being verbally, emotionally, physically, or sexually abused, what should you do? Please describe the requirements and mandated reporting procedures for the state in which you reside.
  4. If you were to conduct a home/field-based visit (e.g. nursing home, board and care, etc.) or to drive with clients, what safety factors would be important to consider?
  5. Are there any specific policies (local, state, federal) that you should be aware of prior to engaging with clients?




In the contemporary world, an increasing number of therapists are now turning to the online world to offer counseling or therapy. Several arguments have been raised concerning the effectiveness of on-line counseling as far as protection of client’s privacy and confidentiality is concerned. There is one major risk to confidentiality when conducting online counseling. The counselor or client may accidentally send private e-mail to the wrong recipient (Childress, 2000). Online counseling largely involves exchanging e-mail messages between the client and the therapist. A person may reply to someone else in what was meant to be a private e-mail, but the information ends up in the hands of millions of subscribers who ultimately read the message. This may pose a very serious risk to confidentiality, and it is important for both the client to take appropriate actions to safeguard their interactions. The client and the therapist need to double-check their recipient list before sending an e-mail just to ensure that it is being sent to the right person (Childress, 2000).

The counselor, like the client, is exposed to certain risks when conducting online counseling. The counselor’s contact information may intentionally or unintentionally be passed to others by the client. People around the client’s immediate environment may have unauthorized access to the client’s e-mail or computer either at home or at the place of work (Childress, 2000). This way, the client’s personal information may be passed to the wrong people. The client can prevent transfer of counselor’ details to others by setting their computers to only accept passwords that are known to them. In addition, the counselor and the client need to emphasize on the importance of confidentiality and data security before entering into a therapeutic relationship (Childress, 2000).

The main goal of social work practice is to assist clients solve their problems in order to lead positive lives. A useful therapeutic relationship can only be built if both the client and the counselor do away with barriers that may interfere with the therapeutic relationship. For instance, the counselor should avoid having sexual relationships with clients, their relatives, or family members. According to the NASW Code of Ethics, under no circumstances should a social worker engage in a sexual activity or contact with his or her current client (NASW Delegate Assembly, 1999). According to the NASW Delegate Assembly (1999), social workers should avoid engaging in a sexual relationship with their clients especially if there is high possibility for a conflict of interest. Suppose the counselor meets a client who wants to ‘friend’ him or her on a social media website, the counselor should let the client understand that it is ethically wrong to be in an intimate friendship with a client at all costs (NASW Delegate Assembly, 1999).

Agitation is a behavior that requires an immediate intervention when in a counseling relationship. When dealing with an agitated client, the counselor need to take a three-step approach that involves; verbally engaging the client, establishment of a collaborative relationship, and de-escalating the client from the agitated state (Richmond et al., 2012). According to Richmond et al. (2012), verbal de-escalation is of great significance in engaging an agitated client and an effective way of making him or her respond positively to treatment. According to the NASW Code of Ethics, a social worker should avoid derogatory language in either verbal or written communications to the client (NASW Delegate Assembly, 1999). The counselor must take care to use respectful and accurate language when communicating with the client at all times. Additionally, the social worker should avoid terminating his or her relationship with the client due to the influence of social factors (NASW Delegate Assembly, 1999).

With reference to the ethical requirements of the NASW Code of Ethics, a counselor who comes across an agitated client and who feels that he or she may be verbally assaulted should try to help the client manage his emotions and to regain control of behavior (NASW Delegate Assembly, 1999). In addition, the counselor should not use restraint or any other method that may cause physical or emotional harm to the client, and avoid using language that may escalate the agitation. The counselor should also mind about the safety of others by ensuring that everyone else in the area is safe and secure (Richmond et al., 2012).

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International Disaster Management and Future Trends / Challenges – Global Warming Presentation

Man-Made and Natural Disaster

  • Global warming is a synthetic disaster
  • It is caused by consistent greenhouse and industrial emissions
  • Gasses lead to the destruction of glass walls
  • A destroyed ozone layer presents challenges.
  • Creation of U.V waves


Challenges caused by Global warming

  • Global warming leads to increased temperatures
  • Leads to ocean acidulation’
  • Puts a strain on natural ecosystems
  • Leads to rising seas
  • Leads to increased feminine levels
  • Possible extinction of some species

NASA and Red Cross Tackling Global Warming

Global warming has become a stubborn problem. Multiple organizations, government based or private have been pursuing strategies to identify and mitigate the problem. NASA has been a leading organization committed to mitigating the possible effects of global warming. Although NASA has not provided direct contribution in mitigating global warming, the significant contribution suggests that NASA has continued providing critical findings on global warming. For example, the NASA-MIT study strongly suggests that the earth is much more active in managing its atmospheric temperature than the computer models have assumed, and much less sensitive to warming effects. NASA Global warming world book provides excellent and extensive information on global warming including satellite images, interactive features, videos, and 3D images. According to NASA, Greenland’s ice sheet is melting at the edges. In fact, scientists argued that resulting increase in sea level of .005 inch annually will not set off any alarm bells. Nevertheless, if melting does accelerate, this puts at risk about three-fourth of the world population that lives in coastal areas (Dance, 2012, p. 6). The ice sheet is a mile and a half thick in some places.

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