Month: March 2017

Enterprise Systems – Research Paper

What is an Enterprise System?

Enterprise systems (ES) are referred to as large-scale application software packages which reinforce business processes, reporting, information inflows, as well as data analytics within the complex organizations. Whereas ES are generally packaged enterprise application software (PEAS) systems, they are considered as bespoke, custom advanced systems established to support particular organizational requirements. The enterprise systems falls under various categories including enterprise planning systems, customer relationship management software, and enterprise resources planning (ERP) systems. Even if business intelligence and data warehousing systems are enterprise-broad package application software commonly sold by ES retailers, they don’t directly support implementation of business processes, but they instead exclude from this terminology. Otherwise, this assignment is aimed at providing essential and sufficient explanation and information concerning enterprise systems (Seddon, Calvert & Yang, 2010).

How the Enterprise Systems Work

The enterprise system operates in a variety of ways. In several countries, for example, the US, the enterprise system operates in accordance to some five main principles. These include; the profit motive, right to private property, the right to choose a business, customer sovereignty and competition. These principles can be explained individually in the way they operate.

  • Profit motive

The main reason to start an enterprise company is basically to make money. This can be done by earning more money than is spent. The amount of money that is left after the subtraction of the expenses from the business income is thus referred to as the profit. Organizations basically try hard to keep their costs down and increase the income from the business (Vernadat, 2007).

  • Right to private property

A private property is basically a home, a piece of land, a family, a car owned by the individual or a group. It is different from public property, public building and many more which make provision of the government services for the citizens. In the U.S economic system, for example, the people’s right to own or sell property is guaranteed by the law. In the setting up of the computer systems for the customers, one has no right to make an interference with the telephone, electrical or the computer systems of other persons.

  • Right to choose a business

In many countries, it is up to a person to make a decision as to whether or not they venture into computer services or even other types of businesses.They as well make a decision of the amount of fees they need to charge and the working hours as well. They are however controlled by the law which prevents the business owner from harming or cheating their consumers and employees(Vernadat, 2007). They will however be left to feel free to run their business as they deem fit.

  • Customer sovereignty

At the end, it is consumers who make a determination as to whether a business will succeed or fail. The consumers have the final say. The consumers have the right to choose whether they can spend their money on either product X or Y. If they prefer one over the other, then the owner has no right to stand in their way.

  • Competition

Just as one is free to start a particular business, so is someone else. The rivalry that exists between the sellers who are in the same field is termed as competition. If your business is profitable, there are chances that another person may enter into the same field. Thus, the competition will exist for the same product (Vernadat, 2007).

Current Use of Enterprise Systems

            Enterprise systems (ES) are confirmed to be industry-specific and customizable software package which integrate business and information process within an organization. Based on this, ES has attracted the interest of explorers hence resulting to a proliferation concerning implementation of literature. Recently, ES has been employed in various firms thus leading to great transparency and accountability. For instance, this software has promised the seamless integration of the entire information circulating within the company’s accounting and financial information, supply chain information, human resource information as well as customers’ details (Hendricks, Singhal & Stratman, 2007).

To be specific, the application of SE has lead to increase of sales in the largest vendor, Germany’s SAP through making it to score from 500 million dollars to 3.3 billion dollars from 2013 to 2014, hence making it emerge as the fastest growing software firm in global view. This is due to the fact that it has aided various management tasks within the organization including planning, controlling, and directing immense daily activities. For instance, SE employs an integrated database hence being able to bring about resolutions concerning multi-module application model in the general information system. Afar from point elucidation that depend on multiple databases which stresses IT resources, ES explanations standardizes usage of single application during the process of monitoring the whole business (Seethamraju, 2007).

Common Attitudes and Personal Attitudes towards Enterprise Systems

            Generally, it has been confirmed that almost all individuals are endowed with common attitude concerning enterprise attitudes. At this juncture, implementation and management of Enterprise systems is considered being expensive particularly when used by small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs). Accordingly, these miniature firms are unable to gather enough money and resources for facilitating effectual and effective performance of this software. Exemplarily, companies require the right individuals to ensure that their information is secured, hence subjecting majority of companies to pressure since they cannot afford to recruits consultants who dedicate themselves to this area (Shang & Seddon, 2002).

Moreover, the cost of installing the ES for various corporations and the expense associated with getting license are extremely high. The firms also face cost particularly when the enterprise systems are unable to integrate with organizational legacy systems. This is a situation where the legacy systems are older that computer or applications systems that the enterprise has been employing for a long duration. Since the initial applications and computer systems are contained with essential information, then for the enterprise system to work with inheritance application, the company shall be forced to buy new servers, applications or computers (Seddon, Calvert & Yang, 2010).

Personally, I also consider ES to be contained with some assaults which will affect efficiency and effectiveness of the organization primarily in the long-tem view. Indeed, ES are confirmed to have a lifespan of 10-20 years where they can be effectual, after which they require to be upgraded. Despite this appearing as a longer duration, organizational data usually accumulates exponentially and this may prove some difficulties during management and storage predominantly while using single software system. To be specific, information overflow and succeeding slowdown within a single department shall certainly be comprised with ripple impact in other tasks of the company (Hendricks, Singhal & Stratman, 2007).

Fundamental Advantages and Disadvantages of Enterprise System

The Enterprise systems plays significant role in large companies hence leading to productivity and also heightening efficiency of the organization. Foremost, these systems are confirmed to aid companies to conduct crucial tasks, including determining the best means of manufacturing products, tracking orders, and also supporting incorporation of revenues, costs and profits. Secondly, they also act as large-scale application facilitating the companies to incorporate and organize their business operations.  Actually, these systems can ascertain that all the company’s departments are able to share crucial information with each other.

Moreover, the organizations are chanced to implement enterprise systems with purpose of synchronizing the tasks of various departments (Hendricks, Singhal & Stratman, 2007). At this point, an integrated system helps in reduction of the time employed while processing documents including payrolls as well as external documents. Additionally, managers’ tasks for overseeing operations are being eased since the system ensures that major business goals are attained through ES. Since the managers are able to get information from centralized server, then the process of making decision becomes more informed thus yielding better outcomes (Seddon, Calvert & Yang, 2010).

On the other hand, the ES is also considered to be affected by various challenges. Firstly, the tailoring of the ES based on the organizational preferences can be tricky. It is very unusual that firms shall accept enterprise systems the way they are. Eventually, consultants or employees can spend a huge amount of time while programming or conversing to the enterprise system’s technical support so as to satisfy the clients’ needs. Moreover, the company needs to encounter extra costs so as to provide comprehensive training to employees who are using ES. Similarly, this system requires the company to change policies and operations that are not in line with ES hence leading to complication of company’s activities and also subjecting the firm to higher expenses (Soja, 2008).

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Aspects of Freedom Movements of 50s and 60s That Paved Way for Election of Barack Obama

The civil rights movement from 1954-1968 marked the period for change and the beginning of Martin Luther King Jr dream of a united racial free democracy. This is the most instrumental moment in history of the African Americans in the United States. These movements purposed to end the racial segregation and discrimination against the blacks. Martin Luther was a man of devout belief in rule for people and a brave fighter committed to social justice, respect for human rights and peace. Additionally, he was wise to note the impact of violence and war a reason that made him preach peace and campaign against the Vietnam War where millions of dollars were being wasted while people were perishing at home.

It is great men like Dr. King that rewrites history and leaves a better tomorrow for their generation. It is undeniably true that these movements were the pathfinder and a torch for president Obama’s yes we can campaign. Achievements from civil movement struggles laid the foundation for a multiracial democracy, where all irrespective of color, sex or race are responsible in serving the Americas. This therefore makes Obama a manifestation of the dreams of men and women who participated in this civil rights movement for a space and place for their children. The landmark piece of legislation that crowned these efforts was the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which banned discrimination based on race, color, religion or national origin.  In his most famous speech I have a dream; Dr. King talked of a moment when a people will not be treated on basis of their color, race, ethnicity or religion. The theme for equality and inclusion has taken root among the Americans. The multiracial democracy has been achieved although arguable on how well it has been implemented; it is a step in the right direction.

Jack Welch’s Leadership Practices in General Electric Company

Jack Welch was born in Peabody in Massachusetts by Grace, a homemaker and John, a conductor for Boston and Marine Railroad. In his early life within middle and high school education, Jack was witnessed to work in summers as a newspaper supply boy, golf caddy, shoe salesman, and also a drill press worker. Belatedly his senior year, Jack was allowed a space in University of Massachusetts Amherst, where he learned chemical engineering. Thereafter, Welch was employed as a chemical engineer at PPG and Sunoco industries at his college summers (Amernic, Craig & Tourish, 2007). During his sophomore, Jack emerged as a subscriber of the Phi Sigma Kappa fraternity. However, he graduated in 1957 with a Bachelor of Science holding degree of chemical engineering, thus turning down various corporate offers thus being chanced to attend University of Illinois’s graduate school.

In 1960, he graduated from University of Illinois with a Master’s degree as well as a PhD in chemical engineering. It was due to this achievement that he managed to secure job in General Electric (GE) by 1960, thus leading to immense successful and essential changes in this company. Otherwise, this assignment is aimed at providing effectual leadership traits portrayed by Welch while working in GE (Amernic, Craig & Tourish, 2007).

Overall leadership of Jack Welch

            Welch is confirmed to take over GE by 1981 where he managed to become the youngest CEO in the history of GE’s company. Precisely, this legendry leader was confirmed to pressurize various transformations in GE hence making it the global competitive enterprise. Conversely, Jack is viewed as a strategic decision maker, business adviser, management theorist and corporate icon. Indeed, if the leadership can be deemed as an art, then this gentleman can be termed as a master painter since he is endowed with unique headship character and style, which is witnessed during his 2-decade history while working in General Electric. However, this can be plainly explained through depicting various leadership qualities which he demonstrated while working in GE (Bartlett & Wozny, 2009).

Foremost, Welch was always working as a leader rather than focusing on management. Indeed, this leader did not concentrate on managing since he considered this trait to trigger negative pictures due to keeping individuals in darkness through stifling and controlling them. His objectives were aimed at leading through establishing vision and making people passionate concerning their operations. At this juncture, he ascertained that he excited, energized and motivated his juniors instead of depressing, controlling and enervating them. In particular, he provided immense tips of becoming a great leader where he pointed various issues including; avoiding management of very little issues; concentrating on articulation of vision through leading others to evaluate it; and involving all individuals and welcoming enormous ideas (Henderson & Evans, 2000).

Secondly, Welch also avoided chances of being much formal while dealing with other staffs as well as workers within the company. At this people, he allowed people to voice their opinions, calling him ‘Jack’ instead of ‘Mr. Welch’ or he seemed to be comfortable during scenarios where his juniors utilized his Work-Out. In connection to this, Jack did not wear ties in work; he always conducted informal meetings and motivated all people to lighten up. Actually, this informality is confirmed to inspire individuals to be contained with more ideas and it is amongst the major factors that triggered the success of GE. Indeed, Jack had provided various things to be exercised leaders thus making them to emerge informal and this includes undertaking more informal meetings, brainstorming with bosses and colleagues, and considering infrequent unceremonious gatherings (Bartlett & Wozny, 2009).

On the other hand, Welch did not entertain bureaucracy since this is a cancerous element of a firm and is capable of establishing waste and slows process of decision making, thereby leading to unnecessary procedures and approvals which make a company less competitive. Based on this, Welch holds that all employees are supposed work being focused at ridding daily bureaucracy. Plainly, Jack termed bureaucracy as the most stubborn disease, though this can simplify tasks as well as removing formality and complexity that make company to be more agile and responsive. In order to kick simplicity and bureaucracy things, it is important to practice various issues including dropping unnecessary task, making workplace more informal, and operating with colleagues who are aimed at streamlining process of decision making (Cox & Blake, 2001).

Furthermore, Welch also ensured he work with reality instead of concentrating on assumptions. For instance, when Jack joined GE, this company was confirmed to assume to be running suitably, though he detected a sinking ship and various troubles contained by the company since it was losing its market values and it was also cumbered with great bureaucracy. As an alternative of ‘kidding himself’ and presupposing that things would go well, he made a resolution and established a ‘face truth’ agreement. As a result, he designed initiatives and strategies that bettered things. Based on the Welch’s plan for depleting assumptions, there are immense things all managers need to do and they includes avoiding to fall into the counterfeit scenarios trap, harnessing several alternatives or options, and evaluating things with fresh eye (Bartlett & Wozny, 2009).

Organizational Structure and Culture, Human Capital Management and Employee Development of General Electric and Influence of Welch Based on Shared Vision and Workplace Productivity of the Organization

            The General Electric Company is contained with appropriate organizational structure which eases management of various organizational operations. In general, its organizational structures revolve on immense formal procedures, governance, mechanisms’ control, role configuration, decision making and authority processes. Foremost, GE’s is contained with simple structure where the owner – manager heads all prime decisions directly as well as monitoring all operations within the firm. Secondly, the functionality structure and limited corporate staffs, backed with functional line directors in dominant organizational departments including accounting, marketing, production, human resources, and engineering. Third, this company is comprised with Strategic Business Unit (SBU), comprising of at least three ranks; the top being the corporate headquarters, SBU groups, and departmental group linked with every SBU (Cox & Blake, 2001).

However, General Electric operate being guided with its corporate culture that is aimed at promoting integrity, ensuring suitable working environment, and bringing about balance between work and life. In view of favourable working environment, this company provides competitive payments, outstanding benefits and the professional benefits of an environment which supports workers’ development and recognition of their achievements. In deem of integrating operations, GE tries to lead in marketplace and workplace truthfulness through respecting people’s rights by enforcing financial and legal compliance. Also, during the balance of life and work, this company encourages individuals to meet their work commitments whereas balancing their personal life duties. In connection to this, it ensures flexibility in working arrangements and offering diverse resources and programs that supports workers including family counselling and financial management (Henderson & Evans, 2000).

As the GE’s organizational structure and corporate culture is concerned, Welch is also endowed with immense traits that works suitably with the company’s best practices. Foremost, Welch is allowing workers to offer their ideas concerning best ways of operating the business hence depleting chances of emergence of bureaucratic form of leadership. Based on this, workers are capable of passing laws that will reinforce their flexibility while conducting daily activities. Moreover, Welch is also considered to arrange informal meetings which involve all staffs and organizational members. Accordingly, the discussed issues are then webbed to the rest of the workers, and this is made possible by the fact GE is contained with effectual organizational structure which allows efficient conveyance of information between senior executive, staffs and the other organizational members. Indeed, this practice is aimed to reinforce GE’s productivity since all individuals are motivated to work their best in tour of attaining company’s shared vision (Bartlett & Wozny, 2009).

Effectiveness of Welch’s Performance

Genuinely, Jack Welch has indicated immense ethical demeanours and effective traits during his communication hence emerging as the best leader who have ever worked with GE Company. For instance, Welch has showed ethical practices that matched with the company’s best practices. Foremost, he is viewed to chance his staffs and workers to express their opinions concerning essential operational ways that can heightens organizational productivity and profitability, hence depleting chances of emergence of intrusive form of leadership. Moreover, the act of arranging informal meetings involving all staffs and organizational members is considered to increase social interaction between all members hence reducing conflicts and promoting performance of the company. Indeed, this practice is aimed to reinforce GE’s production since all individuals are motivated to work their best in tour of attaining company’s shared vision. Furthermore, Welch leadership was aimed at ensuring that the clients are fully satisfied by company’s goods and services hence attracting lots of buyers who consumed the GE products and services continuously. In confirmatory, Jack was capable of increasing sales of the GE starting from 1981 hence leading to great hike of organizational values that was witnessed through GE becoming the competitive business within the market place (Amernic, Craig & Tourish, 2007).

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Cultural Activity Report – A Visit To Flamenco Cante Master Workshop

I am a residence of Vienna, Georgia 31092 and I managed to attend a Flamenco Cante Master Workshop in Vienna, Virginia 22180 on December 4, 2011. The cultural activity took place at Born 2 Dance Studio in Vienna, Virginia. Being a Sunday, many people did not go to work and they managed to attend the function which was very entertaining (Perez, 2015). People travelled from as far as Philadelphia to attend the workshop. Some people had come straight from Edwin’s Sunday Matinee show at the Gala Theatre. The Flamenco Singer, who was also the guest artist at the event, was Esperanza Fernandez. The guitar was played by Behzad Habibzai. Estela Velez, the director of Furia Flamenca organized the Flamenco Cante Master Workshop (Perez, 2015). Upon arriving at the event, I was not sure of what to expect from the workshop because I had not attended a similar event before. Historically, I have associated Flamenco with the Spanish culture alone but I was surprised to see a mixture of cultures in this event-.

The two unique piece observed at the event were the instruments and the music as it was sung by Esperanza Fernandez. The guitar, specifically known as the Flamenco guitar, was the common instrument at the event. Flamenco guitar, which was played by Behzad Habibzai, consisted of six strings that gave a very high and rhythmic pitch (Chuck, 1998). Apart from the Flamenco guitar, palillos is another instrument that was used to add tonal quality to the Flamenco music. Palillos is a hand musical instrument that produces a sharp contrasting sound in a repetitive pattern. The dancers used two pair of palillos simultaneously to maintain a high pitch. Another essential rhythmic element in Flamenco music that was used at the event is the Palmas which basically refers to clapping. The musician and the dancers both used Palmas to create bits and keep a fast tempo (Perez, 2015).

Esperanza Fernandez accompanied the Flamenco song by changing styles to create mood variation. In addition, she performed both singing and dancing concurrently to keep the audience attentive and entertained. She also incorporated the Palmas component into the music as a way of maintaining nice tones. Fernandez used her songs to teach things really slow. She was audible enough and made sure that everyone got each and every word she mentioned, and even understood how she applied her words in her dancing. The instruments and the Flamenco song as performed by Esperanza Fernandez kept the Cante Master Workshop very lively (Perez, 2015).

Generally, the event was not only entertaining but teaching. The singer, guitarist and the dancers, all played their roles effectively to ensure that nobody found the event boring (Perez, 2015). All these figures demonstrated great experience in Flamenco music. From the event, I was able to learn how music can be used to preserve the cultures of different communities. Andalusia is the origin of Flamenco music and Esperanza Fernandez sung and danced at the event while maintaining the Andalusia culture. From what I observed at the event, I learnt that people who want to learn more about the culture of Andalusia can benefit greatly from Flamenco songs like those performed at the Cante Master Workshop. Therefore, Flamenco songs serve both as a preservation of Heritage of Humanity and as forms of entertainment in different environments.


Political and Ethical Implications of Utilitarianism

Utilitarianism has had implications on governance this is observed in its support for democracy where government’s interests coincide with the public interest. Mill argument on democracy as the best ideal government is a suggestion that has informed governance and state systems, according to him, representative democracy is best for societies with resources, security and independence as it seeks to promote moral common good of its citizens and because it makes use of resources effectively to develop and promote the common good. As well, in determining what kind of a government is better, consequences are analysed to assess amount of best state of affairs.

Utilitarianism argues that an individual is supposedly the best judge of his own welfare. It has also had implications on economics in policy making where proponents such as Jevons advised the role of government interference in trade and industry. Jevons echoed Bentham ideas by creating the marginal utility a key model in economics today (Mill, 2003).

Bentham and Mill’s Perceptions on Utilitarianism

There exist some rifts between Bentham point of view and Mills perception on utilitarianism. According to Bentham who was first proponent of this debate, he believed that humans were ruled by two major factions that is pleasure and pain. Bentham explained that we tend to seek pleasure and avoid pain, this search in quest of one and avoidance of another define our actions and thoughts. Bentham promulgated the principle of utility, the principle of utility recognized pain and pleasure as the fundamentals. The principle of utility approved or disapproved an action on basis of the amount of pain or pleasure it brought thus comparing the good with pleasure while the evil or wrong with pain. He was interested in social reforms hence problems with laws and policies motivated his stand on utility as a principle a standard measure of virtue.

On the other hand, Mill who was Bentham’s godson believed that the standard of utility to be happiness and not pleasure. Mill understood that it was not the quantity of pleasure but quality of happiness since qualities cannot be quantified. Mill concurred with Bentham on that a person’s good or well being was paramount. However Mill explained that some pleasures were more fitting than others. He claimed that intellectual pleasures were higher and better he maintained the use of utilitarianism to shape law and policies. Mill insisted that people desire happiness his version however differed from Bentham as he placed emphasis on effectiveness of sanctions which are emotions like guilt that regulate our actions. He concluded that virtue was instrumental and every human being lacking virtue was morally lacking (Mill, 2003).

Utilitarianism has contributed much to the debate how a man ought to live and act; this is by informing that he should only focus to get happiness from the consequences of his actions. It has been used in legislation in deciding what best policies to enact policies that have and bring benefits to all. However, actions engaged in achieving the desired end result may sometimes be against norms of moral values but have a general goodness to everyone. Welfare of the people is a concern and it can only be achieved through generation and adding happiness.

In Mill’s idea of intellectual happiness being superior this helps one determine what really count. In this context for instance a student may chose not to go for a party and stay in and study, pleasure derived from this is better than pleasures from eating or having sex again. The theory justification of punishment in reforming criminals involves setting the criminal away from the society and serves as an example to deter others from committing crimes through fear. This approach is evident in prisons and maximum jails.

Ethics and Duty – Utilitarianism

Living an ethical life calls into account having a clear perspective guided by a mindset that is informed by knowledge and belief in what is right or wrong. In this argument people succumb to different dogmas or doctrines on how well to make their decisions and get the best out of the consequences. Philosophy has had a hand in defining what morality should entail, while at it, religion or belief in a higher power or a deity is also an instrumental factor that influences how one perceive a dilemma as well as his or her stand in accepting a certain inclination.

In regard to utilitarianism, the theory proponents focus on the consequences of our actions. In a scenario of the recent rampant global terrorism let us suppose that John is my friend, I happen to know that John’s father is a terrorist and is planning an attack on a specific mall. Reporting the father to the authorities would betray our friendship as John is afraid of his father and would not tell on him. If I keep quiet innocent civilians will die. So I go ahead and tell on him. What informs my decision is the safety of other people and the conviction to speak the truth. My action is justifiable using utilitarian principles as the consequences create a relief to both John and I thus happiness. Even though John is disgusted with me, he too as well feared as he knew terrorism is a crime.

What is morally right is my conviction and duty for mankind, John’s father is apprehended and nobody dies, the consequence of my action prevents suffering thus the outcome is good. What informed my action was the foreseeable benefit that would come from preventing killings and upholding the law.

Why Progressivism is Learner – Centered



  • The audience of the essay comprises of the proponents of authoritarian, traditional models of education who often misrepresent progressivism.

o   The thesis of the essay is that “progressivism is learner-centered since it supports learners to learn via experience or by doing, pursue solutions to given questions via critical thinking along with problem-solving, and remain motivated intrinsically”.

Main body:

Why should progressivism be deemed to be learner-centered?

o    It supports learners to learn via experience experiential learning.

  • It supports learners to be intrinsically motivated when learning.
  • It supports learners to utilize the SM (scientific method).


Progressivism focuses on the learner rather than the instructor.


Why Progressivism is Learner-Centered

Proponents of authoritarian, traditional models of education often misrepresent progressivism. This paper provides the proponents with ample, objective insights into the philosophy, especially as regards its student-centeredness. Student-centered educational philosophies, including progressivism, grew as a reaction to the inadequacies of the authoritarian models. Rather than developing schools as institutions when predefined knowledge bases are conveyed from instructors to learners, the philosophies motivate collaboration between the two parties to find sure solutions to the challenges facing contemporary learners (Ornstein, Levine & Gutek, 2011). The philosophies include progressivism, existentialism as well as social re-constructionism. Progressivism is learner-centered since it supports learners to learn via experience or by doing, pursue solutions to given questions via critical thinking along with problem-solving, and remain motivated intrinsically.

First, progressivism is learner-centered given that it markedly supports learners to learn via experience experiential learning. It stresses experiential learning by students. Progressive learning centers, or schools, offer learners opportunities to learn through executing given tasks. The schools’ features include science laboratories, art rooms, kitchens, and workshops. Progressivists are convinced that one can only lean effectively by doing what he or she deems essential in his or her life (Huerta, 2008). They hinge the curricula they offer to learners on various key considerations, including the learners’ experiences. When they base the curricula on the experiences, schooling becomes interesting, and engaging to learners. The learners grow more and more curious over time. They attempt to cure their curiosity by practicing particular ideas. They attempt to cure the curiosity via actions and active processes that occasion particular products.

Notably, John Dewey, a distinguished progressivist, wanted learners to study via action and getting engaged in and experiencing specific processes that occasion particular end products. He desired to see learners working on projects that are hands-on, or experiential, for learning to happen as opposed to memorizing content (Huerta, 2008). Within the typical, authoritarian, traditional classroom, learners merely memorizing the information they desire to know. They lose the information over time or right after being tested on it. They do not experience the acquisition of the information. Dewey held that one needs to exercise her or his brain through critical thinking, as well as problem-solving, to result into learning. The experience of exercising brains in given ways by learners allows the brains to develop. Dewey held that, consequently, as the learners grow, the process of learning grows easier and easier (Ornstein, Levine & Gutek, 2011).

After learning in and experiencing the kind of school that Dewey idealized, learners would be prepared for the actual world experiences, including the commonplace challenges that individuals experience. The challenges include balancing checkbooks, making meals, changing tires, losing jacket buttons or grave ones like the demise of a loved one. The progressive school idealized by Dewey offers experiential, or hands-on, unending learning. The school stems from pragmatic thought rather than hypothetical speculation. Individuals live their way into the thought. The school is pragmatic as well since it offers learners platforms to experience their ideas in action prior to having beliefs in them. The learners develop highly practical, or pragmatic, attitudes.

According to pragmatic ontology, reality defines the daily, personal experience’s realm. Consequently, every learner has unique life experiences. Every learner has a unique perception of reality. With respect to truth, the ontology’s perspective is that every idea ought to undergo testing for its utility. If particular ideas function practically, then they can be accepted, utilized, and deemed to represent truth. The ideas can be experienced! If particular ideas fail to work, pragmatists get rid of them, learn from their experiences, and focus their efforts on experiencing new things. Pragmatists stress on student teams or groups in learning. That is rational since several learners may be keen on finding solutions to a single problem. When the learners work as a team towards the solution, they socialize with each other. Each of the learners knows through living, or experience, how to collaborate with persons from diverse backgrounds. That experience serves the learners well in the days ahead when they work with others, for instance at their workplaces.

Second, progressivism is learner-centered given that it markedly supports learners to be intrinsically motivated when learning (Ornstein, Levine & Gutek, 2011). The learners are dissuaded from rote memorization since they do not take their actions as inherently valuable. In teacher-centered learning contexts, learners merely take the information tendered to them by their instructors at face value and put efforts to realize extrinsic outcomes only. That often leads to the resenting of schooling by the learners since they lack the intrinsic motivation they need to learn. Notably, the motivation can be developed via the creation of learning centers or spaces that learners yearn to be present in.

Third, progressivism is learner-centered given that it markedly supports learners to utilize the SM (scientific method). The SM involves finding answers to given questions via critical thinking along with problem-solving. In progressivist schools, instructors expect learners to seek answers to given questions via critical thinking along with problem-solving. The learners are discouraged from getting answers from the extant literature, including books. Dewey stressed on the use of the SM by learners (Huerta, 2008; Ornstein, Levine & Gutek, 2011). He projected the SM as an indiscriminate procedure for solving problems. When learners use it, they establish what functions well in particular situations.  They establish what functions well in particular situations by asking questions, exploring, and studying extant systems. Unlike in the traditional, instructor-centered classroom, in the progressivist classroom, learners are not required to call to mind facts.

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Potential Risks Associated With Living Near A Refinery Or A Large Harbor

Environmental Issues

In quest of achieving development and sustaining growth in revenue gained from the ports it is imperative to be mindful of the repercussions that come along. In this literature we seek to unearth and explore health impact from environmental pollution of refineries and ports. According to World Health Organization on the International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO/IPCS) environmental pollution is a factor contributing to health diseases. In saying this, risk assessment done on the impact of living near a refinery and a port reveal saddening findings pointing to a threat to human health and environment (Perrow, 2011).

Understanding biological basis of diseases is essential in building and developing mechanisms on prevention. However, analysing the etiology of diseases may prove burdensome because of multiple origins and interplay of risk factors. In regard to environmental impact report on construction of more refineries there exist a relationship of the plant and the environment. The construction will foremost interrupt the ecosystem. Emissions from these facilities both in liquid and gaseous waste affect human health.

Notable cases have shown an increase in respiratory diseases in people living near such facilities. In reference to the U.S national academy of sciences report on effects of pollution from ports and refineries; asthma, bronchitis, cardiovascular disease and lung cancer are among leading illnesses due to air pollutants from diesel exhaust which include;  volatile organic compounds, oxides of poisonous elements such as nitrogen, sulphur and carbon. These toxic fumes are also responsible for disintegration of  biodiversity as result of acidic rain that corrodes structures, plants and affect aquatic life especially when oil spill occurs in natural body waters; oceans. It is undeniably true therefore that this construction poses as a menace to the inhabitants of Los Angeles and generally to Californian population.

According to Dr Sheldon, Science is an intellectual activity carried on by humans that is designed to discover information about the natural world in which humans live and to discover the ways in which this information can be organized into meaningful patterns. A primary aim of science is to collect facts (data). An ultimate purpose of science is to discern the order that exists between and amongst the various facts. Scientific study becomes therefore the practice and process of investigating and experimenting a given phenomena using scientific methods (Bailey, et al. 2004).

On the other hand, anecdotal evidence is informal evidence on occurrence of a specimen under scope that does not use scientific analysis. In the medical fraternity, anecdotal evidence is usually weak and not appropriate basis of a theory. However they have been used over a period of time, they have given birth to modern drugs and practice when assumptions have been tested to yield valid grounds for education and theory development.  While the latter is a conclusive research that employs principles and scientific method the former is accumulate wisdom used for healing and enhancing well-being.

Anecdotal reports from personal testimonies and reputable journals exhibit an array of knowledge although not scrutinized by scientific methods remain relevant and useful. Knowledge in supplementary dietary widely posted on the website is a better way to try solving a problem arising from deficiency. A case with common cold or flu is to use ginger and garlic concoction. This knowledge should not be the only information when making or consulting in regard to medical treatment but may prove insightful as they tend to have a general outlook. For instance, reports on medicinal herbs may persuade a patient to approach a treatment using herbal medicine, or use of organic elements (Vandenbroucke, 2008).

Hispanics and African Americans are the majority of communities living near ports/refineries. Most of the ports and refineries operate close to residential neighbourhoods. This proximity to such facilities exposes people in these areas to health risks from air pollution.  Statistics show that Los Angeles emit more air pollutants from ships, harbour tugs, trucks, boats and ferries than all power plants in southern California. Additionally it is predicted that smog-forming pollutants and other particulate matter will increase as trade triples by 2025. Many people living in such areas are likely to suffer high rates in morbidity and mortality. Another contributing factor to this increment in mortality and morbidity rates is due to lack of health care. This is evident as majority of the populace is low income and lack health insurance cover.  Age is also a contributing factor as many old people suffer from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases as a result of long term exposure to pollutants. It is therefore a case of insults to injury as these people are not only exposed to hazardous environments but also lack the ability to prevent and receive quality healthcare due to low income and poverty.

Multi-Criteria Integrated Resource Assessment (MIRA) is an initiative that targets engagement of stakeholders in collaborative decision making where transparency and inclusive decisions are achieved. To do this, MIRA has to identify policies and problems in the diverse interests of stakeholders; federal, environmental groups, investors, health sector and the peoples to reach a strategic decision. Environmental problems are complex; this is observed in definition of the problem and search for a common ground, for MIRA to change anything pertaining to the refinery or the port it has to gather as much as possible so that the final decision cuts across all issues represented (Fineberg, et al. 1996).

MIRA should aim to avert any environmental consequence from these decisions as they tend to be a one-off enterprise with long term effects. To do is appropriately a list of EIRs has to be consulted to have illumination on all parameters. In such a decision on the impact of construction having in mind the positive results from the growth of business in the oil market, MIRA should endeavour to address possible threats to environment prior to having final drafts. By using its tools it ought to establish a balance between the profitability of the refinery and expansion of the port and the effects on the environment. Recently, debate on sustainable growth is a key factor that cannot be ignored MIRA can work a model using its tools of assessment to suitably attain a mutual benefit criterion.

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Hatfield Medical Supplies Case Questions And Sample Answers

  1. Do you think Jaiden Lee should develop a strategic plan for the company? Why?

Lee should develop for Hatfield Medical Supplies a strategic plan. He should develop the plan since it will help define the company’s direction or strategy and help the company in formulating decisions on resource allocation. As well, the plan will assist the company’s management appreciate how it relates with the extant competition (Kono, 1994).

  1. What are the central elements of such a plan?

Strategic plans have several principal elements. The elements include executive summary, elevator pitch, corporate mission statement, SWOT analyses, and organizational goals. Others are corporate KPIs (Key Performance Indicators), industry analyses, competitive advantages and analyses, and marketing plan. Other important elements in strategic plans are teams, operations plans, and financial projections (Kono, 1994). In a given strategic plan, the finance-related section may have models used in assessing the prospective outcomes of the opportunities that a business is pursuing. The financial projections in the plan help in the mapping out of business goals (Clark & Krentz, 2004; Jovanovic & MacDonald, 1994).

  1. Define the term capital intensity. Explain how a decline in capital intensity would affect the AFN, other things held constant. Would economies of scale combined with rapid growth affect capital intensity, other things held constant? Also, briefly explain how changes in each of the following would affect AFN, holding other things constant: the growth rate, the amount of accounts payable, the profit margin, and the payout ratio.

Capital intensity refers to the amount of capital, both real and fixed, that is available to a business in comparison with the other extant production factors particularly labor (Jorgenson & Vu, 2005). When capital intensity declines, the less new resources, especially money, are required in supporting additional sales thus AFNs lessens, other factors remaining unchanged. Economies of scale plus quick growth impacts on the intensity, other factors remaining unchanged.

When sales grow, AFN increases since additional assets are needed. When sales grow, AFN decreases since fewer assets are needed. The decrease of accounts payable raises AFN since it lessens liabilities that are deemed spontaneous. When profit margins increase, AFNs decrease owing to the increase of retained, as well as total, earnings. The reduction of payout ratio reduces AFN owing to the reduction of the need for outside financing.

  1. Define the term self-supporting growth rate. Other things held constant, would the calculated capital intensity ratio change over time if the company were growing and were also subject to economies of scale and/or lumpy assets?

Self-supporting growth rate refers to the highest rate of growth that a company could attain if it did not access outside financing, or capital. Other factors remaining unchanged, there would be changes in the computed ratio of capital intensity of a company if it has a sustained growth and remains subject to assets that are deemed lumpy or economies of scale (Churchill & Lewis, 1983; Evans, 1987).

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Yugoslavia Culture – Powerpoint Presentation


This presentation is an exploration of an Yugoslavia culture. The presentation will include the various components, and symbols associated with the Yugoslavia culture including their meanings.

Culture is significant for providing various ways for purposes of interpretation of the environment as well as the world at large; besides, it facilitates interaction among different people.

Description Of Yugoslavia Culture

The Yugoslavia culture has unique features or characteristics in terms of folklore, cuisine, social habits, arts, music and dialect.

It encompasses both racial and ethnic diversity that resulted from massive migration from various racially and ethnically different nations in its entire history.

The main influence on the Yugoslavia culture was received from European influences.

Components Of Yugoslavia Culture

There are various components of Yugoslavia culture such Yugoslavia holidays,  technology, religion, rites of passage, education, Music, language, fashion and dress, and food.

In terms of Yugoslavia holidays, Yugoslavia culture can be characterized by people having strong attachment to holidays such as New Year’s day, Julian Orthodox Christmas, Statehood Day, Orthodox Easter, May Day/International Worker’s Day and many others (Luthar & Pusnik, 2010) .

Components Of Yugoslavia Culture

Yugoslavia technology: Most citizens embrace technology mainly in terms of entertainment. Computers and videogames; for instance, are technical items yet most Yugoslavians use them for entertainment (Luthar & Pusnik, 2010).

In terms of religion, majority of citizens in the United States are Christians and Islam. There are various Christianity types such as Eastern Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism, Lutherans and many others.

There are usually celebrations during various rites of passage in Yugoslavia culture. For instance, wedding ceremonies are accompanied by huge celebrations (Luthar & Pusnik, 2010).

Yugoslavia culture embraces mandatory and universal attendance of school especially at elementary as well as high school levels.

In Yugoslavia culture, various styles of music such as hip-hop, country, rap, techno, rock, jazz, rock and roll are embraced and played in all parts of the world (Luthar & Pusnik, 2010).

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Benefits to Cloud Computing

Cloud computing has taken commercial computing by storm, these platforms provide easy access to company’s high-performance computing and storage infrastructure through web services.This technology entails the use of computing resources including hardware and software that reside on remote machine and delivered to end user as service over the network (Voorsluys et al., 2011). Users entrust the data to a remote service despite the fact that they have limited influence to it. The usage of this technology comes along with cost benefits as it lowers cost on people, good IT staffs are expensive, and their costs usually outweigh the costs of hardware and software (HAMDAQA, 2012).

With cloud computing, some money goes to the provider’s staffing costs which are smaller amount than for the work in-house. Having to run on owned servers means buying more hardware than needed in case of failure, this is expensive. Letting cloud computing service deal with this redundancy requirement is a less expensive way as they are able to mirror data and applications across various locations (He, 2013). When using cloud computing services, it’s possible to run zero capital on costs as financing the up-front capital is someone else’s problem.

Cloud computing uses less electricity, a cloud service provider will charge less for energy used than the charges spent in owned data centers. Also, according to National Institute of Standards and Technology (2014), accessibility on this platform is improved, this minimizes costs of licensing new software in that users are able to access such software from a cloud.It also enables globalizing the workforce on the cheap as many people can access the cloud despite their geographical location.Clouds can support crucial services to an organization by providing infrastructures dedicated to specific uses. In return, it improves marketing time for a company which is a cost benefit.

Lastly, less personnel training is needed to work on a cloud, in a company, this unused workforce can be shifted to more capital generating projects of great impact to the company.

The Physiology of Night Shift – Circadian Rhythm

Define circadian rhythm and discuss schedules of work that would allow the night hours to be covered, but may be better suited for human circadian rhythm.

Circadian Rhythms

Circadian is a Latin term made up of two words; circa which means about and dia, day. Circadian rhythms refer to bodily rhythms that vary periodically throughout during the day. These cyclic changes in psychological and physiological functions are a response to stimuli which is light and darkness in organism’s environment. Research has by greater extent discovered the complexities of these factors; the rhythms have both endogenous components; they are regulated by body clock and exogenous components. Exogenous component is made up of various facets known as zeitgebers. Most powerful zeitgebers is the day cycle; light and darkness (Pittendrigh, 1960).

Understanding   circadian rhythms is instrumental in helping us treat sleep disorders and other health related problems that arise as part of malfunctioning of these rhythms. Circadian rhythms affect sleep-wake cycles. This translates in sleeping disorders. As well, they influence hormonal secretion and body temperature. When we talk of their influence on sleep one may tend to ask how our bodies know when to go to bed. Circadian rhythms are informed by biological clocks. Biological clocks are specialized groupings of molecules found in the body cells. A master clock in the brain coordinates and controls all body clocks working in synch. Circadian rhythms have genetic codes that direct these cyclic fluctuations in man, insects; fruit fly, fungi and rodents.

Circadian rhythm disorders are abnormalities in the internal body clock in determining the length, timing with an inflexibility in response. The body clock adapts slowly to rapid transitions in instances of shift in different schedules. When this happens a condition referred to as desynchrony occurs. Desynchrony is misalignment of the circadian rhythms responsible for sleep and wakefulness, body temperature and hormonal changes. This effects in insomnia, lack of alertness, poor performance and body fatigue due to changes in hormones which impact negatively on an individual’s health.

Circadian rhythm determines sleeping patterns. It is observed when one sleeps or wakes in the normal 24hrs characterised by light and day cycle. This can help explain the causes for jetlag. Jet lag occurs due to circadian disharmony, where circadian rhythms are disrupted due to difference in latitudes of time zones. A traveller flying from California to New York may feel bleary and disoriented as the body clocks is 3 hours behind, so when one wakes at 7 am the internal body clock thinks its 4.00 am. The adjustment may take a few days for the alignment (acclimatization) with the new environment (Pittendrigh, 1960).

These biological cycles help to align our internal physiological functions with the external environment. Man is a diurnal specie sleeping during night and active during daytime. Therefore, abrupt disruptions from the normal functioning of work and sleep cause disorders. In quest of making the best of our schedule while maintaining good health, understanding sleep is important. Shift work should happen in the optimal phase where alertness and performance are at their peak. In a healthy worker all circadian rhythms are in tune, they change as one ages and so does your ability to respond to time cues. Timing is important for instance, body temperature will rise before waking up. It happens to promote a feeling of being fresh and alert. A drop in temperature occurring in the afternoon between 2-4 pm makes people fall asleep commonly known as a nap this is not a good time to work.

A suitable approach to night shift scheduling is to avoid rotating shifts. If possible an organization with people working night shift is encouraged to retain them. When need to change comes it is recommended to work 4-6 weeks consecutively to allow circadian system adjust slowly for performance and health. The other issue is the length of the shift. In most instances this is majorly determined by social pressures from financial strains in running a family where parents or victims tend to overdo it for payment. 7 to 8 hours is a span that ensures that a relaxed remains active and productive without readaptation issues due to extra hours. Rather than straining to remain awake which with time takes its toll by chronic illnesses it is better to have enough rest without switching shifts too soon (Knutsson, 2003)

Another way to help with shift work especially with emergency shift is to use a split sleep period a method that allows one to sleep for 3-4 hours prior to going to work and another 3-4 hours soon after a night shift. Unplanned naps can be problematic since they hinder adaptation but when scheduled regularly they are effective in night shifts. Worth noting, sedatives are unhealthy when used routinely by night shift workers this is because they do not speed up adaptations though they may increase total sleep time during the day. Also, caffeine should be avoided within duration of 3-4 hours of a scheduled sleep time.

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The Ability to Communicate Effectively


Communication plays a major role in an organization. It is responsible for fostering success in many sectors of organizational operation. The success of individuals and organizations are often linked to effective communication. Individuals spent about 70% of their day doing some form of communication. Research findings have proven that interpersonal conflicts often result from poor communication. Communication refers to the process of passing and understanding information. It involves transferring information from the source to the recipient with the aim of conveying a message.  The paper compares and contrasts various forms of communication in a workplace, as well as their importance in facilitating success in an organization.

Importance of communication

Communication starts when a sender encodes a message, and use appropriate channel to deliver the message to the recipient.  After receiving the message, the recipient decodes the message with the aim of understanding the content of information. There are three main forms of communication that include verbal, written and demonstrative communication. Effective communication can only be possible in an organization if all these forms of communication are correctly used.  Communication in a workplace can take three directions. These are upward, lateral and downward.  Upward communication involves transferring information from the lower cadre to the top management of an organization. In downward communication, information flows from the top level to the lower level in an organization. Lateral communication occurs between people of the same work level, group or peers (Ashley, 2009).

Communication plays the following main functions in an organization: motivation, information, control and emotional expression. The control function aims at regulating the behaviors of people in an organization. For instance, the top management can influence the mechanism by which employees communicate with one another. The function of motivation is responsible for encouraging employees to do their best.  It involves promoting the willingness and the enthusiasm of employees to accomplish certain tasks. Employees can be motivated by awarding them in case they attain a set target. Emotion function is essential in conveying the satisfaction and frustration of employees in a workplace. The function of information is very important in an organization since it is responsible for facilitating the decision-making process. Information function is important in evaluating and identifying choices when coming up with decisions. Making well-informed decisions requires adequate information.  The four functions are essential for attaining and sustaining success in an organization (Rickheit, 2008).

Forms of communication, their effectiveness, and options for improvement

The types of communication used in an organization include verbal communication, written communication, and demonstrative communication. In verbal communication, the recipient listens to the spoken words from the source with the aim of inferring a meaning. It is a real-time form of communication. Written communication involves reading a printed message. Demonstrative communication is the application of non-verbal cues to reinforce the message being communicated. The most common type of communication is verbal communication. In an organization, verbal communication can occur via the phone or in person. The message is conveyed through the oral medium. Storytelling has emerged to be one of the most efficient types of verbal communication that is utilized by many organizations to assist in the construction of common meanings for members. Stories can be used for clarifying key values and demonstrating how to perform certain tasks in an organization. The frequency, strength and tone of a story have influence on the degree of organizational commitment. Successful entrepreneurs use quality stories in securing capital for their investments.  Verbal communication in an organization involves the normal daily interaction, as well as high stakes communication such as the presentation of business plan to potential investors.  Unlike the normal daily interaction that take place in workplace, high stakes communication involves more planning, refection and critical thinking (Rickheit, 2008).

Unlike verbal communication that is oral, written communication uses printed messages. There are various forms of written communication in a business set-up. They include letters, memos, operating policies, emails, training manuals and proposals. Written message can be printed manually on a paper or electronically on a digital media.  Contrary to verbal communication that occurs in real time, written communication does not occur on real time. It is asynchronous, that is, the message can be read by the receiver at anytime. Verbal communication can be asynchronous when the voice is recorded on a digital media. Voice mail is common form of a synchronous verbal form of communication. Unlike the verbal communication, written communication can be collaborative. The development of a written message may involve the contribution of many people before it is released to the target audience. The development of policies and procedures in an organization often involves many parties (Hill, 2007).

There are several strengths and weaknesses that are associated with verbal and written communication. In business, deciding on whether to use written or verbal communication is important. The most important question that is essential when deciding on the most appropriate form of communication to use is whether the communication aims to convey feelings or facts.  The best way of conveying feelings is through verbal communication. Conveying facts is best done using written form of communication (Hill, 2007).

Communication does not just involve verbal and written forms, but also demonstrative forms. Research findings shows that 55% of communication is physiology, 38% is voice tone and only 5% percent is words. Demonstrative communication entails sending and receiving wordless messages. Communication is not always about saying words but how the words are said. Demonstrative communication is categorized into physiology, body and tonal variation. Physiology in communication is all about the body language. Nonverbal communication involves emotion, eye contact, touch and tonal variation. The body communicates through movement, physical space and appearance. Although demonstrative communication is vital for effective communication, it may be feigned to give a wrong impression. Effective communication requires the appropriate application of the three main forms of communication (Ashley, 2009).

Professional Presence and Influence

Professional presence surpasses the conventionally-held meaning. Personally, I believe it goes beyond the normal expected looks and impression that a nurse wears in their personal life. More exactly so, it encircles the way a nurse knows, does and the way their personal being is framed on a broader scale(Davidhizar, 2005). A registered nurse with an excellent professional presence possesses individualities such as; collaborative, competent, reflective in practice, empathetic, to cope with uncertainty, passionate, open to change, optimistic, maintains a professional image, able to articulate their role, adheres to professional standards and is full of integrity (McMahon & Christopher, 2011).

With the above characteristics, it means the nurse is able to physically “be there” and as well psychologically “being with” a client. A registered nurse as a result is committed to be part of a holistic care bringing out the idea of professional presence being embedded in a nurse as a person(LaSala & Nelson, 2005).

Professional presence is integrated into a person on the basis of the models of health and healing, for instance, physical body, mind-body and mind-body-spirit (Zyblock, 2010). The models signify the limits associated with each healing model and are mostly pillared by cultural backgrounds of the existing populations. Narrowing down into two of these, we offer insights into the broader subjects, (according to me); the mind-body and the mind-body-spirit. In historical review, we draw deductions that people have often regarded spirituality, religion and healing as interconnected entities. More explicitly, asickness has been considered as a disturbance in relationships. Such a disturbance is said to demonstrate and portray a healing as a religious act. These descriptions grow on to show how relationships are restored by scientific healing on an interpersonal level between organs, body parts and physiological functions within the body-mind contexts.

Nevertheless, it is quite possible that an illness can disorient the calmness that is usually the normal case on the “extra personal level”. Extra personal level includes facets beyond the family, physical environment and social network of an individual. As such, the individual’s transcendental features are also affected.

From these ideologies, we can deduce two principle ideas; era 2 and era 3 medicines. Beginning with era 2, it is primarily concerned with what feelings, attitudes and thoughts present to the body and how they can affect and manipulate it. On the other hand, era 3 is usually contingent upon the capacity of the mind to operate non-locally. Similarity lies on their ventures into the human mind. They simply tackle far beyond era 1 medicine which is pillared on the “doctor-mechanic principle”. However, when it comes to the limits of the healing procedures and processes, the two are quite different.

At the outset, era 2 believes consciousness as a factor that influences one’s health. The era simply covers the mind-body connection. It includes the functions of the mind in controlling the health by optimistic thinking, controlling emotions among others. Contra wise, era 3, supports a “transcendentalidea”. Generally, it asserts that there exists a “union” of the physician as well as the patient. It means that even without the use of non-local medicine, the physician can have an understanding with the patient. Such kind of understanding and connection activates the physicians feeling and enables them to feel what the patient needs to promote their wellbeing. The aspect of “being one” further creates a linkage of trust and rectifies the impersonal relationships between the nurse and the patient.As a result, people have ended up having compassion, sympathy and love.

Personally, I believe that there is a kind of intersection between faith and medicine. When discussing medical issues, it is rare to miss a patient bringing up spirituality. A higher being is most of the time trusted to be a source of guidance in life-and-death situations and decisions. Besides this, there are numerous spiritual benefits that underlie the issue of health. And although I have not witnessed spiritual effectiveness in “mechanical Medicare”, meditate natures and belief systems of religions have often helped patients in managing stress and illnesses.

What I am more certain of is that, curing and healing are separate paradigms.Medicine as a curing art is so much more different with it being termed in another dimension as a healing art. The objective of cure is to reduce signs and symptoms of body malfunctions (sickness) while that of healing is to bring a holistic connection to the mind, the body as well as the spirit so as to come out with a better life experience.

Healing demands sacrifice. We as the caregivers must be willing to feel emotions that are suspected to be the causal links to the sickness. Physical signs and emotions are not always the causes of such emotions. Rather, they are negative effects of not feeling them. They therefore come as signs of demanding attentions for a holistic healing. I adopt the idea that both emotional and spiritual aspects should be considered and recognized as interrelated and interdependent.

Healing comes with immense pressure as a part of a nursing job. As a result, we have to add up other supportive strategies so as to make healing a success. Firstly, the approach of mindfulness means that self-care is well taken care of. It allows the concentration of a situation with a sense of nonjudgmental and acceptance. With these tools, then I can be in a position to take care of myself, my colleagues and my patients while giving them the best forms of treatment especially in form of attention. All in all mindfulness has brought my attention regularly on my focus enabling me to always carry my attention with me in my present moment.

My personality preferences are the next traits that gauge me on the scale of nursing care. Well, I have to admit that everyone has a bit of imperfection but definitely, I have studied myself to discover and improve myself more. In regard to this, I took the Keirsey temperament test to discover my disposition. The results reveal that; I am trustworthy, dependable and I possess an average ability to manage goods and services. Resultantly, I can indorse these skills in running things unattended and keep the smooth running of activities even when my seniors are not around me. On the social scale, I find myself not very sociable and I therefore believe this is one of the areas that I need to improve and forma mindfulness strategy to offer better care.Generally speaking, I have few friends and I spend I little time with them or my relatives. Consequently, my practicability and down-to-earth have slightly been affected. Thus I have to add extra effort to relate well with people. I respect authority and have a sharp eye for proper procedures and can adjust to change in whatever dimension it may be. Making people happy more often than not leaves me happy and joyous. It try to facilitate harmonious relationships and fulfill my obligations although my sociable nature present me with a drawback in perfecting in this field. If the social gap is overcome, other barriers such as those of effective communication will be eliminated. I therefore aim to work my way into maximum sociability.

So as to improve my mindfulness practice, I considerimproving my Spiritual body. Spirituality is normally reflected to a large scale in daily life as well as in other subjects ranging from literature, philosophy, sociology, and to large degree in health care. Medical schools are now offering courses related to religion, spiritual being and the interconnection with medicine. Such schools are doing so to ensure that holistic care is taken care of in modern healthcare. Numerous studies demonstrating the connection between health improvement and spirituality are now a commonplace.Spirituality is being indorsed because of a variety of reasons. One example of such a reason or a trend is the need for spiritual services in healthcare. Therapy nowadays involves spiritual aspects especially the one involving the mind. A patient may also want theiremotional, physical, and mental needs taken care of.

Since all people are spiritual beings, I intend to employ spiritual healing as discussed earlier to understand the feelings of my clients. I also want to improve my sociability so that by biographical connection allows my life model to accommodate helping my clients in the best possible ways. Everyone has a spiritual dimension that motivates, energizes, and influences every aspect of life. Spirituality can be considered a basic human quality that transcends gender, race, color, and national origin. Spirituality is a person’s way of being, thinking, choosing, and acting in the world in light of that person’s ultimate values. Taking conditions of all these will see me serve holistically as well as satisfactorily towards my inner self.

Apart from models of nursing and their sub-features, healing environments play a significant role in determining the degree of healthcare. Healing environments present the best settings where the patients and families are supported form the stresses to hospitalization, illnesses, and the process of healing and such things as medical visits. Healing environments can alter how fast or slow the patient recovers or adapts to chronic or acute conditions. The most common healing environments include internal and behavioral environments. Both are more controlled by the patients themselves. However, it is the responsibility of the physician/therapist to help with helpful practices such as Breathing exercises, relaxation, Yoga, Tai Chi, Imagery, Meditation, Journaling and Art. With behavioral environment, a healthy lifestyle is the best form of self-care to a better health.

It is advisable that in my future, I transform any healing environment to a therapeutic one with my ability and resources offered. In my future practice, I intend to minimize suffering while at the same time optimizing the capacity of recovery. Some of the best conditions for a good healing environment are clean air, quiet, good diet, light and warmth. Evidence based designs having a strong scientific base come out as the best option. Adopting these will provide a high probability for social support, positive distractions, offering choices to enhance feelings of being in control and elimination environmental stressors (Stichler, 2001).

Strategy , Accounting, Financial And Valuation Analysis – Boston Chicken Case Study

Boston Chicken developed a new segment of the fast food restaurant business, home-cooked food. To take advantage of this innovation the company sought to grow rapidly by signing franchise agreements with large area developers. However, it also provided sizable loans to the developers to help them finance new restaurants. These loans have, in turn, been financed through public stock and convertible debt issues made by Boston Chicken. The case is used as a comprehensive security analysis case, covering strategy analysis, accounting analysis, financial analysis and valuation.

Questions to Guide/Be Addressed in Your Case Analysis:

  1. Assess Boston Chicken’s business strategy. What are its critical success factors and risks?
  2. How is the company reporting on its performance and risks? What are the key assumptions behind these policies? Do you think that its accounting policies reflect the risks?
  3. What adjustments, if any, would you make to the firm’s accounting policies?
  4. What questions would you ask management about the company’s performance?
  5. How is Boston Chicken performing?
  6. What assumptions is the market making about the company’s future performance and risks? Do you agree with those assessments

Features and benefits of using Microsoft PowerPoint

Review the course materials and briefly research online one of the topics below. Describe and support your answers with examples. Be sure to include at least two sources outside of your class materials. Write a two- to three-page analysis in Word document on the topic.

Research topic options:

  • Evidence display systems
  • Videoconferencing
  • Database management in law offices
  • Litigation support software
  • Case management software
  • Court calendaring software
  • Docket control software
  • Specialized law office application



Explain how presentation graphics and audio software can be used in the legal environment. Describe some of the features and benefits of using Microsoft PowerPoint and at least one other presentation graphic or audio software program. Have you used this type of software before? If so, how? If not, describe what types of presentation graphics and tools you would like to learn more about and to try your hand at in the legal field. Be sure to cite your sources.

Different Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) Levels and the Protection Each Provides

Redundant Array of Inexpensive (RAID)-enabled system is a system that uses more than one hard disk to either boost a machine’s performance or to improve its fault tolerance. RAID provides the machine with a safety net for any failed hardware thus ensuring that it can still operate efficiently. By so doing, RAID reduces the occurrence of production interruption and also lowers the risk of data loss (Wilkes & Savage, 1998).

The way that fault tolerance is configuredhugely depends on the RAID level that has been set up. RAID levels, on the other hand, depend on the number of disks included in the device, how critical recovering data in case of drive failure is to the user and the required level of performance. For instance, an organization might need to recover data more urgently than a home user would and thus the two entities might opt for different RAID levels. Different RAID levels are configured differently and thus they offer varying levels of performance optimization as well as differentlevels. Traditionally, RAID implementation is often in organizations that must have optimized performance and heightened fault to reliance, not in those that perceive these functions as a luxury(Wilkes & Savage, 1998). Below is a rundown of traditional RAID levels that an organization can choose from.

  • RAID 0

This is utilized to help a server’s performance. It is otherwise called “disk striping.” With RAID 0, information is composed of various circles. This implies the work that the PC is doing is taken care of by numerous circles instead of only one.Expanding performance because various drives are perusing and composing information, enhancing plate I/O. At least two circles are needed. Both programming and equipment RAID bolster RAID 0, as do most controllers. The drawback is that there is no adaptation to non-critical failure. If it happens that one circle falls flat, then that influences the whole cluster and the chances for information misfortune or defilement increases.

  • RAID 1 is an adaptation of internal failure arrangement known as “disk mirroring.” With RAID 1, information is duplicated flawlessly and all the while, starting with one circle then onto the next, making a reproduction, or mirror(Wilkes & Savage, 1998). If it happens that one plate gets broiled, the other can continue working. It is the least complicated approach to executing adaptation to internal failure and its minimal effort.

The drawback is that RAID 1 causes a slight delay performance. RAD1 can be performedby either hardware or software. At least two circles are needed for RAID 1 equipment usage. With programming RAID 1, rather than two physical circles, information can be reflected between volumes on a solitary circle. One extra indicate recollect is that RAID 1 slices aggregate plate limit down the middle: If a server with two 1TB drives is arranged with RAID 1, then theaggregate stockpiling limit will be 1TB, not 2TB.


  • RAID 5 is by a long shot the most well-known RAID setup for business servers and venture NAS gadgets. This RAID level gives preferable performance over reflecting and also adaptation to internal failure. With RAID 5, information and equality are striped over three or more plates.


  • RAID 6 is additionally utilized regularly as a part of ventures. It is indistinguishable to RAID 5, aside from its a significantly more powerful arrangement because it utilizes one more equality square than RAID 5. You can have two plates pass on and still have a framework be operational.


  • RAID 10 is a mix of RAID 1 and 0 and is frequently signified as RAID 1+0. It consolidates the reflecting of RAID 1 with the striping of RAID 0. It is the RAID level that gives the best execution, yet it is likewise excessive, obliging twice the same number of plates as other RAID levels, for at least four. This is the RAID level perfect for exceptionally used database servers or any server that is performing numerous composes operations. Assault 10 can be actualized as equipment or programming. However the general accord is that, huge numbers of the execution points of interest are lost when you utilize programming RAID 10.


Other RAID Levels There are other RAID levels: 2, 3, 4, 7, 0+1…but they are truly variations of the fundamental RAID arrangements effectively specified, and they are utilized for particular cases. Here are some short portrayals of each:


  • RAID 2 is like RAID 5, yet rather than circle striping utilizing equality, striping happens at the bit-level. Assault 2 is at times sent because expenses to actualize are restrictive (a common setup obliges ten circles) and gives poor execution with some plate I/O operations.


  • RAID 3 is likewise like RAID 5, except this arrangement obliges a committed equality drive. Assault 3 is occasionally utilized aside from as a part of the most concentrated database or handling situations, which can profit by it.


  • RAID 4 is a setup in which circle striping happens at the byte level, instead of at the bit-level as in RAID 3.


  • RAID 7 is a restrictive degree of RAID possessed by the now-outdated Storage Computer Corporation.


  • RAID 0+1 is frequently traded for RAID 10 (which is RAID 1+0), yet the two are not same. Assault 0+1 is a reflected cluster with fragments that are RAID 0 clusters. It is actualized in particular frameworks obliging elite yet not an abnormal state of versatility.


The following table shows the different cost and performance comparison of RAID disks

RAID Type Small Read Small Write Large Read Large Write Storage Efficiency
RAID Level 0 1 1 1 1 1
RAID Level 1 1 1/2 1 1/2 1/2
RAID Level 3 1/G 1/G (G-1)/G (G-1)/G (G-1)/G
RAID Level 5 1 max (1/G,1/4) 1 (G-1)/G (G-1)/G
RAID Level 6 1 max (1/G,1/6) 1 (G-2)/G (G-2)/G

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Causes And Effects Involving Modern Cultural Controversies


Culture refers to a way of doing things, thinking, and believes of a particular place or a group of people or the society. With time, people tend to change the way of doing things according to the generation so as to suit the society. There are many things that human beings can change in attempt to suit the society. These include; how they relate to each other, the way of cooking mode of dressing, the education system, and the general lifestyle. When human beings change in a more organized, planned and acceptable way, it may bring positive changes to the lives of people. On the other hand people may decide to change way of living without adhering to the stated procedures or change in a manner that is not acceptable in the society. If this happens, it will cost human beings a lot to reverse the whole process. For example when the education system changes such as use of improved and recent technology through a process and when the process is developed and tested in the right manner, it benefits both the instructor and the leaner. But if the right order is not followed, the system fails completely. Distance learning is a mode of study whereby the instructor and the learner are separated physically by distance or rather they have no physical contact (Gery, 1991).

Thesis statement

The article supports the fact that improved technology has come to improve the standards of living, education and ease all the work of both instructors’ and learners in the education system of any country. It also describes the advantages and disadvantages of technology in education especially in distance learning through e learning.


The most appreciated tool in education is education technology. Education technology involves the use different and relevant tools to facilitate the teaching- learning process. Education has changed so much with time. Technology has enabled all the changes that people enjoy in education system at the moment; it has enabled education to be so different from the past .How could that happen without advancement technology. Distance education or learning has been on the system and has been offered for many years and it keeps on improving. Distance education can be offered in many different ways .these includes;   Voice –this method involves instruction through audio tools like video, tapes   and audio conferencing, Video- instruction is done through the utilization of video tools such as slides and real time moving images.Data computers allow us to send and receive date very fast. For this matter, instructor is able to send the class notes and assignment via the internet and receive the feedback as fast as possible.

Many people are split on what to accept between distance education and the traditional face to face education. Research shows that distance learning is very effective and as effective as face to face in delivering the content and also the learning by the students. People can study from their homes, offices, in hotels and get a complete certification of either undergraduate or post graduate, which is better and simple. Adding to these, the knowledge that distance learners acquire is the same as those acquired by the students on full time or rather regular basis. In the past when distance learning was just introduced, it was viewed to belong to the people who work since they didn’t have time to attend to lectures. (Clark, 2007). After some time of advancement, all people can access this mode of instruction. All the members of a family can now use the distance learning program. Worldwide, a good number of universities are developing distance learning programs to their learners. When higher institutions of learning provide distance learning, they provide more learning opportunities to the people they serve without altering the amount that was budgeted for. Distance learning also came to help people with different social and economic situation to achieve their goals on time. For example a lady with small kids and have to care about them can get her whole degree without straining so much as compared to if one would go to class that is on full time basis.

Distance learning has various advantages which put it in a better position as a learning option and acquire different learning technological experience. First and foremost, a distance learner is trained to be self motivated that is doing things without being followed up and down and at the same time not missing any support from the instructor. The instructor sends different study  materials together with assignments which are expected to be submitted within the stipulated deadline. It’s the responsibility of the learner to organize the how to study and have the assignment done and submitted before the deadline (Clark, 2007).

For any clarifications and questions, the distance learner can communicate with the instructor or other distance learners through email. If compared to the regular or full time students, one needs to wait for the instructor in queue in offices before seeking clarifications therefore distance learning is faster and effective as far as communication is concerned as compared to face to face learning. Additionally, all distance learners are provided with the approved materials just like a campus based class. Evaluations can be done through assignments, questions, tests or discussion just like any other class (Clark, 2007). The students are also in a position to follow up for change of events for example change of the offered programs, exams dates, and others as soon as the instructor posts.

When compared to other ways of training, e learning is in a position to accommodate the two different learning designs for learners with both hearing impairment (visual learners) and the visually impaired (deaf learners.) and in the end give the same experience to both. This is important because the disabled learners are not disadvantage by this program. In a class based training, where one needs to interpret for a deaf student and therefore this saves on time and fund that would be used to pay sign language interpreters.

Distance learning also through e-learning provides individualized learning which is not catered or by the print media. Advanced learners are allowed to go through the course faster and finish earlier by saving time over the slow learners who slow down their progress. In other words, e learning allows for one to carry out the course at their speed and not inconveniencing each other. This saves both time and money. Given in a campus class, both the first and slow learners learn at the same speed and therefore one is never comfortable with speed. Sometimes it can be too fast and one misses out on some points, and at the same time it can be so slow and boring to the fast learner.

E learning provides an individual with the computer skills which is of important for future lives of individuals and the skills gained can also be utilized in their careers. Also, when a learner successfully completes a course online, it helps in developing more self-confidence and trains one to be able to manage their studies personally in the future.

Distance learning ensures that children who are not in a position to attend the traditional classrooms due to disabilities like reduce mobility and illnesses like reduced immune system access learning or rather education through robots. Through this, learners access education and acquire skills efficiently and still keep them in a safe environment for learning.

On earth, anything with importance would not miss to have disadvantages or drawbacks. The drawbacks of distance learning are as discussed below. First, e learning is expensive because not all the computers can access the site and therefore the learner has to acquire a machine with certain specifications as specified by the provider of the e learning program. This is costly to the learner and therefore it restricts the number of people who are in a position to use the program (Jaggars et al., 2013).

E learning is has a restrictive number of courses that can be offered. This is because some types of training for example engineering courses cannot be conducted online as it requires face to face training because of practical sessions, demonstration and explanation plus also the time allocation to clear the course successfully and efficiently. Another problem experienced with e learning is the ability of materials to be compatible from one system to another. This means that, materials designed for a particular system will not work effectively on another system. For example, materials that are designed for the apple Macintosh would not work efficiently on the windows PC.

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A Reflection Up Role of the State

Political philosophy entails the study of fundamental questions pertaining the state, government, politics, liberty, justice and enforcement of legal code by authority. These are the accepted code of conduct applied to groups of people and discuss how society should be set and how individuals opt to act within a society. Rights such as right to life, free speech states explicitly the requirements for a person to benefit rather than suffer from living in a society(Gad, 2003).

Questions such as ‘why the need of governments or when to legitimately overthrow it’ are asked by this philosophy. Some major doctrines in political philosophy include capitalism, communism, communitarianism etc. In reference to political philosophy, social contract theories have been put and have helped structure how people and government worked together. Social contract is an agreement between the ruled and the rulers outlining the rights and duties of each. It views persons’ moral and/or political obligations depending upon a contract among them to form the society in which they live.

Individuals within a social structure gain protection from outsiders who may seek to harm the and in return, they must contribute to making the society stable, happy and wealthy. These social contracts challenged both moral and political elements of traditional sources of power in Europe and in such cases rulers were expected to govern fairly and people were supposed to help improve the society.

Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau are the three enlightenment thinkers credited with the establishment of a standard view of this theory but they all had different interpretations with similar underlying ideas.

According to Hobbes (Leviathan, 1651), in a state of nature there were no enforceable criteria of right and wrong, individuals took all they could resulting to poor, nasty and short human life. Hobbes held a dark view of humans likely influenced by chaotic political events witnessed in England during his life. To him, state turned into a state of war and could not end until individuals agreed to give their liberty into hands of sovereign who would safeguard their lives.

Locke differed from Hobbes as he described state of nature as one in which rights of life and property were recognized under natural law. Inconveniences of the situation would arise from insecurity in the enforcement of those rights. He outlines his ideal for a modern society where people had to do things like pay taxes and in return, the government would listen to their desires and provide their needs. To him, obligation to obey civil government under social contract was conditional upon the protection not only of the person but also of private propertyRiley, 1973). He challenged the idea of kings having to rule unquestioned and argued that a sovereign could be justifiably overthrown in violation of these terms.

Rousseau held that in state of nature, man was unwarlike and somehow undeveloped in his reasoning powers and sense of responsibility. He wrote “man is born free and everywhere he is in chains” meaning that many European kings and queens ruled unfairly. People agreeing for mutual protection to surrender individual freedom of action and establish laws and government, they in return acquired sense of moral and civic obligation. The government must rest on the consent of the governed to retain moral character.

Within a social contract, human rights are inevitable (Riley, 1973). They are defined to as the basic rights and freedom to which all humans are considered entitled to. These rights represent entitlements of individual or groups as well as responsibilities of individual and the government authorities. Human rights can be grouped into either positive and negative rights and according to J.P. Moreland, professor of philosophy at Biola University, “a negative right is a right for me to be protected from harm if I try to get something for myself whereas a positive right would be my right to have something provided for me”. Positive rights as proposed in 1979 by Czech Jurist Karel Vasak may include civil and political rights such as right to police protection of person and property in a state. Humans have the right to be provided with security by the state. Right to food, housing, national security, military, public education, healthcare, social security and a minimum standard of living are all positive rights humans are obliged to be given in a state(Riley, 1973).

Right to counsel is also a positive right which means that a defendant has a right to have assistance of counsel such as lawyers and if the defendant cannot afford a lawyer, the government should appoint or pay the defendants’ legal expenses.

Within a social contract, it is hard to be in line with the laws as expected. The unwritten universal principles that underlie all ethical and legal norms by which humans conduct may be violated. Under such laws, humans have interpreted nature differently this makes determining the essential or morally praiseworthy traits of human nature hard(Falaky, 2014). Human behavior in a society may be solely reliant upon the environment that one is exposed to, which includes education, social classes and upbringing, this opposes such contract.

Sample Business Website Project

Select a business that you are interested in. (e.g., pet store, travel site, fishing gear, appliances, automobiles, housewares, furniture, etc.). Imagine that you have just been hired to create a four (4) page hierarchical Website for the business you selected.
Section 1: Narrative
Write a half (½) page paper in which you:

1. Create a narrative that describes the site to your prospective client.

Section 2: Storyboard
Imagine that your narrative has been approved. Use Word, Visio, or Dia to:

2. Create a storyboard diagram depicting the layout of your Website.

Section 3: Business Website
In order to receive full credit for this section, you will need to submit:
  • One (1) screen shot of your emailed data from the guestbook.
  • One (1) CSS style sheet.
  • Four (4) Web pages.

3. Create your Website based on the following requirements:

a. Create a Cascading Style Sheet (.css) for all pages, which:

i. Applies a background color.

ii. Applies style to font.

iii. Changes the ordered list markers to anything other than the default.

iv. Changes the unordered list markers to anything other than the default.

v. Applies style to a copyright footer.

b. Include:

i. A graphic or logo on the home page.

ii. A navigation bar with links to every other page on the home page.

iii. A guestbook registry on the home page using the mailto: tag with an entry field for:

a. A person’s name.

b. An email address.

iv. A piece of JavaScript on the home page.

c. Create a submit button for the guestbook registry that will email the information to your email address. Note: Test the function and take a screen shot of the emailed information you receive. You must submit the screen shot in your zipped file of deliverables as proof.

d. Create three (3) sub pages that include:

i. The same graphic / logo.

ii. A navigation bar with links to every other page.

iii. An ordered list of at least two (2) items, and then at least two (2) unordered list entries under each ordered list item where one (1)  of the items must be a hyperlinked to a Website (the hyperlink should not show the address printed on the page).

Note: Each of the three pages should have unique lists.


A. Food

 Dry food

 Wet food

 Canned food

B. Toys



The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
  • Describe the structure of the World Wide Web as interconnected hypertext documents.
  • Create and validate HTML documents.
  • Create presentations using Cascading Style Sheets and DHTML.
  • Write clearly and concisely about Web design and development using proper writing mechanics and technical style conventions.

Principles of Economics – Why Banks Made Subprime Loan Mortgages And Loan To People Who Could Not Pay Back

Home ownership is a national strategy started in 1994 during the Clinton era. The move backed by congress created a ripple in housing. Usually uncontrolled economic policies tend to develop devastating financial problems without immediate remedies. As it was the case, everyone wanted in both the people and investors to share the national pie, the boom saw banks compromise their policies to give mortgage loans to everyone who wanted a loan. The problem was that even first time buyers with straining accounts without credibility were in the frontline of getting their loans.

The many reasons that made banks bit off much one was the zero down financing where no down payment was required to get a loan. As well, it applied the originate-to-distribute approach where the loan was transferable to a third party. This compromised the usual procedure and evaluation banks undertake in risks. Underwriting was done in imprudent methods where incentives were given to close as many loans as possible with limited documentation.

The mortgage mess came about also with aggressive financing; this was due to the fact of home prices going up. Loan programs went further to lower monthly mortgage payments to have as many buyers as possible. The appeal of consistent rising of house prices blinded and silenced speculators and other critics until the bubble busted due to ownership pressure letting hell loose.  In 2006 it hit the ceiling and prices plummeted, the meltdown effects are yet to be contained.

On the other hand, in the principles of macro economics, control and regulation of money supply is critical to sound economy, as is the work of the Federal Reserve. When money supply grows rapidly it triggers inflation when the supply is too slow economic growth is stunted, growth is mainly caused by GDP and prices, policies influence economic activity that is investment and expenditure. In achieving a control the reserve allows for a steady inflation of 2 to 3% (Barro, & Gordon, 1983).

Images of America – European Writers Constructed to Promote Colonization and Settlement

The Europeans were seeing America through the lens of lack of particular goods in Europe. This aspect of resource scarcity in Europe is what gave the different elements of the North American nature on their relative value when it was described in the Columbus letter of 1493 describing the trade with the Indians as “whether it is a thing of little worth or a thing of value, they are contented with which they get from it.” This was a remark not only on several notions of exchange between Europeans and Native Americans (this meant just to give someone something) but also varied perspective of value (Loewen 176). That is, what was considered valuable in America was defined as scarce in Europe (slavelabor, gold, warm climate for growing rare spices and sugar, land, timber). In contrary what was in abundance in Europe was perceived as of no value in America, for example, the glass beads.

Likewise, just as it was of great value to Europeans during the strive and scramble to colonizing America, natural resources like minerals (gold, timber) and even land, and friendly environmental conditions is how these resources have remained of great value to the society today. Therefore, to the Europeans, North America became a land of abundance and a society of easy living that nature was providing to the Indians (Rowlandson 72).

From another image of economic lens, the European looked at America through a folk heritage that was equating wilderness with slavery and the social disorder. This depicted Indians as living in the state of nature which meant they were associated with devil since the North Americas were eating lizards and snakes, which the Europeans had a belief over that a person would acquire the characteristics of the food they ate, and the different monsters from the European mythology included cannibals. They viewed Native Americans as people without government or religion, considered their ceremonies as devil worship, and they further perceived them as not conforming to biblical ideas on shame over nudity, among other aspects.

Lastly, the Europeans viewed America from the perspective of a Biblical heritage which saw the Garden of Eden’s redemption and loss through the European labor in the New World besides seeing a possibility for the redemption of the Native America through Christian conversion (Mann 387). Therefore imposing biblical injunction to “increase, conquer the earth, and have dominion over all the living things” (Genesis 1:23). This was a perception that reinforced ideas of power of the European’s over nature and their God-given right to the natural resources of the New World.

Extended Marketing Mix – Audi

  1. Background  

Marketing mixes are collections of marketing tasks or activities aimed at meeting target markets’ needs effectively. Traditionally, a typical marketing mix comprised of four elements: promotion, place, price as well as product. The extended marketing mix (EMM) comprises of the four elements plus three others: processes, physical evidence as well as people. The EMM is especially pertinent to service providers (Kotler & Keller 2006; McCarthy 1964). Even then, it is as well pertinent to all businesses that prioritise customer satisfaction. When the seven elements are mixed appropriately, businesses meet their specific marketing goals easily, speedily, and cost-effectively. They meet their customers’ demands, or requirements, sufficiently (Bowman & Gatignon 2010).

The last three EMM elements have been introduced to the traditional marketing mix since the contemporary marketing efforts are becoming increasingly client-centred. As well, they have been introduced since service industries have grown to dominate many economies. In this paper, the EMM for Audi is explored (Oh & Pizam 2008). Audi is a luxury-car producer based in Bavaria, German. Its head office is in Bavaria. It has several production plants globally. It is highly recognised as an excellent producer of luxury automobiles. Its cars have aesthetically attractive designs. The cars are seen as pleasing drives that are markedly mechanically dependable according to Estelami (2010).

  1. Audi’s Extended Marketing Mix

    • Product

Audi produces high quality, luxury automobiles that satisfy the requirements, or demands of diverse sets of consumers. In the 90s, the company had several challenges with its cars’ microprocessors (Oh & Pizam 2008). The challenges were occasioning electronic malfunctions that jeopardized the company’s standing particularly within America. Over the years, the company has invested marked effort and resources in addressing the challenges. Its latest cars have quite limited electronics problems since, over time, the company has developed new, as well as enhanced, technologies according to Estelami (2010).

Over time, Audi has expanded its product range. The range includes A1 cars on one extreme and four-wheel car like Q7 along with Q5 on the other extreme. The most popular products of the company include Audi A4 along with Audi TT. The company has made commendable progress in positioning itself as a leading producer and seller of luxury cars. The positioning is associated with its growing profits and sales. In mid-2007, Audi opened a manufacturing plant in India (Bowman & Gatignon 2010). From then, it has established commendable presence within the country. Consequently, many Audi vehicles are accessible in India. Those owning Audi cars frequent Audi garages to get car maintenance, as well as repair, services.

  • Price

Audi sets its product prices in ways that mirror and are sensitive to its markets’ conditions and organizational objectives. Especially, the company sets its product prices in a way that projects it as offering value for its clients’ money. It sells its products at prices that appear to offer buyers value for their money, based on the segments they occupy (Oh & Pizam 2008). The prices of any one Audi product are different in different market segments. For instance, an Audi A1 costs less in India than in England, which projects the company as having a skimming or premium pricing regime.

Indeed, the different but considerably high prices for the Audi A1 are justifiable in the different markets when one examines car’s brand image along with quality according to Estelami (2010). The high-level pricing is as well essential for the Audi brand’s appropriate positioning. Individuals are fond of Audi’s reputation. That is shown by its production, which grows in each succeeding year.

Showrooms along with dealerships provide repayment schemes, hence allowing diverse clients access to the Audi products and brand as a whole (Bowman & Gatignon 2010). Certainly, the extant range of Audi cars is highly regarded. Even then, there are indications that the range will continue growing steadily in the days ahead. Audi has been registering enhanced performance each succeeding year as it continues rationalizing its product prices as well as providing creative financing options. Its clients can access Audi finance products from Audi Finance. Such products are aimed at making the purchase of Audi cars attractive.

  • Place or Distribution

Audi distributes its cars across the globe in a way that its customers find convenient. One can easily access and purchase the cars from strategically located outlets like showrooms along with dealerships in locations deemed prime. In India, the company has close to 30 dealerships, all of which report growing sales. Even though the company has its roots and head office in Bavaria, German, it has a global presence (Bowman & Gatignon 2010). It has invested heavily in countries like India to realize particular lasting aims. In recent years, its growth in Asian economies has been remarkable. It has not only grown its global presence via showrooms along with dealerships in locations deemed prime but also commendable aftercare services especially with Europe.

  • Promotion

Audi has integrated its promotional engagements in ways geared towards attaining its marketing goals. The engagements support product marketing via suitable promotional, as well as advertising, activities. Audi takes part in numerous sponsorship and sports ventures annually. The ventures include facilitating various soccer clubs. It has a lasting Sony’s Play-Station Home feature. Although it is keen on remaining within the public space, it is careful not to overdo it. It runs advertisements on TV, magazines and billboards. It leverages in technological capabilities in promotional activities according to Estelami (2010).

Audi depends on its cars’ quality and standing to grow its sales and productivity. The activities emphasise its growing sales and productivity. In India, celebrities are contracted by the company to launch its cars. For instance, Salman Khan, a celebrated Bollywood figure, launched Audi RS 7. Over the years, the company has established a well-defined niche market. Owing to the market, the company does not engage in mass advertising or marketing. Rather, it runs advertisements only in a highly premium segment (Bowman & Gatignon 2010). That helps draw the market towards its renowned brand.

  • Physical Evidence, Physical Layout, or Packaging

Physical evidence means how a business’ services, products and all other aspects come out to an external observer or party. Customers usually make decisions on whether or not to purchase given products based on how they perceive their bar codes, labels, materials, color, form or dimensions (Kotler & Keller 2006; McCarthy 1964). Such attributes are client-tested and then updated accordingly. Audi makes many presentations to customers desirous of purchasing given Audi cars. The presentations entail explanations and demonstrations of the cars’ interiors, exteriors, capabilities, designs, and operating instructions (Oh & Pizam 2008).

The company organizes the requisite insurance covers for its clients where possible to ensure that they are protected from the liability that may stem from accidents involving the cars. The cars are taken through thorough engineering appraisals to ensure that they meet industry and brand quality standards according to Estelami (2010). Audi ensures that its products adhere to every applicable regulatory provision.

Notably, Audi cars are quite appealing externally. Possibly, that has been informed by the actuality that visual appearance or packaging of physical products breaks or makes their purchases. Considerable packaging enhancements may lead to entirely different client reactions. Even where a business is selling virtual services, they should provide their customers with physical support associable with the services as physical evidence.

Notably, the evidence may as well refer to a business’ staff and their appearance (Bowman & Gatignon 2010). Those manning Audi dealerships, as well as showrooms, are required to dress smartly, set up their workstations warmly, and express commendable professionalism when serving clients. They hand to clients appealing brochures as they interact with them according to Estelami (2010).

Presently, the layouts of the dealerships, as well as showrooms, are deemed critical to clients by the company. That is because the clients are served from them. The clients come into contact with the Audi cars they wish to desire within the dealerships or showrooms. Over the years, the clients have come to expect high presentation levels within the dealerships as well as showrooms according to Estelami (2010). They need to have an easy time moving through the premises holding Audi cars and be attended to by warm, welcoming staff. Audi pays marked attention to the creation of attractive presentation spaces and related facilities. The spaces come off as stimulating, pleasant, and attractive environments (Bowman & Gatignon 2010).

  • People

Ideally, businesses have people as one of their critical elements. At Audi, people are considered quite important (Kotler & Keller 2006; McCarthy 1964). They support the company’s product production and sales. The company has highly trained personnel who offer customer-care support. They offer the support based on unmistakably defined expectations like operation hours and the allowed, mean response times (Oh & Pizam 2008). The personnel help the company ensure the contentment of its extant, as well as prospective, customers when they visit its showrooms or dealerships. Audi has clear policies on how it hires, trains, and retains staff and builds effectual teams. Its well-informed staff members add marked value to its principal product offerings according to Estelami (2010).

Notably, customer service is a core element of contemporary businesses, including Audi (Kotler & Keller 2006; McCarthy 1964). Audi customers are quite loyal to it owing to the actuality that they feel that its staff treats them professionally (Oh & Pizam 2008). Audi’s staff members have been well-trained on how to communicate to clients and interact with them. They are well-versed with the commendable customer care and relations practices (Bowman & Gatignon 2010; Oh & Pizam 2008).

  • Processes

Ideally, businesses should have solid policies, as well as procedures, in place, especially with respect to marketing their products (Kotler & Keller 2006; McCarthy 1964). The procedures, or processes, are markedly critical in the businesses’ marketing approaches. Audi has solid policies, as well as procedures, in place, to guide how it markets its cars according to Estelami (2010).

Its customers are keen on appreciating the cars. As well, the customers are keen on the form and shape that the brand will take in the days ahead. The company has well-defined ways of handling the concerns and complaints expressed by its customers. It has well-defined processes for making out client needs as well as preferences. Overall, it has clearly defined processes to guide all its foreseeable engagements, especially the ones that are marketing-related (Bowman & Gatignon 2010).

  1. Summary

Marketing mixes are collections of marketing tasks or activities aimed at meeting target markets’ needs effectively. The EMM is especially pertinent to service providers.

When the seven EMM elements are mixed appropriately, businesses meet their specific marketing goals easily, speedily, and cost-effectively. Audi is a luxury-car producer based in Bavaria, German. Audi produces high quality, luxury automobiles that satisfy the requirements, or demands of diverse sets of consumers (Product). Audi sets its product prices in ways that mirror and are sensitive to its markets’ conditions and organizational objectives (Price).

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Research Based Instructional Strategies and Approaches

According to Marzano (2000), cooperative learning is one of the best researched instructional strategies in modern literature. Dotson (2001), defines cooperative learning as a teaching arrangement in which small and diverse groups of learners work together to achieve a common objective or goal. In these small and heterogeneous groups, students perform different responsibilities, support one another, and encourage each other. Additionally, the instructor encourages students to employs social skills that are beneficial to the groups as he continues to evaluate the progress of every member of the group (Johnson, Johnson and Stanne, 2000).

Cooperative learning was first applied in the United States as a way of promoting racial integration. In modern academic institutions, the main purpose of cooperative learning is to foster positive student interactions especially in classroom where students have got different levels of competencies (Marzano, 2000). This means that cooperative learning cannot be employed when handling all types of students. The instructor must therefore know when it is appropriate for him or her to use cooperative learning in a classroom. For example, cooperative learning is appropriate when there is a positive correlation in the individual gains of students. The main reason for using cooperative learning in such a case is to promote positive interdependence among students. In addition, cooperative learning is also appropriate when all students in a classroom can be held accountable for performing a given task and for mastering a new skill learnt. This assists the teacher or instructor to promote individual accountability among students (Dotson, 2001).

Cooperative learning is also appropriate when every member of a group has an equal opportunity to share into the responsibilities of the team. In such a case, cooperative learning will assist the instructor to ensure equal participation in a group. According to Dotson (2001), cooperative learning also occurs when a classroom session is designed to allow maximum student interaction. This way, the teacher manages to promote simultaneous interraction by implementing cooperative learning strategies in the classroom.

Majority of researchers have found that cooperative learning strategies are very beneficial in improving students’ achievement and their interpersonal relationships. According to Slavin (1991), cooperative learning strategies produce positive results in all major subjects in both urban and rural schools at all grade levels. Johnson, Johnson and Stanne (2000) point out that cooperative learning is widely used in schools today because it based on theory and therefore almost all teachers can find a way of linking the best cooperative learning method with students’ personal philosophies. This explains why these are different methods of cooperative learning that teachers can choose from depending on the needs of students. These methods include; Cooperative Integrated Reading & Composition (CIRC), Group Investigation, Learning Together and Alone, , Jigsaw Procedure, Team Accelerated Instruction (TAI), Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT), Student teams Achievement Divisions (STAD), and Constructive Controversy.

In order to achieve maximum success from cooperative learning, the instructor must ensure that there is a well defined group goal and each and every member of the team can be accountable for every activity performed. In addition, the teacher needs to motivate students to participate in group activities, as this increases the likelihood that all members of a group will learn. Examples of ways through which the teacher can motivate students in teams include provision of grades and rewarding good performers. However, some people claim that using rewards when applying cooperative learning strategies allows less performing students to place much burden on their good performing counterparts (Dotson, 2001).

As explains, cooperative learning is useful in promoting social interactions in groups because it helps the instructor to meet the needs of students who are unable to learn new skills on their own. This is because, in the course of cooperative learning sessions, students learn how to interact with their peers which helps to increase their involvement in the classroom (Dotson, 2001). Positive interaction can only occur if it is preceded by social skills instructions that are easily achieved through cooperative learning strategies. The social skills that a student can learn from cooperative learning strategies include effective communication skills, how to build and maintain trust, conflict management, and how to provide team leadership. According to Marzano (2000), cooperative learning is a very useful instructional strategy in both low and high grades of learning. Specifically, teachers who are handling students in middle school level should extensively use cooperative learning strategies because they will effectively meet the needs of such students (Johnson, Johnson and Stanne, 2000).

There are three major implementation issues that surround the use of cooperative learning strategies. These issues are related to the manner in which cooperative learning groups are organize, the sizes of the groups, and the frequency with which cooperative learning strategies should be used. First, cooperative learning groups should be organized on the basis of the ability levels of students. Second, cooperative learning groups should be kept small and easy to manage. Third, cooperative learning strategies should be applied consistently and systematically but the instructor must take care not to overuse these strategies (Marzano, 2000). In order to effectively implement cooperative learning strategies, the instructor must take a number of issues into consideration. First, teacher must use a variety of principles to group students in order to ensure that students with various learning capabilities are randomly distributed within the group. It is advisable that these groups should consist of students with common interests such as sports and music. In addition, the students should have common experiences and common characteristics such as birthdays and school uniforms (Dotson, 2001).

Second, the teacher must combine both formal and informal base groups on order to provide all students with the opportunity to interact effectively with their classmates. In this manner, students will be able to appreciate different talents possessed by every member of the group. A teacher who is good at strengthening groups actively assists the group to work together, joins activities of the group voluntarily, and respects the opinions of each and every student. Third, the instructor must keep student groups to a manageable size, possibly of 3 to 5 students. The teacher needs to monitor the size of the groups and make changes when necessary (Dotson, 2001). Cooperative learning strategies should be combined with other classroom strategies such as similarities and differences, setting objectives and providing feedback, homework and practice, among others. This will give students time to think and work quietly as they practice and master what they have been taught. Consequently, instructors should monitor the impacts of cooperative learning strategies on their students’ learning to ensure that they are neither overused nor underused.