Month: May 2017

IT Governance Structure and Decision-Making Processes – Case Assignment

Case Assignment Instructions

Write a 4-5 page essay describing the IT governance structure and decision-making processes in your organization. Include a discussion on the strengths and weaknesses of your organization’s circumstances and present and justify one specific improvement you would make to either the structure or a process; be sure to apply the concepts and use the terminology provided in the readings.

Assignment Expectations

Your assignments will be graded following these expectations:
  • Precision: the questions asked are answered.
  • Clarity: Your answers are clear and show your good understanding of the topic.
  • Breadth and depth: The scope covered in your paper is directly related to the questions of the assignment and the learning objectives of the module.
  • Critical thinking: It is important to read the “required readings” posted in the background material plus others you find relevant. Your paper should include important concepts from these readings and incorporate YOUR reactions and examples that illustrate your reflective judgment and good understanding of the concepts.
  • Your paper is well written and the references are properly cited and listed (refer to TUI guidelines http://support.trident.edu/files/Well-Written-Paper.pdf)
  • Your paper meets the page requirements not counting the cover page or the references pages.

 

Sample Answer – IT Governance Structure and Decision Making Processes

Good decision-making is an essential skill for general career success and more so for effective leadership. If a leader can make timely and well-considered decisions, then he or she can often lead his or her team to remarkable and earned success. However, if a leader makes poor decisions it can result in issues that can make the organization to tumble. Regardless of the size of organization you are in, whether a large corporation, a small company, or a home based business, effective communication skills are essential for success of the organization, especially when a decision has to be made(Feurer, Chaharbaghi, Weber & Wargin, 2000). Decision-making in management is an important skill and making the right decisions is essential. The role of management is to take these decisions, communicate with all the departments in the organization that are involved, and make the right decision. In line with this, managers should constantly strive towards improving theirdecision-making and communication skills (Feurer, Chaharbaghi, Weber & Wargin, 2000).

The people charged with governance, this may includemembers of the organization at different ranks, must work together to ensure that the decision making process runs smoothly. To do this, they all need to communicate and bring out their point of views before making a decision.In my organization, IT governance is entrusted to a number of individuals who are responsible for making, implementing and evaluating IT related decisions. This paper will discuss the IT governance setting as well as the decision making process. It will also make recommendations on how these processes can be improved.

IT governance

My organization has a team of IT executives and IT committees who make strategic decisions and monitor their implementation through IT balancedscorecard. IT governance in my organization is founded on IT participation, tactical negotiations, and effective communication. The organization divides the complex challenge of IT governance into smaller pieces, which are solved separately.The main objective of the IT governance project is to help the organization manage its IT effectively so as to derive maximum economic benefits. The team charged with IT governance is expected to create awareness of the business needs as well as establish clear agreements andengagements(Feurer, Chaharbaghi, Weber & Wargin, 2000). IT defines what it intends to deliver, the time frame, and the cost of delivering.To achieve their core objective, IT has established structures, processes and relational mechanisms. A projectmanager installs the fundamental structuresand processes while acommittee made of different business units’ general directors and the Chief Information Officer introduces improvement projects on regular basis.

The Chief Information Officer (CIO), who reports to the Executive Committee and manages a number of IT divisions, heads the IT department. The CIO and the general director’s committee are both in the same line of reporting to the Executive Committee.The department has a number of divisions, division of strategic processes, process management, and the distribution channel divisions. The Strategic Processes division is liable for management reporting, training, communication, andinformation management. The division of Process Management manages IT projects. The process management division also offers advice on design, architecture, and testing. The distribution division accountable for markets and distribution channels.

The Board of Directors, which is made up of 8 members, 2 managing directors 4 principle shareholders and 2 independent directors is entrusted with the organization’s IT governance. The board of directors meetstwice a month to address the company’s IT issues and make decisions on ITbudgets as well asresolutions on investment projects. The CIO attendsExecutiveCommittee meetings regularly. This ensures that a close link between business and IT iscultivated. The IT strategy committee finds ways in which the Board could become more involved in IT governance as well as ways to incorporate the Board of Director’s role in IT, businessstrategy, and the degreeof the committee’scontinuing role in IT governance. The committee also establishes and reviews the organization’s IT strategies.

The process of making decisions relating to IT governance in our organization is organized in a number of stages. The first step in the process is to identifying and diagnosing the problem (Bateman & Snell, 2011). When deciding to implement a new IT strategy, many questions arise. The strategy’s profitability, cost, time, how it will affect the organization and who will implement the strategy.

Next, the committee needs to generate alternative solutions to the problem (Bateman & Snell, 2011). So committee members look into different ways to achieve their goal, how each of them fits into the organization’s setting, the cost involved in implementing them, and how the program works.

Then after gathering all the information one would need to evaluate the alternatives (Bateman & Snell, 2011). Once all the alternatives were researched thoroughly, the committee goes through all the information to see which option would meet all their needs, along comparing cost of the options.

Then making the choice, (Bateman & Snell, 2011). The committee has to be comfortable with all the information they have gathered and asked all their questions that needed answered. Once all this is done the committee members can make a choice which option they prefer.

Then onto implementing the decision since it has been made (Bateman & Snell, 2011). Once the committee members have decided on the option to implement and the decision approved by the Board of Directors, those responsible for implementation start executing the strategy.

Recommendations:

Dividing the complex IT governance problem into smallerpieces and solving each problem, the way my organization approaches the issue,does not always ensure that the problem is fully solved. A method that ensures that IT governance problems are solved more comprehensively has to acknowledge theircompound and dynamic nature. The organization should implement an approachthat consists of a mix of structures, processes and relational mechanisms that address the issues without dividing them into smaller pieces.

The decision-making process steps are a model to use when making any decision, big or small. Following the six steps involved helps ensure that the organization comes up with the best decision to have a good result.

Ordinary Germans And The Nazi genocide – Sample Paper

 

Were Ordinary Germans Aware of the Holocaust?

The question of the German public’s awareness of Nazi genocide is at the core of any conceptualization of World War Two and the Holocaust. Increasingly, Functionalist understandings of the era show that Hitler and his party never had a precise, specific plan for Nazi policies and instead developed many of them spontaneously. [1] Conversely, intentionalist theories maintain that Nazi party objectives were well established from the beginning and deviated little from their original intent.[2] However, before these arguments over the nature of the Holocaust’s development can be considered, it is first crucial to establish what exactly the German public themselves knew about the Holocaust. This essay will contend that despite retrospective claims to the contrary, knowledge of the Holocaust within Germany was, in fact, endemic. Beginning with an effort to define some of the more imprecise terms in the question this piece will then go on to establish four key reasons why the vast majority of ordinary people within Nazi Germany would have been aware of the systematic extermination of the Jews.  These will be: what Nazi leaders were saying about the Jews; the effect of international press and Allied propaganda campaigns; what could be seen or heard personally by German citizens and finally the veracity of retrospective accounts of the era.  Utilizing a number of primary sources from the period and secondary source analysis this essay will show how the majority of German people during World War Two were cognisant of the mass slaughter of European Jews.

In order to accurately gauge German knowledge and awareness of the Holocaust it is necessary to define a number of otherwise unclear terms. First, the Holocaust itself. For some scholars the Holocaust encompasses all peoples systematically exterminated by the Nazis during World War Two – including Jews, Communists, Roma, homosexuals and the disabled[3]. While this definition can be useful for pieces with a broader scope this essay will focus primarily on the attempted extirpation of European Jewry by the Nazis during the Second World War – otherwise known as the Shoah. Second, “Ordinary” Germans. The notion of an “Ordinary” German, particularly during this time, is a necessarily fraught one with many different possible definitions. In this piece, ordinary Germans will be viewed as those not actively involved in the Werhmacht army or any of Germany’s other numerous paramilitary organizations (e.g. the Schutzstaffel (SS) and Gestapo), and will also exclude those partisan enemies of the state actively resisting Nazi oppression. Finally, “awareness”. This is perhaps the most complicated of these three terms to quantify and in an effort to do so I will propose a model called the continuum of culpability. This continuum will consider the German public in three groups: those who heard and saw nothing; those who heard or saw something but did not believe it was part of a widespread plan to destroy the Jews, and finally those who heard and saw something believing it constituted a genuine attempt to eliminate the Jewish race. Awareness, I propose, sits somewhere between the second and third groups. By utilizing this scale of knowledge, understanding and complicity it will be easier to assess what was known by ordinary Germans at the time and not just ignored or lost amongst the clatter of the rumor-mill. This scale will be particularly useful in considering much of the rhetoric used by senior members of the Nazi party – including Hitler himself – who regularly alluded to, and even explicitly mentioned, the desired destruction of Europe’s Jewish populace.

While it has been well established that much of the Nazi party’s rhetoric was deliberately verbose and inflammatory, its importance in disseminating knowledge about the Shoah should not be underestimated. While some historians have claimed that Hitler “toned down [his] rhetoric after consolidating power”, examples before and after 1933 do not seem to support this.[4] In 1919, Hitler unequivocally stated that “the ultimate goal” of Nazism must be “the elimination of the Jews altogether”.[5] Then, twenty years later, at the start of the war in 1939 Hitler reiterated his desire to see “the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe”.[6] Finally in January 1942, just ten days after the ostensibly secret Wannsee Conference “confirmed the regime’s determination to murder all Jews within reach” Hitler publicly announced as much in a broadcast rally before thousands of spectators at the Sportspalast in Berlin, stating:[7]

“this war can only end with the disappearance of the Jews from Europe…[and] their complete annihilation”.[8]

This kind of language was evident throughout Germany and certainly not just exclusive to Hitler. Joseph Goebbels, Nazi Propaganda Minister and one of Hitler’s closest associates, was quoted in an editorial from his weekly newspaper The German Empire (Das Reich) in November 1941 as saying “Hitler’s prophecy concerning the extermination of the Jewish race in Europe was now coming true”.[9] Similarly, a report of Hitler’s speech made on February 24, 1942 was published in The Lower Saxony Newspaper (Niedersaechsische Tageszeitun) containing a paragraph with the heading “the Jew is being Exterminated”.[10] Prior to the formulation of the Final Solution Alfred Rosenberg, a key architect of Nazi ideology, extolled the benefits of a mass forced-migration of Jews to Madagascar where; “in the wild island with its deadly climate the obnoxious Jewish race will find itself with one exit – death”.[11] From these statements it is clear that the upper echelons of the Nazi party, openly and unapologetically proclaimed the active extermination of the entire European Jewish populace.

Certainly, it cannot be argued that for public relations purposes the Nazis made any effort whatsoever to conceal their desires for the Jewish race, in fact, Nazi language was so extreme that it has been suggested many dismissed it “as mere rhetorical flourish”.[12] Regrettably for Germany’s public this seems unlikely. Some may have honestly refused to believe the sheer bombast of their own leader but “to listen to Hitler’s broadcasts was a public duty; work stopped, all were assembled and the press gave them extensive coverage” so it is hard to imagine that anyone did not at least hear what was being said.[13] Furthermore, it was not just the Fuhrer who made such extreme statements but rather the entire leadership of the Nazi party. This language saturated Berlin and abroad, Hitler essentially telling “Germans of the regime’s determination to kill the Jews of Europe and repeat[ing] it with utter clarity on several ceremonious and solemn public occasions”.[14] Along the continuum of complicity this indicates that very few Germans would have fallen within the first category of hearing nothing. Instead, the extensive coverage of Nazi propaganda meant that the vast majority of Germans would have heard (if not believed) their own leaders condemning the Jewish population to death. Despite contemporary protestations from Germans claiming that they did not know, it is undeniable that the most senior members of the Nazi party were describing the Holocaust in detail to the entire German populace, even if they were not listening.

Adding to this climate of anti-Jewish hysteria were extensive Allied propaganda efforts designed to inform the German populace of the slaughter of European Jews. Perhaps the most salient of these attempts were BBC international service broadcasts. These broadcasts stretched across much of the Third Reich, reaching millions of Germans after the battle of Stalingrad when reliable casualty numbers became increasingly difficult to ascertain.[15] Broadcasts such as these were an important source of information about the extermination of Jews in general, with the BBC going to “considerable pains to ensure that the [information] was accurate and believable”.[16] These “deeply disturbing, unambiguous and factually based” reports detailed the mass murder of millions of Europeans Jews, one excerpt from the service relaying:[17]

“Extermination and death is the new message of the season. Darkness lies over the concentration camp at Auschwitz where thousands upon thousands have had to bear the tortures of the SS.”[18]

While on December 27 1942 in the “War Against the Jews”, the BBC service made its most powerful and unequivocal appraisal of the Nazi party:

“Hitler’s regime is murdering hundreds of thousands of completely innocent men women and children in cold blood only because they are Jews.”[19]

For those Germans who listened many did not believe what they heard, too conscious of the “power of propaganda” and suspecting the BBC of only trying to demoralize them.[20] Others trusted the words from across the Channel, diaries recounting how some would listen to the English enemy broadcasts “with the volume soft” to avoid detection.[21] As with Nazi political rhetoric of the time, many chose to shut their ears to the evils being reported and claim a kind of plausible deniability, after all, the British were a long-standing enemy and this could easily be seen as scurrilous propaganda. But information about the extermination of Jews was too widespread and readily available (from both sides) for anyone to really claim that they had not at least heard about what was happening. Using the model proposed at the start of this essay, it is clear that on the continuum of complicity Nazi and Allied propaganda was informing the German population of what was going on and almost everyone besides the most closeted would have heard something. Although this information may have been dismissed as merely rhetorical flourishes or baseless propaganda, it would have been more difficult for Germans to deny the heinous crimes that were perpetrated by the Nazi party in front of their very eyes.

Perhaps the most significant indicator of German awareness of the Shoah was the evidence that was personally available to individuals at the time. During this period Nazi Germany was a nation entirely geared towards war, across every facet of society the Nazi party and the effects of global conflict left their indelible mark. From the beginning of the war the SS organized specific killing units (Einsatzgruppen) and began hanging Jews and anti-Nazis “in public squares for all to see” across “hundred of towns and villages”.[22] These “murders in the killing centers of Germany were of public knowledge” and when Nazi efforts to eradicate the Jews turned mechanistic in 1942 jokes about “ending up in the baking ovens” abounded.[23] Looking specifically at the archetypal death camp, Auschwitz, it is clear that ordinary people across Germany would have been privy to the internal mechanisms of systematic Jewish annihilation.

Auschwitz, like many other death camps, was not some “rural backwater” but rather a major railway junction, which serviced hundreds of thousands of Germans a year.[24] It was an affront to the senses on every level, belching five-meter high flames into the air from the crematoria while the stench of burning bodies was detectable for miles beyond the camp.[25] Auschwitz also “had fifty satellite work camps spread out all throughout Silesia” and was in close proximity to the German border and large populations centers.[26] Obviously anyone living anywhere near the camp would have had enough visual and olfactory information to be aware of the Nazi’s odious activities.

The Nazis blasé attitude towards public knowledge of the Holocaust is supported by diary records kept at the time, while Nazi gas vans were driving through different cities “day after day”, scrupulous Germans such as Victor Klemperer and Adam Grolsch were keeping meticulous records of everything they saw.[27] Grolsch personally witnessed a massacre in Pinsk where thousands were murdered reporting:

“I saw with my own eyes in two days 25,000 men women and children [murdered] in the most beastly ways”. [28]

Although this did not occur within Germany proper it is clear little effort was made to keep it hidden from Germany citizens. Grolsch goes on to reveal that he had seen mobile gas chambers “used for smaller operations” throughout the Reich, his attention first drawn to their existence by the BBC.[29] Similarly, Victor Klemperer kept “exact and minute details about” the persecution and murder of the Jews, including chillingly accurate deductions about the nature of Auschwitz as a death camp from which “nobody comes back [alive], literally no one”.[30] In terms of awareness, there can be no equivocating from what is personally seen. Although people may have dismissed, Nazi words as just rhetoric and the smell of rotting corpses or crematoria as the cost of war, few witnessing the mass execution of innocent Jews could so easily dismiss what was in front of their eyes. An operation the size of the Holocaust could not have been conducted clandestinely and in the process of such mass genocide thousands of civilians would have been exposed to the Nazis’ horrifying methods. This is supported not only by circumstantial evidence regarding the layout and processes of camps such as Auschwitz but also by the reports kept by Germans at the time, who personally witnessed such brutality. In the continuum of complicity, this indicates that Germans were not just hearing about the holocaust from their leaders and through allied propaganda, but also witnessing it.

Less reliable than sources from the period are retrospective accounts regarding German knowledge of the Holocaust. While imperfect, these interviews with ordinary Germans give a crucial insight into how civilians conceptualized their role in the Shoah. Broad studies undertaken since the end of the Second World War have shown that many Germans maintain that they did not know about the annihilation of the Jews. This was shown in a retrospective study of 3,000 Germans conducted in the 1990s by Eric A. Johnson and Karl-Heinz Reuband in What We Knew. This survey found that just over a third of those asked at the end of the war claimed to have “known, heard or suspected the Jews were annihilated en masse”.[31] However, “all historic, social-psychological evidence indicates that this is not true”.[32] Individual interviews with Germans who lived through the war as civilians show that some are now willing to confront how much they truly knew during this period. This is corroborated throughout What We Knew which exhaustively details interviews with German civilians who admit the full scope of their knowledge. Many recognized that the talk of pushing Jews Eastward for resettlement was a euphemism designed to cover their total destruction. One respondent explaining:

“extermination camps, that’s what I imagined concentration camps to be”.[33]

Others denounce their fellow German’s claims of absolute ignorance, excoriating, “if someone says today that he had never known, that it is absolutely untrue”.[34] These firsthand accounts confirm that evidence was everywhere to corroborate stories of mass extermination but most were just unwilling to listen. In terms of awareness this shows that once again, people knew about the fate of the Jews even if they were unwilling to admit it while it took place.

The arguments given in this piece to support the contention that Germans knew of the widespread murder of European Jews leave little room for alternative explanations. From every German speaker in the home and workplace came Nazi speeches consistently and explicitly stating the desired goal of Jewish extermination. Meanwhile, Allied broadcasts corroborated such claims with specific references to German mass-murder and mechanized death-camps. Yet this is not even the most damning evidence available. Across Germany, the country witnessed the extirpation of Jews by the most repulsive methods imaginable; gassing, starvation, hanging, shooting, beating and even live burial.[35] These atrocities occurred in German towns, cities, farms and provinces, not in the ephemeral East but in full view of the German citizenry. This is supported by primary sources from the period in diaries kept by those brave enough to describe the true horror of what was going on. Increasingly, this has been recognized by the rest of the world and Germans themselves, who now admit the true breadth of knowledge during the Shoah. It was not within the scope of this essay to investigate what caused the Holocaust nor how it could have been stopped, instead, this investigation was designed to show how knowledge and information may not necessarily be enough to stop governments and people from committing acts of evil. What is clear is that the worst genocide of the 20th century was not committed in the dark without consciousness or consent but under bright lights in front of a captivated German audience.

Bibliography:

Primary Sources:

BBC, German Language Broadcasts (30) (British Broadcasting Corporation, Written Archives Centre Reading, England, European news directives files VIII November-Dec 1942.

Goebbels, Joseph,  Das Reich from the, Daily Telegraph, 30 June, 1942.

Grolsch, Adam (interview) Krefeld, 2003.

Hitler, Adolf speaking to a crowd at the Sports Palace in Berlin, January 30, 1942, monitored by the Foreign Broadcast Monitoring Service, Federal Communications Commission.

Hitler, Adolf, memo of Sept. 16, 1919, Ernst Deuerlein (ed.), “Hitler’s Eintritt in die Politik und Die Reichsweh,” in Vierteljahrssheft fur Zeitgeschichte Vol. 7 1959.

Hitler, Adolf, The Jewish Question, January 30, 1939, speech given at the Reichstag.

Klemperer, Victor, I Will Bear Witness: A Diary of the Nazi Years 1933-42, (Ich will Zeugnis ablegen bis zum letzten: Tagebucher), Berlin, 1995.

Kuhnel, Hiltred (interview), June 7, 2001.

Lutz, Hubert (interview), May 29, 2001, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

The Lower Saxony Newspaper, Der Jude wird ausgrottet, Obenaus “Haben sie wirklich nichts gewusst?”  Obenaus “Schreiben wie es wirklich war!.

Secondary Sources:

Davies, Norman, The Forgotten Holocaust: the Poles Under German Occupation, 1939–1944, New York Hippocrene. 2001.

Johnson, Eric, Karl-Heinz Reuband, What We Knew, Cambridge, Basic Books, 2005

Johnson, Eric, Nazi Terror, New York, Basic Books, 1999.

Kochavi Arieh, “Britain and the War Criminals Question at the Conclusion of the Second World War: The Military DimensionThe British Journal of Holocaust Education Vol 3, London, Frank Cass and Company, 1993.

Spector, Shmuel (ed). Encyclopedia of Jewish Life: Before and During the Holocaust, New York, New York University Press, 2001.

Stackelberg, Roderick, Hitler’s Germany, New York, Routledge, 2002.

Turner, Henry, “Victor Klemperer’s Holocaust”, German Studies Review, Vol. 22, No. 3, Oct., 1999.

Weiss, John, Ideology of Death, Chicago, Ivan R. Dee, 1996.

Welzer, Harald, How Fully Normal People Became Mass-Murderers. Frankfurt, Tater, 2005.

 

[1] Roderick Stackelberg, Hitler’s Germany, New York, Routledge, 2002, p. 216.

[2] Ibid.

[3] Norman Davies, The Forgotten Holocaust: the Poles Under German Occupation, 1939–1944, New York Hippocrene. 2001, p. 23.

[4] John Weiss, Ideology of Death, Chicago, Ivan R. Dee, 1996, p. 374

[5] Hitler’s memo of Sept. 16, 1919, Ernst Deuerlein (ed.), “Hitler’s Eintritt in die Politik und Die Reichsweh,” in Vierteljahrssheft fur Zeitgeschichte Vol. 7 1959, p. taken from Ideology of Death, p. 374.

[6] Adolf Hitler, The Jewish Question, January 30, 1939, speeh given at the Reichstag, quoted from N.H. Baynes, ed., The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, London, 1942, p. 738.

[7] Ideology of death, 374

[8] Adolf Hitler speaking to a crowd at the Sports Palace in Berlin, January 30, 1942, monitored by the Foreign Broadcast Monitoring Service, Federal Communications Commission, Quoted in “The Holocaust”, by Gilbert, et al,  New York, 1985, p. 285.

[9] Jospeh Goebbels, Das Reich from the Daily Telegraph, 30 June, 1942.

[10] The Lower Saxony Newspaper, der Jude wird ausgrottet, Obenaus “Haben sie wirklich nichts gewusst?” pp. 28-9 Obenaus “Schreiben wie es wirklich war!” taken from Ian Kershaw’s Hitler, The Germans and the Final Solution, Connecticut, Yale University Press, 2008, pp. 107-8.

[11] J. Weiss, Ideology of Death, p. 328.

[12] Ibid., p. 374.

[13] Ibid., p. 375

[14] ibid. 375

[15] J. Weiss, Ideology of Death, p. 374.

[16] Eric A. Johnson, Nazi Terror, New York, Basic Books, 1999, p. 435.

[17] Ibid., p. 442.

[18] BBC, German Language Broadcasts (30) (British Broadcasting Corporation, Written Archives Centre Reading, England, European news directives files VIII November-Dec 1942.

[19] ibid.

[20] Eric A. Johnson, Karl-Heinz Reuband, What We Knew, Cambridge, basic Books, 2005, p. 382.

[21] ibid. p. 160.

[22] J. Weiss, Ideology of Death, p. 325.

[23] Ibid, p. 376.

[24] Eric A. Johnson, Nazi Terror, p. 435.

[25] Ibid., p. 434.

[26]  J. Weiss, Ideology of Death, p. 377.

[27] Eric A. Johnson, Karl-Heinz Reuband, What We Knew, p. 367.

[28] Interview with Adam Grolsch, Krefeld, 2003, taken from What We Knew, p. 367

[29] ibid. p. 367.

[30] Victor Klemperer, I Will Bear Witness: A Diary of the Nazi Years 1933-42, (Ich will Zeugnis ablegen bis zum letzten: Tagebucher), Berlin, 1995, p. 23 and Henry Turner, “Victor Klemperer’s Holocaust”, German Studies Review, Vol. 22, No. 3, Oct., 1999,p. 387.

[31] Eric A. Johnson, Karl-Heinz Reuband, What We Knew, p.393.

[32] Harald Welzer, How Fully Normal People Became Mass-Murderers. Frankfurt, Tater, 2005, p. 89.

[33] Hiltred Kuhnel, interview, June 7, 2001, Frankfurt from What We Knew p. 187.

[34] Idib., p. 187

[35] Shmuel Spector (ed). Encyclopedia of Jewish Life: Before and During the Holocaust, New York, New York University Press, 2001, p. 1199.

 

Today’s Human Resource strategies for Company Assessment

Conduct an interview with an employee (preferably a supervisor or manager) at your current job or a previous job. If you have no prior work experience, you may interview a family member or friend who is currently employed.  You have just been promoted to the manager of your department and have been asked to review the following:

  • Value of a team environment: Is the company operating with a team structure?  How effective is the team structure?  How could the company improve the effectiveness of the team environment?  If there is no team structure currently in place, how should one be implemented?
  • Job satisfaction of the employees: Are the employees satisfied or is there a lot of complaining, absenteeism, and turnover?  What could the company be doing to improve job satisfaction?
  • How does the company currently communicate with their employees regarding company changes?  Do they rely on technology for their announcements?  Is this an effective method of communication?
  • Efforts made to motivate your employees: What is being done to motivate the employees? Do employees get regular pay raises?   Is there a rewards program?  Are they being recognized for their accomplishments?  Name at least three things the company could be doing to motivate their employees.
  • Assistance offered in helping your employees to deal with stress management: Are the employees given any tools to deal with stress management?  Does the company have access to mental health counselors?  Are employees given permission to take any mental health days?  What could the company be doing to help employees deal with their employees’ stress?

Prepare a 4-6 page report that includes an overall assessment of how each of the above is currently being handled and how you would change the system.  Be sure to provide examples and be specific in your reasoning behind your suggested changes.  Utilize at least three scholarly resources in your report (one of which may be your text book). This report must include:

    • Executive Summary
    • Analyze and explain what is being done in the five areas described above (team, job satisfaction,  communication, motivation, and stress management) in the company.
    • Write recommendations for what they could be doing better in all five areas
    • Conclusion
    • Appendix: List of questions asked in interview

Forecast Accuracy Uncertainty and Momentum

Who wouldn’t want credit for watching movies? There are lots of movies out there about social movements and activists, but they usually offer pretty shallow portrayals of these movements. Here’s your chance to watch one of them and dig a little deeper with research of your own. Craft a 4-page report on each film highlighting details about the movement portrayed in the film.

Instructions: Choose a film (not a documentary) in which a social movement plays at least a moderately significant role. See the list below for possibilities. If you can’t find these titles at your local mega-chain rental place, try a local video store.

Pour a glass of your favorite beverage, put on your most comfortable clothes, and enjoy the movie. No need to take notes or answer any difficult questions about the film, so make the most of it. The most important thing that you should get from it is which movement is being portrayed.

Next, research. Learn as much as you can about the social movement in the film – but don’t rely exclusively on Internet sources! You can search magazines, academic journals, books, and (some) websites to find out whatever you can about the movement. When did it emerge? Why then? Is it still around? Where did it emerge, and did it spread since then? What conditions appear to have led to its emergence? How big is it? What is the campaign for (or against), and is/was there widespread agreement within the movement about its goals? What about its tactics? That’s a lot of questions! The more answers and insights you can provide the better.

Lastly, write all of this up in 4-pages (double-spaced). You should very briefly introduce the film you watched and how the social movement is a part of its story. Then, present what you learned about the movement (be sure to cite your sources). This paper is primarily a historical description of a social movement, not an editorial; so fight that urge to say your opinion about film making or politics (although I love these conversations in my office!). If you think of movies that are missing from the list below, please do let me know. Have fun!
some films you might watch…

Rosa Luxumburg (Germany)
The White Rose (Germany)
The Boxer (Ireland)
Michael Collins (Ireland)
In the Name of the Father (Ireland)
Bloody Sunday (Ireland)
On the Waterfront
Hoffa
Panther
Matewan
Mississippi Burning
Salvador (El Salvador)
Iron Jawed Angels
Bread and Roses

Patty Hearst
American History X
Gandhi (India)
Get on the Bus
Romero (El Salvador)
Brassed Off (UK)
Citizen Ruth
Year of the Gun (Italy)
Norma Rae
Malcolm X
The Killing Fields (Cambodia)
The Dancer Upstairs (Peru)
Rojo Amanecer (Mexico)

Mergers and Acquisitions Research Paper Instructions

Use the Internet to research a publicly traded company in the United States that has undergone a merger or acquisition within the last three (3) years. Take note of the circumstances surrounding the merger or acquisition.

Write a four to six (4-6) page paper in which you:

  1. Examine the circumstances that resulted in the merger or acquisition for the selected company. Speculate on two (2) reasons why the resulting decision to merge or to acquire / be acquired was made.
  2. Assess the significant positive (or negative) effects of the merger or acquisition. Provide at least two (2) examples of those effects now that the merger or acquisition has been completed.
  3. Examine the organizational structure that has resulted from the merger or acquisition. Analyze the major differences between the resulting company and the original two (2) organizations.
  4. Determine whether or not the human resources management practices of the company were modified to reflect the outcome of the merger or acquisition. If no changes were necessary, speculate on the reasons why they were not. Provide a rationale for your response.
  5. Use at least four (4) academic quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia does not qualify as an academic resource.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Evaluate the different forms of business ownership to determine the optimal structure in different scenarios and the process for a business start-up.
  • Integrate the core human resource management functions and considerations into viable recommendations to meet the organization’s operating requirements.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in contemporary business.
  • Write clearly and concisely about contemporary business using proper writing mechanics.

Cultural Audit – South Korea Leadership Behaviors

Assignment Instructions

Your company plans to establish MNE manufacturing operations in South Korea. You have been asked to conduct a cultural audit focusing on leadership behaviors of South Korea. The results of your report will be used for internal training for plant managers due to be reassigned to work with South Korean managers in a few months. You are aware of a high-collectivism culture with a Confucian code of ethical behavior in South Korea. What kinds of South Korean leadership behaviors would you expect to include in your report? Describe these in terms of interaction between the U.S. and Korean managers as well as interaction between Korean leader-followers.

 

SAMPLE ANSWER

Cultural Audit

Recently, South Korea and the U.S have proceeded in efforts aiming to become closer trading partners through allowing the U.S-Korea Free Trade Agreement and FTAs. With the more economic integration, there is need for a stronger understanding of all the influences of each other’s cultures(Bass, 1990). Some major influences include history, religion and philosophy, the influences of these cultures in leadership style need to be explored.

The avoidance or absence of leadership in South Korea is one of the unique leadership aspects.Leaders mostly avoid getting involved when most important issues arise among their followers. When the management is considered in South Korea, respect for employees is around 30.4%, initiator attitude is 22.8% and summoning spirit is 20.8%.

The overview of the traits and leadership styles of South Korean CEOs focused on comparing successful and unsuccessful South Korean firms. With these traits, three leadership styles can be deduced which are; network builders, can do spirit and battlefield commander (Shin, 1999).

Similar evidence can be reported when comparing leadership perceptions in South Korea and the U.S. (Yoon, 2009). The interaction among the Korean managers and the U.S and also between the leaders and followers, shown cultural uniqueness in some leadership concepts. Americans are prone to report more explicit behaviors than South Koreans. The South Koreanshave abstract features ofleadership among them intuitive, harmonious and good administrator. These different results might be due to not only culture or history but also current circumstances in the two countries.

As a result of the ethnicity identity of both the leader and the follower, interaction between leaders and followers in any organization was influenced. It is evident that South Korean have a holistic view whereas Americans have an analytic view of leadership representation. These unique characteristics in leadership makes the two states experiences some extensions during interactions. The managers from South Korea could not interact effectively as expected with both the followers and the U.S.

Systems Consideration in Human Resource Information Systems

HRIS (Human Resource Information Systems) are essentially the HR software intersections of IT (information technology) and HR (human resources). The intersections allow for the electronic occurrence of HR processes as well as activities. HRIS help businesses execute various activities, including HR-related activities like payroll management and accounting. Besides, HRIS enables businesses plan, manage, as well as control, their HR expenditures effectively devoid of allocating excessive resources, or funds, towards them. Most HRIS are designed to flexibly integrate with various HR database systems according to Grobler (2006). My organization uses diverse HR database systems, including Workable and HR Quik.

Advantages and Downsides of Workable and HR Quik

Workable is a recruitment software that is rather useable and affordable. It takes the place of spreadsheets and email in recruitment processes, with a system for tracking applicants. It helps write job descriptions, build pages of branded careers and post manifold job boards. It allows the organization to browse profiles of prospective employees and helps recruitment teams keep their notes, analytics, schedules, communications, and notes in single places.

The main advantage of Workable is that it quickens recruitment processes, reducing the associated costs as well. The customer service team addressing the concerns of Workable clients is quite polite and polite in resolving the concerns and related inquires or questions. The only downside associated with Workable is that it is muddled with numerous applications, making its usage a challenge to many (Capterra, 2015).

HR Quik was developed by Data Ingenuity. It is a rather straightforward staff database system geared towards reducing HR costs through the saving of time as well as effective usage of data. It has varied advantages. First, it is versatile. It is loadable on diverse servers, hard drives, networks, or cloud-based platforms. Second, it helps organize staff data in ways that are easy to utilize. Third, it generates reports that are run easily. Fourth, it generates staff termination and hiring forms automatically. Besides, it allows for the saving of scanned staff records (Data Ingenuity, 2015).

I propose that the organization adopts and uses ClearCompany HRM Software system. The software system works for recruiting teams and HR management teams, especially in industrial settings. There various reasons motivating the proposal. First, the software system links hiring, new staff on-boarding and management of staff performance.

Second, the system is equipped with automated reporting capabilities. The capabilities support clients to comply especially with the extant labor laws regarding staffing processes. Third, the system’s on-boarding solution has the ability of automating new recruitment processes, with an option of integrating the related verification, management, and approval tasks according to Software Advice (2015).

Efficiencies and Inefficiencies Associated With SAAS Usage

Many organizations utilize SAAS for their HRIS requirements. SAAS affords organizations particular efficiencies especially regarding the delivery of documents. Organizations that have adopted the usage of SAAS enjoy cost efficiency since their expenses are moved to operational tasks from acquisition, as well as deployment tasks. Organizations that have adopted the usage of SAAS save on hardware-related expenses since its maintenance does not require specific software or hardware (Torres-Coronas & Arias-Oliva, 2009).

As well, SAAS assists in shortening cycles of transactions, enhancing productivity. Particularly, it enhances productivity by helping bolster process control, as well as visibility; lessening daily outstanding sale rates; and focusing resources on key client competences and services as opposed to merely supporting technological applications according to Grobler (2006).

The maintenance, as well as running, of MS Access-related database applications is characterized by diverse inefficiencies. The inefficiencies include challenges in internet connectivity, problems in handling sensitive data, scalability limitations, and size-related limitations. The applications are devoid of the server capabilities associated with databases that are ODBC-compliant. The handling of data that is sensitive requires marked investment in varied data security tools, which MS Access lacks. Besides, the applications have limitations in their physical capacities (Torres-Coronas & Arias-Oliva, 2009).

Threats Linked to Building an HRIS from Products from Several Vendors

When an organization builds its HRIS using different products supplied by different vendors, it faces several risks. First, the organization faces a heightened exposure to varied security threats. Second, the organization faces a heightened exposure to emerging, or evolving, legal challenges related to the products’ terms of use. Third, the organization may suffer an erosion of own network parameters. The parameters become increasingly vague, as well as challenging, to safeguard (Kandula, 2003).

Unexpected Effects of Managing HR Databases Improperly

Organizations that fail to manage their HR databases appropriately suffer various problems. First, the organizations have challenges in the development, as well as maintenance, of healthy contacts with their staff members. Second, the organizations have their operational costs rising over time according to Grobler (2006).

Third, the organizations face varied difficulties in their staff recruitment processes as they lack credible data or records for use in the processes. Organizations can steer clear of the three negative effects by making certain that they engage competent organizations in the choosing, implementation, as well as maintenance, of their HR databases. Besides, the organizations can steer clear of the effects by recruiting competent staff to manage the databases.

State Farm’s Business and HR Strategies And HR Department Job Positions

The planning, as well as formulation, of HR strategies is a significant HR process component. Ideally, every HR process, as well as initiative, is formulated an element of a larger, or overall, people strategy. The strategy is ideally aligned with the corresponding organizational goals and strategy (Eigenhuis, Dijk & Eigenhuis, 2008). This paper entails an examination of the State Farm’s business strategy along with HR strategy, the extant job positions in its HR departments, and how it markets itself concerning human capital. Notably, State Farm is a conglomerate of financial along with insurance service firms incorporated in USA. The Canada-based Desjardins Group bought State Farm’s operations in mid-2014. State Farm’s principal enterprise is a mutual insurance company, the SFMAIC (State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company), which holds the shares of all the other firms under the State Farm.

How to Align State Farm’s Business Strategy with Its HR Strategy

There are various ways through which State Farm’s business strategy can be aligned with own HR strategy. Notably, the alignment of the strategies would ensure that the HR department of the conglomerate of firms operates proactively, planning for the conglomerate’s future talent requirements rather than just focusing on the present vacancies (Kearns, 2003; Tansky & Heneman, 2006). The alignment will compel the department to afford the conglomerate continuous talent flows and forecast skill gaps, skill re-supply, re-skilling, and skill training.

The alignment can be actualized through a number of ways relating to the HR department and the State Farm’s board directors. First, the department can be re-engineered to focus on talent management, ensuring that it focuses on identifying State Farm’s talent requirements for its prospective business strategy. The department should put in the requisite measures to attract the talent required to match the strategy (Eigenhuis, Dijk & Eigenhuis, 2008). Second, the HR department can be reconfigured to bolster its capacity for retaining, as well as growing the careers of, the already available talent.

Third, the directors can be retrained to learn the factors capable of adding value via an in-depth appreciation of external commercial realities and how external, as well as internal, stakeholders characterize the value (Kearns, 2003; Tansky & Heneman, 2006). Fourth, the directors can be supported to appreciate how internationalization, or globalization, affects State Farm, particularly its organizational culture and talent management. The directors should plan on how to respond to the internationalization effects in a timely and effective manner.

HR Job Positions

In its website, State Farm has listed various HR jobs and their diverse roles. The HR jobs are presented as closely related to training positions within the conglomerate. The job positions include: HR data analytic, HR representative, talent manager, employee relations manager, and credit union liaison officers. These positions support various HR functions, including staff recruitment and compensation. The HR positions of medical assistant and occupational health nurse are charged with assisting staff members to stay well and healthy. Those holding the positions are as well responsible for promoting an appreciation of the available wellness resources, policies, benefits, and programs among other employees (State Farm, 2015).

Occupational Health Nurse as the Preferred HR Job Position

Among all the available HR job positions at State Farm, I prefer the occupational health nurse position owing to some reasons. First, those holding the position are deemed leaders in workplaces. Second, I draw marked pleasure, as well as satisfaction, from helping other live healthily. Third, the position can assist me gain the support and supervision needed when posted in other settings (Eigenhuis, Dijk & Eigenhuis, 2008).

Improving Competitive Advantages through the Establishment of HR Strategies

            There are varied ways via which State Farm can improve own competitive advantages based on the establishment of HR strategies; through recruitment, performance measurement, and compensation. It can plan strategically to develop recruitment programs at colleges prior to graduations. The programs would give it a clear competitive advantage over competition in attracting highly trained candidates (Eigenhuis, Dijk & Eigenhuis, 2008). It can also enjoy the advantage by developing social events and open houses to offer prospective employees access to its operations.

The regular appraisal of the performances of employees enhances the performances as they view their employers as have genuine interest in them. Lastly, wages, as well as salaries, should not be seen as the only motivation that employees have in staying with particular employers (Kearns, 2003; Tansky & Heneman, 2006). State Farm should strive to make certain that its employees are convinced that the benefits and compensation it affords them are competitive and just to retain them. State Farm’s HR department should develop a compensation structure that is evidently sound to increase its attractiveness to prospective staff, affording it a clear competitive advantage from the viewpoint of staff retention.

How to Enhance Diversity

There are varied via which State Farm can enhance diversity. First, it can engage local organizations or agencies with deep community linkages, including colleges, cultural agencies, and churches to link it with potential employees (Kearns, 2003; Vogelsang, 2013). The company can exploit the power of the internet to search for potential employees from far-flung areas and recruit them.

Second, State Farm can provide or facilitate diversity training within its premises. The training should make every employee understand that the company’s recruitment resolutions are hinged on hiring candidates with the best competencies in the labor market rather than on quotas. As well, the training should make the management teams fully appreciate the strengths associated with workplace diversity. Third, State Farm should develop affinity groups, which empower employees to reflect about enhancing their productivity in groups (Eigenhuis, Dijk & Eigenhuis, 2008). The affinity groups would afford State Farm fresh ideas and would assure the employees that the differences among them are assets.

How Conceptual Framework And Its Theoretical Structure Provides Information To Management, Creditors And Banks

Mergers and Acquisitions

This paper explains the manner in which conceptual framework and its theoretical structure provides the best information to management, creditors and banks so that these stakeholders can make the best informed decisions in growing the company, granting credit and extending financing to a business respectively. The conceptual framework is a modern terminology in the accounting literature. According to Weil and Schipper (2012), many setters of accounting standards have, for a long time, operated without consideration of a conceptual framework. This naturally resulted into haphazard accounting standards that could not be proactive, but reactive to the issues of the day.

Conceptual framework and its theoretical structure, generally, organizes the concepts and premises that are fundamental to corporate accounting, especially financial accounting. It is useful to management through provision of a better comprehension and foreseeability in the interpretation of accounting standards. It should, also, be clear that the conceptual framework and its theoretical structure provides the best information to management, creditors and banks through bolstering interpretation of financial information and making it relevant to the highlighted situations of decision making (Weil & Schipper, 2012). In the context of investment; for instance, it ensures that the information provided has information value. Such information plays a great role of improving predictions and behavior of investors. Through financial reporting, the conceptual framework and its theoretical structure provides financial information regarding the reporting entity that has usefulness to both the existing and potential investors, creditors and other lenders in making decision regarding provision of resources to the entity. Theoretically, the conceptual framework has the responsibility of driving the development of the standards of accounting.

In conclusion, conceptual framework and its theoretical structure, generally, organizes the concepts and premises that are fundamental to corporate accounting, especially financial accounting. It, also, structure provides the best information to management, creditors and banks through bolstering interpretation of financial information and making it relevant to the highlighted situations of decision making.

Information Systems Research Paper

The term Information System (IS) is defined differently depending on the contexts in which it is used. First, it refers to the set of infrastructure, hardware, trained personnel, and software used in facilitating planning, decision-making, coordination, and control in a given organization. Second, IS refers to the set of computer applications or systems used in the gathering, creation, storage, processing, as well as distribution, of information. Third, IS refers to particular integrated information elements or sets. Lastly, the term is commonly used in referring to sets of human and technical resources that provide for the distribution, computing, and storage of entrepreneurial information (Olson & Kesharwani, 2010; Oz, 2009).

There are different types of IS. Executive Support IS (ESIS) are IS used in supporting senior managements in formulating strategic decisions. ESIS collect, appraise, and summarize critical external, as well as internal sets of information within business settings. Management IS (MIS) are elementarily related to business information’s internal sources. MIS pick up data from TPIS (Transaction Processing Information Systems) and synthesize it into structured management reports (Olson & Kesharwani, 2010; Oz, 2009). Notably, the Management Reporting System (MRS) is a common MIS. MRS gets data streaming from TPIS and produce reports from it. MRS is commonly used by operational managers and middle managers (Olson & Kesharwani, 2010).

TPIS have data gathering, outputting, storage, as well as processing, functionalities. As earlier noted, some TPIS stream data into given MIS like MRS. TPIS deals with data sets that are critical to businesses’ core operations. One of the commonest forms Of TPIS is the Payroll System (PS). PS help organizations grow by streamlining payroll processes and eliminating the related mistakes. They assist organizations in automating how they compensate their staff. Like all TPIS, a PS processes transactions that are routine, accurately and efficiently (Olson & Kesharwani, 2010; Oz, 2009).

Decision Support Information Systems (DSIS) are common features in many organizations. DSIS are commonly taken as systems whose operations are hinged on knowledge.  They are commonly used by senior managers in facilitating the production of new knowledge. They are as well commonly employed in allowing for the integration of novel knowledge into given organizational processes. One common type of DSIS is the CSCW (Computer Supported Co-operative Work). CSCWs are used in the dissemination of innovative research outcomes. They offer interdisciplinary platforms for the exchanging and debating of emerging research ideas and outcomes concerning any social, technical, practical or theoretical issues in organizational settings.

Office Automation Information Systems (OAIS) are systems employed in projects that are aimed at enhancing staff productivity. Especially, they are used in enhancing the productivity of staff as regards the processing of particular data sets. Some OAIS allow employees to work from home and still remain highly productive. One form of such OAIS is the widely used Microsoft Office XP (Olson & Kesharwani, 2010; Oz, 2009).

There are various ways in which the examination of different forms of IS relates to this module’s learning objectives. First, the examination of the different IS allows the students taking the module opportunities for appraising how the elements taught in the module are applied in actual life. Second, the examination of the different IS allows the students taking the module opportunities for growing their extant expertise of the relevance of IS in enhancing the effectiveness of business processes.

 

Teaching Biblical Studies – Developing a Biblical Studies Program

Assignment Instructions:

Developing a Biblical Studies program (1500 words) 1.

Given a school’s vision/mission statement, (choose one from those given in part A Ch 4 or research another and state it in your document) develop the foundation statements for a one year biblical studies program.

Include

  •  Rationale
  • Aims
  • Outcomes
  • Assessment guidelines
  • Criteria to evaluate the effectiveness of the program

2. Develop a one year Scope and Sequence for a stage 2 (Primary participants) or Stage 4 (Secondary participants) Biblical Studies program. Briefly explain how this Scope and Sequence reflects your foundation statements and supports the chosen vision/mission statement.

 

SAMPLE ANSWER

 

  • Introduction

God’s Bible School and College is one of the best academic institutions that offer Christian education for students in Canada and in the United States. The institution’s mission statement reads, “God’s Bible School and College seeks to glorify God and to serve His Church by providing higher education centered in Holy Scripture and shaped by Wesleyan conviction, thus preparing faithful servants to proclaim Jesus Christ and spread scriptural holiness throughout the world (God’s Bible School and College).” Its vision is “To develop a spiritually vibrant institution that is academically excellent, growth oriented, student centered, and financially sound (God’s Bible School and College).” God’s Bible School and College aspires to produce students who have a passion for God and His holiness. As part of its commitment to the mission and vision statement, God’s Bible School and College has employed qualified staff to serve students and to help them grow socially, spiritually, academically, and psychologically (God’s Bible School and College). This paper outlines a one year biblical studies program that guides God’s Bible School and College towards realization of its mission and vision. The rationale, aims, outcomes, assessment guidelines, and criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of the biblical study program have been addressed in this paper.

  • Rationale

Biblical studies sessions at God’s Bible School and College introduce students to the world of spirituality and religion and intend to help learners understand the power of God’s word. In order to assist students to become faithful Disciples of Christ, they must first be made to understand that the Bible talks about God’s people who are expected to be in fellowship with each other (Jericho, 2005). The Bible explains that human beings are expected to live according the will of God, their creator. Unfortunately, the world that God created sinless has decayed and people in it behave in a manner that does not please Him. One important thing that everyone must remember is the fact that God will come back to the world to take up the righteous, judge sinners, and make His creation holy. As it is written in the book of Matthew Chapter 28, verses 19 and 20, God gave the Church a duty to preach the Gospel to inhabitants of the earth, and to baptize, teach, and discipline believers (1984, NIV Bible).

This biblical study program should act as one of the ways through which God’s commands are fulfilled. The Holy Spirit plays a significant role in convicting people of their sin and to strengthen the faith of believers. This biblical studies program cannot play the same roles as the Holy Spirit, but teachers at God’s Bible School and College are expected to teach students how God’s Spirit works. Additionally, while teachers may guide students through Biblical values and give them instructions on how to live in this world, it is God’s Spirit that has the power of manifesting positive fruits within the believer. Therefore, the teacher only acts as an instructor and a mentor, who must enable the Holy Spirit to guide him or her to reach out to students and to challenge them to commit their lives to Jesus Christ (Reitsma and Renn, 2010).

With the help of this biblical studies program, the teacher will be able to assist his or her students to apply biblical precepts in their daily lives. The truth that exists in the Bible will become clear if the Christian teacher acts as a good role model to the students by exhibiting behaviors that are similar to those of Christ. The Bible is a very big book that needs to be taught as a specific area of learning, and this is the goal that this biblical studies program seeks to fulfill. Student must take their study sessions seriously because the biblical principles and values can be applied in all areas of learning. God is the creator and sustainer of all creatures, and he helps all people through His word (Reitsma and Renn, 2010).

  • Aims

The main aim of this biblical studies program is to enable learners to understand that God can help people through His word. Specifically, this program intends to assist students to know God as the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Additionally, this biblical studies program will assist the learner to see God as a Savior, Helper, and Guider. Moreover, this biblical studies program will assist student to understand that their God is a God of justice who requires his people to remain just and walk humbly with God, as it is written in the book of Micah, Chapter 6 verse 8 (1984, NIV Bible). God’s Bible School and College have laid down some life skills that learners must possess for the aims of this biblical studies program to be achieved. For instance, for the student to know God as father, son and the Holy Spirit, he or she must investigate Bible stories to see how God reveals Himself to His people. Again, the learner must explore both New Testament and Old Testament stories to see how God fulfills His promises to His people (Jericho, 2005).

  • Outcomes

This section describes what students should be able to do after they will have been taken through this biblical studies program. The outcomes of this biblical studies program are measurable and reflect the complexity of the syllabus. At the end of one year study, the student should be able to identify different interpretations and perspectives of biblical divinity. In addition, the student should be able to locate and select a number of sources that are useful in conducting biblical research. Again, at the end of this biblical studies program, the student should be able to effectively use both oral and written forms of communication to talk about the Bible. Most importantly, learners should be able to examine Christian beliefs bout God’s actions and determine their relevance to today’s life (Reitsma and Renn, 2010).

  • Assessment guidelines

According to Jericho (2005), assessment refers to the process of gathering and analyzing evidence obtained from the work of a student to establish how he or she has demonstrated learning. The learning outcomes at God’s Bible School and College describe the learning components that are to be assessed. At God’s Bible School and College, assessment of outcomes involve interactive sessions between the teachers and students, and in the process, the teacher makes informed judgement on both current and future learning capabilities of the student. As the teacher collects evidence for assessment, he or she must focus on the scope and complexity of the study program, right from the beginning to the end of the year. The teacher will apply a balance approach to assessment that incorporates assessment of learning, assessment for learning, and assessment as learning. The teacher will gather evidence using a number of methods including self and peer assessment, consultation, focuses analysis and observation. Students can only achieve the learning outcomes if they clearly understand what they need to know (Reitsma and Renn, 2010).

  • Criteria to evaluate the effectiveness of the program

Evaluation refers to objective assessment of a completed program to find out whether the originally set objectives have been met. In this case, five criteria will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the biblical studies program. These include relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact, and sustainability (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2015). As far as relevance is concerned, the teacher will assess the extent to which program activities are consistent with the needs of the Christian students. Under effectiveness, the teacher will assess whether the originally set objectives have been achieved. Assessment of the cost-effectiveness of the whole program in relation to the output is referred to as efficiency evaluation. Impact evaluation concerns the positive and negative effects of the program, either intended or unintended. As far as sustainability is concerned, the teacher will assess the probability of gaining long-term benefits from the biblical studies program after full implementation. These five criteria will provide relevant information that will be used by the decision maker to determine whether any changes should be made to the program (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2015).

Famous Creative Thinkers Presentation – Assignment Instructions

Review the list of names provided in the University of Phoenix Material: Creative Genius List. Select two individuals who are famous for their creative ideas (one from each column). Research their biographies in the University Library and/or on the Internet.

Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper to include the following:

  • Information about each of the thinker’s unique contributions to society
  • The problems or issues that their ideas sought to solve
  • A description of the solutions and how his or her ideas were implemented
  • Each thinker’s personal/ social/ political environments and how you think these factors contributed to their creativity
  • The creative process of each thinker, including any obstacles they faced, and a comparison of the creative processes underlying each individual’s work
  • A critique of their ideas: could they have done anything differently? How did their work fit into the existing framework of understanding in their field, and how did it advance further understanding of the field?
  • Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines and in a Word document.

Include at least four academic references.

Sources such as Wikipedia, About.com, and Studymode.com, etc. are not acceptable or credible.

Write your paper in third person and not first person.

Compare And Contrast Learning Management Systems – Assignment Instructions

Assignment Instructions

Conduct an internet search for “best-of-breed” learning management systems (LMS).  Identify two and research each. In 1500 words, discuss the features of each and how you feel it can benefit the training function in your organization. What do you think is the future of LMS?  Based on your experiences with LMS, what do you feel is lacking?

What is a Learning Management System?

Learning management systems software gives companies everything they need to manage employee training programs. Using an LMS, companies can create training curricula to educate employees and allow them to demonstrate competencies or gain certification in areas relevant to their role.
Core LMS functionality includes:
  • Training administration. Employee training software helps users organize and simplify training administration, which includes processes such as distributing training content, managing user information, scheduling and course enrollment.
  • Content development and management. This functionality gives buyers the ability to author their own content and design and deliver courses within an LMS.
  • Curricula setting. With curricula setting functionality, users can combine courses by focus area and specialization, and assign and unassign courses. Certification paths. This includes tracking, managing and setting certification programs for industries that require employee certification to carry out a specific job duty.
  • Proficiency testing and reporting. learning management systems can administer tests to gauge employee knowledge or skill. Analytics and reporting functionality helps companies determine proficiency and identify learning gaps.
  • Employee self-service. With self-service functionality, employees can access training materials and on-demand learning courses from their own devices. Electronic record-keeping. By centralizing employee training records within an learning management systems, users can easily access training materials, test scores and course data from a single system.

Concept of Innate Good – Support Or Debate

In a paper of 1,000 – 1,250 words, support or debate the concept of innate good through the following lenses of personality development:

  1. Trait theories
  2. Biological theories
  3. Humanistic theories
  4. Behavioral theories

Psychologists and theologians alike have disputed the concept of innate good. It remains a central question in the study of personality. In this assignment, you will discuss the concept of innate good in relation to several personality theories.

General Requirements:

Use the following information to ensure successful completion of the assignment:

  • Instructors will be using a grading rubric to grade the assignments. It is recommended that learners review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment in order to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.
  • Doctoral learners are required to use APA style for their writing assignments. The APA Style Guide is located in the Student Success Center.
  • This assignment requires that at least two additional scholarly research sources related to this topic, and at least one in-text citation from each source be included.

Effects of Cyber Crime – Cyber Bullying

The emergence of internet in the year 1980s  resulted to the gradual evolution of cyberspace  as a section of human activity,the growth empowered individuals  in direction  of  information communication technology, however ,this advancement yielded others negative  effects on the technology which led to cyber-crime that became  a  challenge to  individuals ,administrators of cyber space and the government Cyber-crime is one of the most fast growing area of crime in the 21st century, more often the criminals  have secretly  identified the diverse range of committing crime through the use of internet, most the crime reported  is done by computer or any technology that supports criminal activities, this unlawful act is punishable by the information technology ,virtually all types of communication technologies can be used to intimidate or bully others,. For instance, emails, text messages can be used by criminals to threaten an individual

Cyber-crime can have broad  areas where the criminalactivities is done, attacks on computer hardware and software enables the criminals make intrusion to  network hence accessing  confidential information which eases a soft landing whenever an attack is mounted,(Gordon,2003)

Moreover financial corruption and crimes can be done online whereby criminals can manage into making fraud transactions through false information. It end up the victims being frustrated resulting to negative attitude in participating in online purchasing. This trends is becoming major challenge when promoting a global market of industrial goods among different states , highly and complex cyber criminal activities partner with individuals and other organization  to fund the criminal  activities Such as cheating on credit card frauds and money laundering.

Cyber bullying can also be through the pornography where slum children are abused through computers or published print media where they force them to appear in for obscene photographs the acts results to children experiencing negative socialization which later affects their day to day psychological functioning

Moreover cyber-crime can act a s a base  for sale of illegal articles such as weapons, narcotics and wildlife products, this websites becomes an a threat to growing wildlife population hence  disintegrating the activities  of conservation.(Kelly, 1999),

Email spoofing is another form  used by criminals to undertake their  cyber bullying, this is  one of the emails  that appears to originate from  one source but in the real sense it has been sent by a different person, itmight result from piracy ,trademark or theft of computer source codes,

Another technique  is the use of  programthathas deadly viruses to the software of computers is also a form of crime.it harms the files to computers. This affect the data of the computer either by deleting or altering the viruses, they merely make themselves multiple andrepeatedly until they consume the all computer memory. Statistics shows that it’s one ofdangerous threat to individual computers the virus struck one in every five personal computers.

According to   Baskerville,(1991).There are number of effects of cyber-crime on victims, its effects  results to other implications including financial losses , loss of consumer confidence and trust  on  online buying, property loss and overall impact to the society, there is also financial loss incurred by the government as they try to  secure  hacked network as they try to  recover from cyber attacks

Business people do suffer from the menace, More Often, the confidential information of business like  trade secretes  make it advantageous   for the criminal access opportunities  in commercial negotiations in the  market, these competing business strategy undermines the potential of the producing organization in expansion, For example theft of oil exploration  data or  sensitive  business negotiationinformation, most organization are unwilling to quantify their financial losses  due to security breaches ,they are always reluctant to  disclose for fear of embarrassment and negative publicity. Companies are worriedespecially if the information is leaked to their competitors which end up destroying their reputations, it generally lowers the organization firms stock price .therefore managers  must be cautious  on  the existing cyber-crime which might affect the  organizations performance.(Power, R., 2001).

A number of tactics can be used to reduce the magnitude of cyber bullying, for instance, training citizens and consumers is one of the fundamental action so that the mitigation ofthe attacks is reduced, theawareness makes them  knowledgeable on cyber threats and how to protecttheir ownpersonal information. Use of strong passwords for accounts is also encouraged.

There is also great concern to secure our mobile phones with software like anti-virus so as to make it secure from eternal intrusion of viruses which will at the end damage the sensitive information in the system

The other remedy emphasized in responding to cybercrime is to secure wireless networks since they are too vulnerable to attacks; it’s aided by avoiding transactions on these networks which are new to our system.

The members of the   public are to be cautious especially when giving out their personal information like the website address, financial information on the internet and especially when conducting online purchase.(Bowen Mace, 2009),

Laws on Cyber bullying – Megan Meier Case Study Review

Cyberbully is a term that refers to the victimization of kids through electronic devices and technology. The bullying goes to a situation whereby those involved in the bullying may hate each other. It may also inflict depression and emotions on teenagers. Most teenagers use web pages or text messages with intentions to harm other teenagers. The actions are repetitive, deliberate, intentional and hostile with will wishes and manners. Some teenagers may use hostile images to stalk and harm other teenagers. Megan Meier’s case is an illustration of cyberbullying.

In 2006, Megan Meir committed suicide after devastating cyberbullying and harassment. The thirteen-year-old student had an online relationship with Josh Evans through the MySpace, a popular social networking website. Megan suffered from clinical depression after a fake JOHN Evans texted her, “the world would be a better place without you.” As a result of this she committed suicide by hanging herself with a belt in the closet. Her death was learnt by her mother when she found her hanging.

Megan’s parents later knew that John Evans existed. They discovered that Lori Drew, who had impersonated as John Evans was their neighbor. She was a mother of Megan’s friend, and she wanted to know Megan’s opinion about her. However, her plan went beyond her intensions. The tragic death of Megan Meir is a sad one. Cyberbullying occurs in many contexts in the current world. 43% of teens are victims of cyberbullying according to the National Crime Presentation Council.

The American government come up with laws that could help in controlling cyberbullying. The laws came up as a result of Megan’s tragic incidence. The schools were the main focus on the teenager’s cyberbullying. It came up with harassment and bullying policies that would provide students with protection against cyberbullying. Some of the laws stated that it was unlawful for ajuvenile to possess explicit sexual materials or devices that have the same materials. Any minor in possession of the materials would be eligible for charges. Additionally the another law specified that any teenagers who found bullying or harassing other teenagers would not be an exception in facing the law or penalties associated with the degree of the wrong done.

Patchin S.W (2007) states that cyberbullying has an adverse impact on the success of teenagers schooling and future life. He proposes that the schools should include instructions on cyberbullying in the curricula to control the menace. He argues that self-low esteem would lead to degradation of performance of the teenagers.

In the Megan’s case, Lori Drewe would have been sentenced to five years on a single charge. She violated the cyber act U.S.C. 1028 (2) which states “whoeverduring and in relation to any felony violation enumerated in section 2332b (g) (5) (B) , knowingly , transfers, possesses, or , uses, without lawful authority, a means of identification document shall , in addition to the punishment provided for such felony, be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of 5 years”. Therefore, Megan’s case was a denied justice

In conclusion the cyberbullying measures should be followed strictly to ensure that technology has a positive impact on the teenagers. It will ensure that teenagers gain confidence that would drive them to fulfil their desires and goals in life. Itwould therefore enhance the future economy of the nation.

Application: Impact of the Death Penalty

The social evolution of human populations is one of the evident phenomena in studies relating to the changes that have defined the death penalty’s application in the US over the years. When studying the history of the application, it is important to consider the financial and social consequences of the penalty. As well, it is important to consider the court resolutions and public attitudes that have characterized the application over time. This paper explores how the decisions arrived at by the Supreme Court over the centuries have shaped the death penalty’s evolution. Besides, the paper appraises the social, as well as financial, costs associated with the penalty.

Supreme Court’s Influences on the Death Penalty’s Evolution

In the US, until the 1970s, there were marked efforts by abolitionists aimed at ending the penalty’s application in individual states. Even then, the efforts bore limited success. The abolitionists started focusing on the courts, especially the Supreme Court, to advance their cause. Notably, the Supreme Court agreed with the sentiment of the abolitionists that the penalty was unconstitutional in Furman v. Georgia. Apart from the Furman v. Georgia determination, the court has made other determinations that have shaped the death penalty’s application significantly at varied times according to Sarat and Ogletree (2006).

In 1878, in Wilkerson v. Utah, the court determined that executing those handed death sentences by firing squads was legal. Even then, it determined that it was cruel, hence illegal, to execute them via quartering and drawing, burying alive, dissection in public, or emboweling alive according to Sarat and Ogletree (2006).  In 1910, in Weems v. USA, decreed that the definition of what punishment was unusual, as well as cruel, should not be limited, to the forms of undesirable practices that the Bill of Right’s framers experienced according to Sarat and Ogletree (2006). The court decreed that the definition should be guided by the extant circumstances. In 1947, in Francis v. Resweber, the court decreed determined that the constitution offers protections to men from the cruelty intrinsic in given punishment methods rather than the suffering attendant to the application of the methods as long as they are used to end life in humane ways according to Latzer and McCord (2010).

In 1958, in Tropp v. Dulles, the court decreed that any punishment is cruel, as well as unusual, if its severity is tormenting. The punishment is as well as cruel if it is odd or excessive in the light of the changing decency standards, which define the advancement of societies that are maturing according to Sarat and Ogletree (2006).  In Furman v. Georgia, the court delivered a judgment partially aimed at ending the application of the penalty in various states. In the judgment, the court asserted that punishments are unusual, as well as cruel, if their severities do not match the corresponding crimes, if they were arbitrarily applied, if they fail to match the society’s appreciation of justice, and if they are excessive in the light of the corresponding crimes. The judgment effectively outlawed capital punishment. Even then, in less than three years, 30 states had reconfigured their laws on capital sentencing to agree with the judgment’s provisions according to Sarat and Ogletree (2006).

In 1976, in Gregg v. Georgia, the court supported the new Georgia’s law on capital sentencing, agreeing that it was not continually unusual as well as cruel. In 1987, in Tison v. Arizona, the court supported the new Arizona’s law on capital sentencing, agreeing that it was constitutional for those convicted of the felonies defined by negligent unresponsiveness to life. In 1987, in Thompson v. Oklahoma, the court supported the argument that those under 16 and engage in murder can be executed. Two years later, in Penry v. Lynaugh, the court allowed for the handing of death penalties to lawful sane convicts who are otherwise retarded.

Death Penalty’s Financial Impact on Society

            The death penalty drains considerable public resources without matching reductions in crime levels according to Sarat and Ogletree (2006).  The resources would be more effectively used in enhancing other more effective strategies for fighting crime. The capital trials that result into the having convicts get the death sentence are longwinded and very costly. For instance, Texas spends close to $2.30 million in each capital trial. Notably, in most of the trials, the public remains responsible for capital defendants’ defenses and prosecution (Dieter, 2015).

Death Penalty’s Social Impact on Society

As noted earlier, the social evolution of human populations is one of the evident phenomena in studies relating to the changes that have defined the death penalty’s application in the US over the years. The death penalty is largely seen as being handed to persons from minority populations and poor families disproportionately. That means that it may breed social tensions in the society as sections of the society feel discriminated. For instance, in the US, the death penalty is largely seen as being handed to Blacks. Over time, that has served to heighten suspicions between Whites and Blacks, especially those involved with the country’s criminal justice system according to Sarat and Ogletree (2006).

Foundations of Conducting Research – Why Examination Of Collected Data Is Important?

In research, the examination, or appraisal, of gathered data is rather important. First, it is quite important since it leads to the uncovering of factors that are possibly connected to dependent variable changes. It helps reveal the influences possibly impacting on the changes. Second, the examination can demonstrate associations among or between diverse factors with possible impacts on research evaluation results (Work Group for Community Health and Development, 2015). Notably, some statistical methods seek to establish any connections existing among particular variables.

Third, the examination presents helpful insights into the possible reasons why given researches are ineffective or why they are defined by limited effectiveness. Through the combination of quantitative analyses and qualitative appraisals, researchers commonly determine what works in given works and what does not work as expected along with the underlying reasons. Fourth, the examination can supply convincing evidence to demonstrate the effectiveness of given research programs to stakeholders. Fifth, the examination demonstrates that researchers are serious regarding the evaluation, as well as enhancement, of their works. Besides, the examination of the gathered data shows peers what particular researchers are learning (Work Group for Community Health and Development, 2015). For instance, when a researcher examines criminal justice data, or statistics, he or she demonstrates what he or she learns from it to his or her peers.

How are statistics used in the field of criminal justice?

Statistics are used in varied ways in the criminal justice field. They are used in guiding, as well as informing, policymaking relating to crime. They are used in informing ways in which justice is administered. They are used in enhancing access to and quality of criminal justice information, which is utilized in the formulation of decisions (Office of Justice Programs, 2015). Besides, the statistics are used in the formulation of criminal justice information systems and crime-related standards like in the case of the UNODC (2015).

 

Foundations of Conducting Research – Theories , Hypothesis And Variables

Introduction

Positivists concur with empiricists that information regarding different social aspects can be gathered and categorized in ways making sense. Scientific knowledge regarding societies can be collected, as well as appreciated, to enhance human society and how it is run. In researches, including criminology-related researches, there is a need for a polished understanding of the research theories, variables as well as hypotheses (SOAS University of London, 2015). Theories are explanations of the workings of reality using substantial supporting evidence (Beaver & Walsh, 2011; Woodside, 2010). Theories are only accepted widely following particular experimental tests and multiple observations. There are diverse forms of research theories.

Differences between Research Theories

In the world of logic, references are commonly made to two reasoning methods: the deductive approach and the inductive approach. When researches are hinged on deductive reasoning, researchers work towards the specifics from the general thoughts (Hoque, 2006). That means that the research approach based on deductive theories is top-down in nature. The researchers might think up particular theories regarding particular topics. Then, the researchers narrow the theories down into particular hypotheses, which are testable (Cohen & Waite-Stupiansky, 2012). They narrow the hypotheses further when they gather data, or observations, in efforts towards addressing the hypotheses. That ultimately leads the researchers to being capable of testing the particular hypotheses based on given data sets, confirming their initial theories.

When researches are hinged on inductive reasoning, researchers move towards more extensive theories, as well as generalizations, from particular observations (Trochi, 2006). That means that the research approach based on inductive theories is bottom-up in nature. The researches commence with particular measures and observations; begin detecting regularities, as well as patterns; develop tentative hypotheses; and finally develop extensive theories, as well as generalizations. The researchers ensure that the hypotheses can be explored (Beaver & Walsh, 2011; Woodside, 2010).

Notably, inductive reasoning on one hand and deductive reasoning on the other have rather dissimilar feels towards them during the execution of researches. Inductive reasoning along with theories is more exploratory, as well as open-ended, than deductive theories and reasoning. Deductive theories are narrower in the scope of the researches they support than inductive theories (Cohen & Waite-Stupiansky, 2012). The former focuses on hypothesis confirmation or testing. Although specific studies may come off as exclusively deductive, the majority of social researches entail deductive and inductive processes concurrently. Indeed, even in highly limited experiments, one may notice data patterns that may guide them to formulate novel theories.

Grounded theories have their origins in the researches executed by Strauss along with Glaser on how dying persons interact with caregivers (Cohen & Crabtree, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Researches that are hinged on the theories lead to the production of additional, or new, knowledge that is employed in the formulation of new theories regarding particular phenomena. That means that the researches are hinged in the gathering, as well as appraisal, of sets of data on the particular phenomena. The knowledge derived from the researches helps people appreciate the phenomena better and better.

In the researches, sets of data may be gathered through different ways to formulate grounded theories. They ways include appraising extant literature, observations, analysis of available documents, interviews as well as observations. Notably, these data gathering approaches are as well used in researches based on the other theories. The patterns made out in the appraisal of the sets are used in formulating hypotheses, which are consequently tested to give way to the formation of specific constructs (Beaver & Walsh, 2011; Woodside, 2010). The constructs give rise to new concepts and understandings, meaning that the theories are founded, or grounded, in the sets of data.

In researches based on axiomatic theories, particular axioms are used in deriving theorems logically. Notably, mathematical theories comprise of the theorems derived from axiomatic systems and the systems. Theories that are deemed formal are characteristically axiomatic systems, for instance developed in the framework of the model theory. Axiomatic system models are highly characterized sets that allocate meaning to any uncharacterized term existing in the systems (Cohen & Waite-Stupiansky, 2012). The models assign the meaning in accordance with the links characterized in the systems. When concrete models’ existence is established in given researches, their consistency is affirmed in the light of the systems. Research models are deemed concrete when the allocated meanings are actual relations and objects.

If the research theories described above are applied in dissimilar settings, then one cannot claim or establish that any of them has more validity than the rest. The validity of each of the theories is dependent on the extant settings. For instance, in research, deductive theories are deemed to have higher validity levels than inductive approaches when the sources from which data is gathered are abundant (Hoque, 2006). In research, deductive theories are deemed to have higher validity levels than inductive approaches when the research is to be concluded in a rather short duration. Besides, in research, deductive theories are deemed to have higher validity levels than inductive approaches when risk is not accepted and in cases where theories may come up in any way.

Theory versus Hypothesis

Hypotheses are the foremost steps in the formulation of specific theories. Hypotheses are informed, or educated, guesses regarding the workings of reality, often based on interesting observations or experimental outcomes (University of Waikato, 2015). All valid scientific hypotheses are testable; they are tested experimentally for their truths (Cohen & Waite-Stupiansky, 2012). Experiments are designed to establish whether particular hypothesized phenomena actually happen. In accordance with specific criteria, hypotheses are tested through experiments. Where many observations, as well as experiments, agree with particular hypotheses, the hypotheses may ultimately be deemed to be theories, showing that they are consistent with all accessible evidence and thus are extensively accepted. Theories have been recurrently tested via diverse experiments and their validity established consistently in the experiments (Beaver & Walsh, 2011; Woodside, 2010).

Theories are dissimilar to laws as well as facts. One observes facts. That means that facts are indisputably true even when they provide no explanations of themselves or anything else. Laws are detailed descriptions of the workings of reality but they do not describe why reality works the ways it does. Theories explain why reality works, or operates, the way it does. As well, theories support the explanations they offer with tested evidence. In some cases, extensively accepted theories are disproved when new observations or experimental outcomes prove inconsistencies in them. In such cases, the theories are discarded. New explanations or theories take up their places.

Variables

Scientific experiments are geared towards establishing the relationships between particular effects and their causes, or triggers according to Hoque (2006). The experiments are designed to ensure that changes to given items or objects causes changes in others in ways that are predictable. Variables are the changing quantities in the experiments (Cohen & Waite-Stupiansky, 2012). Variables are specific conditions, traits, or factors that are capable of existing in varying types or amounts. As well, they may be time periods, feelings, ideas, objects, or events measured by researchers and that are capable of existing in varying types or amounts.

Variables are essential elements of theoretical schemes owing to varied reasons. First, they direct researchers to pursue given researchers with marked curiosity as they seek to unravel the links between them (Beaver & Walsh, 2011; Woodside, 2010). Variables help give researches focus. Second, they establish cause, as well as effects, in particular researches. Even though some variables are not causal-oriented, the notion of the links between effects and their causes may assist in clarifying the idea of autonomy in variables that are independent along with the notion of dependence in relation to dependent variables.

Conclusion

Theories are explanations of the workings of reality using substantial supporting evidence. Inductive reasoning along with theories is more exploratory, as well as open-ended, than deductive theories and reasoning. Deductive theories are narrower in the scope of the researches they support than inductive theories. Grounded theory researches lead to the production of additional, or new, knowledge that is employed in the formulation of new theories regarding particular phenomena. In researches based on axiomatic theories, particular axioms are used in deriving theorems logically. Hypotheses are the foremost steps in the formulation of specific theories. Hypotheses are informed, or educated, guesses regarding the workings of reality, often based on interesting observations or experimental outcomes. Theories explain why reality works, or operates, the way it does. As well, theories support the explanations they offer with tested evidence. Variables are the changing quantities in scientific experiments. They exist in varying types or amounts.

Download full sample paper on Foundations of Conducting Research – Theories , Hypothesis And Variables or order a plagiarism free paper at an affordable price.

Intermediate Accounting – Financial Reporting And Generally Accepted Accounting Principles

Financial Reporting

Financial reporting is defined as the process of producing statements which disclose the financial status of an organization to investors, management, government and the public (if the company is publicly traded). Gibson (20120) argues that these disclosed financial information about a particular company shows how it performs over a specific period of time. The financial reports are generally issued on a yearly or quarterly basis. The financial reports are found in the annual report of a public company.

The four basic financial reports are income statements (profit and loss statements), balance sheets, statements of shareholders’ equity, and cash flow statements.

Purpose of financial reporting

There are two primary purposes served by financial reporting. First, it enables the management to make effective decisions in relation to the company’s overall strategies and objectives. The information disclosed in the financial reports assist the management in discerning the weaknesses and strengths of the organization as well as its general financial health (Wahlen, Jones & Pagach, 2013). Secondly, the financial reporting presents important information on the activities and financial health of the organization to its stakeholders which includes its potential investors, shareholders, government regulators and consumers. It’s to ascertain that the company is being managed appropriately. Furthermore, it should be noted that if a company is publicly traded, it becomes subjected to stringent reporting regulations imposed by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).

Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)

Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) are common set of accounting procedures, standards and principles that companies use while compiling their financial statements. The GAAP constitute a collection of authoritative standards (outlined by policy boards), for instance, Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and Accounting Principles Board and the commonly agreeable ways of recording and reporting financial statements.

When a company is distributing to the public its financial statements it must adhere to GAAP benchmark. If the stock of the corporation is publicly traded, its financial statements must adhere to the rules that the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has established (Williams & Carcello, 2008). This would encompass ensuring that the corporation’s financial statements are audited by an independent Certified Public Accounting (CPA) firm.

Examples of the basic Accounting Principles and guidelines are matching principle, cost principle and full disclosure.

Full disclosure principle

The principle means that all the information that is in relation to the business of the corporation be reported either in the notes to the financial statements or in the content of the financial statements.

Cost principle

This denotes the historical cost of the itembeing reported in the financial statements. Historical cost refers to the amount of money that was paid on an item at the time it was bought and it isn’t changed to account for the inflation (Bragg, 2013).

Matching principle

This principle relates to the way a business reports is accounting information on expenses and incomes. The principle requires that companies use the accrual form of accounting and then match the business expenses to business income for a particular time period.

Materiality principle

This is the measure of importance of a misstatement in the company’s accounting records. For instance, this principle creates a gray area in the accounting standards which would be best sorted by professional judgment. An example is the effect on the financial statements of understating the price of an asset with a particular value (Georgiades, 2008).

Going concern principle

This concerns the intent of a business to continue its operations into the foreseeable future and never to liquidate the business.

Sources of GAAP

The sources of GAAP can be categorized as:

  • First, is the officially established accounting principles which consist of the FASAB Statements of Federal Financial Accounting Standards and Interpretations. The FASAB Standards and Interpretations is periodically incorporated in the publications by the FASAB (Bragg, 2013).
  • Technical Bulletins of FASAB and, if specifically declared applicable to the federal reporting entities by the AICPA and should be cleared by AICPA Industry Audit and Accounting Guides and FASAB.
  • The Technical Releases of the FASAB’s Accounting and Auditing Policy Committee.
  • The implementation guides which are published by the FASAB staff, and also the practices which are broadly recognized and are prevalent in the federal government.

ITunes: Who should be involved in the development of the necessary information systems and what roles should each group play for the project(s)?

We are currently learning about information systems, and ITUNES is used as an example.

1) Who should be involved in the development of the necessary information systems (top management, middle managers, User, IS professionals), and what roles should each group of people play for the project(s)?
– pay attention to which group in the company – marketing, sales, accounting, finance, software-IT dev groups should be involved in creating the solution.
– There are 5 categories of data that they need to maintain in order to function efficiently as an online music store

2) Who will be the suppliers for iTunes? What kinds of collaborations would be necessary for a business such as this? What would be the elements (applications) of their information systems?
– describe the elements in details
– a half page answer for this

…….

 

Ethical Profile

Please respond to the following so I can have an example to look to to write my own ethics profile:

1.Ethical Autobiography.

First, explain how you think through and determine what is “right” and “wrong” (personally and professionally) in your own daily life. Second, Identify four examples of ethical behaviors and explain how your cultural heritage has shaped your values. Third, describe the nature of the four ethical behaviors you see in yourself.

2. Professional/Ethical Hero.

First, identify an ethical “hero,” an individual that has most impressed you and serves as your role model because of their professional/ethical presence (i.e., sensitivity, appropriate boundaries, and respect for privacy, ethical commitment and ethical courage). Elaborate on his/her ethical characteristics. Discuss how this person can (or does) serve as a role model for others in the helping profession. Second, describe how this “hero” has influenced your value system.

3. Ethical Decision-Making Style.

This section will articulate your implicit style in terms of ethical decision making. Although there are specific models which help facilitate ethical decision making, everyone has their own unique style. Taking into consideration the ethical decision making model presented in this course, identify the style that reflects your early and ongoing experiences with moral values and issues which has been influenced and shaped by your parents, relatives, peers and valued adults in your life, such as a teacher or coach. Use what you have written from your autobiography to supplement this discussion. In summary, explain your implicit ethical decision making style, including how this course and your cultural heritage have served as influential factors.

Guidelines For Handling Unhappy Customers

Adjust your mindset

  • Once aware of unhappy
  • Put yourself into customers service mindset
  • Meaning you set aside any feelings

Listen actively

  • This is the most important step in the process
  • Remember that client needs to be heard
  • Start the conversation with a neutral statement
  • Resist temptation of trying to solve situation right away

Repeat the clients concern

  • After the client is doe explaining
  • Repeat his concerns to be sure that you’re addressing the right issue
  • Ask question if need be for certainty
  • Use calm and objective wording
  • This help lowers the client anger and stress level

Be empathic and apologize

  • Understanding why the client s upset
  • Body language is important in communicating

Present solution

  • Present the client with a solution
  • By telling her how you like to correct the mistake

Take action and follow up

  • Action should be taken immediately
  • Explains steps taken to fix the problem
  • Follow up to make sure that the client is happy

Use the feedback

  • To reduce risk of the situation happening again

Whenever you write something, it is important to keep in mind who your audience is.

Whenever you write something, it is important to keep in mind who your audience is. Choose two of the assignments (assignments) you composed during this class and discuss how you dealt with the issue of audience as you wrote the assignments. For each assignment, who was your audience? How did selecting (or not selecting) an audience affect how you wrote your assignments?

Technology changes continue to have an influence on the lives of people on a day-to –day basis. The mobile phone plays a very significant role in the lives of many people. Research indicates that more and more people/teens continue to rely on texting as a way of communication. Text messaging is a way of sending messages by using a mobile phone. The mobile phone has characters that allow a person to convey the message he/she wants. The way text messaging continues to change affects the way teens communicate. Mobile telephone companies continue to provide cheap rates in terms of mobile communication. They offer plans that allow unlimited texting at a very low price. The increased use of text messaging has made the mobile phone manufacturers to manufacture phones that have QWERTY types of keyboards that allow easy texting. New products like Apple iPhones and iPads continue to offer platforms for people to text.
Survey conducted in America showed that monthly, over 179 billion texts are sent. It means that an average America teenager receives 80 text messages in a day. Texting is important in sending short messages to people. It allows inexpensive and easy communication. People communicate well texting in all places both when in noisy conditions and silent places like boardroom meeting.  The teens like texting because it can allow them to multitask unlike conversation that will make them stop whatever they are doing to engage in the conversation. With texting a teenager does not have to sit down and listen to a long lecture, texting helps them reduce boredom.



Various risks come with texting. The major problem in the United States that arises because of texting is vehicle accidents that happen because of texting. Over 13% of the drivers that arein accidents range between the age of 16 and 22. Most of these accidents the teens admit that the accident happened while they were texting or playing with their phone. The teenagers of the current age need constant communication via texting whether they are behind the wheel or sleeping. The repetitive stress on one part of the body has led teens to have tendonitis because of excessive texting.
Texting affects the quality of sleep people get. Texting in bed before sleeping reduces the amount of sleep that many teens get. Most teens feel anxious if they are not aware what is happening in their social life. Texting leads to poor quality sleep that is not even enough. Texting can lead to developmental issues. Increased texting has even made verbal communication between people in a family very difficult. The reason for this is that teens want to be in constant communication with their friends. They send the texts frequently and cannot engage in anything productive while at home. Texting has robbed teens of the relaxation because they can no longer go five minutes without checking their phone.
Texting greatly affects the performance of teenagers in the universities. They do not concentration on studying/homework because they are using toomuch of their time texting. Texting affects the way teenagers communicate. There is too much use of short cuts and acronyms. Texting affects the communication skills of teenagers. Teenagers now use short messaging that is not grammatical. It has made the teenagers loose communication skills and etiquette. Personal communication is now choppy and less natural. It turns their writing into coded messaging so when it comes to normal writing they are at a lose for words.
The use of technology has the positive and the negative aspects. The users should consider the good that comes with a technology and use it in moderation. Texting has come and it is here to stay. Teenagers should learn to use it for their benefit.

Describe how different individuals react differently to the change process.

For the next phase of your leadership exploration, describe the major factors that lead to the necessity for change and the impact on individuals. Consider the following for your assignment:

  • Describe how different individuals react differently to the change process. Why do you suppose these differences occur and win what way would they affect the resulting changes?
  • Discuss your role as a leader in the change process. How do you react to change?
  • How can you help overcome resistance to change by your subordinates and peers?
  • How can you help bring appropriate change in your current position?

Your submitted assignment should be 4 pages and include correct spelling, punctuation, and grammar. Be sure to cite your sources per APA formatting.

 

number 2

 

Select an article (from a current business periodical such as the Wall Street Journal, The Economist, Fortune, etc.) that describes successfully leading change. Describe the change and analyze how that leadership was effective in overcoming resistance and implementing change. Support your assertions with cited research.

Your submitted assignment should be 3 pages and include correct spelling, punctuation, and grammar. Be sure to cite your sources per APA formatting.

 

number 3

 

“Second Wave Feminism”, gained strength during the 1970’s. For this essay assignment, research and write about a popular television show from the 1970’s, which reflected the changing role of women in American culture. Discuss your findings.

This paper should be 2 pages, in APA style, utilizing the college’s library resources. One scholarly article as a minimum should be included in your essay.

 

number 4

find and Analyze and use this article to answer the questions,

Nixon Tells Editors, ‘I’m Not a Crook’ (1973). Kilpatrick, Carroll Washington Post,

To successfully complete this essay, you will need to answer the following questions:

  • Explain the cultural relevance of the article. Who funded this magazine? What are their political biases?
  • What is the main point of the article? What is the writer’s message to his/ her readers?
  • Did the magazine make an impact on popular culture?

Your thesis for the essay should attempt to answer this question:

  • Explain the cultural relevance of the article. How did this particular magazine article reflect and/ or attempt to manipulate the cultural values of its audience? How can you prove this?

This essay should be 3 pages, in APA style, utilizing the college’s library resources. Please include at least one scholarly resource as a minimum in your essay.