Month: June 2017

The Role of Leadership in Employee Motivation

The Role of Leadership in Employee Motivation

Can leaders really motivate employees? Yes, and they should do. Extensive research has been carried out over the years to evaluate the impact of charismatic, transformational and inspiring leaders on employee motivation. Such research has established that a charismatic and transformational leadership approach addresses the emotional needs and responses of employees in a more effective way. On the contrary, a plainly transactional approach tends to have little or no motivational impact towards the employees. One of the positive impacts on employees resulting from charismatic leadership is the healthy relationship that arises between the employees and their leaders. Some of the indicators of a positive relationship are high levels of trust, commitment to the organization, job satisfaction and job performance both at the individual level and organization levels (Bono & Judge, 2003).

According to Jeroen and Deanne (2007), most of the studies on behavioral leadership focus on the performance outcomes. However, some studies indicate that transformational leadership also encourages employee creativity and innovativeness which is an excellent form of motivation. Such leaders achieve this innovative employee motivation by encouraging the employees to view challenges in new and diverse ways. This helps them enhance their creativity and tend to realize their full potential. Leaders make this kind of impact by adopting a participative form of leadership. Participative leadership is the kind of leadership in which the employees can influence the leader’s decisions by virtue of the procedures employed in the decision-making process. These procedures used by participative leaders include consulting, delegation and making joint decisions together with the followers. Studies show that this form of leadership encourages employees to be innovative since they get to participate in decision making as opposed to waiting for decisions to trickle down from the leaders or management.

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Family Description Paper

Family development theory and normative issue emphasizes on the patterned and systematic transformations that families undergo as they progress through their course of life. The term family, in this case, represents a social group comprising of at least one parent-child relationship. It is the social norms that forms and guides family group with regards to the normative issues (Goldenberg & Goldenberg 2013).Each stage of family development is comprised of diverse family roles, tasks and relationship between family members, focusing on the shifting transformations that families undergo during the normative life span. Examples of the family development stages include first stage that is establishment stage where a new family is formed with the relation of two people who make a new house and they gradually distance from their family of origin forming their own nuclear family. The second stage, new parents, starts when they have a newborn added to their family, and the role of the newly wed couple broaden to bigger role of a mother and a father, then the third stage, preschool family, is the stage when the child starts developing and comprehending relations in his life and he accepts new addition of siblings to the family, then comes the fourth stage, school-age family, when these children start going to school and they get awareness about institutes and relations outside the home. Then comes fifth stage, family of adolescents, at this stage children develop their gender identity and have peer groups that identify them and learning about culture. Then comes sixth stage, family with young adults, children in the family start become more independent and they lose their family ties gradually. The seventh stage is, family of launching centers, the children start developing their independence and leave their parents and then its eighth stage, post-parental family, the children marry and they become parents and their own parents have to accept the new additions to the family, then comes, ninth stage of ageing family, when parents retire and they become dependent on their own children. The new family of their children takes care of the older as well as the new generation. (Moghaddam, 2016). Family development changes that do not directly involve children may still influence children in the interpersonal context of the multigenerational family framework. For instance, grandparents transitioning into retirement (Goldenberg & Goldenberg 2013).

Elimelech is married to Gitty and they have nine children. They are involved in three stages of family development at the same time. The first stage according to description of family development given above, they are at stage four, the school-age family. In this stage, the child is introduced to extra-familial institutions; dealing with the child’s adjustment and new environmental feedback. The child, on the other hand, establishes independent additional familial relationships. From the family case study given, Elimelech and his wife are trying to succeed with their children at school as well, and domestic responsibilities at home. At this age, children require the family unit to care for their needs, such as school needs, friendship needs, and physical needs(Zastrow, & Kirst-Ashman, 2016). Elimelech and Gitty’s would in several occasions wake their children up in the morning so that they could get ready for school. When the children surpass this age, they can be woken up with the help of an alarm clock. Furthermore, the parents prepare meals for the children and give parental love to them since they are still not mature enough to be independent.

The second family development stage that this family undergoes according to the table given above is the family with the adolescent stage. Here, the parents have to accept the adolescents while the children are developing a sexual identity and integrating with peer group culture. Elimelech and Gitty are still in the child bringing stage, stage four (described above), yet facing adolescents with their challenges of independence (Goldenberg & Goldenberg 2013). The parents during this stage, of family with adolescents, face the challenge of launching the children into the world. Additionally, children at this stage are given more leeway about what they want to do. For example, the children are encouraged to do their shopping and take care of the shopping needs of the family. This gives them independence. Research says that during adolescent age the sense of freedom in the children makes the parents have peace and harmony in the marriage, cooperation, and intimacy.

Thirdly Elimeleche’s family is in the eighth stage, post-prenatal family. Elimelech’s parents have children who are married. His parents have the role of letting go of children and redefining their marriage, they adopt potential new role as grandparents and the young couple, Elimelech and Gitty have potential new role as parents of new children. Research says that at this stage the young family is coping with possible caregiving and loss on older generation (Goldenberg & Goldenberg 2013). The normative issue facing the family is how to accept the different views and characteristics of the in-laws and incorporate them into the family unit.

 

Family Roles

Family development stages assign tasks to different family members according to their age and position in the household. Elimelech, in this case, is the eldest, educated and smart member of the family. He is concerned with education matters and offers advice to younger siblings regarding what one should study. His liberal and Judaic studies are also necessary for teaching Judaic family values to the family. He also doubles as the family education mentor.

Gitty (Elimelech’s wife) is responsible for household chores. She is action oriented and is unsettled until the house is put in order. She takes care of her nuclear family and the in-laws (Elimilech’s family of origin) as well. She is concerned with general cleaning of the house, family laundry, house repairs and proper arrangement of the family house. She is also the family cook and enjoys baking.

Sara, Elimelech’s eldest sister, second born after him, has a big heart. She is supportive and offers empathy to all family members. She is also concerned with counseling younger family members with various problems. She is the one that everybody runs to whenever they need little emotional support and moral support. She also connects the other siblings to the parents by communicating their problems. The parents are also supportive of her.

Abraham (married), Elimelech’s brother and third born Elimelech’s family, is the disciplinarian of the family. He makes the family members obey what his wife regard as proper. He is submissive to his wife yet authoritarian to his siblings. Although he may appear neutral, he strictly follows what his wife has commanded. He is dominating on the siblings, and everyone must work with his wife if it is proper. Michy, Elimelech’s second sister, on the other hand, is the all-time family favorite. Although she is married, she loves her family and her siblings. She ‘s nice to everyone in the family, and everybody likes her. Judith, Elimelech’s third sister, her role is being the fashion advisor. She knows the current styles and is the most up to date. However, she is struggling with her family, and she is the one reaching out to get helped but to the wrong people.

Chaim (married), Elimelech’s third brother, is the happy go lucky, but you better not aggravate his wife Sara because she’ll just cut off any ties with you. Shea (fourth brother) presents himself as the decent guy his role is to make dad and mom smile. Hershel (fifth brother) just runs his life the way he wants, and parents are altering themselves to accommodate him. He is the independent one

Family Rules

The family as the social group has well-structured rules that the members often adhere to. (Hepworth, et.al, 2009, p. 240). In this family,  Elimelech’s mother is authoritarian, and her words are law. When the mother asks for something, there is no room for argument neither is there a choice. Every family member must obey the mother’s inquiry. Additionally, the father is a no-nonsense person. He only needs to give hints, but the rest is upon the family members to figure out.

The organization and structure in the family positively affect the family’s ability to maintain a sense of equilibrium and manage its life stage task of keeping the family together. For example, in this family, the males are equally responsible for domestic needs. It bonds the family jointly with the sense of responsibility and having equal rights in the family affairs. (Hepworth, et.al , 2009)

The family is based on strong discipline background where the father and mother are the sole decision makers and everybody is to follow. For example, there are no excuses for delaying proper greetings of good wishes, parents decide about education, dress code and holiday celebrations, certain customs, especially of holidays, can not be changed from the mom’s unalterable decisions. It is supposed that this ensures uniformity in family affairs and bond the family with strong ties. It also brings the sense of togetherness and eliminates separation among family members. According to research, positive qualities in the relationship between parents and children help children in developing greater healthy independence and autonomy from parents and a sense of self-reliance (Zimmer-Gembeck, Madsen, & Hanisch, 2011). The children conform a lot to the family laws and rules and they don’t disobey the parents. This may appear to develop good relationship among children and parents in this family.

Family Cohesiveness

The family is in a close relationship yet flexible, no interdependence between siblings, but parents are not too flexible any change of the “norms” will shake them up. As a result, the whole family is precautious about any decisions. The strict rules that have been set by the parents make the family members feel close to each other and maintain close contact with each other because they are strictly conformed and obeyed by the children. Older siblings guide the younger ones and provide right direction. Additionally, the family is supportive of each family member, and there is love among the family members. The sharing of the domestic chores also binds the family together. The family also names children after the generation, for example, the name Shea Fasten. This keeps generational love down the family genogram.

Family Communication

Balance between separateness and connectedness and communication pattern

Open communication is not the best between the additions (in-laws) in the family, yet between immediate siblings, it is used including constructive criticism and reaching out for help. The communication between family members affects the family both in negative and positive ways. It is positive because it helps keep the family together. Family members feel secure that they are informed of the family’s affairs, and this helps the family communicate and share with each other. On the downside, when the entire family is provided with information about each other, it inhibits the family from developing independence from each other (Zastrow, & Kirst-Ashman, 2016).

Studies show that family members often prefer to conceal private information from each other for prosocial reasons. When family members refrain from sharing private information, it can contribute to their sense of trust and bonding with each other. At times, concealing information can be a form of betrayal. However, the sharing of information between members also help members feel connected. When members share, it provides a feeling of confidence about the connection between members. It also supports exploration between family members for their needs and preferences (Zastrow, & Kirst-Ashman, 2016). Thus the sharing and concealment of private information need to be balanced in the family unit, and the way it is balanced has significant implications for the success of the household and its members (Vangelisti, 2012).

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Evolution of Decision Making Approaches: The Evolvement to Data-Driven Decision Making

Decision-making can simply be termed as the principle of selecting between two or more initiatives or causes of action to effectively identify and solve problems. Over the years, the business and institutional environment has grown tremendously, thus leading to hiking demand for effective, accurate and timely decisiveness. Decision makers, managers or leaders, must proficiently identify opportunities in the market, challenges, and make quick and crucial choices that affect the competitiveness of their institution or organization. These decisions play a significant role in ensuring their survival in the global environment. On the other hand, Data-Driven Decision Making Approach provides accurate and verifiable information that is used in the decision-making process. Using the data guarantees positive outcomes of the process while improving the organization’s state in the modern technological world. The approach relies on quality research to support the decisions made by leaders or managers (Power, 2016). This paper focuses on the gradual change in decision-making approaches. It critically evaluates how early decision-making theories have evolved to modern approaches (data-driven decision-making).

Early Decision-making Approaches

Different sociologists, economists, and psychologists developed several theories regarding the concept of decision-making. Though the theories differed in assumptions and way of execution, they had various similarities where one would form the basis for the other. One of these theories was the classical and neoclassical approach. The theory stated that the decision making process involved investigation on issues, generating possible alternatives and determining their impact, then choosing the optimal alternative (Kalantari, 2010). However, “Simon asserted that the classical and neoclassical approaches in dealing with decision-making concept are not realistic and do not correspond with the real world” (Kalantari, 2010, p.512).

Cyert and Simon (1983) developed a theory known as the Behavioral Approach, which according to them, gave a picture of the nature of rationality in the real world. They also stated that “a theory of decision-making within organizations that combines both the internal variables of the firm and the market forces of the particular market structure the firm is operating within can be developed” (Cyert & Simon, 1983, p.95). The approach was developed to improve the unrealistic classical model and provide more profound decision-making support to managers.

Another theory was the expected utility theory, which “was accepted as a normative model rational choice” and dominate in “analysis of decision making under risk” (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979, p.263). They described the theory as a “descriptive model of decision making under risk, and developed an alternative model, called the prospect theory” (p. 263). Most of the decision made by leaders are under risk, therefore these models are crucial. In describing decision making in relation to leadership, Vroom (2000) used an example of an emergency response manager. According to him, the process begins with problem identification, then determining the possible solutions to solve the problem. As a leader, quick decisions are paramount in determining the survival of your organization or institution, especially where substantial risk is involved.

Development of the Decision Making Approaches

Kalantari (2010) explains that the main idea in Herbert A. Simon’s study was based on scientific evidences on human behavior. “His central goal was to explain the nature and mechanism of thoughts process that people use in making decisions”

(Kalantari, 2010, p.510). Simon’s studies were directed towards administrative behavior as a discipline dictating the process of making a decision. “Organizational decision-making is a complex process that is influenced by many factors in the organization” (Kalantari, 2010, p.511). The theory was mainly to rectify the previous classical and neoclassical approach, which was ineffective.

“The classical and neoclassical approaches in dealing with decision-making concept are not realistic and do not correspond with the real world” (Kalantari, 2010, p.512). The bounded rationality model was an ideal approach to use for decisions that are more effective. Simon defended his model stating that bounded rationality can be referred to as “limits of human capability to calculate the server deficiencies in human knowledge about the consequences of choice, and the limits of human ability at adjudicate among multiple goals” (Cited in Simon, 1979, p.270). He also stated that “modern definition of the economic sciences, whether phrased in terms of rational decision making, marks out a vast domain for conquest and settlement” (Simon, 1979, p.493). The classical model formed the basis in empirical evidences, and from that, the bounded rationality model was formed to disapprove it and became the starting point for economic theories (Cited in Simon, 1997). However, the bounded rationality had its own limitations since it emphasized more on individual rationality degree of individual decision maker rather than evidences to support the action taken. This meant that the individuals modified the rationality model themselves, accounting for limitations surrounding them for satisfactory decisions (Kalantari, 2010). The model did not guarantee optimal decisions; therefore, there was need for more research to formulate models that are more sophisticated.

Most of the early theories on decision-making emphasized more on person’s behavior as the major determinant of reliable decision-making process. However, some included more factors, for example, the normative model. It was realistic and enabled a leader to reflect on past description in order to make sound decisions. Similarly, it formed a base for the development of data-driven decision-making approach, which is highly common in top performing companies and institutions globally.

The Data-Driven Decision Making Approach

The global business and institution environment has changed tremendously with great demand for timely, accurate and reliable decisions pressuring leaders or managers (Harvard Business Review Analytic Service, 2012). To achieve sensitive goals of timely and effective decisions, while relieving this pressure, strategic approaches need to be followed. To this regard, reliance “on good pre-analysis and documented data” is a brilliant way to come up with accurate decision while minimizing “tedious complexity of the decision-making process” (Tank, 2015, p.43). According to Tank (2015) as technology changes, competitiveness increases, therefore increased need for sufficient and reliable data to support the decision-making process. “Contemplating decision-making support options forces managers and technologists to examine issues of rationality, information culture, and decision support and analytics design and deployment” (Power, 2016, p.345). The increased demand for evidence-based decisions resulted to the gradual development of the data-driven decision-making. This approach has significantly improved the process of making decisions, especially when under pressure and in risky environments.

Significance of Reliance on the Data-Driven Culture

Rational thinking and a desire for evidence-based decision-making is paramount when formulating effective data-driven approach (Power, 2016, p.347). Recent studies show that managers are faced with substantial challenges when executing their managerial tasks while using the new data streams. To solve this, great emphases have been put on evidence-based approaches in decision-making process. A good example of the effectiveness of the data-driven approach is in occupational therapy. The data-driven method “provides a framework for reasoning through the occupational therapy process with a focus on utilization of data guide and measure outcomes” (Schaaf, 2015, p.2).

Data science is a recent discipline that has contributed positively to the decision-making process (Power, 2016, p.345). The approach requires data scientists who encourage managers and leaders to “examine issues of decision-maker rationality, data and data analysis” (Power, 2016, p.345). According to Power (2016), managers look upon the data scientists to utilize the expanding data streams, which in turn enhance rational decision-making while ameliorating data-driven decision making in the organization or institution. Using past-well analyzed data substantially reduce the risks in decision-making process. Leadership challenges are eliminated since the leader can find past information on the area, learn from any mistakes made, and rectify them when making the current decisions. Risks of repeating past mistakes are close to none.

Current Situation on Data-Driven Decision Making

Today, “the imperative to make better decisions faster has increased the pressure on organizations and their employees” (Harvard Business Review Analytic Service, 2012, p.3). As indicated in Harvard Business Review Analytic Service (2012), the pressure has resulted to evolution “in the development of a data-driven culture, typically based on the use of analytics and business intelligence” (p.3). The evolution has been greatly influenced by standardization of the decision-making process, increased pressure for timely decisions in the competitive market, the need for analytical tools to expand skills, and creation of an analytical ecosystem on data-driven decisions (Harvard Business Review Analytic Service, 2012).

Additionally, there is a rapid adoption of the data-driven decision-making approach in organizations, government institutions as well as learning institutions. A study by LeMire et al. (2016) explains how statistical data is used to promote data-driven decisions in learning institutions. Collection and employment of crucial and relevant “reference statistics for the data-driven decision making is more important than ever” (LeMire et al., 2016, p.230). The approach has become more common in the modern global environment. The organizations’ ability to build and use management systems effectively is highly dependent on its staff’s capacity to comprehend various activities and deciding what to take and what to leave (Maxwell, Rotz & Garcia, 2016).

In the U.S, the use of data-driven decisions in manufacturing sectors has increased substantially. “However, adoption has been uneven” despite the nearly tripled use of data-driven decisions “between 2005 and 2010, from 11% to 30% of plants” (McElheran & Brynjolfsson, 2016, p.5). This great development on data-driven decision-making has been evident on firms with well-integrated IT investments, and less in firms with unsophisticated IT growth.

Similarly, “along with teamwork, communication, problem-solving and other employee requirements, the ability to analyze and act on data will become a core competency for professionals of all types” (Mozenda, 2017). Today, for a leader to perform tasks proficiently, he/she should be able to interpret relevant data in their organizations and make sensible and reliable decisions to solve problems.

Conceptual phrases like “big data” and “data lakes” will be used less and less in favor of implementing detailed processes that emphasize delivering useful, relevant data. Companies continue to thrive or stagnate by their ability to collect and act on data. Unfortunately, many organizations end up building large databases of information that are underutilized and do little to improve their bottom line. Data is truly only useful when it is able to answer important questions. (Mozenda, 2017)

Answering those questions will help solve problems facing a company or institutions.

Additionally, the technical challenge affecting decision makers is the effective use of big data and execution of task as part of the executive team in the organization (McAfee & Brynjolfsson, 2012). Therefore, in ensuring the success of a company in the big data era, members of the leadership team need to set clear goals, ask the right questions and clearly defining what needs to be done for the company to succeed (McAfee & Brynjolfsson, 2012, p. 66). It is also evident that performing companies have leaders who are able to think creatively, understanding the market and able to identify available opportunities proficiently.

Conclusion

Managers, being the decision makers, are obligated to make the right decisions for the effective running of an organization. They have to be familiar with the most effective approaches in the decision-making process. In the modern environment, “managers are facing both challenges and opportunities from new and expanding data streams” (Power, 2016, p.345). The gradually changing environment has prompted an improvement on the past decision making approaches to ones that are more sophisticated, enabling quick adoption of the changes. With the development of data-driven decisions, there is high demand for skilled decision makers. This is because; the data needs to be interpreted correctly to enhance effective decisions. For example, not all data that is useful, therefore a manager should be able to identify the important data that is relevant to the problem being tackled. Data-driven decision-making approach has helped “managers to decide on the basis of evidence rather than intuition” (McAfee & Brynjolfsson, 2012, p.63). Subsequently, “senior decision makers have to embrace evidence-based decision making” as companies “hire scientists who can find patterns in data and translate them into useful business information” (McAfee & Brynjolfsson, 2012, p.63).

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Evaluation of Mainstream Article – Selfies To Narcissism And Psychopathology

This article is a blog that reviews a research on link of selfies to narcissism and psychopathology. There are no charts or statistical figures included in the writing so it seems to be more as a general piece of work rather than professional and it seems that it’s actually written for general population and their level of understanding is kept under consideration. The writer has been biased in writing the research review in this way that he reported only those findings that support his argument of negative trait development due to selfies, the writer has not reported the limitations of the study that warrants further study to be conducted to support that these traits are specific to men and not to women in general.

The writer has reviewed only one article in the blog, though he has talked about other researchers too, that can show evidence or proof that support his argument but this shows that he has collected enough evidence only to support his argument, the writer’s approach seems biased in reporting findings from a research.  Nevertheless, despite having the review being biased and unidirectional, the writer has tried to create awareness for the reader to know that selfies trending have negative effects on an individual’s personality.

Briefly, summarize the mainstream article. Include a discussion of the mainstream article author’s purpose and intended audience.

The article mainly speaks about a research that has been conducted by Ohio State University study, the study was conducted on 800 men, aged between 18-40 years, they were asked to fill in the questionnaire that measured anti-social behavior and self-objectification, how often they posted their selfies and how and whether they edit their photos before posting them.

Narcissism is linked with inflated self-esteem and psychopathology involves lack of empathy and impulsive behavior, the findings of the research have not labeled the men who post slefies as narcissistic or psychopaths but indicates that they lie high on anti-social traits, few studies link use of Facebook with low self-esteem and narcissism and another study linked having unrealistically larger number of friends with narcissistic personality. The current study linked editing one’s photos with higher level of self-objectification and that can be a problem of concern for men and women with growing use of social networking.

The article was written to create awareness among people regarding the negative effects of following new trends of selfies. It seems that the writer wanted to persuade the reader to become conscious of the arising issues in the modern world due to these modern trends and become cautious of development of negative personality traits due to use of these social networking trends. The article is mainly focusing general population and its purpose is to spread awareness, the absence of any scientific terms and statistical figures show that this is actually focusing people with any kind of background.

How accurate was the mainstream source in reporting the results of the study? What did it do well? What could it have done better?

            The mainstream source seems to be biased in reporting results of the study. The writer has not mentioned any limitations and confounding that the study has faced due to which the results of study can be questioned for the accuracy of the measurement. The writer has mentioned findings of the study accurately but he has picked up only those findings that go in favor of his argument. This piece of study is very useful in creating awareness in general population, who don’t study or can’t understand scientific findings; these types of articles are beneficial in reporting the facts and findings that are useful for general population.

It could have mentioned more studies to support its argument and findings of the Ohio state University, it could have used generic terms in describing the results of the study and it could have also mentioned few studies that go against the writer’s argument in order to put the view in front of the readers and not force their thinking to see selfie as negative due to his biased reporting.

Effective Leadership Practices – Nelson Mandela

Peter Drucker defines leadership as the art of doing things right. As a proponent of change and political emancipation in the apartheid South Africa, Nelson Mandela is the ensemble of leadership in its real sense. According to Mandela, the state of segregation based on race was not the right measure of governance and leadership in a progressive and democratic setup. He thus chose to fight for that which he believed was right, proper and equitable representation irrespective of color and racial background. As a black scholar, he envisioned a country where the present individuals could be treated fairly and equally. This is the basis upon which the African icon whose legacy lives to date was based.

As both a political and later a philanthropic leader to be emulated over the years of his life and reign, Mandela portrayed the three level model of leadership whereby he had an ostensible personal role and an outstanding public life and role. Mandela’s inner level presence was molded around a loyal family and a privilege of education in a time when the same was not universally available. (Eredith, 2010) These early skills served to prepare him for his later public life, especially the legal training. In the public domain, the man presented himself as a vocal and uncanny fighter who crusaded for the change in status quo against all odds.

A figure that arose in black Africa at a time when the plight of this group was subjugated by the ruling whites, Mandela stood for an issue that was an agenda of every black African of the time for decades. He ventured to push an agenda that many others could not risk their welfare and portfolio for. Additionally, he put the plight of others before his own, citing the fact that he was an accomplished lawyer and a family man, attributes whose standing he put at stake. By pushing the plight of common black citizens, he stood for an issue that brought together masses upon the same shared vision of a non-partisan country where color was not an issue of leverage.

In a time when rebellion and opposition to the reigning regime was a recipe for trouble, he stood out to fight for that which he believed was right. The same was at a detriment of his welfare and that of other dependents around him. For instance, the young family that Mandela had just founded was left to fend for itself while he ventured into the process of activism. The course of resistance and activism was not easy(Judge, et al., 2002). There was always a constant threat of harassment and arrest for him and other participants. Consequently, he had to make use of innovative and sly methods of evasion and organization. Some of these antics involved circumventing of the law and the use of other means that cannot be described as conventional.

The journey towards liberation could not by any definition be described as easy. As such, the quest could not be ventured into alone. The power of unity and mass participation can be highly attributed with the momentum that was achieved during the course of struggle. In the journey of activism and the fight for freedom, there are a number of other individuals that also played a pivotal role in aiding his quest(Scouller, 2011). The input of Steve Biko and Desmond Tutu was a crucial input that served to compound on the black struggle and attracting the attention of various vested groups. The insurmountable input that such individuals put into the struggle had a significant effect on the results that could be reaped from the struggle thereafter.

The era of black struggle that Mandela put upon himself to lead inspired a sense of charisma and philanthropy that he has been associated with all his life. The course of struggle brought with it masses that joined the bandwagon that was pushing for political changes in the then state of South Africa. The sense of action in Mandela as a leader of the struggle for change thus inspired others to assume a similar role in struggle(Chemers, 1997). As a leader, he assumed a role that others strived to emulate for the better good and want to be associated. As such, he inspired others around him towards a common good.

One of the most notable attributes that Mandela can be associated with has to be his sense of humility. Even in the wake of victory against black struggle and the achievement of independence for his country, he did not go ahead to own it alone. As a leader in all its definitions, he went ahead to give credit to the other people who played a role in the achievement of the same(Stogdill, 1948). The same spirit was translated into the position of leadership that he assumed thereafter. In the true sense of leadership, he served and left a democratic space that has grown the country into what it is currently. The same has been further translated into economic and social strides in the same direction.

There are a number of significant impacts that can be directly attributed to the leadership and continual presence of Mandela in South Africa and even Africa at large on the public domain. Out of public office, Mandela has acted to touch lives through inspiration and philanthropic efforts. Further, Mandela is a leader who in his life could be described as practical and hands-on(Chemers, 1997). This is an experience that communicates how his efforts and acts worked to resonate with the common people’s lives. Further, the jail experience and the humble interaction that characterizes the whole of Mandela’s life is an aspect that communicates the nice rapport that exists between him as a leader and the people.

The elevated position that Mandela has occupied and played as a role for decades in the continent and the world has a bright side and the downside too. As a leader and a role model, he has served to impacted societies, institutions and peoples’ lives across the region. The tenure that he served as head of state also served to create a precedent for good governance that has been replicated over the consequent terms(Eredith, 2010). The level of achievement and success that his life and actions have led to can be noted even in the international platform through the Nobel peace prize that is accorded to outstanding acts of philanthropy and common good. As has been noted, the position of leadership and service comes at a cost too. The family ties tended to disintegrate during his tenure due to a skewed focus on public service and thus inevitable negligence on this side.

The African journey to free rule and emancipation cannot be analyzed without noting icons like Nelson Mandela.  He is a personality that as has been observed many individuals and institutions associate with and would love to emulate. It is thus a matter of common knowledge and choice that one would like to analyze him in a position of leadership. His exemplary life and service to community is a notable combination that characterizes the definition and attributes of positive and progressive leadership(Judge, et al., 2002). As an individual too, it was natural that my choice would be skewed in a similar manner thus.

As has been alluded to in the course of this description, Nelson Mandela was the leader of black liberation in colonial South Africa. He arose from a royal family in the 19th century and led the quest for free and non-partisan leadership, representation, and coexistence in a state with variant race composition (Eredith, 2010). Using a privilege of education and an innate charisma and spirit for fairness, he thrived to be one of the most acclaimed leaders of the continent and the world in this era. His life is an exemplary representation of service built and based on the tenets of leadership.

Federal Reserve, Stabilizing Current Economy and Monetary Policy

The Federal Reserve Board testimonies, press releases, monetary policy reports, the Beige Book, and a variety of other publications offer a detailed assessment of current economic activity, financial markets, and the monetary policy tools used to promote economic activity and preserve price stability.

Write an eight to ten (8-10) page paper in which you:

  1. Evaluate the role and the effectiveness of the Federal Reserve in stabilizing the current economy.
  2. Determine which economic indicators the Federal Reserve should analyze so it can better stabilize this particular economy.
  3. Describe which monetary policies the Federal Reserve might use to influence the money supply.
  4. Explain the strengths and weaknesses of using monetary policy in comparison to fiscal policy when promoting economic activity and preserving price stability.
  5. Analyze the effect of the Federal Reserve’s action you identified in #3 on the aggregate demand / supply model.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Analyze the basic operation of banks, the structure of the banking industry, and the major regulatory processes controlling banks.
  • Evaluate monetary policy and its impact on economic growth and business cycle.
  • Analyze the various theoretical approaches and models and assess their use in shaping monetary policy.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in money and banking.
  • Write clearly and concisely about money and banking using proper writing mechanics.

Critical Analysis on Credible Articles: Information Technology in Decision-Making

Numerous research has been carried out to explain the development of IT in decision-making. Different researchers use a variety of  methodologies and develop different arguments in approval or disapproval of the hypothesis. Most credible sources of information on IT integration in decision-making apply the quantitative and qualitative research methods. An example is the study by Leidner and Elam (1994), which empirically examined effects of Executive Information Systems on decision-making. The method was advancement from the descriptive method. However, some studies applied the qualitative method that relies on descriptions and observations. A study by Janssen et al. (2016) emphasized on qualitative research method in understanding of factors affecting the decision-making process. This method does not provide high quality and reliable empirical evidences that certify its credibility. Another study by Steiger (1998) applies the theoretical approach in enhancing the use of Decision Support Systems. Theoretical framework does not give empirical evidences that are crucial when selecting credible sources for research purposes. Similarly, several authors develop arguments that seem to be in contradiction with others.

In understanding the use of information in decision-making, researchers try to certify the quality of their arguments and approach. Others offer solutions basing their argument on facts that contradict works done by other researchers. In their study, Leidner and Elam (1994) argue that descriptive research offers only the how and why hence they carried out a study to empirically examine impacts of Executive Information Systems. On another study, Janssen et al. (2016) insist on qualitative approach, which is a descriptive method, being the best in understanding the factors that affect effectiveness of decisions. The two contradict each other on the best method to apply for reliable findings that can be used in further studies. On the other hand, despite the method applied in a research, limitations are inevitable.

Every researcher aims at providing solutions to past problems and minimizing limitations in the study substantially. However, the limitations of a research method or design cannot be eliminated fully. Despite studies on IT integration in decision-making stressing on the quantitative approach, there are limitations as to the level of evidences. The approach makes it difficult to analyze the findings. On the other hand, the qualitative method stresses more on interviews, which focuses on the top-level managers, at the expense of diverse analysis emphasizing on both the managers and subordinate to acquire adequate and comprehensive data. The focus should be to the organization as a whole and the positive and negative results from use of IT in decision-making. An example is the comprehensive evidence provided by Marsden (2007) in the study on impacts of real-time data on Decision Support Systems. Additionally, to facilitate credible information, researchers need to apply the correct methods in any particular study.

The methodology is crucial in determining the evidence level and reliability in any study. The reliability in the evidences provided is what determines a credible source. However, different methodologies have been applied in IT integrations to the decision-making process. Despite that, each methodology provides a verifiable argument, which means that they are important. This implies that regardless of the evidence level provided by a particular method, it cannot be termed as unworthy or a bad method. Additionally, most researchers work towards a similar goal.

Arguments by authors incredible sources of information on information use in decision-making are mostly similar. The researchers agree with each other. This is more profound in current studies in the dynamic business world. Big data is a critical issue both scientifically and in engineering (Wang et al., 2016). The idea has been identified in the study by Power (2015), who states that new data streams require professional analysis for effective support on decision-making. Janssen et al. (2016), identifies the rapid transformation into Big Data and the complexity of dataset streams that calls for technical capabilities. Integration of “real-time business intelligence” in the decision-making process has minimized the complexities (Tank, 2015, p.43). In his study, Tank (2015) stresses that in the competitive business world, integration of IT in decision-making is crucial. Similarly, Leidner and Elam (1995) state that reliable information, which is computer-based, contributes to quality decisions. A study by Marsden (2007) gives a detailed discussion on the real-time data application in the decision-making process. In addition, despite the numerous studies on IT and its effect on the decision-making process, more extensive researches need to carried to address this dynamic issue.

“There is a big potential for a real-time business intelligence implementation as today’s decisions are taken on a poor foundation” (Tank, 2015, p.47). IT integration in the decision-making process is a broad and dynamic issue that calls for more studies for comprehensive grasp of the concept. More emphasis should be put on Real-Time Data and Real-Time Business Intelligence for credible source of information that will facilitate their implementation. Additionally, Tank (2015) signifies that automation of the decision-making process will result to more accurate information and effective decisions. It is therefore important for more studies to elaborate more on this area.

Consumption Process – Medicated Soap

Introduction

“Consumption process is a process that converts time and goods, services or ideas into value.” (http://www.slideshare.net/jacksonl-northwood/mkt3050-consumer-behavior-week-7-april-30-2012)For the purpose of this research paper,  I have selected a product (Medicated Soap) used for skins disease e.g. acne, pimples etc. the complete consumption process in respect of medicated soap is discussed below:-

Need

The consumption process starts from need of the product by the consumer and it is clear the all product are not the need of all consumers. Every consumer is in need of specific product it depends on the circumstances of the consumer. In this case, a medicated soap in only a need of persons with the specific skin disease healthy people usually consume beauty soap and further, it depends upon the prescription of the doctor if he recommends the use of such soap or not (http://www.slideshare.net/jacksonl-northwood/mkt3050-consumer-behavior-week-7-april-30-2012).

Want

It is assumed that a patient is recommended for the use of medicated soap, now the consumer is in the position to decide whether he want this product or not and it depends on the evaluation of many factors e.g. resources of consumer, willingness of the consumer to use the product, level of disease, price of the product etc (http://www.slideshare.net/jacksonl-northwood/mkt3050-consumer-behavior-week-7-april-30-2012).

Market research

Market research includes the list of all manufacturers of the products, the reputation of the manufacturers, the consumers review about the use of the product the advertisements number of different factors will lead him choose some products and compare with each other and to decide which one of them he wants .

Alternative Selection

Market investigation will help the consumer to select the best product and to know about the best alternatives available in case he is unable to purchase the desired product (http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/company/service-management/the-fisk-consumption-process-model-for-services-3-stages/40501/).

Comparison

Comparison is an important phase before deciding the want of the product n this phase the consumer will compare the chosen medicated soaps in different dimensions. First of all consumer will compare the prices of the soaps he may select the cheap one or expensive one depends on the nature / resources of the consumers. The product is disease related he may not compromise upon the quality and the high quality will lead to high price or the income resources may lead him to choose the cheaper product or may lead him to simply ignore all the products and decide not to purchase any.

Purchase Expectations

In the mean time somewhere, in the brain consumer start to expect the desired results from the use of the product which is the result of his intelligent purchase. In this regard we can say that the consumer of the skin disease will start expecting that the product is high quality and produced by the reputed manufacturer it will definitely help him to kill the disease. The more the high price is paid the more the quality is purchased the more the expectation will be in the mind of the consumer (http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/company/service-management/the-fisk-consumption-process-model-for-services-3-stages/40501/).

Cost / Benefit Analysis

During the use of the product, the consumer keep doing an analysis and compare its use with expected benefits, its price and the resulting benefits. At a point, he will decide whether the cost of the product paid is greater than the benefit derived from it or vice versa. This will lead the consumer in further thinking depends upon the type of product he purchased e.g. if the product was expensive and its benefits are low the consumer will be highly dissatisfied, in other case if the consumer has purchased a cheaper product and it derived low benefit he may decide to purchase the expensive one.

Reaction

This is post-consumption phase the consumer after comparing the cost its benefit and the imagined expectations will either be satisfied by the use of the product or will be dissatisfied this phase will decide the future of the product in the mind of the consumer whether he needs it more or not (http://www.slideshare.net/jacksonl-northwood/mkt3050-consumer-behavior-week-7-april-30-2012).

Evaluation

After purchasing the product its use and derived benefits the consumer evaluates the product and try to guess whether the decision was intelligent or he has been robbed this phase creates the value of the product in the mind of the consumer.

Value

This is the last phase after going through the above-mentioned process if the purchased product has benefitted the consumer in the way he expected the value of the product will be high otherwise it will be lower depending upon this value the consumer will take following three decisions about the product.

  1. The consumer will ignore the product in case of low value.
  2. The consumer will keep the product but will keep looking for the best alternatives in case of medium value.
  3. The consumer will be highly satisfied and will be motivated to repurchase the product in case of high value(http://www.slideshare.net/jacksonl-northwood/mkt3050-consumer-behavior-week-7-april-30-2012).

Causes of Customer Complaints at Tigerair Airlines in Australia

Introduction

Customer satisfaction is an important aspect for every company or organization. A profit-seeking company always strives to ensure high levels of customer satisfaction through quality services and products. It is the desire of every company to always receive positive feedback from its customers regarding the services and products since this has positive outcomes on the financial performance of the company. High levels of customer satisfaction translates to high customer retention rates by the company as it increases customer loyalty towards the organization. Loyal customer will not only continue purchasing the company’s services/products but are more likely to refer other potential customers to the company. The reverse is true whenever there is high level of customer dissatisfaction regarding a company’s service or product.

The airlines industry is quite a volatile industry for any operating company due to the increase in number of competitors. Being a service industry, customer satisfaction is of paramount significance. In fact, airlines compete along the ability to best satisfy the needs of customers in terms of airplane design, much minimized delays, as well as effective customer engagement. The Australian airline industry has a number of competitors. There are five major airline companies which operate as domestic carriers. These are Virgin Australia, Jetstar, Rex, Tigerair, and Qantas Domestic (Nick, 2015). All these companies compete for the domestic market share. Due to the many available airlines, customers are quite sensitive to the quality of service offered by a company as well as other factors like price.

Tigerair Australia is a subsidiary of Virgin Australia Holdings. It started its operations in Australia in the year 2007 and sailed on the market entry strategy of being a price leader. Its services were the cheapest in the market during its entry, a strategy that won it a significant number of customers. The company, however, has since been ranked the worst airline in Australia based on the numerous complaints received from customers who used its services. Since its operation, it has faced several complaints, increasing from 13% in 2013 to 31% in 2014 (Dang, 2014). The report released by the Federal Government’s Airline Customer Advocate (ACA) in 2014 indicated that the airline had ranked the worst in three consecutive years based on number of complaints. Customers have launched numerous complaints that include frequent delays caused the airline, the cancellations of flights, refusal to refund customers, poor terms and conditions, as well poor airport customer services (Nick, 2015).

The rise in number of customer complaints every year is a major risk to Tigerair’s operations. It is an indicator of increased customer dissatisfaction, which could result in massive loss of customers. It is also an indicator of poor leadership within the company since the complaints are based on similar issues which have being ignored and not resolved over the years. There is need for these complaints to be clustered into categories and the root causes of such complaints identified. The company should then identify possible solutions to these complaints so as to avoid the devastating outcomes of increased customer complaints.

AIM/OBJECTIVES.

The main aim of this research is to find a lasting solution towards solving the customer complaints at Tigerair. The specific objectives of the study include;

  1. To identify and cluster the complaints raised by the customers.
  2. To identify the causes of those complaints.
  • To determine the possible solutions to those complaints

 

Researching on customer complaints at Tigerair is important for both the company and the customers. Just like most of its competitors, Tigerair is a company that does business primarily to generate profits. It can only achieve profits and its financial objectives by having an adequate number of regular customers who purchase the company’s services. This cannot be achieved with the current situation where majority of the customers are clearly dissatisfied by the quality of the company’s services. The results from this research can, therefore, be very beneficial to the company in achieving more sales. It is expected that the company would adopt the recommendations from this research project in a rational way and implement them within a reasonable timeframe. Secondly, this research is important for the customers. The customers have a right to quality service and products. Such quality is currently definitely not being assured by Tigerair. This research will help in identifying the key causes of the customer complaints and present them to the company for recommendations for change. This is important to the customers whose complaints will be presented collectively which will serve as a reasonable call for change made to the company.

OUTCOMES

This research proposal is expected to have a number of outcomes at the end of the study. The expected outcomes are based on the fulfillment of the stated objectives. These outcomes are outlined below;

  1. Customer complaints will be identified and clustered into common categories.
  2. The causes of the customer complaints will be identified and similarly matched with the clusters of the complaints.
  • A number of possible solutions to the customer complaints will be identified and recommendations will be developed from these possible solutions for implementation by Tigerair.

 

Customer satisfaction in the airlines industry is a topic that has been explored extensively through research and past surveys. The surveys have focused on the various aspects of customer satisfaction in this industry which include factors of satisfaction as indicators of customer satisfaction in the industry. Grigoroudis and Siskos (2009) identified a number of methods that can be used to measure customer satisfaction in various industries. They first identifies the three main satisfaction dimensions for customers of airlines. These dimensions are customer satisfaction before, during, and after their flights. These two authors adopted the use of dual importance diagram which is a satisfaction criteria based on four quadrants.

Fig: The dual importance diagram(Grigoroudis and Siskos, 2009).

As can be seen from the diagram below, the four determinants of customer satisfaction in the airlines industry include pricing, quality of service, and relationship with company personnel, and speed of service delivery. Grigoroudis and Siskos (2009) then propose a number of techniques that can be used by the airline companies. One of the proposals is the integration of information technologies in enhancing quality and speed of customer service. One of the technologies proposed is Automated Response Systems (ARS). These are technologies that help in offering customer services by responding to any inquiries from the customers. The advantage of using ARS is increased efficiency in terms of reduced response time. ARS establishes a customer’s identification based in database contact information, identifies the inquiries or complaints launched and seeks to automatically respond to these inquiries based on matching programmed responses. Renart (2013) also provides an analysis based on the importance of customer relations in airlines industry. He observes that airlines companies can always gain competitive advantage by building a strong customer relationship. Customer satisfaction is deemed to be the key marketing aspect for any airline company which cannot be ignored at any given time. Renart (2013) suggests that companies should always first identify the specific needs of eth customers when developing marketing strategies. The common needs of airlines customers include affordability and convenience in terms of time management and customer service. Improving ion these facets will always make an airline more attractive to customers compared to its competitors

Constant and effective communication is also an aspect that has been identified by Renart (2013)as being necessary in enhancing customer satisfaction. Reputable airline companies always communicate with their customers to inform them of any new offers, rescheduling, or even refunds. Such companies are also very responsive to inquiries made by customers. They are also always apologetic to any customers who launch complaints and who feel they have received below-par services. Communication can be done through email, social media, and even through the mainstream media like television and radio.

Survey agencies like the ACA provide important statistics on the common customer complaints. ACA often ranks airline companies in Australia based on the number and type of complaints received by the companies’ customers. According to the agencies, the following are the three most common complaints raised by airline customers;

  1. Delays and flight cancellations.
  2. Hidden fees and charges.
  3. Poor customer service. A number of complaints are raised in this category including poor in-flight services as well as poor airport services like lack of adequate reception guidelines or restrooms.

Other complaints that are commonly launched against the airline companies include non-reimbursements. ACA reports that some airlines do not reimburse their customers who miss flights or who incur extra costs arising from inconveniences created by airline. In some cases, for instance, the airline can postpone a flight to the next day, necessitating that the customers seek hotel accommodation for the night. It is normally the responsibility of the airline to cater for such costs hence should offer full compensation to the customers in the form of reimbursements. The other complaint that is raised against most airlines is poor accessibility, that is, their websites are prone to downtimes. Most companies have online platforms for customers to make various complaints regarding quality of services. Most of the successful companies use these complaints to their advantage. Khan and Khan (2014) observe that “Customer complaints offer organizations with a chance to correct their mistakes, retain dissatisfied customers, and manipulate customers’ future”. That is what most of the successful airlines like Virgin and Qatar airlines have developed a strong customer base. They have developed the reputations for being the ‘listening airlines’ who always listen positively to customer complaints, acknowledge their mistakes, and initiate corrective measures.

The research will be conducted using mixed methodology (Bricki & Green, 2002). It will incorporate both qualitative and quantitative methodology. The qualitative one will be important in analyzing the current situation within the airport whereas the quantitative one will aim at analyzing the data collected in the course of the research (Todd , Waldman, Baker, & Blain, 2004). Once the data has been collected, the questionnaires will be analyzed to check for clarity and completeness. The data obtained will be edited and coded for accuracy. A quantitative form of data analysis will then be used and a frequency distribution table plotted in a tabular form showing the percentages.

Data collection techniques

Both open ended and closed questionnaires will be used for this research. Surveys and case studies will also be used as the tools for data collection. (Moffitt, 2017) This will aid in getting the customer feedback, in analyzing the situation within the airport and in narrowing down previous researches so as to get to more specific details concerning it. This research will ensure that it covers a reasonable target population so that the data collected will be more accurate and serve as a representation of the whole population. Secondary data can also be collected through examination of recorded documents (Kadam, Shaikh, & Parab, 2014). The secondary sources will include data from airline associations like the ACA which keeps summarized data of customer relationship with various airlines operating within Australia. ACA also keeps records of the complaints launched by the customers for each of the airline companies being monitored by ACA. For instance, the sample complaints can be collected from the customer’s complaint book from within the airport. Tigerair also has a website that keeps historical logs of complaints made by customers. These records will be accessed to identify the common complaints and cluster them into common categories.

Other secondary sources that will be explored include articles and peer reviewed journals. These source will serve as important literature which will provide a number of possible solutions to the complaints raised by customers. Case studies will also provide research data. The case studies will be conducted on Virgin Airways, Qantas, and Jeter. These three companies are the major competitors of Tigerair, hence it will be necessary to study how they have handled customer complaints within their companies and how they have always implemented corrective measures to deal with such complaints.

Population and sampling

The target population of this research is 200 customers and 20 employees of Tigerair. Random sampling will be used to identify the 200 customer respondents. 100 respondents will be women while 100 respondents will be men so as to avoid any gender bias. As for the employees, stratified sampling will be used since employees at different management levels will be questioned.The questionnaires given to the 20 employees will, therefore, be different based on the level of employment and the specific roles of the respondent.

Data analysis

Since qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques will be used, it will necessitate the use of different data analysis techniques. The following are the qualitative and quantitative techniques that will be used for data analysis;

  1. Quantitative data: quantitative data consists of all the numerical data. The numerical data shall be derived from the closed-ended The closed-ended questionnaires will be analyzed using SPSS data analysis software.
  2. Qualitative data: the qualitative data will be extracted from the open-ended questionnaires and surveys. The opinions and views raised by the respondents shall be clustered into common categories.

All the data collected shall then be analyzed for variance using ANOVA. Charts and graphs will also be drawn to show proportions of customer complaints collected from the study.

The following are the sections/chapters that will be included in the final research document.

GANTT CHART

 

Activity

Start time

End time

Duration in days

Formulating the research topic
Formulating the research questions
Formulating the research design and selecting of research methodology
Chapter one write-up
Literature review
Data collection
Data analysis
Final report write-up and submission

 

PROJECT BUDGET AND JUSTIFICATION

The following is a breakdown of the budget that would be required to sufficiently achieve all the objectives of this study.

  1. Cost of carrying out literature review: the literature review will require access to journals, books, and articles, most of which are contained in e-libraries and databases. These databases require subscription fees to access. The estimated cost for this is $400.
  2. Sampling and administering of questionnaires: the questionnaires will be administered to the respondents through mail and by direct delivery. This will require at least two employees to help in this. The estimated budget for the sampling, generation of questionnaires and distribution of these questionnaires is $4000.
  • Data analysis: data analysis will be done using a number of analytical tools like SPSS. These software are not freeware hence will require money to purchase from the vendors. The estimated cost for this purpose is $1500.

Below is a tabulated summary of the budget.

Purpose Estimated budget
1 Literature review materials $400
2 Data collection $4000
3 Data analysis $1500
Total $5900

 

Case Analysis : Technical Flow in Aircraft Development

The emergence and development of aviation industry marks the immense advancement of human knowledge in the field of technology. In spite of many technical shortcomings and experimental flaws at the beginning, this huge industry continues to move toward perfection by the passage of time. The present paper is dedicated to presenting a case analysis on a specific flaw of an aircraft during its construction and development phase. A critical analysis of the lithium-ion battery flow in Boeing’s 787 Dreamliner, the way the manufacturers recovered the crisis and some potential suggestions on the issue will be presented here.

At around 10:20 AM on January 7, 2013, a Boeing 787 Dreamliner landed at Boston’s Logan International Airport with 183 passengers and 11 crews. Immediately after all the aircraft was disembarked, one of the cleaning staffs noticed a specific spot of the plane releasing smoke. Technicians immediately figured out the source of the smoke, that is, the lithium ion battery serving as the auxiliary power unit in the aircraft. The firefighters reached, and the blaze was under control soon. Subsequent inspection showed that the battery, provided as an accessory to the aircraft by a manufacturing company named GS Yuasa, reached a condition known as thermal runaway, where one of the battery’s cells malfunctions and become extremely heated, and gradually causes nearby cells to be heated. This was not the only incident caused by the poorly manufactured lithium ion batteries. Within only five days of the first incident, another 787 Dreamliner owned by All Nippon Airways was forced in emergency landing after technical problems were noticed in the batteries.

These consequent life-threatening incidents were followed by the immediate grounding order of the whole fleet of Boeing 787 Dreamliner all around the world by the authorities until the failing accessories were properly retrofitted. The Boeing authorities immediately started to work on replacing the malfunctioning parts of all the 787 Dreamliner wherever supplied. The replaced installations included a better insulation system for the placement of batteries, stainless steel covering to prevent the supply of smoke and ignition from one battery to another, and proper ventilation system to let the smokes out of the aircraft in case of potential battery failure.As claimed by the Boeing officials, it spent more than 100,000 hours to inspect and redesign the new installments properly. More than twelve battery experts from governments, universities and other organizations were invited to contribute to the change made in lithium ion battery installation. Around 300 engineers were sent to at least thirteen international locations to apply the new installments in all the Boeing 787 Dreamliner aircraft all around the world.

Upon the retrofitting of failing mechanisms and multiple quality tests by Boeing, Federal Aviation Administration, and International Civil Aviation Organization, the grounded Boeing 787 Dreamliner fleet was finally approved to continue their flight. The Boeing 787 Dreamliner owned by the Ethiopian Airlines was the first aircraft to resume its transportation service on April 27, 2013, after the grounding order was withdrawn by the authorities upon the retrofitting of lithium ion batteries.The Boeing Corporation immediately took proper measures to cope up with the crisis and to mitigate any such potential threats in future. I would do the same if I were to manage the inspection and retrofitting of failing parts of the aircraft. Besides, I would suggest an important measure that will be helpful in preventing potential technical threats in future. That is after the aircraft begins to provide service, all of its parts must be intensively inspected by the engineers, as opposed to regular maintenance checking by the staff, in regular interval to detect possible defects and malfunctions.

Hundreds of lives depend on the safety measures taken by the aircraft manufacturers. It was pretty unexpected from a world-famous aircraft manufacturing corporation like the Boeing to have such technical defects in their aircraft. However, the good sign is that the Boeing Corporation successfully recovered one of the greatest disasters in its career.

Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission Main Objectives

Committee of Sponsoring Organizations  was formed in 1985. COSO is a framework that guides the managers and those who are responsible about risk management, internal controls and fraud deterrence. Main objectives of COSO are discussed below.

  1. Control environment: These represent procedures, manuals and policies and internal controls required for day to day operations.
  2. Risk Assessment: This refers to the process involved in early identification of risks and possible ways of managing risks.
  3. Control Activities: procedures required to ensuring management and those responsible are carrying out their work responsibilities and chances of errors or fraud or removed.
  4. Information: This represents all information required to communicate to employees that help them to carry out their work.
  5. Monitoring: This refers to overview of internal controls by management or third party for example audit committee.

Three Common Types Of Employee Fraud

Employee fraud is defined as “use of fraudulent means to take money or property from employer”.  There are three common types of employee fraud in an organization detailed below:-

  1. Monetary Fraud: When an employee by using fraudulent means earn money which is not his right from an employer or the place he is exercising his supervision. For example, a cashier stole money without the permission of employer.
  2. Theft: When an employee using knowledge of all security measures implemented employee break into employer and steal some asset or anything for his benefit.
  3. Workers Compensation Fraud: When an employee obtains benefit by intentional accidents in terms of leaves with pay and any attached benefits. This is the most common type of fraud and also expensive for employers to manage.

White collar crime refers to nonviolent financially motivated crime it is defined as “a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation”. Bank frauds, bribing and blackmailing are the most common types of white collar crimes.

Provisions Of Foreign Corrupt Practices Act

During investigation of Watergate scandal, SEC found about 400 businesses paid about $300 million as bribery or kickbacks in order to stop such bribes and corruption FPCA in 1977 was enacted as federal law. Two provisions to FPCA ( Foreign Corrupt Practices Act )are as follows:-

  1. Anti-bribery provision that is enforced by the department of justice that prohibits any US official or resident or any person from paying or receiving the bribes or kickbacks either directly indirectly or through intermediaries.
  2. The accounting provisions enforced by SEC ( Securities and Exchange Commission) that focuses on preparation of accurate books and maintenance of financial records and transactions. Provision requires a robust system of internal controls that ensures the effectiveness of financial statement and true value and disposition of organizational assets.

Advertisements in the Broadcasting Industry

Introduction

The broadcasting industry is at the helm of entertainment for the customers. In the recent years, they have experienced a boom, which happened due to changing face of the advertisement sector. In this study, a top to down approach would be undertaken on the broadcasting media with an enhanced focus on the CBB channel. The study would critically evaluate the options and processes of CBB broadcasting and discuss on the flaws and possible gaps elaborately. Thus, the study would undertake the assistance of Use Case diagrams, Activity diagrams, and Domain class diagrams to shed further light onto such processes.

Objectives

  1. Customer satisfaction

One of the crucial factors of the Broadcasting industry is to meet the needs of the consumers by ensuring full television coverage for 24 hours (Acma.gov.au, 2017).

  1. Entertainment of the customers

The Broadcasting industry should assure that the television slots are all occupied so that no blank space appears during the live feed or during the airing of advertisements. This would confuse the consumers; as a result, they would switch channels.

  1. Improved services and contents

The principle aim of the industry is to broadcast and develop high quality and non-commercial content with a narrow focus on the needs of the children, diverse audiences, and core communities of public media well as unserved communities (Wilson, Hutchinson & Shea, 2010).

  1. Integration

The broadcasting industry has hatched plans to integrate with other forms of media to gain a competitive edge in the market.

  1. Timely

The industry ensures that their transmission events are not delayed by any accounts since the customers would not be happy if their favorite show experiences eminent issues.

  1. Reliable service

The channel should be reliable as they can procure a consistent array of highly educated and civil society informed content, which duly addresses multiple platforms (Sharrif & Kosmin, 2012).

  1. Market

The organisation CBB or this sector should acknowledge the effectiveness and competence of the market thus, procuring various strategies gaining the attention of the customers.

  1. Innovation

Innovation is a key driver in this industry and thus needs to promote highly innovated ideas that support public media efforts.

  1. Favoring the public media

Public media and its entities are vital for the industry as well as the organizations working under it. Therefore, the industry should devise strategies to gain the favor of the communities by highlighting their cause, projects and initiatives (Tambini, 2015).

Measures

  • The channel is ensuring to go for automated process, which may lead to de-employment
  • The directors are discussing on adding extra two channels for enhancing the service delivery for the customers. The customer satisfaction ratings would go higher as the customers would view the channels with greater mobility and content.
  • Ensure that the customers are satisfied with the highly educated content as failure may be detrimental for the organization. This is because if the customers remain dissatisfied, they might switch to the next channel for better content and quality.
  • The factors acting as driving factors for the customers should be the new trading currency for the industry since TV ratings would shed a bright light on the contents most preferred by the customers.

CBB

CBB is a newly launched television channel broadcasting around the Newcastle, NSW. They are a subsidiary of a multinational organization and thus want to enter the markets of Australia. Their current ventures lie in the NSW territory. Initially, they are transmitting the same schedule of programs across their broadcasting areas with slight variations in the advertisements. They have ensured that local news gets the maximum coverage and thus in dilemma over the automation process, which would allow them to have coverage of live feed as well as that of advertisement slots so that they do not go blank during transmission.

Strategic, tactical and operational aspects of the company

CBB has ventured into Australia quite recently and is undertaking strategic decisions for capturing the Australian markets. For this, they have devised the Ads On Time (AOT) under their operational aspects. They are ensuring that their sales staffs sell all the ad slots so that the channel never experiences obstacles during the live feed. Yang, Zhang & Zou (2015) have opined that brand loyalty of the organizations would enhance considerably if advertisement during the live game matches. Thus, the organization is looking for extra benefits by allowing the advertisement transmission during cricket matches or rugby league. Moreover, Ghirvu (2012) has stated that organizations are looking to fill the ad slots during live feed would gain competitive advantage, as the clients would look forward to lucrative deal thus leading to a win-win situation.

Internal environment analysis

Strengths

·         High rates of growth sales

·         Experienced management

·         Demographic dominance

·         Large trends are covered

·         Brand names and brand loyalty

·         Market entry barriers

·         Australian Government ensures monetary assistance (Goldsmith & Thomas, 2012)

Weaknesses

·         New entrants may face issues regarding covering local news

·         Competition is fierce

·         Higher costs

·         Productivity is low

·         CBB is still new in the country and thus have low brand name

·         Ratings may be troublesome

·         Weak cost structure

·         Narrow customer base is a pertinent issue

Opportunities

·         Ventures in new capital

·         New acquisitions

·         New services fetch customers attention

·         Shifting trends of customer preferences may be a bliss to conjure more benefits

Threats

·         Shifting preferences of the consumers

·         Low flow of cash

·         Limited finance

·         Raising costs

·         Changes in price

·         Technological issues

Table 1: SWOT analysis

(Source: Goldsmith & Thomas, 2012)

Porter’s five analyses

The industry competition is analyzed by the five forces devised by Porter. The five forces analysis of the broadcasting industry is evaluated below:

Bargaining power of Suppliers This factor quite is low as there are only suppliers namely the production companies and the group of directors, technicians, equipment, and anchors.

The factor shift towards the high when few suppliers are dominates the market (Encarnaçãob & Rabaey, 2013).

Bargaining power of buyers This is a crucial factor as the brand loyalty can be an influential element. One of the prominent issues is that of the changing perceptions of the customers. This can be a negative factor as the alternative options are at large. The entrants and the substitutes are high and if the customers are dissatisfied with the channel, they can easily switch to other channels (O’Neil, 2012).
Threats of substitutes In this case, the threats of substitutions are bleak. The substitutions can dominate and fetch a significant portion of the market that is now dominated by the existing companies.

Rivals or competitors can substitute the product or the services offered by the current organizations.

One of the prominent issues cites that substitutes may count on higher customer satisfaction after the existing players fail to procure improved services.

Threats of new entrants This industry poses a potential for the entry of new entrants. One of the significant hindrances the entrants face is the barrier. However, the barriers are growing weaker with the advent of new technology; they are capable of penetrating the market (Salunke, Weerawardena & McColl-Kennedy, 2013).

They also implement growth strategies by aiming higher economic scales. Wood & Poltrack (2015) have pointed out that in this case, various niches are present within the same environment. The new entrants can ensure the breakdown of costs to enter the market and fetch the dominance of the current organisations.

Competition among the rivals The intensity of rivalry is low since only a few of the broadcasting TV channels are present. All the channels produce the same products.  Innovation and existence of varied opportunities are the primary reason for competition here. The companies here that become the source of competition set the benchmarking (Peneder & Wörter, 2014).

Table 2: Porter’s five forces

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Case study: Agricultural Subsidies and Development(3000 words)

For decades the rich countries of the developed world have lavished subsidies on their farmers, typically guaranteeing them a minimum price for the products they produce. The aim has been to protect farmers in the developed world from the potentially devastating effects of low commodity prices. Although they are small in numbers, farmers tend to be politically active, and winning their support is important for many politicians. The politicians often claim that their motive is to preserve a historic rural lifestyle, and they see subsidies as a way of achieving that goal. This logic has resulted in financial support estimated to exceed $300 billion a year for farmers in rich nations. The European Union, for example, has set a minimum price for butter of 3,282 euros per ton. If the world price for butter falls below that amount, the EU will make up the difference to farmers in the form of a direct payment or subsidy. In total, EU dairy farmers receive roughly $15 billion a year in subsidies to produce milk and butter, or about $2 a day for every cow in the EU—a figure that is more than the daily income of half the world’s population. According to the OECD, overall EU farmers receive approximately $134 billion a year in subsidies. The EU is not alone in this practice. In the United States, a wide range of crop and dairy farmers receive subsidies. Typical is the guarantee that U.S. cotton farmers will receive at least $0.70 for every pound of cotton they harvest. If world cotton prices fall below this level, the government makes up the difference, writing a check to the farmers. Some 25,000 United States cotton farmers received some $3.4 billion in annual subsidy checks. Total agricultural subsidies in the United States amount to some $43 billion a year according to OECD figures. Japan is also a large subsidizer, providing some $47.4 billion in subsidies to farmers every year. In relative terms Switzerland, which is not an EU member, spent the most. Subsidies made up a remarkable 68 percent of its farm economy. Iceland was at 67 percent and Norway at 64 percent. European Union subsidies equaled 32 percent of that trading block’s farm economy, while the United States figure was 16 percent. One consequence of such subsidies is to create surplus production. That surplus is sold on world markets, where the extra supply depresses prices, making it much harder for producers in the developing world to sell their output at a profit. For example, EU subsidies to sugar beet producers amount to more than $4,000 an acre. With a minimum price guarantee that exceeds their costs of production, EU farmers plant more sugar beets than the EU market can absorb. The surplus, some 6 million tons per year, is dumped on the world market, where it depresses world prices. Estimates suggest that if the EU stopped dumping its surplus production on world markets, sugar prices would increase by 20 percent. That would make a big difference for developing nations such as South Africa, which exports roughly half of its 2.6 million tons of annual sugar production. With a 20 percent rise in world prices, the South African economy would reap about $40 million more from sugar exports. American subsidies to cotton farmers have a similar effect. Brazilian officials contend that by creating surplus production in the United States that is then dumped on the world market, U.S. cotton subsidies have depressed world prices for cotton by more than 50 percent since the mid-1990s. Low cotton prices cost Brazil some $600 million in lost export earnings in 2001–2002. India, another big cotton producer, has estimated that U.S. cotton subsidies reduced its export revenue from cotton by about $1 billion in 2001. According to the charitable organization Oxfam, the U.S. government spends about three times as much on cotton subsidies as it does on foreign aid for all of Africa. In 2001, the African nation of Mali lost about $43 million in export revenues due to plunging cotton prices, significantly more than the $37 million in foreign aid it received from the United States that year. The global rice market is also badly distorted by subsidies, with overproduction of rice in the United States helping to depress world prices. The United States paid its 9,000 rice farmers approximately $780 million in subsidies in 2006. An average ton of U.S. rice cost $240 to sow, tend, and harvest in 2006, but by the time it had left U.S. port, subsidies had cut the cost to $205 a ton. This has made it impossible for farmers in Ghana, once one of the largest rice producers in Africa, to survive. It costs farmers in Ghana $230 a ton to produce U.S. quality rice, but with global prices driven down below that by subsidies in developed nations, rice production in Ghana has collapsed. With incomes falling, local farmers do not have the capital to invest in new farming technology, and they risk falling ever further behind mechanized farming in more developed nations. Overall, the United Nations has estimated that while developed nations give about $50 billion a year in foreign aid to the developing world, agricultural subsidies cost producers in the developing world some $50 billion in lost export revenues, effectively canceling out the effect of the aid. As one UN official has noted, “It’s no good building up roads, clinics, and infrastructure in poor areas if you don’t give them access to markets and engines for growth.” Similarly, Oxfam has taken the unusual position for a charity of coming out strongly in support of the elimination of agricultural subsidies and price supports to developing world producers. By increasing world prices and shifting production from high-cost, protected producers in Europe and America to lower-cost producers in the developing world, Oxfam claims that consumers in rich nations would benefit from lower domestic prices and the elimination of taxes required to pay for the subsidies, while producers in the developing world would gain from fairer competition, expanded markets, and higher world prices. In the long run, the greater economic growth that would occur in agriculturally dependent developing nations would be to everyone’s benefit. Although subsidies have been against the spirit of World Trade Organization rules, under the terms of a 1995 “peace agreement” WTO members agreed not to take each other to court over agricultural subsidies. However, that agreement expired on December 31, 2004. Signs are growing that unless rich countries take steps to cut their subsidies soon, a number of efficient agricultural exporting countries will launch an all-out assault on farm subsidies. Indeed, Brazil did not even wait for the “peace agreement” to expire; in late 2003 it filed a complaint with the World Trade Organization, claiming that the United States had retained its position as the second-largest cotton grower in the world, and the largest exporter, by paying $12.5 billion in subsidies to its cotton farmers between August 1999 and July 2003. Brazil argued that between 2001 and 2002 alone, the United States funneled nearly $4 billion in subsidies to its cotton farmers for a crop worth just $3 billion, which depressed world prices and cost Brazil $600 million in lost sales. In an interim ruling issued in mid-2004, the WTO agreed that U.S. subsidies had artificially lowered cotton prices and harmed Brazilian exporters. The United States appealed, and it may be two more years before the issue is resolved. In a landmark ruling, in March 2005 the World Trade Organization condemned U.S. subsidies and required the U.S. government to remove them. The U.S. responded by removing a scheme that compensated U.S. cotton mills and exporters for buying U.S. cotton, but the majority of subsidies were left intact. According to Oxfam, the development charity based in the United Kingdom, the U.S. reforms touched programs accounting for less than 10 percent of all the subsidies received by U.S. cotton farmers. In late 2006, Brazil requested that the World Trade Organization establish a compliance panel to investigate whether the United States failed to scrap its subsidies as required by the March 2005 ruling. If the WTO finds against the United States, Brazil could seek retaliatory sanctions, imposing duties of up to $3 billion on U.S. goods exported to Brazil. The United States immediately went on the defensive, arguing that “The United States has gone to extraordinary lengths to implement recommendations and rulings. Given all of these changes, there is no basis for Brazil’s request for a compliance panel.” The WTO, however, overruled American objections and started a formal investigation.
1. If agricultural tariffs and subsidies to producers were removed overnight, what would the impact be on the average consumer in developed nations such as the Untied States and the EU countries? What would be the impact on the average farmer? Do you think the total benefits outweigh the total costs, or vice versa?
2. Which do you think would help the citizens of the world’s poorest nations more, increasing foreign aid or removing all agricultural tariffs and subsidies?
3. Why do you think governments in developed nations continue to lavish extensive support on agricultural producers, even though those producers constitute a very small segment of the population?
4. The current Doha Round of trade talks organized by the World Trade Organization is trying to reduce barriers to free trade in agriculture. So far, however, the talks have made little concrete progress on this issue and as of mid-2007 they are stalled. Why do you think this is the case? What other solutions might there be to the problems created by barriers to trade in agriculture?

What Is Monopolistic Competition And Four Characteristics Of Imperfect Market?

Monopolistic competition is the market which is very common. There are various industries which show Monopolistic competition like clothing, shoes, restaurants, and cereals . Some characteristics of Monopolistic competitive market are as follows: There are many producers and consumers in the market. The competitors’ products are differentiated on the basis of non-price factors as perceived by the consumers. There are some barriers to entry and exit. Fourthly, sellers have the control over price to some extent.
An imperfect market is just opposite to a perfect market economy. Therefore, its characteristics are just opposite to imperfect market. There is no pure competition in this market. Production efficiency can never be achieved. Utility maximization is not possible. Moreover, equilibrium cannot be attained and substitution at margin is not possible.

Theoretical Perspective Reflection

In 4 hours | Need to be at least 250 words.

In Chapter 3, you were presented with four language acquisition theories: behaviorist, active construction of a grammar, connectionist, and social interaction theories.  For this discussion, you will first select one of the theories and explain its main components in a graphic organizer.  The recommended website, Holt Interactive Graphic Organizers, offers digital graphic organizers to help you with the creation of your graphic organizer, or you can use the graphs/charts feature in Microsoft Word.  You will then compare and contrast your chosen theory with the other theories listed above, highlighting the major similarities and differences.

The graphic organizer you create for the theory you choose should include:

  • The main theorist associated with the theory
  • A summary of what the theory states
  • Evidence supporting the theory
  • Evidence against the theory

In your compare/contrast analysis of the theory, include the following:

  • Similarities to other theories
  • Differences from other theories

Refer to Chapter 3 of the text, additional resources, and your own insights.  Remember that your graphic organizer needs to contain an APA citation for any source used, including the textbook.  Your discussion post title should be the same as your chosen theory.  The body of your post should consist of your compare/contrast analysis.

A Report On An Asylum Manuscript By Goffman Book

The underlying research covers a comprehensive report on the Circumstance of the Community Condition of Cerebral Patients and other Prisoners, a manuscript written by a sociology by the name Erving Goffman. The essay concentrates mostly on the four piece written in the book which includes features of total establishments, the right profession of the people with an intellectual health condition, under life of public agencies and finally, medical model and psychiatric hospitalization. As the researcher, I will examine the explanation given by Goffman in his first three essays and research on whether his theories are still useful in today’s world. Finally, I will discuss his final article, what makes it different from the rest and why its empirical facts only exist only live in St Elizabeth and not in any other institution.
Articles on the Condition of the Community Condition of Cerebral Patients and other Prisoners was written by a sociologist by the name Erving Goffman. The book was published in the year 1961 by Anchor Books, contains three hundred and eight six pages written in English. The report on this book explores about four essays written by Goffman on features of total foundations, the right career of the people with a cerebral health condition, about the under the life of public agencies and finally, medical model and psychiatric hospitalization. Asylums give a detailed examination of life in total institutions like prisons and mental hospitals and, it concentrates mostly on the relationship between the inmate and the new environments.
In his introductory essays of the book, Goffman aims at teaching us concerning the characteristics of total institutions that is, a comprehensive analysis of social life in these facilities with his concentration mostly based on mental hospitals and prisons. The second essay elaborates real career of the rational sick persons explaining more on, the effects of these rehabilitations on the social life of an individual before and after becoming an inmate. Finally, the third essay elaborates further on the life in the public institutions explaining the attachment people are expected to indicate to their new environments. In these three articles, Goffman is educating us on complete mental systems, and as stated clearly in his title, he gives an example of mental institutions(Goffman, 1961). In the first essay on characteristics of total institutions, the facilities description occurs in four groups. These groups include facilities to cater for simple and incapable persons like the blind and elderly. Secondly, institutions to provide for individual who are unable to look after themselves and are considered a threat to the society like albeit. Another group is described as establishments to protect the community against intentional dangers like jail and finally, institutions established with the aim of training religious leaders.

Goffman understanding on cultural institutes termed as both beneficial and well-defined as in many compliments. He understands the facilities as distinguishing establishments that remain both as part of and different from our modern societies. As pointed out by the writer in his attempt to define the institutes, these facilities identified as areas of work and living where persons within them are separated from the modern civilization for a certain period. He also explains that these institutions are distinctive and poses a lot in common since their social structure is dissimilar from our present western societies. In modern societies, individual tend to move to different places and interact with people from diverse backgrounds which is dissimilar from experience in total institutions. These organizations serve as breakdowns of the barriers separating individuals hence, tension build up resulting to incompatibility between these facilities and the outside world where family’s lives remain organized in a normal way .
In the second essay, Goffman describes the systematic diversifications in how individual interpretations of himself or herself throughout the transformation since they stopped being an average person to a patient. Goffman understanding comes from his natural, historical methodology on career highlights, and the variations happening from period to period that is common among society members. In this case, he elaborates on people with a mental health condition hospitalized in mental institutions, how their lives vary from those of ordinary individuals. In his application on the concept of a single thought to have a mental condition, a career in this cases includes three levels being, pre-sick person, inpatients and an already discharged patient(Scheid, 2001). According to Goffman, by morals, he elaborates on the changes a person confined in mental instruction sets that are different from the lives of other people. He puts a lot of emphasis on the link between a mentally ill person and the mental institutions whose primary focus is mental illnesses and also, concentrates mostly on the concept of self-evolving experienced by a person believed to have a mental illness.

According to (Scheid, 2001), Goffman view on the link between mental sicknesses and mental career received a lot of criticism from other scholars. A theory by Scheff on seminal labeling made a substantial contribution to the development of psychological illness, and career notion through viewing mental disorders as a communal responsibility different from the therapeutic belief on diseases that commonly affect people. In nineteen ninety-six, another researcher described another elaboration on the perception of profession and psychological sickness. Goffman applied a depressed patient scenario to put more emphasis on how individuals execute meaning depending on their experiences since it evolves over time. He described this as a wrong method to figure out the problems, their causes and how to live with them. In this case, they explained that different career paths exist and that many people develop psychiatric conditions in some forms, but only a few of these people are bound to become mental patients via recurrent periods of brain impairments.

These researchers disagreed with Goffman view of career and social life of a patient. They explained that it does not necessarily mean that a single series of levels gives characteristics of the sequence of an ailment but quite the contrary. On each stage, an individual might progress using the same path to take finally take another alternative route(Scheid, 2001). The mental sickness experience is therefore not dependent on a person despite the fact that it appears as excruciatingly personal. Patients who have the same condition at least have something in common due to the characteristics portrayed by an illness and, due to social responses to the conditions.

The third essay on the under life in public facilities, Goffman elaborates on the attachment that rehabilitated individuals are to portray regarding their new homes. He explained that, in cases where patients directly contribute to the facility’s required activities and under the expected standards, he or she becomes a cooperator and therefore seen as a built participant in the institution. Goffman elaborated on both primary and secondary adjustments that an individual adjusts. On the first circumstances, he explained the need for the patient to speak with the organization management that has the first change on his or her social life (Ditton, 2001).. On the subsequent adjustments, Goffman explained the changes as any forms of formal agreements by which an organization member uses unauthorized mechanisms, obtains unlawful ends or both Hence, understanding the organization’s assumptions on who or what they expect the patient to do.
Currently, Goffman understanding of mental institutions continues to receive a lot of criticism from other scholars. Some scientist and writers challenge his understanding of mental institutions with statistical facts from mental institutions or with first-hand information from the patients. They argued that Goffman portrayed and exaggerated and overdrawn understanding of mental institutions. According to their understanding, not all mental hospitals resembles total institutions or prisons or any form of concentration maps. Most sick individuals do not see themselves as prisoners denied freedom, abused, betrayed or left alone (Weinstein, 1982).
The scholar’s term his understanding of mental hospitals without referencing to the psychiatric challenges faced by patients as narrow-minded since the two always work together and also, they disagree with his opinion to generalize mental facilities from one regarded with suspicion case study. His entire services model continues to receive critics in the recent years. With the increased number of diversification in whole institutes, scientists have recognized their variety and the study on variables differentiating them. Goffman covered the past development of asylums in only one page of his book and also, associated the introduction of mental facilities with the application of the medical model and members of public responsibilities in treating the mentally ill persons (Weinstein, 1982).A researcher criticized his understanding and stated that mental infirmaries were never the monolithic establishment as indicated by critics.

During the nineteenth century, experimentations done using variety institution structures inclusive of decentralized infirmaries proved that Goffman thesis failed to meet the expectations. According to the research conducted then, hospitals not developed with the intentions of using them as instruments to control the social lives of patients. The results came from different studies designed to test the thesis of Goffman, disapproved with his findings. Most sick persons managed to improve their health conditions or remained unchanged during the rehabilitation period(Weinstein, 1982). The facts also indicate that ill person does not have covert to how the institutions define them and do not see themselves as mentally retarded beings. The thesis conducted by Goffman only distorted the personal experiences of rehabilitation by only concentrating most on only the negative and not positive impacts on the psyche of a person with a mental health condition.
Goffman understanding of the place of safety is not so much incorrect because it is one sided and concentrates mostly on adverse impacts on the patient. He mostly focused on negativity and debilitating features of psychiatric establishments without sufficient concentration on the therapeutic characteristics of these facilities(Weinstein, 1982). In reality, he concentrated mainly on the scholar’s view of mental infirmaries even though he insisted his impression came from the viewpoint of the patient. Currently, scientists do not accept his theory and model of the mental hospital because they realized it concentrates mostly on a personal perspective than a comprehensively managed case study on mental rehabilitation centers and also, the views of the patients.
In his last essay, Goffman talks about Medical model and psychiatric hospitalization. In the study, he elaborates on the importance of the members of staff to put into consideration the role of medical attention in serving the patients and providing them with facts concerning their mental conditions. The fourth essay is different from the rest. Goffman does not concentrate much on the sick person and their associations with the rehabilitation facility but rather, he focuses primarily on the shrewdness and practices of the mental facility(Jacobsen et al., 2014). He picks a point from his first essay and briefly talks about the rational perspective shown by these institutions (p. 83). In the medical model, he continues with the examination of the prudence of the entire center via analyzing the psychiatric occupation as a service offering expert network. He is mostly concerned with the relationship of service that exist between the patients who enters the medical facility either voluntarily or not through their will.

Goffman begins the introduction of this essay using a metaphor by describing services rendered by the practitioners as the object in need of repair services and the owner as an example of tinkering service (p.326). He portrays mental doctors as particular types of artisans who offers an emotionally independent service to mend broken objects. The whole essays revolve around identifying the social relationship between the sick persons and doctors providing services within the psychiatric established organization (Jacobsen et al., 2014). He states that the associations involve people seeking for services that place their lives in the hands of others. He also applies the service structure to elaborate on the relationship between the sick individuals and the medical officers attending to their cases in the psychiatric wards. He relates the patients with the organic system that is in need of repair
He elaborates that within the societies there exist different approaches that people can use so at to communicate with each other he provided two frameworks namely the close to close or upper caste to low. In these tow forums, contact established between individuals can be between their source of identity, a guide to their expected code of conduct and finally, by both harmony and disruptiveness( Jacobsen et al., 2014). Each of these two frameworks involves a set of symbiotic assumptions that work together to form a suitable model. Hence, the society student can use the same models used by other members of society (Jacobsen et al., 2014), Goffman also explained that, in our present modern society, people as servers and the one receiving service. Via exploring the assumptions in our modern society, we can clearly understand some problems associated with mental impairments hospitalization. Some of these specific duties divided into where the practitioners meet the needs of the members of the public and secondly, where he fails to meet the public and performs for the members of the organization
Goffman conducted his survey in St Elizabeth, and that’s why facts about his finding only exist in this institutions which currently serves as a landmark of analysis on the micro-sociological institution. On a broader scope, his research concentrated mostly on how human being survives under severe conditions hence, the need for the new importance of sociologically understanding the relationships and interlinks amongst individuals, their responsibilities, and social centers. He also continued his study by examining how people in their daily life, manage to control potentially dangerous data about their personal lives to protect their identities.
The report on this book explores about four essays written by Goffman on features of total foundations, the right profession of the persons with a psychological health condition, also the under the life of public agencies and finally, medical model and psychiatric hospitalization. The best way to understand people needs is by seeing them as working actors who personally creates an impression about themselves. The book elaborates mostly on the need to understand individuals and treat them according to their health conditions without discrimination.

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

Also referred to as Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, was the first measure passed by the U.S. Congress to prohibit trusts; it was named after Senator John Sherman . Before its enactment, various states had passed similar laws, but they were limited to intrastate businesses. Finally opposition to the concentration of economic power in large corporations and in combinations of business concerns led Congress to pass the Sherman Act. The act, based on the constitutional power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce, declared illegal every contract, combination (in the form of trust or otherwise), or conspiracy in restraint of interstate and foreign trade. A fine of $5,000 and imprisonment for one year were set as the maximum penalties for violating the act.
The Sherman Act authorized the federal government to institute proceedings against trusts in order to dissolve , but Supreme Court rulings prevented federal authorities from using the act for some years. As a result of President Theodore Roosevelt’s “trust-busting” campaigns, the Sherman Act began to be invoked with some success, and in 1904 the Supreme Court upheld the government in its suit for dissolution of the Northern Securities Company. The act was further employed by President Taft in 1911 against the Standard Oil trust and the American Tobacco Company.
In the Wilson administration the Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) was enacted to supplement the Sherman Antitrust Act, and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) was set up (1914). Antitrust action sharply declined in the 1920s, but under President Franklin Delano Roosevelt new acts supplementary to the Sherman Antitrust Act were passed (e.g., the Robinson-Patman Act ), and antitrust action was vigorously resumed. As a result of a suit filed in 1974 under the Sherman Antitrust Act, the American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) monopoly was broken up in 1982.
The Hart-Scoss-Rodino Antitrust Improvement Act (1976) made it easier for regulators to investigate mergers for antitrust violations, but few mergers were blocked during the merger boom of the 1980s, when the FTC and Justice Dept. adopted a looser interpretation of antitrust legislation. By the 1990s, still a time of large corporate mergers, the FTC became more litigious in antitrust actions, and the Justice Dept. aggressively pursued the Microsoft Corp. (see Gates, Bill ). Antitrust legislation is primarily regulated by the Antitrust Division of the Dept. of Justice and the FTC. U.S. corporations with international operations also face antitrust scrutiny from European Union regulators.
Sherman Antitrust Act 1890, first measure passed by the U.S. Congress to prohibit trusts; it was named for Senator John Sherman . Prior to its enactment, various states had passed similar laws, but they were limited to intrastate businesses. Finally opposition to the concentration of economic power in large corporations and in combinations of business concerns led Congress to pass the Sherman Act. The act, based on the constitutional power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce, declared illegal every contract, combination (in the form of trust or otherwise), or conspiracy in restraint of interstate and foreign trade. A fine of $5,000 and imprisonment for one year were set as the maximum penalties for violating the act.
The Sherman Act authorized the federal government to institute proceedings against trusts in order to dissolve , but Supreme Court rulings prevented federal authorities from using the act for some years. As a result of President Theodore Roosevelt’s “trust-busting” campaigns, the Sherman Act began to be invoked with some success, and in 1904 the Supreme Court upheld the government in its suit for dissolution of the Northern Securities Company. The act was further employed by President Taft in 1911 against the Standard Oil trust and the American Tobacco Company.
In the Wilson administration the Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) was enacted to supplement the Sherman Antitrust Act, and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) was set up (1914). Antitrust action sharply declined in the 1920s, but under President Franklin Delano Roosevelt new acts supplementary to the Sherman Antitrust Act were passed (e.g., the Robinson-Patman Act ), and antitrust action was vigorously resumed. As a result of a suit filed in 1974 under the Sherman Antitrust Act, the American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) monopoly was broken up in 1982.
The Hart-Scoss-Rodino Antitrust Improvement Act (1976) made it easier for regulators to investigate mergers for antitrust violations, but few mergers were blocked during the merger boom of the 1980s, when the FTC and Justice Dept. adopted a looser interpretation of antitrust legislation. By the 1990s, still a time of large corporate mergers, the FTC became more litigious in antitrust actions, and the Justice Dept. aggressively pursued the Microsoft Corp. (see Gates, Bill ). Antitrust legislation is primarily regulated by the Antitrust Division of the Dept. of Justice and the FTC. U.S. corporations with international operations also face antitrust scrutiny from European Union regulators.

Professional Moral Compass – Assignment Instructions

Using the reading and the questionnaire, write a paper of 750-1,000 words in which you describe your professional moral compass. As you write your paper, include the following:

  • What personal, cultural, and spiritual values contribute to your worldview and philosophy of nursing?
  • How do these values shape or influence your nursing practice?
  • Define values, morals, and ethics in the context of your obligation to nursing practice.
  • Explain how your personal values, philosophy, and worldview may conflict with your obligation to practice, creating an ethical dilemma.
  • Reflect and share your own personal thoughts regarding the morals and ethical dilemmas you may face in the health care field. How do your personal views affect your behavior and your decision making? Do not be concerned with the use of ethical terminology for this paper.

C01 Introduction to Business – Assignment 04 MKD Transportation

Assignment Instructions

MKD Transportation owns and operates a fleet of container ships and tankers that transport goods around the globe. Company executives have just been contacted by the media with a credible report that one of their ships is leaking an oily substance off the coast of Belize. If true, some of the world’s most beautiful coral reefs could be in danger. On the other hand, the captain of the ship in question has not notified the company of any problem, and cleanup could be very costly. Environmental groups and the government of Belize have demanded that the company admit responsibility and immediately begin cleanup.

    1. Managers at MKD claim to exercise ethical behavior toward their employees. Describe three (3) matters this behavior might cover.
    1. What might the general public begin to think about MKD’s responsibilities toward the environment? Provide one (1) example.
    1. If MKD adopts an obstructionist stance, how will the company respond to this media report? Provide one (1) supporting fact.
    1. If MKD adopts a defensive stance, how will the company respond to this situation? Provide one (1) supporting fact.
    1. If MKD adopts an accommodative stance, how will the company respond to the media and demands by the government of Belize and environmental groups? Provide one (1) supporting fact.
    1. How might this situation have been different in the event that MKD had initially adopted a proactive stance to social responsibility? Provide one (1) supporting fact.
  1. Describe one (1) example of a situation in which a company might adopt a pricing objective other than profit maximization. Provide two (2) supporting facts.

Sample Answer

Introduction

Business ethics is the established set of moral values and company standards of conduct in a company, or organization, these vary from one company to another( Leung, 2008). Business ethics exemplifies the company’s codes of governance; it demands on the morality standards and behavior patterns expected of the employees and the company at a hole. Business ethics can be perceived in terms of the microenvironment and macro environment of a company.

Ethical behavior towards employees entails

Ethics and behavior are a vital part of employment, as they assist the company to be profitable. Every Company has certain guidelines and rules to which its employees must adhere.  MKD Transportation Company has its own code of ethics that its employees adhere to. For instance, MKD Transportation Company expects its employees to be accountable and responsible for their actions. The employees are expected to be present when on scheduled work days, arrive on time, be honest when things go wrong, and remain professional while solving the problem (Leung, 2008). Also, MKD Company expects its employees to be upright, honest, and do the right thing all the time. For example the captain of the ship in question was supposed to express integrity, and be honest to the executives; report the ship has a leakage.  Similar to this, the employees are expected to be committed and dedicated to their work and responsibilities. Committing to excellence is a vital requirement from every employee; performing duties at the best and finest level, they should be prepared and well informed. Finally, MKD management expects its employees to abide by the laws; rules, regulations, and the guidelines of the code of conducts of the company. They are also expected to abide by the laws of the country.

 MKD responsibilities towards the environment

The MKD management has set policies to protect the environment, the company aims at implementing these policies. The company commits to protect the environment by complying with the environmental acts, and regulations (Carroll, 1999). The Company also provides necessary information to its employees to meet its environmental goals. In this scenario, MKD management needs to acknowledge and accept their part that they have caused a problem in the environment, since the general public is made up of customers that are served by the company. The company should take responsibility of the damage that the ship has caused; taking charge for the clean-up costs, seal the breach on the ship to contain the oil, then the MKD management should get the ship on shoreline as promptly, and  quickly as possible.

 Obstructionist stance of MKD management

An obstructionist stance is a move toward social responsibility in which companies do as little as possible to solve any environmental or social problems (Kelleher, 2008). The companies go against ethics and laws that are stipulated, and do everything in their power to avoid being penalized for their mistakes. If MKD Company took an obstructionist stance, the managers will engage in illegal and unethical behavior to hide from the general public, the media, and the stakeholders. An example of an obstructionist stance is a tragedy that occurred in California that involved two girls. The accident was caused by a defective from Enterprise Company; the company knew about the defect but chose to rent out the car without repairing it. The car caught fire as the two girls were driving, and got hit by an oncoming truck, and the girls died on the spot. However the company refused to be held accountable for the tragedy.

Defensive stance of MKD Company

The defensive stance is a social responsibility in which companies do everything that the law requires of them but do not solve any environmental or social problems. Managers of these companies depend on legally established rules to take minimum stand towards social responsibility (Wołczek, 2014). These managers argue that their companies have done nothing wrong despite negative outcomes. If the MKD Company will take a defensive stance, the managers will deny that one of their ships is leaking oily substance off the coast of Belize. Phillip Morris Company is a tobacco company, which has taken a defensive stance to social responsibility. It places warning on the cigarettes packs but do not advertise the dangers, and risks involved with the cigarettes. Fearing the consumers will not buy the cigarettes.

Accommodative stance of MDK Company

An accommodative stance is approach toward social responsibility in which companies meet their ethical and legal responsibilities, and provide information and knowledge without protecting the information (Kelleher, 2008). These companies accept social responsibilities, and also satisfy legal, ethical, and legal criterion. Managers of these companies make choices that balance the interest of the shareholders, and the stakeholders. An example of an accommodative stance is of managers who give their Muslim employees permission to celebrate Ramadan with their families. If MKD adopted accommodative stance, it will take responsibility and be accountable to the damages the ship has caused, and immediately begin clean up.

Proactive stance of MDK Company

The proactive stance is where companies view themselves as citizens in the country, and proactively seek for opportunities to the country, and the society (Wołczek, 2014).  Managers of these companies are willing to sacrifice, and promote the interest of the stake holders and stockholder using the companies’ resources. The companies meet all the requirements of social responsibility, including flexible performance. The situation of MKD Company would have been different if initially they had adopted proactive stance. The management would have used it’s concentrated on prevention measures, and also enlighten the community about its services and products.

Pricing objectives

Pricing is the only element of the marketing mix that generates revenues, the other element; product, place, and promotion constitute costs. Pricing objective is a goal that a company sets to determine the cost of its product or service. Managers decide the objectives of pricing before determining the price of the product or services (Lanzillotti, 1958).   Market penetration is the initial stage of entering the market, the manager’s sets a comparatively low price; the company may even sell its products without a profit. In this objective, the company is interested with growth. The unit cost of production and distribution declines when the volume of sales accomplish a scrupulous goal. For example, the Turkish conglomerate that sales dishware, washing machines, refrigerators, and freezers, entered Germany. The company lowered its price, in order to benefit from the world’s lead market. The product design will improve and permit to perform better at the new market. Another example of a company that entered the market with penetration pricing is Samsung, the company entered the market through lowering the price of its products, and it was able to take away the smart phone market from Apple Company. Micromax also took penetrated the Smartphone market, overpowered Samsung.

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BU480 eBusiness Strategy – Internet’s Effects On Planning

With the initiation and advancement of the Internet, its applications and web development technologies, e-business is a significant aspect of any successful business in the modern market scene globally. The Internet has facilitated the growth and development of many businesses globally by enabling them to expand their catchment area thus they can now reach a wider customer base (Angelides, 1997). Additionally, businesses can now advertise their products more effectively and efficiently. Internet has also introduced other business services including corporate communications, unique customer friendly interface designs, and responsive applications among others. E business is the latest business tool but it is increasingly becoming a business must have tool regardless of the nature or size of the business. Internet provides high technology that gives a business competitive advantage in the global scene (Carver & Peckham, 1999).

E business strategies are also referred to as the tactics that govern e-businesses through a planned process of dissemination of information.  E-business not only plays a key role in the global trade scene but it is has become the driving force behind today’s businesses (Carver & Peckham, 1999). In this paper, I will explain the effects that Internet has on planning and how it impacts motivation for planning; the processes for planning; and the outcomes of planning.

One of the most prominent benefits of the introduction and the adoption of Internet by businesses is that it simplified communication between businesses and their various stakeholders. Web 2.0 presents businesses with tools that allow them to access Internet instantly. This makes it possible for businesses to send instant messages, provide and receive feedback instantly, and send communications with ease. Furthermore, communicating over the Internet is cost effective too. Instant access to the Internet facilitates business organization, and easy access to applications that help run business operations.

As a result of this is that the Internet has positively impacted organization’s motivation for planning. This is because the Internet offers businesses with an easy to use, and time saving means to build lists, arrange files, collect, store and retrieve information, and share information with other sources (Angelides, 1997). All of these activities are done at a speed high enough that no or very minimal pre-planning is required. Furthermore, with e-business, products and information can be saved online on cloud, thus facilitating easy remote access for future use.

The above factors increase planning motivation in a number of ways. As Maslow’s Hierarchy theory of motivation states, motivation comes about as a result of an individual’s ability to successfully complete tasks and achieve the pre set goals. Planning has over the years been known as one of the best ways for individuals and businesses to ensure that they accomplish their goals (Carver & Peckham, 1999). As discussed above, Internet makes the planning process run smoothly and faster. If a business is able to plan easily and faster, it is more likely to help its employees achieve the pre set goals thus increasing the firm’s productivity. When employees continuously achieve their personal and organizational goals, they are more likely to remain motivated.

The Internet also affects the process of business planning positively because it offers businesses a number of tools to ensure that planning takes place in all aspects of the business. The internet facilitates planning activities such as: Countdowns, Categorizing, Writing of lists, Listing tasks, Micro pinning (Pinterest, and Delicious among others), Diary and event entry, Reminders, Goal planning (both short and long term), Websites that are solely dedicated to giving feedback to employees upon completion of the pre set goals, and Applications that keep track of progress and show planned events that have been successfully completed (Carver & Peckham, 1999). By using the Internet to perform business planning activities, the planning process runs smoothly and saving the business a lot of time and effort. The amount of resources saved when using the Internet as opposed to performing those activities manually, is tremendous enough to encourage even the most unadventurous and the least liberal individuals to adopt the use of Internet as a planning tool.

With the help of the Internet, planning outcomes also come easy since, as stated earlier, most web applications are devised to offer their users instant feedback. This means that the business can get instant feedback of the planning process as soon as each step as soon as it has been taken (Carver & Peckham, 1999). This type of instant gratification comes as a form of motivation, which has been demonstrated to help businesses and their employees move forward into achieving their goals.

The Web is also renown for its awesome tools that help in breaking huge tasks into smaller milestones as well as short-term goals. The web has provided that all the tools that one may need all at the same place. What’s more, most of these tools come at a low price or are free. Individuals and businesses with high understanding of the Internet may create a personalized planning application to ensure that all the business needs are met comprehensively (Angelides, 1997). In turn, such businesses with the knowledge and the resources to design personalized business planning application use the tool to facilitate effective planning, which in turn ensures that they meet their pre set goals. This makes such businesses feel extremely accomplished due to their ability of meeting their goals so quickly.

E-business speeds up the traditional business activities as well as giving business a new dimension. The Internet has facilitated the growth and development of many businesses globally by enabling them to expand their catchment area thus they can now reach a wider customer base. Additionally, businesses can now advertise their products more effectively and efficiently (Angelides, 1997). The Internet has not only created a new customer niche but it also improves productivity by facilitating the process of business planning and strategy formulation. Among the tools of e-business strategies is online advertising, acceptance of payments online, online transactions and online auction arrangements. Other than methodical sources, e-business approaches and strategies can produce revenue from ensuring that the current channel integrity remains well maintained. The Internet is a great tool that has been used over the years by both businesses and individuals to successfully facilitate the planning process. From the above analysis, it is clear that incorporating the Internet into business planning process can be very beneficial to a business and its stakeholders.

Types of Biases – Sample Essay

Managers often have hundreds of decisions to make, and they must understand the inherent psychological components of a smart decision in order to avoid potential problems. Avoiding a bad decision is a skill that mangers can learn, develop, and perfect by examining errors that might have been made in the past, controlling cognitive biases, and by gathering proper information on how to make a good decision. Even highly intelligent managers can make bad decisions due to personal biases and pitfalls. Everyone can fall into various traps that lead to imperfect decisions, and there is therefore a great need to understand the specific decision-making biases and pitfalls as well as to avoid them (Hammond, Keeney and Raiffa, 1998). This paper identifies and explains specific biases demonstrated by four different decisions. The paper also describes what leaders should do to avoid these biases in future.

The kind of decision-making bias represented in the first scenario is confirmation bias. Hammond, Keeney and Raiffa (1998) define confirmation bias as a type of cognitive bias where a person makes a decision in favor of information that confirms previous beliefs, whether they are actually true or not. For instance, take it that that a person holds a belief that ladies are more intelligent than men. Whenever such a person meets a lady who performs better than men in any setting, they take it as an evidence to support their pre-existing belief. In the given scenario, the Chief Executive Officer strongly believes that marketing is a bad use of the company’s finances. She makes her decision on favor of data from several years back showing how sales did not go up despite the fact the company spent a lot of money on marketing. According to the Chief Executive Officer, cutting marketing budget will leave her with extra money for use in other activities as the company continues to record high sales.

Surprisingly, the company’s sales start to drop dramatically following the cut in marketing budget. When asked by one of the workers if the cut in marketing budget could be the cause of the drop in sales, the Chief Executive Officer insists that there must be a different problem that is not associated with the cut in marketing budget. The fact that there is a drop in sales following the cut in marketing budget is a clear indication that making a decision in favor of information that confirms previous beliefs is very wrong.

Confirmation bias should be avoided because it affects how people interpret information, and it can lead to disastrous decisions like the one demonstrated in this scenario. Generally, people who become victims of confirmation bias do not want to face the possibility that their beliefs could be wrong. They are faced with the fear that if they consider contrary evidence, they might make decisions that might be even more catastrophic. In order to avoid similar impacts of confirmation bias in future, the Chief Executive Officer should not only seek information that supports her beliefs when making decisions, but she also should gather additional information that describe the same issue in a different way. This will enable her to make proper decisions that take care of both personal beliefs and what exists in reality (Kourdi, 2003).

The type of decision making bias represented in the second scenario is overconfidence bias. According to Bolland and Fletcher (2012), overconfidence bias occurs when people overestimate their knowledge to predict, whether those estimates are true or not. Victims of overconfidence bias misjudge their opinions and think that they should be given the objective parameters of the situation at hand. In the given scenario, the Chief Executive Officer is confident that he will double the company’s market share by purchasing a major rival. There is lack of evidence to prove that the market share will actually expand following the acquisition but the company’s leader insists that he can overcome all challenges that are associated with the merger.

The decision made by the Chief Executive Officer has been influenced by his overconfidence because he has ignored several warnings from other managers explaining how such mergers have failed in the past. He fails to consider the fact that mergers and acquisitions are normally successful if there are close similarities in the cultures of the merging organizations. Even though the Chief Executive Officer is certain that he will succeed with the merger, he might experience problems due to lack of proper preparation and he may get into a dangerous situation that might be very difficult for him to handle (Hammond, Keeney and Raiffa, 1998).

Managers should learn to avoid overconfidence bias because it leads to bad decisions that may lead to closure of their companies. The best way to circumvent impacts of overconfidence bias is to avoid estimating personal knowledge when making decisions that are likely to affect the whole company. In addition, managers should make proper plans and avoid favoring pessimistic scenarios. This way, they will have a chance of judging every difficult situation somehow realistically without making unnecessary assumptions (Hammond, Keeney and Raiffa, 1998).

In the third scenario, the Chief Executive Officer has decided to purchase Factory A because it has a 94 percent rate of success in producing defect-free products because Factory B has a 5 percent defect rate. The kind of decision-making bias represented in this scenario is framing bias. Kourdi (2003)), defines framing bias as a type of cognitive bias that occurs when someone reacts to a given choice depending on the manner in which it is represented. When a positive frame is presented, people react in such a way that they will be able to avoid risks, while when a negative frame is presented, people tend to seek risks. This affects the type of decision made in case a problem occurs. Generally, a person will present better to positively framed information than to negatively framed information (Bolland and Fletcher, 2012).

In the given scenario, the Chief Executive Officer is expected to make a decision on whether to purchase Factory A or Factory B. The owner of Factory A states that 94 percent of products produce at the factory are free of defects. This means that 6 percent of the products have defects. On the other hand, the owner of Factory B states that only 5 percent of products produced at the company have defects. This shows that 95 percent of products produced at the factory are free of defects. Due to the framing given by the owners of the two factories, the Chief Executive Officer has decided to purchase Factory A which has a 94 percent rate of success in producing defect-free products and has left Factory B which has a 5 percent rate of failure in producing defect-free products. By making such a decision, the Chief Executive Officer has responded better to positively framed information than to negatively framed information, which indicates that his decision has been influenced by framing bias (Bolland and Fletcher, 2012).

Framing bias is robust psychological phenomenon that has affected the decisions made by managers in several instances. Managers should be aware of framing bias, its impacts, as well as how to avoid it. Whenever managers come across some form of information, they are advised to remove the framing and try to anticipate the results from as many perspectives as possible. They should be very careful to include all possible relevant information that may be useful to the situation at hand. This is a very good way of dissecting what is really going on and making meaningful comparisons that may protect them from deliberate manipulations by others. Furthermore, the process of analyzing the given information in details without framing it gives managers an opportunity to think about all other possible alternatives. If only the Chief Executive Officer had avoided the framing in the information given by owners of the two companies, he could have understood that Factory B is better than Factory A as far as production of defect-free products is concerned (Hammond, Keeney and Raiffa, 1998).

The kind of decision-making bias represented in the fourth scenario is sunk-cost bias. Decisions that are influenced by sunk-cost bias occur due to rational attachments that people have to costs that cannot be recovered (Kourdi, 2003). Managers fall victims of sunk-cost bias when making decisions because they want to make their investments worth their while. They want to waste additional finances to try and solve a problem that has already consumed huge funds.  In the given scenario, the Chief Executive Officer of an automobile company has decided to introduce a new hybrid vehicle using modern technology. The company has spent a lot of money in research and development as well as on advertising. Unfortunately, it is unable to recover the money spent due to low sales of the hybrid vehicle. The Chief Executive Officer insists that he will continue selling the hybrid vehicle at low prices given that a lot of money has been spent on the project. He has failed to consider abandoning the car and focusing on selling other profitable vehicles. The decision made by the Chief Executive Officer has been influenced by sunk-cost bias because it is rationally attached to costs that cannot be recovered (Bolland and Fletcher, 2012).

Sunk-cost bias can negatively affect a company’s operations because it is a way of spending resources on a bad move. Managers can avoid sunk-cost bias in decision-making by focusing on ideas that will result into positive outcomes. They should stop dwelling on issues simply because they made an investment in the first place, but they should immediately start spending money on new resources that will cut on losses (Hammond, Keeney and Raiffa, 1998). The four decision-making biases: confirmation bias, overconfidence bias, framing bias, and sunk-cost bias are all dangerous to a leader because they have equal impacts on a company’s operations. Decisions that are influenced by any kind of decision-making bias will impact how operations in an organization are conducted as well as how a company performs following existence of a given problem. Managers should be aware of all types of decision-making biases as well as how to avoid them in order to prevent severe impacts that may result from making disastrous decisions (Kourdi, 2003).

BAB11 – iLink – Case Study of a Start Up – Questions And Answers

Is there a real opportunity here? Does is make sense for Bernstein and Usluel to forego more secure employment?

Setting up a startup is one of the most challenging undertakings of entrepreneurs. As significant number of startups collapse after a few years of being operational. Therefore, Bernstein and Usluel would face certain risks in their quest to set up the ILinc. From the information provided in the case it is clear that there is a real opportunity in the industry. The growth of interactive learning among organizations would provide the company with a growth opportunity. Despite the fact that demand for interactive learning in university is currently low, it is expected to increase in the near future. Therefore, Bernstein an Usluel should forego secure employment as the company has limitless opportunities for growth. In addition, it would provide them with the freedom that is not available in secure employment. Setting up a startup would also enable Bernstein and Usluel have more responsibility. They would be part of a small team. They would provide the startup with unique skills set. They would approach the problems facing the startup differently, which would ultimately help in improving its competitiveness and profitability. Being part of a small team would also make Bernstein and Usluel be more versatile, reliable and productive. If they worked in a large company they may not have been the opportunity. The large company may not rely on them on the work they do. Therefore, Bernstein and Usluel would be critical members of the small team. This would help in improving their job satisfaction.

Evaluate the business plan – strength vs weakness

Strengths

All the members of the ILinc have valuable experience in the industry

The members of the companies have extensive experience in the multimedia industry.

The company can offer different types of products. Therefore, failure in one product line would not have a significant impact on the company’s bottom line.

Improvement in computer technology would lead to a reduction in the hardware prices. This would lead to a significant increase in the market for software training tools.

Fortune 1000 companies would provide the primary target market of the company. However, ILinc also acknowledges the fact that small companies would also provide it with a huge market segment. The company intends to use GlobaLinc to target smaller companies.

Weaknesses

Lack of total commitment by Wilson, who would act as the company’s CEO. Lack of commitment by the CEO would reduce the ultimate competitiveness of the company.

ILink targets Fortune 1000 companies who would create a niche market for the company. However, it is a fact that acquiring these customers would be very difficult as there is stiff competition from other companies who provide similar services.

Bernstein has expressed some doubts about the company. It is wrong for anybody to set up a business with doubts in the mind. Failure to trust the business idea would ultimately lead to the collapse of the company.

ILink’s source of primary financing would be from primary sales. Therefore, lack of primary sales would stunt its growth.

It is would be difficult for the company to dominate the market. This is due to the fact that anybody with basic computer skills can create a multimedia coursework.

Have they created the right organizational structure?

They have created the right organizational structure. ILink has a functional organizational structure. Bernstein, Wilson, and Usluel are in charge of different functions of the organization. They are experienced in the functions they have been assigned to undertake. This ensures that they would ensure that there is efficient functioning of the organization. The organization structure would also ensure that there is specialization among different departments of the company. Specialization would ensure that the employees perform their tasks at a high level of speed and efficiency, which would ultimately improve the productivity of the company. Employees who have intricate knowledge of their jobs can undertake the activities confidently and with minimal mistakes. They would also have clear career paths. This would help in motivating the employees to advance their careers by reaching the next level on the corporate ladder, which would also make them be more productive (Lewis, Goodman & Fandt, 2006).

Having a functional organizational structure would also lead to minimal duplication of efforts. Departments would only undertake certain functions. This reduces the need to establish departments that undertake similar work. This would enable ILinc to utilize its human resources and other types of resources more effectively (Lewis, Goodman & Fandt, 2006).

A functional organizational structure would also facilitate the training of employees of employees of the company since it would focus on a limited range of skills. For instance, employees in the finance department would only be trained on various financial issues.

A functional organizational structure would also ensure that all functions have the same weight. This would help in reducing conflicts among different departments (Lewis, Goodman & Fandt, 2006).

Assuming that each partner has $10,000 to invest in the start-up, but each brings a different set of skill set and contacts, how should they divide the equity of the firm?

If all partners have $10,000 to invest in the company, they should ensure that they divided equity equally among all partners. This is due to the fact that they are all vital in the operations of the company. They all bring unique capabilities that would ensure the ultimate competitiveness of the company. Sharing equity equally among all partners should ensure that there is mutual respect among all the partners. They would feel they are all vital to the ultimate success of the company.

What options do they have for financing their start up?

ILinc may look for venture capital from various investors. However, this would involve bringing an outside partner. This would dilute the control of the partners on the organization. The company may also use initial sale of products to finance the startup. This would enable the maintain control of the company. However, initial sales of products would provide the company with limited capital. This may stunt the growth and profitability of the company. The partners may also use their savings to finance the startup. However, this would provide the partners with limited capital (Leach & Melicher, 2014).

The partners may also finance their startup with funds from friends and family. However, it is vital for the partners to ensure that they are committed to the venture before seeking financial assistance from people they know. The money may be in the form of a gift or soft loan (Leach & Melicher, 2014).

The partner may also take bank loans to finance the startup. Small Business Administration (SBA) is one the best sources of loans in the U.S. It has provided small businesses with loans worth tens of billions of dollars. It is vital for the partners to ensure that taking the loan would not put them in great financial distress (Leach & Melicher, 2014).

Have they figured out their market?

ILink has figured out its market. The company targets Fortune 1000 companies as its primary target market. The Universities and learning institutions would also be the target market of the company. The company also targets small companies through GlobaLinc. It would use GlobaLinc to develop special training classes for certain companies.

Different Perceptions of Self-Efficacy Among Counseling Students

What is Self-efficacy?

Self-efficacy can be described as the self beliefs that an individual holds in response to difficult situations that he or she gets himself into. The ability of an individual to get solutions to his or her problems due to his abilities to tackle the problems without fear is what constitutes self-efficacy (Bandura, 1977).

Roles of self-efficacy

Almost everyone has a goal that they desire to achieve in life, either in the short term or in the long run. There are also those people who normally have the desire to change certain things either in their lives or in the society in which they will live. All the above mentioned factors do need time and proper planning using strategies that can enable the person achieve them. However, most people normally fail to realize that it is difficult to have such planning that can enable them achieve their goals successfully.   It is at that point that self-efficacy is used in the achievement of such predicted and desired goals in life.

Self efficacy plays an important role in life because it determines how problems or life problems are tackled and eventually solved. Additionally, it also determines how deep the interest of people goes in response to the problems that face them. Apart from that, those who have life problems also get the necessary interest required in solving their problems. The interest then would double up to increase the commitments that individuals would have in trying to find solutions to their problems. Moreover, those who embrace self efficacy can never keep mourning or be broken down by the disappointments that they face in their daily lives. The reason why they cannot be disappointed is because they are always able to make quick recoveries from the disappointments and setbacks that they face in life. On the contrary, those who have a weak sense of self efficacy normally try to avoid the challenges, thereby ending up not being able to find solutions to their problems. Additionally, such people normally have the belief that the difficult situations are not within their capabilities of solving them. They always tend to think that the difficult situations can only be solved by other people who are maybe better placed in the society. In short, such people are said to suffer from self inferiority.  There are a number of ways through which one can acquire self efficacy and one of them is through the mastery experience. Whenever one passes through a challenge or problem in life, how they solve such problems determine how their confidence turn out to be in the future. Apart from that, social modeling is also another way through which self efficacy can be adopted. One can have self confidence just by watching how other people in the society solve their problems. They (witnesses) can then use the same procedure to tackle their problems in the future.

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