Browse Month: June 2017

TD 2 Fairness in the workplace

TD 2 Fairness in the workplace

In managing others, human perception, attitudes and motivation are keen importance. One important OB issue spanning these dimensions is the concept of perceived fairness in the workplace.
Fairness is such a common phenomenon in organizations that most leaders typically give it little thought. If an employee says the vacation/leave, or other policy, isn’t fair he or she might get some attention. Unfortunately, some leaders/managers fail to realize that unfairness may cause overall performance to suffer. And can even have severe economic consequences. Just because you are not paying attention doesn’t mean that unfairness isn’t making a big difference to your organization’s product/performance quality, mission readiness or completion, customer service and / or the bottom line.


Consider the real life effects of perceived unfairness: For twenty years Charlie, a baggage handler was an asset to his airline. Callous rule changes and harsh supervisory treatment however led him to covertly retaliate. For months he carefully evened the score by tearing off a few baggage tags each shift. Each missing tag caused the airline both service headaches and lost dollars (at $55 per bag on average).
As well reflect on the military supervisor who appeared to have chosen ”Attilla the Hun” as a role model.
Upset with what they perceived as a never-ending stream of oppressive behavior, two technicians took a number of particularly expensive silver-lined spare radar batteries and buried them in the boonies. They almost immediately rotated stateside leaving the responsible supervisor to account for (and evidentially, also at least partially pay for) these items upon his later rotation date.
While such examples may seem a little extreme more subtle response may abound please consider:
•    Do you think this sort of behavior might be somewhat widespread in organizations?
•    Have you seen or reliably heard of such behavior? If so please cite an example. And what kind of cost /losses ($ and other wise) might be associated with your example?
•    Do leaders/ mangers you know pay much attention to this notion of perceived fairness


Discuss a hobby you participate in or a collection you have put together. Describe the equipment you need for this hobby or collection.


Discuss a hobby you participate in or a collection you have put together. Describe the equipment you need for this hobby or collection. List future pieces of equipment you need for your hobby or pieces you still need for your collection. How has your hobby or collection progressed throughout the years? Make notes describing this progress and share them with the class. Once you have evaluated your own hobby or collection

The strategic audit system is a diagnostic tool to pinpoint an organization’s strengths and weaknesses.

The strategic audit system is a diagnostic tool to pinpoint an organization’s strengths and weaknesses. Use the Strategic Analysis Framework and other tools in order to conduct a strategic audit.



You might consider using a SWOT analysis for both companies to analyze each companies situation.

For this assignment, a mini strategic audit will be conducted for two companies with an overall goal to compare how each company differs in the strategy management and implementation, while indentifying the importance of strategic management.



Assignment Requirements

Conduct a mini Strategic Audit on e-company and Best Buy, Visit the each company’s website at Tiger Direct at and Best Buy at After conducting research, identify key strategies that each company has in common.



List a brief introduction of each company, to include the Mission Statement and compare key aspects of each company. Identify the importance of strategic management based on your research. Be sure to include the concepts identified in the readings for this week’s topics.

Submit your answers in a 1000 word, APA style paper. Include a title sheet and 2-3 references



The Role of Leadership in Employee Motivation

The Role of Leadership in Employee Motivation

Can leaders really motivate employees? Yes, and they should do. Extensive research has been carried out over the years to evaluate the impact of charismatic, transformational and inspiring leaders on employee motivation. Such research has established that a charismatic and transformational leadership approach addresses the emotional needs and responses of employees in a more effective way. On the contrary, a plainly transactional approach tends to have little or no motivational impact towards the employees. One of the positive impacts on employees resulting from charismatic leadership is the healthy relationship that arises between the employees and their leaders. Some of the indicators of a positive relationship are high levels of trust, commitment to the organization, job satisfaction and job performance both at the individual level and organization levels (Bono & Judge, 2003).

According to Jeroen and Deanne (2007), most of the studies on behavioral leadership focus on the performance outcomes. However, some studies indicate that transformational leadership also encourages employee creativity and innovativeness which is an excellent form of motivation. Such leaders achieve this innovative employee motivation by encouraging the employees to view challenges in new and diverse ways. This helps them enhance their creativity and tend to realize their full potential. Leaders make this kind of impact by adopting a participative form of leadership. Participative leadership is the kind of leadership in which the employees can influence the leader’s decisions by virtue of the procedures employed in the decision-making process. These procedures used by participative leaders include consulting, delegation and making joint decisions together with the followers. Studies show that this form of leadership encourages employees to be innovative since they get to participate in decision making as opposed to waiting for decisions to trickle down from the leaders or management.

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obstruction in the GI tract

obstruction in the GI tract

Please answer each of the following questions:

1.What conditions are associated with infection with H. pylori? What other causes are there for the same or related conditions in the GI tract? What is the mechanism

of ulcer formation due to NSAID use? (5 pts)

2.What are the common causes of obstruction in the GI tract, both for upper GI and lower GI? What is the difference between simple obstruction and functional

obstruction? (4 pts)

3.What are the risk factors for GERD? What symptoms does GERD have, and what are the consequences of chronic GERD? Are there any risks or consequences to the treatment

of GERD? ( 4 pts)

4.What are the differences between the different classifications of diarrhea (osmotic, secretory, and motility), including manifestation and causes? What are the

common causes of constipation? (3 pts)

5.What is the most common cause of ascites? What are the major factors that contribute to the development of ascites? What other pathological conditions are often

related to ascites, or seen in the same people? (4 pts)

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Family Description Paper

Family development theory and normative issue emphasizes on the patterned and systematic transformations that families undergo as they progress through their course of life. The term family, in this case, represents a social group comprising of at least one parent-child relationship. It is the social norms that forms and guides family group with regards to the normative issues (Goldenberg & Goldenberg 2013).Each stage of family development is comprised of diverse family roles, tasks and relationship between family members, focusing on the shifting transformations that families undergo during the normative life span. Examples of the family development stages include first stage that is establishment stage where a new family is formed with the relation of two people who make a new house and they gradually distance from their family of origin forming their own nuclear family. The second stage, new parents, starts when they have a newborn added to their family, and the role of the newly wed couple broaden to bigger role of a mother and a father, then the third stage, preschool family, is the stage when the child starts developing and comprehending relations in his life and he accepts new addition of siblings to the family, then comes the fourth stage, school-age family, when these children start going to school and they get awareness about institutes and relations outside the home. Then comes fifth stage, family of adolescents, at this stage children develop their gender identity and have peer groups that identify them and learning about culture. Then comes sixth stage, family with young adults, children in the family start become more independent and they lose their family ties gradually. The seventh stage is, family of launching centers, the children start developing their independence and leave their parents and then its eighth stage, post-parental family, the children marry and they become parents and their own parents have to accept the new additions to the family, then comes, ninth stage of ageing family, when parents retire and they become dependent on their own children. The new family of their children takes care of the older as well as the new generation. (Moghaddam, 2016). Family development changes that do not directly involve children may still influence children in the interpersonal context of the multigenerational family framework. For instance, grandparents transitioning into retirement (Goldenberg & Goldenberg 2013).

Elimelech is married to Gitty and they have nine children. They are involved in three stages of family development at the same time. The first stage according to description of family development given above, they are at stage four, the school-age family. In this stage, the child is introduced to extra-familial institutions; dealing with the child’s adjustment and new environmental feedback. The child, on the other hand, establishes independent additional familial relationships. From the family case study given, Elimelech and his wife are trying to succeed with their children at school as well, and domestic responsibilities at home. At this age, children require the family unit to care for their needs, such as school needs, friendship needs, and physical needs(Zastrow, & Kirst-Ashman, 2016). Elimelech and Gitty’s would in several occasions wake their children up in the morning so that they could get ready for school. When the children surpass this age, they can be woken up with the help of an alarm clock. Furthermore, the parents prepare meals for the children and give parental love to them since they are still not mature enough to be independent.

The second family development stage that this family undergoes according to the table given above is the family with the adolescent stage. Here, the parents have to accept the adolescents while the children are developing a sexual identity and integrating with peer group culture. Elimelech and Gitty are still in the child bringing stage, stage four (described above), yet facing adolescents with their challenges of independence (Goldenberg & Goldenberg 2013). The parents during this stage, of family with adolescents, face the challenge of launching the children into the world. Additionally, children at this stage are given more leeway about what they want to do. For example, the children are encouraged to do their shopping and take care of the shopping needs of the family. This gives them independence. Research says that during adolescent age the sense of freedom in the children makes the parents have peace and harmony in the marriage, cooperation, and intimacy.

Thirdly Elimeleche’s family is in the eighth stage, post-prenatal family. Elimelech’s parents have children who are married. His parents have the role of letting go of children and redefining their marriage, they adopt potential new role as grandparents and the young couple, Elimelech and Gitty have potential new role as parents of new children. Research says that at this stage the young family is coping with possible caregiving and loss on older generation (Goldenberg & Goldenberg 2013). The normative issue facing the family is how to accept the different views and characteristics of the in-laws and incorporate them into the family unit.


Family Roles

Family development stages assign tasks to different family members according to their age and position in the household. Elimelech, in this case, is the eldest, educated and smart member of the family. He is concerned with education matters and offers advice to younger siblings regarding what one should study. His liberal and Judaic studies are also necessary for teaching Judaic family values to the family. He also doubles as the family education mentor.

Gitty (Elimelech’s wife) is responsible for household chores. She is action oriented and is unsettled until the house is put in order. She takes care of her nuclear family and the in-laws (Elimilech’s family of origin) as well. She is concerned with general cleaning of the house, family laundry, house repairs and proper arrangement of the family house. She is also the family cook and enjoys baking.

Sara, Elimelech’s eldest sister, second born after him, has a big heart. She is supportive and offers empathy to all family members. She is also concerned with counseling younger family members with various problems. She is the one that everybody runs to whenever they need little emotional support and moral support. She also connects the other siblings to the parents by communicating their problems. The parents are also supportive of her.

Abraham (married), Elimelech’s brother and third born Elimelech’s family, is the disciplinarian of the family. He makes the family members obey what his wife regard as proper. He is submissive to his wife yet authoritarian to his siblings. Although he may appear neutral, he strictly follows what his wife has commanded. He is dominating on the siblings, and everyone must work with his wife if it is proper. Michy, Elimelech’s second sister, on the other hand, is the all-time family favorite. Although she is married, she loves her family and her siblings. She ‘s nice to everyone in the family, and everybody likes her. Judith, Elimelech’s third sister, her role is being the fashion advisor. She knows the current styles and is the most up to date. However, she is struggling with her family, and she is the one reaching out to get helped but to the wrong people.

Chaim (married), Elimelech’s third brother, is the happy go lucky, but you better not aggravate his wife Sara because she’ll just cut off any ties with you. Shea (fourth brother) presents himself as the decent guy his role is to make dad and mom smile. Hershel (fifth brother) just runs his life the way he wants, and parents are altering themselves to accommodate him. He is the independent one

Family Rules

The family as the social group has well-structured rules that the members often adhere to. (Hepworth,, 2009, p. 240). In this family,  Elimelech’s mother is authoritarian, and her words are law. When the mother asks for something, there is no room for argument neither is there a choice. Every family member must obey the mother’s inquiry. Additionally, the father is a no-nonsense person. He only needs to give hints, but the rest is upon the family members to figure out.

The organization and structure in the family positively affect the family’s ability to maintain a sense of equilibrium and manage its life stage task of keeping the family together. For example, in this family, the males are equally responsible for domestic needs. It bonds the family jointly with the sense of responsibility and having equal rights in the family affairs. (Hepworth, , 2009)

The family is based on strong discipline background where the father and mother are the sole decision makers and everybody is to follow. For example, there are no excuses for delaying proper greetings of good wishes, parents decide about education, dress code and holiday celebrations, certain customs, especially of holidays, can not be changed from the mom’s unalterable decisions. It is supposed that this ensures uniformity in family affairs and bond the family with strong ties. It also brings the sense of togetherness and eliminates separation among family members. According to research, positive qualities in the relationship between parents and children help children in developing greater healthy independence and autonomy from parents and a sense of self-reliance (Zimmer-Gembeck, Madsen, & Hanisch, 2011). The children conform a lot to the family laws and rules and they don’t disobey the parents. This may appear to develop good relationship among children and parents in this family.

Family Cohesiveness

The family is in a close relationship yet flexible, no interdependence between siblings, but parents are not too flexible any change of the “norms” will shake them up. As a result, the whole family is precautious about any decisions. The strict rules that have been set by the parents make the family members feel close to each other and maintain close contact with each other because they are strictly conformed and obeyed by the children. Older siblings guide the younger ones and provide right direction. Additionally, the family is supportive of each family member, and there is love among the family members. The sharing of the domestic chores also binds the family together. The family also names children after the generation, for example, the name Shea Fasten. This keeps generational love down the family genogram.

Family Communication

Balance between separateness and connectedness and communication pattern

Open communication is not the best between the additions (in-laws) in the family, yet between immediate siblings, it is used including constructive criticism and reaching out for help. The communication between family members affects the family both in negative and positive ways. It is positive because it helps keep the family together. Family members feel secure that they are informed of the family’s affairs, and this helps the family communicate and share with each other. On the downside, when the entire family is provided with information about each other, it inhibits the family from developing independence from each other (Zastrow, & Kirst-Ashman, 2016).

Studies show that family members often prefer to conceal private information from each other for prosocial reasons. When family members refrain from sharing private information, it can contribute to their sense of trust and bonding with each other. At times, concealing information can be a form of betrayal. However, the sharing of information between members also help members feel connected. When members share, it provides a feeling of confidence about the connection between members. It also supports exploration between family members for their needs and preferences (Zastrow, & Kirst-Ashman, 2016). Thus the sharing and concealment of private information need to be balanced in the family unit, and the way it is balanced has significant implications for the success of the household and its members (Vangelisti, 2012).

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Evolution of Decision Making Approaches: The Evolvement to Data-Driven Decision Making

Decision-making can simply be termed as the principle of selecting between two or more initiatives or causes of action to effectively identify and solve problems. Over the years, the business and institutional environment has grown tremendously, thus leading to hiking demand for effective, accurate and timely decisiveness. Decision makers, managers or leaders, must proficiently identify opportunities in the market, challenges, and make quick and crucial choices that affect the competitiveness of their institution or organization. These decisions play a significant role in ensuring their survival in the global environment. On the other hand, Data-Driven Decision Making Approach provides accurate and verifiable information that is used in the decision-making process. Using the data guarantees positive outcomes of the process while improving the organization’s state in the modern technological world. The approach relies on quality research to support the decisions made by leaders or managers (Power, 2016). This paper focuses on the gradual change in decision-making approaches. It critically evaluates how early decision-making theories have evolved to modern approaches (data-driven decision-making).

Early Decision-making Approaches

Different sociologists, economists, and psychologists developed several theories regarding the concept of decision-making. Though the theories differed in assumptions and way of execution, they had various similarities where one would form the basis for the other. One of these theories was the classical and neoclassical approach. The theory stated that the decision making process involved investigation on issues, generating possible alternatives and determining their impact, then choosing the optimal alternative (Kalantari, 2010). However, “Simon asserted that the classical and neoclassical approaches in dealing with decision-making concept are not realistic and do not correspond with the real world” (Kalantari, 2010, p.512).

Cyert and Simon (1983) developed a theory known as the Behavioral Approach, which according to them, gave a picture of the nature of rationality in the real world. They also stated that “a theory of decision-making within organizations that combines both the internal variables of the firm and the market forces of the particular market structure the firm is operating within can be developed” (Cyert & Simon, 1983, p.95). The approach was developed to improve the unrealistic classical model and provide more profound decision-making support to managers.

Another theory was the expected utility theory, which “was accepted as a normative model rational choice” and dominate in “analysis of decision making under risk” (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979, p.263). They described the theory as a “descriptive model of decision making under risk, and developed an alternative model, called the prospect theory” (p. 263). Most of the decision made by leaders are under risk, therefore these models are crucial. In describing decision making in relation to leadership, Vroom (2000) used an example of an emergency response manager. According to him, the process begins with problem identification, then determining the possible solutions to solve the problem. As a leader, quick decisions are paramount in determining the survival of your organization or institution, especially where substantial risk is involved.

Development of the Decision Making Approaches

Kalantari (2010) explains that the main idea in Herbert A. Simon’s study was based on scientific evidences on human behavior. “His central goal was to explain the nature and mechanism of thoughts process that people use in making decisions”

(Kalantari, 2010, p.510). Simon’s studies were directed towards administrative behavior as a discipline dictating the process of making a decision. “Organizational decision-making is a complex process that is influenced by many factors in the organization” (Kalantari, 2010, p.511). The theory was mainly to rectify the previous classical and neoclassical approach, which was ineffective.

“The classical and neoclassical approaches in dealing with decision-making concept are not realistic and do not correspond with the real world” (Kalantari, 2010, p.512). The bounded rationality model was an ideal approach to use for decisions that are more effective. Simon defended his model stating that bounded rationality can be referred to as “limits of human capability to calculate the server deficiencies in human knowledge about the consequences of choice, and the limits of human ability at adjudicate among multiple goals” (Cited in Simon, 1979, p.270). He also stated that “modern definition of the economic sciences, whether phrased in terms of rational decision making, marks out a vast domain for conquest and settlement” (Simon, 1979, p.493). The classical model formed the basis in empirical evidences, and from that, the bounded rationality model was formed to disapprove it and became the starting point for economic theories (Cited in Simon, 1997). However, the bounded rationality had its own limitations since it emphasized more on individual rationality degree of individual decision maker rather than evidences to support the action taken. This meant that the individuals modified the rationality model themselves, accounting for limitations surrounding them for satisfactory decisions (Kalantari, 2010). The model did not guarantee optimal decisions; therefore, there was need for more research to formulate models that are more sophisticated.

Most of the early theories on decision-making emphasized more on person’s behavior as the major determinant of reliable decision-making process. However, some included more factors, for example, the normative model. It was realistic and enabled a leader to reflect on past description in order to make sound decisions. Similarly, it formed a base for the development of data-driven decision-making approach, which is highly common in top performing companies and institutions globally.

The Data-Driven Decision Making Approach

The global business and institution environment has changed tremendously with great demand for timely, accurate and reliable decisions pressuring leaders or managers (Harvard Business Review Analytic Service, 2012). To achieve sensitive goals of timely and effective decisions, while relieving this pressure, strategic approaches need to be followed. To this regard, reliance “on good pre-analysis and documented data” is a brilliant way to come up with accurate decision while minimizing “tedious complexity of the decision-making process” (Tank, 2015, p.43). According to Tank (2015) as technology changes, competitiveness increases, therefore increased need for sufficient and reliable data to support the decision-making process. “Contemplating decision-making support options forces managers and technologists to examine issues of rationality, information culture, and decision support and analytics design and deployment” (Power, 2016, p.345). The increased demand for evidence-based decisions resulted to the gradual development of the data-driven decision-making. This approach has significantly improved the process of making decisions, especially when under pressure and in risky environments.

Significance of Reliance on the Data-Driven Culture

Rational thinking and a desire for evidence-based decision-making is paramount when formulating effective data-driven approach (Power, 2016, p.347). Recent studies show that managers are faced with substantial challenges when executing their managerial tasks while using the new data streams. To solve this, great emphases have been put on evidence-based approaches in decision-making process. A good example of the effectiveness of the data-driven approach is in occupational therapy. The data-driven method “provides a framework for reasoning through the occupational therapy process with a focus on utilization of data guide and measure outcomes” (Schaaf, 2015, p.2).

Data science is a recent discipline that has contributed positively to the decision-making process (Power, 2016, p.345). The approach requires data scientists who encourage managers and leaders to “examine issues of decision-maker rationality, data and data analysis” (Power, 2016, p.345). According to Power (2016), managers look upon the data scientists to utilize the expanding data streams, which in turn enhance rational decision-making while ameliorating data-driven decision making in the organization or institution. Using past-well analyzed data substantially reduce the risks in decision-making process. Leadership challenges are eliminated since the leader can find past information on the area, learn from any mistakes made, and rectify them when making the current decisions. Risks of repeating past mistakes are close to none.

Current Situation on Data-Driven Decision Making

Today, “the imperative to make better decisions faster has increased the pressure on organizations and their employees” (Harvard Business Review Analytic Service, 2012, p.3). As indicated in Harvard Business Review Analytic Service (2012), the pressure has resulted to evolution “in the development of a data-driven culture, typically based on the use of analytics and business intelligence” (p.3). The evolution has been greatly influenced by standardization of the decision-making process, increased pressure for timely decisions in the competitive market, the need for analytical tools to expand skills, and creation of an analytical ecosystem on data-driven decisions (Harvard Business Review Analytic Service, 2012).

Additionally, there is a rapid adoption of the data-driven decision-making approach in organizations, government institutions as well as learning institutions. A study by LeMire et al. (2016) explains how statistical data is used to promote data-driven decisions in learning institutions. Collection and employment of crucial and relevant “reference statistics for the data-driven decision making is more important than ever” (LeMire et al., 2016, p.230). The approach has become more common in the modern global environment. The organizations’ ability to build and use management systems effectively is highly dependent on its staff’s capacity to comprehend various activities and deciding what to take and what to leave (Maxwell, Rotz & Garcia, 2016).

In the U.S, the use of data-driven decisions in manufacturing sectors has increased substantially. “However, adoption has been uneven” despite the nearly tripled use of data-driven decisions “between 2005 and 2010, from 11% to 30% of plants” (McElheran & Brynjolfsson, 2016, p.5). This great development on data-driven decision-making has been evident on firms with well-integrated IT investments, and less in firms with unsophisticated IT growth.

Similarly, “along with teamwork, communication, problem-solving and other employee requirements, the ability to analyze and act on data will become a core competency for professionals of all types” (Mozenda, 2017). Today, for a leader to perform tasks proficiently, he/she should be able to interpret relevant data in their organizations and make sensible and reliable decisions to solve problems.

Conceptual phrases like “big data” and “data lakes” will be used less and less in favor of implementing detailed processes that emphasize delivering useful, relevant data. Companies continue to thrive or stagnate by their ability to collect and act on data. Unfortunately, many organizations end up building large databases of information that are underutilized and do little to improve their bottom line. Data is truly only useful when it is able to answer important questions. (Mozenda, 2017)

Answering those questions will help solve problems facing a company or institutions.

Additionally, the technical challenge affecting decision makers is the effective use of big data and execution of task as part of the executive team in the organization (McAfee & Brynjolfsson, 2012). Therefore, in ensuring the success of a company in the big data era, members of the leadership team need to set clear goals, ask the right questions and clearly defining what needs to be done for the company to succeed (McAfee & Brynjolfsson, 2012, p. 66). It is also evident that performing companies have leaders who are able to think creatively, understanding the market and able to identify available opportunities proficiently.


Managers, being the decision makers, are obligated to make the right decisions for the effective running of an organization. They have to be familiar with the most effective approaches in the decision-making process. In the modern environment, “managers are facing both challenges and opportunities from new and expanding data streams” (Power, 2016, p.345). The gradually changing environment has prompted an improvement on the past decision making approaches to ones that are more sophisticated, enabling quick adoption of the changes. With the development of data-driven decisions, there is high demand for skilled decision makers. This is because; the data needs to be interpreted correctly to enhance effective decisions. For example, not all data that is useful, therefore a manager should be able to identify the important data that is relevant to the problem being tackled. Data-driven decision-making approach has helped “managers to decide on the basis of evidence rather than intuition” (McAfee & Brynjolfsson, 2012, p.63). Subsequently, “senior decision makers have to embrace evidence-based decision making” as companies “hire scientists who can find patterns in data and translate them into useful business information” (McAfee & Brynjolfsson, 2012, p.63).

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Evaluation of Mainstream Article – Selfies To Narcissism And Psychopathology

This article is a blog that reviews a research on link of selfies to narcissism and psychopathology. There are no charts or statistical figures included in the writing so it seems to be more as a general piece of work rather than professional and it seems that it’s actually written for general population and their level of understanding is kept under consideration. The writer has been biased in writing the research review in this way that he reported only those findings that support his argument of negative trait development due to selfies, the writer has not reported the limitations of the study that warrants further study to be conducted to support that these traits are specific to men and not to women in general.

The writer has reviewed only one article in the blog, though he has talked about other researchers too, that can show evidence or proof that support his argument but this shows that he has collected enough evidence only to support his argument, the writer’s approach seems biased in reporting findings from a research.  Nevertheless, despite having the review being biased and unidirectional, the writer has tried to create awareness for the reader to know that selfies trending have negative effects on an individual’s personality.

Briefly, summarize the mainstream article. Include a discussion of the mainstream article author’s purpose and intended audience.

The article mainly speaks about a research that has been conducted by Ohio State University study, the study was conducted on 800 men, aged between 18-40 years, they were asked to fill in the questionnaire that measured anti-social behavior and self-objectification, how often they posted their selfies and how and whether they edit their photos before posting them.

Narcissism is linked with inflated self-esteem and psychopathology involves lack of empathy and impulsive behavior, the findings of the research have not labeled the men who post slefies as narcissistic or psychopaths but indicates that they lie high on anti-social traits, few studies link use of Facebook with low self-esteem and narcissism and another study linked having unrealistically larger number of friends with narcissistic personality. The current study linked editing one’s photos with higher level of self-objectification and that can be a problem of concern for men and women with growing use of social networking.

The article was written to create awareness among people regarding the negative effects of following new trends of selfies. It seems that the writer wanted to persuade the reader to become conscious of the arising issues in the modern world due to these modern trends and become cautious of development of negative personality traits due to use of these social networking trends. The article is mainly focusing general population and its purpose is to spread awareness, the absence of any scientific terms and statistical figures show that this is actually focusing people with any kind of background.

How accurate was the mainstream source in reporting the results of the study? What did it do well? What could it have done better?

            The mainstream source seems to be biased in reporting results of the study. The writer has not mentioned any limitations and confounding that the study has faced due to which the results of study can be questioned for the accuracy of the measurement. The writer has mentioned findings of the study accurately but he has picked up only those findings that go in favor of his argument. This piece of study is very useful in creating awareness in general population, who don’t study or can’t understand scientific findings; these types of articles are beneficial in reporting the facts and findings that are useful for general population.

It could have mentioned more studies to support its argument and findings of the Ohio state University, it could have used generic terms in describing the results of the study and it could have also mentioned few studies that go against the writer’s argument in order to put the view in front of the readers and not force their thinking to see selfie as negative due to his biased reporting.

Effective Leadership Practices – Nelson Mandela

Peter Drucker defines leadership as the art of doing things right. As a proponent of change and political emancipation in the apartheid South Africa, Nelson Mandela is the ensemble of leadership in its real sense. According to Mandela, the state of segregation based on race was not the right measure of governance and leadership in a progressive and democratic setup. He thus chose to fight for that which he believed was right, proper and equitable representation irrespective of color and racial background. As a black scholar, he envisioned a country where the present individuals could be treated fairly and equally. This is the basis upon which the African icon whose legacy lives to date was based.

As both a political and later a philanthropic leader to be emulated over the years of his life and reign, Mandela portrayed the three level model of leadership whereby he had an ostensible personal role and an outstanding public life and role. Mandela’s inner level presence was molded around a loyal family and a privilege of education in a time when the same was not universally available. (Eredith, 2010) These early skills served to prepare him for his later public life, especially the legal training. In the public domain, the man presented himself as a vocal and uncanny fighter who crusaded for the change in status quo against all odds.

A figure that arose in black Africa at a time when the plight of this group was subjugated by the ruling whites, Mandela stood for an issue that was an agenda of every black African of the time for decades. He ventured to push an agenda that many others could not risk their welfare and portfolio for. Additionally, he put the plight of others before his own, citing the fact that he was an accomplished lawyer and a family man, attributes whose standing he put at stake. By pushing the plight of common black citizens, he stood for an issue that brought together masses upon the same shared vision of a non-partisan country where color was not an issue of leverage.

In a time when rebellion and opposition to the reigning regime was a recipe for trouble, he stood out to fight for that which he believed was right. The same was at a detriment of his welfare and that of other dependents around him. For instance, the young family that Mandela had just founded was left to fend for itself while he ventured into the process of activism. The course of resistance and activism was not easy(Judge, et al., 2002). There was always a constant threat of harassment and arrest for him and other participants. Consequently, he had to make use of innovative and sly methods of evasion and organization. Some of these antics involved circumventing of the law and the use of other means that cannot be described as conventional.

The journey towards liberation could not by any definition be described as easy. As such, the quest could not be ventured into alone. The power of unity and mass participation can be highly attributed with the momentum that was achieved during the course of struggle. In the journey of activism and the fight for freedom, there are a number of other individuals that also played a pivotal role in aiding his quest(Scouller, 2011). The input of Steve Biko and Desmond Tutu was a crucial input that served to compound on the black struggle and attracting the attention of various vested groups. The insurmountable input that such individuals put into the struggle had a significant effect on the results that could be reaped from the struggle thereafter.

The era of black struggle that Mandela put upon himself to lead inspired a sense of charisma and philanthropy that he has been associated with all his life. The course of struggle brought with it masses that joined the bandwagon that was pushing for political changes in the then state of South Africa. The sense of action in Mandela as a leader of the struggle for change thus inspired others to assume a similar role in struggle(Chemers, 1997). As a leader, he assumed a role that others strived to emulate for the better good and want to be associated. As such, he inspired others around him towards a common good.

One of the most notable attributes that Mandela can be associated with has to be his sense of humility. Even in the wake of victory against black struggle and the achievement of independence for his country, he did not go ahead to own it alone. As a leader in all its definitions, he went ahead to give credit to the other people who played a role in the achievement of the same(Stogdill, 1948). The same spirit was translated into the position of leadership that he assumed thereafter. In the true sense of leadership, he served and left a democratic space that has grown the country into what it is currently. The same has been further translated into economic and social strides in the same direction.

There are a number of significant impacts that can be directly attributed to the leadership and continual presence of Mandela in South Africa and even Africa at large on the public domain. Out of public office, Mandela has acted to touch lives through inspiration and philanthropic efforts. Further, Mandela is a leader who in his life could be described as practical and hands-on(Chemers, 1997). This is an experience that communicates how his efforts and acts worked to resonate with the common people’s lives. Further, the jail experience and the humble interaction that characterizes the whole of Mandela’s life is an aspect that communicates the nice rapport that exists between him as a leader and the people.

The elevated position that Mandela has occupied and played as a role for decades in the continent and the world has a bright side and the downside too. As a leader and a role model, he has served to impacted societies, institutions and peoples’ lives across the region. The tenure that he served as head of state also served to create a precedent for good governance that has been replicated over the consequent terms(Eredith, 2010). The level of achievement and success that his life and actions have led to can be noted even in the international platform through the Nobel peace prize that is accorded to outstanding acts of philanthropy and common good. As has been noted, the position of leadership and service comes at a cost too. The family ties tended to disintegrate during his tenure due to a skewed focus on public service and thus inevitable negligence on this side.

The African journey to free rule and emancipation cannot be analyzed without noting icons like Nelson Mandela.  He is a personality that as has been observed many individuals and institutions associate with and would love to emulate. It is thus a matter of common knowledge and choice that one would like to analyze him in a position of leadership. His exemplary life and service to community is a notable combination that characterizes the definition and attributes of positive and progressive leadership(Judge, et al., 2002). As an individual too, it was natural that my choice would be skewed in a similar manner thus.

As has been alluded to in the course of this description, Nelson Mandela was the leader of black liberation in colonial South Africa. He arose from a royal family in the 19th century and led the quest for free and non-partisan leadership, representation, and coexistence in a state with variant race composition (Eredith, 2010). Using a privilege of education and an innate charisma and spirit for fairness, he thrived to be one of the most acclaimed leaders of the continent and the world in this era. His life is an exemplary representation of service built and based on the tenets of leadership.

UNST Goals – Reflective essay

Write a Reflective essay on University Studies Goals, that is ,  Communication ,  Ethics and Social Responsibility ,  Critical Thinking and Diversity of the Human Experience.

The overall theme of the reflective essay is your academic and personal growth pertaining to the four UNST goals and any other areas of development you wish to document. To this end, you will elaborate on how you progressed toward each goal and how your sample assignments demonstrate your learning. For example, when discussing communication, you might describe how working on revising a particular assignment helped you better understand how to write for different audiences, or in pondering critical thinking, you might describe how another assignment challenged your preconceived ideas about a topic. Refer to specific assignments included in your ePortfolio and explore how personal experiences have also contributed to the UNST goals.

The essay will be approximately 1500 words, written in first person, proofread and easy to read. As you write and shape your essay, think about how best to organize it. Does it make more sense to order the information chronologically? From most to least important point? From struggles to breakthroughs? Organize your essay into a logical order that best fits the points you are trying to make. Also consider the audience for this essay: Frinq faculty and possibly other Frinq students and future employers.

If this essay seems a bit open-ended, that is because it is meant to be that way. It is not geared toward a right answer or an ideal reflection; it is a space for you to elaborate on your academic and personal growth from the past year. Structuring the essay will take ingenuity and a great deal of brainstorming on your part. Your essay should be honest and backed up with examples of your assignments and life experiences. This essay is about what you learned not about what you liked.



Women must enjoy the rights to participate fully in the social and political lives of their countries if we want freedom and democracy to thrive and endure.

As it says in the instructions, agree, disagree, or agree with qualifications with one of the following quotations. You must quote the quotation within the text of the essay–preferably integrating it well into your own writing. Make sure to type your A-number at the top of the essay before you begin.

Here are the quotations:

“Women must enjoy the rights to participate fully in the social and political lives of their countries if we want freedom and democracy to thrive and endure.” –Anna Quindlen

“The focus ought to be on the root causes of the problem, not the symptoms. The hungry don’t need a technological quick fix. They need basic social change” –Anuradha Mittal

“There is freedom to and freedom from. But how much of the first should you have to give up in order to assure the second?” –Margaret Atwood


“Sometimes I wish everyone could have parents from different countries or ethnic groups so they would be forced to cross boundaries, to believe in mixtures, every day of their lives.   Because this is what the world calls us to do. WAKE UP!” –Naomi Shibhab Nye

“Cheap energy has led Americans to sprawl endlessly out.  We rattle around enormous houses and enormous suburbs, distant from each other in every sense of the word.”  –Bill McKibben


“Although there have always been those in society who resist change, the intensity of the attacks against GM crops from some quarters is unprecedented and, in certain cases, even surprising, given the potential environmental benefits that such technology can bring by reducing the use

of pesticides.”  –Norman E. Borlaug


“Bullets and bombs are not the only tools of war. Words, too, play their part.” –Robin Tolmach Lakoff

ACC 206 Week 4 _Assignment

ACC 206 Week 4 Assignment

Please complete the following exercises below in either Excel or a word document (but must be single document). You must show your work where appropriate (leaving the calculations within Excel cells is acceptable). Save the document, and submit it in the appropriate week using the Assignment Submission button.

1. Comprehensive budgeting

The balance sheet of Watson Company as of December 31, 20X1, follows.

Balance Sheet
December 31, 12X1
Cash $4,595
Accounts receivable 10,000
Finished goods (575 units x $7.00) 4,025
Direct materials (2,760 units x $0.50) 1,380
Plant & equipment $50,000
Less: Accumulated depreciation 10,000 40,000
Total assets $60,000
Liabilities & Stockholders’ Equity
Accounts payable to suppliers $14,000
Common stock $25,000
Retained earnings 21,000 46,000
Total liabilities &. stockholders’ equity $60,000

The following information has been extracted from the firm’s accounting records:

1. All sales are made on account at $20 per unit. Sixty percent of the sales are collected in the month of sale; the remaining 40% are collected in the following month. Forecasted sales for the first five months of 20X2 are: January, 1,500 units,- February, 1,600 units; March, 1,800 units; April, 2,000 units; May, 2,100 units.

2. Management wants to maintain the finished goods inventory at 30% of the following month’s sales.

3. Watson uses four units of direct material in each finished unit. The direct material price has been stable and is expected to remain so over the next six months. Management wants to maintain the ending direct materials inventory at 60% of the following month’s production needs.

4. Seventy percent of all purchases are paid in the month of purchase; the remaining 30% are paid in the subsequent month.

5. Watson’s product requires 30 minutes of direct labor time. Each hour of direct labor costs $7.


a. Rounding computations to the nearest dollar, prepare the following for January through March:

1) Sales budget

2) Schedule of cash collections

3) Production budget

4) Direct material purchases budget

5) Schedule of cash disbursements for material purchases
6) Direct labor budget

b. Determine the balances in the following accounts as of March 31:

1) Accounts Receivable

2) Direct Materials

3) Accounts Payable

2. Basic flexible budgeting
Centron, Inc., has the following budgeted production costs:

Direct materials $0.40 per unit
Direct labor 1.80 per unit
Variable factory overhead 2.20 per unit
Fixed factory overhead
Supervision $24,000
Maintenance 18,000
Other 12,000

The company normally manufactures between 20,000 and 25,000 units each quarter. Should output exceed 25,000 units, maintenance and other fixed costs are expected to increase by $6,000 and $4,500, respectively.

During the recent quarter ended March 31, Centron produced 25,500 units and incurred the following costs:

Direct Materials $10,710
Direct Labor 47,175
Variable factory overhead 51,940
Fixed factory overhead
Supervision 24,500
Maintenance 23,700
Other 16,800
Total production costs $174,825


a. Prepare a flexible budget for 20,000, 22,500, and 25,000 units of activity.

b. Was Centron’s experience in the quarter cited better or worse than anticipated? Prepare an appropriate performance report and explain your answer.

c. Explain the benefit of using flexible budgets (as opposed to static budgets) in the measurement of performance.

3. Straightforward variance analysis

Arrow Enterprises uses a standard costing system. The standard cost sheet for product no. 549 follows.

Direct materials: 4 units @ $6.50 $26.00
Direct labor: 8 hours @ $8.50 .Click here to have a similar paper done for you by one of our writers within the set deadline at a discounted

ut the year.

4. Actual production amounted to 6,500 completed units.


a. Compute Arrow’s direct material variances.

b. Compute Arrow’s direct labor variances.

c. Compute Arrow’s variances for factory overhead.

Federal Reserve, Stabilizing Current Economy and Monetary Policy

The Federal Reserve Board testimonies, press releases, monetary policy reports, the Beige Book, and a variety of other publications offer a detailed assessment of current economic activity, financial markets, and the monetary policy tools used to promote economic activity and preserve price stability.

Write an eight to ten (8-10) page paper in which you:

  1. Evaluate the role and the effectiveness of the Federal Reserve in stabilizing the current economy.
  2. Determine which economic indicators the Federal Reserve should analyze so it can better stabilize this particular economy.
  3. Describe which monetary policies the Federal Reserve might use to influence the money supply.
  4. Explain the strengths and weaknesses of using monetary policy in comparison to fiscal policy when promoting economic activity and preserving price stability.
  5. Analyze the effect of the Federal Reserve’s action you identified in #3 on the aggregate demand / supply model.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Analyze the basic operation of banks, the structure of the banking industry, and the major regulatory processes controlling banks.
  • Evaluate monetary policy and its impact on economic growth and business cycle.
  • Analyze the various theoretical approaches and models and assess their use in shaping monetary policy.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in money and banking.
  • Write clearly and concisely about money and banking using proper writing mechanics.

Selection Process” Please respond to the following:

1″Selection Process” Please respond to the following:

Determine two places outside of the Internet where you would search locally for viable candidates with the skills needed to fill the positions of software developers.


Support your position. Determine the top-two aspects of the selection process that you would focus on when selecting candidates for the software developer positions. Recommend two employment tests that you would use in the selection process and justify your response.


2″Training and Development” Please respond to the following:

  • From the scenario, suggest two types of training that the company would provide for newly hired employees into a software development position. Elaborate briefly (two sentences) on your suggestions. Suppose that you are the HRM for an IT company. Provide two recommendations for ongoing development and training for individuals in the software development positions.

Critical Analysis on Credible Articles: Information Technology in Decision-Making

Numerous research has been carried out to explain the development of IT in decision-making. Different researchers use a variety of  methodologies and develop different arguments in approval or disapproval of the hypothesis. Most credible sources of information on IT integration in decision-making apply the quantitative and qualitative research methods. An example is the study by Leidner and Elam (1994), which empirically examined effects of Executive Information Systems on decision-making. The method was advancement from the descriptive method. However, some studies applied the qualitative method that relies on descriptions and observations. A study by Janssen et al. (2016) emphasized on qualitative research method in understanding of factors affecting the decision-making process. This method does not provide high quality and reliable empirical evidences that certify its credibility. Another study by Steiger (1998) applies the theoretical approach in enhancing the use of Decision Support Systems. Theoretical framework does not give empirical evidences that are crucial when selecting credible sources for research purposes. Similarly, several authors develop arguments that seem to be in contradiction with others.

In understanding the use of information in decision-making, researchers try to certify the quality of their arguments and approach. Others offer solutions basing their argument on facts that contradict works done by other researchers. In their study, Leidner and Elam (1994) argue that descriptive research offers only the how and why hence they carried out a study to empirically examine impacts of Executive Information Systems. On another study, Janssen et al. (2016) insist on qualitative approach, which is a descriptive method, being the best in understanding the factors that affect effectiveness of decisions. The two contradict each other on the best method to apply for reliable findings that can be used in further studies. On the other hand, despite the method applied in a research, limitations are inevitable.

Every researcher aims at providing solutions to past problems and minimizing limitations in the study substantially. However, the limitations of a research method or design cannot be eliminated fully. Despite studies on IT integration in decision-making stressing on the quantitative approach, there are limitations as to the level of evidences. The approach makes it difficult to analyze the findings. On the other hand, the qualitative method stresses more on interviews, which focuses on the top-level managers, at the expense of diverse analysis emphasizing on both the managers and subordinate to acquire adequate and comprehensive data. The focus should be to the organization as a whole and the positive and negative results from use of IT in decision-making. An example is the comprehensive evidence provided by Marsden (2007) in the study on impacts of real-time data on Decision Support Systems. Additionally, to facilitate credible information, researchers need to apply the correct methods in any particular study.

The methodology is crucial in determining the evidence level and reliability in any study. The reliability in the evidences provided is what determines a credible source. However, different methodologies have been applied in IT integrations to the decision-making process. Despite that, each methodology provides a verifiable argument, which means that they are important. This implies that regardless of the evidence level provided by a particular method, it cannot be termed as unworthy or a bad method. Additionally, most researchers work towards a similar goal.

Arguments by authors incredible sources of information on information use in decision-making are mostly similar. The researchers agree with each other. This is more profound in current studies in the dynamic business world. Big data is a critical issue both scientifically and in engineering (Wang et al., 2016). The idea has been identified in the study by Power (2015), who states that new data streams require professional analysis for effective support on decision-making. Janssen et al. (2016), identifies the rapid transformation into Big Data and the complexity of dataset streams that calls for technical capabilities. Integration of “real-time business intelligence” in the decision-making process has minimized the complexities (Tank, 2015, p.43). In his study, Tank (2015) stresses that in the competitive business world, integration of IT in decision-making is crucial. Similarly, Leidner and Elam (1995) state that reliable information, which is computer-based, contributes to quality decisions. A study by Marsden (2007) gives a detailed discussion on the real-time data application in the decision-making process. In addition, despite the numerous studies on IT and its effect on the decision-making process, more extensive researches need to carried to address this dynamic issue.

“There is a big potential for a real-time business intelligence implementation as today’s decisions are taken on a poor foundation” (Tank, 2015, p.47). IT integration in the decision-making process is a broad and dynamic issue that calls for more studies for comprehensive grasp of the concept. More emphasis should be put on Real-Time Data and Real-Time Business Intelligence for credible source of information that will facilitate their implementation. Additionally, Tank (2015) signifies that automation of the decision-making process will result to more accurate information and effective decisions. It is therefore important for more studies to elaborate more on this area.

Consumption Process – Medicated Soap


“Consumption process is a process that converts time and goods, services or ideas into value.” ( the purpose of this research paper,  I have selected a product (Medicated Soap) used for skins disease e.g. acne, pimples etc. the complete consumption process in respect of medicated soap is discussed below:-


The consumption process starts from need of the product by the consumer and it is clear the all product are not the need of all consumers. Every consumer is in need of specific product it depends on the circumstances of the consumer. In this case, a medicated soap in only a need of persons with the specific skin disease healthy people usually consume beauty soap and further, it depends upon the prescription of the doctor if he recommends the use of such soap or not (


It is assumed that a patient is recommended for the use of medicated soap, now the consumer is in the position to decide whether he want this product or not and it depends on the evaluation of many factors e.g. resources of consumer, willingness of the consumer to use the product, level of disease, price of the product etc (

Market research

Market research includes the list of all manufacturers of the products, the reputation of the manufacturers, the consumers review about the use of the product the advertisements number of different factors will lead him choose some products and compare with each other and to decide which one of them he wants .

Alternative Selection

Market investigation will help the consumer to select the best product and to know about the best alternatives available in case he is unable to purchase the desired product (


Comparison is an important phase before deciding the want of the product n this phase the consumer will compare the chosen medicated soaps in different dimensions. First of all consumer will compare the prices of the soaps he may select the cheap one or expensive one depends on the nature / resources of the consumers. The product is disease related he may not compromise upon the quality and the high quality will lead to high price or the income resources may lead him to choose the cheaper product or may lead him to simply ignore all the products and decide not to purchase any.

Purchase Expectations

In the mean time somewhere, in the brain consumer start to expect the desired results from the use of the product which is the result of his intelligent purchase. In this regard we can say that the consumer of the skin disease will start expecting that the product is high quality and produced by the reputed manufacturer it will definitely help him to kill the disease. The more the high price is paid the more the quality is purchased the more the expectation will be in the mind of the consumer (

Cost / Benefit Analysis

During the use of the product, the consumer keep doing an analysis and compare its use with expected benefits, its price and the resulting benefits. At a point, he will decide whether the cost of the product paid is greater than the benefit derived from it or vice versa. This will lead the consumer in further thinking depends upon the type of product he purchased e.g. if the product was expensive and its benefits are low the consumer will be highly dissatisfied, in other case if the consumer has purchased a cheaper product and it derived low benefit he may decide to purchase the expensive one.


This is post-consumption phase the consumer after comparing the cost its benefit and the imagined expectations will either be satisfied by the use of the product or will be dissatisfied this phase will decide the future of the product in the mind of the consumer whether he needs it more or not (


After purchasing the product its use and derived benefits the consumer evaluates the product and try to guess whether the decision was intelligent or he has been robbed this phase creates the value of the product in the mind of the consumer.


This is the last phase after going through the above-mentioned process if the purchased product has benefitted the consumer in the way he expected the value of the product will be high otherwise it will be lower depending upon this value the consumer will take following three decisions about the product.

  1. The consumer will ignore the product in case of low value.
  2. The consumer will keep the product but will keep looking for the best alternatives in case of medium value.
  3. The consumer will be highly satisfied and will be motivated to repurchase the product in case of high value(

Causes of Customer Complaints at Tigerair Airlines in Australia


Customer satisfaction is an important aspect for every company or organization. A profit-seeking company always strives to ensure high levels of customer satisfaction through quality services and products. It is the desire of every company to always receive positive feedback from its customers regarding the services and products since this has positive outcomes on the financial performance of the company. High levels of customer satisfaction translates to high customer retention rates by the company as it increases customer loyalty towards the organization. Loyal customer will not only continue purchasing the company’s services/products but are more likely to refer other potential customers to the company. The reverse is true whenever there is high level of customer dissatisfaction regarding a company’s service or product.

The airlines industry is quite a volatile industry for any operating company due to the increase in number of competitors. Being a service industry, customer satisfaction is of paramount significance. In fact, airlines compete along the ability to best satisfy the needs of customers in terms of airplane design, much minimized delays, as well as effective customer engagement. The Australian airline industry has a number of competitors. There are five major airline companies which operate as domestic carriers. These are Virgin Australia, Jetstar, Rex, Tigerair, and Qantas Domestic (Nick, 2015). All these companies compete for the domestic market share. Due to the many available airlines, customers are quite sensitive to the quality of service offered by a company as well as other factors like price.

Tigerair Australia is a subsidiary of Virgin Australia Holdings. It started its operations in Australia in the year 2007 and sailed on the market entry strategy of being a price leader. Its services were the cheapest in the market during its entry, a strategy that won it a significant number of customers. The company, however, has since been ranked the worst airline in Australia based on the numerous complaints received from customers who used its services. Since its operation, it has faced several complaints, increasing from 13% in 2013 to 31% in 2014 (Dang, 2014). The report released by the Federal Government’s Airline Customer Advocate (ACA) in 2014 indicated that the airline had ranked the worst in three consecutive years based on number of complaints. Customers have launched numerous complaints that include frequent delays caused the airline, the cancellations of flights, refusal to refund customers, poor terms and conditions, as well poor airport customer services (Nick, 2015).

The rise in number of customer complaints every year is a major risk to Tigerair’s operations. It is an indicator of increased customer dissatisfaction, which could result in massive loss of customers. It is also an indicator of poor leadership within the company since the complaints are based on similar issues which have being ignored and not resolved over the years. There is need for these complaints to be clustered into categories and the root causes of such complaints identified. The company should then identify possible solutions to these complaints so as to avoid the devastating outcomes of increased customer complaints.


The main aim of this research is to find a lasting solution towards solving the customer complaints at Tigerair. The specific objectives of the study include;

  1. To identify and cluster the complaints raised by the customers.
  2. To identify the causes of those complaints.
  • To determine the possible solutions to those complaints


Researching on customer complaints at Tigerair is important for both the company and the customers. Just like most of its competitors, Tigerair is a company that does business primarily to generate profits. It can only achieve profits and its financial objectives by having an adequate number of regular customers who purchase the company’s services. This cannot be achieved with the current situation where majority of the customers are clearly dissatisfied by the quality of the company’s services. The results from this research can, therefore, be very beneficial to the company in achieving more sales. It is expected that the company would adopt the recommendations from this research project in a rational way and implement them within a reasonable timeframe. Secondly, this research is important for the customers. The customers have a right to quality service and products. Such quality is currently definitely not being assured by Tigerair. This research will help in identifying the key causes of the customer complaints and present them to the company for recommendations for change. This is important to the customers whose complaints will be presented collectively which will serve as a reasonable call for change made to the company.


This research proposal is expected to have a number of outcomes at the end of the study. The expected outcomes are based on the fulfillment of the stated objectives. These outcomes are outlined below;

  1. Customer complaints will be identified and clustered into common categories.
  2. The causes of the customer complaints will be identified and similarly matched with the clusters of the complaints.
  • A number of possible solutions to the customer complaints will be identified and recommendations will be developed from these possible solutions for implementation by Tigerair.


Customer satisfaction in the airlines industry is a topic that has been explored extensively through research and past surveys. The surveys have focused on the various aspects of customer satisfaction in this industry which include factors of satisfaction as indicators of customer satisfaction in the industry. Grigoroudis and Siskos (2009) identified a number of methods that can be used to measure customer satisfaction in various industries. They first identifies the three main satisfaction dimensions for customers of airlines. These dimensions are customer satisfaction before, during, and after their flights. These two authors adopted the use of dual importance diagram which is a satisfaction criteria based on four quadrants.

Fig: The dual importance diagram(Grigoroudis and Siskos, 2009).

As can be seen from the diagram below, the four determinants of customer satisfaction in the airlines industry include pricing, quality of service, and relationship with company personnel, and speed of service delivery. Grigoroudis and Siskos (2009) then propose a number of techniques that can be used by the airline companies. One of the proposals is the integration of information technologies in enhancing quality and speed of customer service. One of the technologies proposed is Automated Response Systems (ARS). These are technologies that help in offering customer services by responding to any inquiries from the customers. The advantage of using ARS is increased efficiency in terms of reduced response time. ARS establishes a customer’s identification based in database contact information, identifies the inquiries or complaints launched and seeks to automatically respond to these inquiries based on matching programmed responses. Renart (2013) also provides an analysis based on the importance of customer relations in airlines industry. He observes that airlines companies can always gain competitive advantage by building a strong customer relationship. Customer satisfaction is deemed to be the key marketing aspect for any airline company which cannot be ignored at any given time. Renart (2013) suggests that companies should always first identify the specific needs of eth customers when developing marketing strategies. The common needs of airlines customers include affordability and convenience in terms of time management and customer service. Improving ion these facets will always make an airline more attractive to customers compared to its competitors

Constant and effective communication is also an aspect that has been identified by Renart (2013)as being necessary in enhancing customer satisfaction. Reputable airline companies always communicate with their customers to inform them of any new offers, rescheduling, or even refunds. Such companies are also very responsive to inquiries made by customers. They are also always apologetic to any customers who launch complaints and who feel they have received below-par services. Communication can be done through email, social media, and even through the mainstream media like television and radio.

Survey agencies like the ACA provide important statistics on the common customer complaints. ACA often ranks airline companies in Australia based on the number and type of complaints received by the companies’ customers. According to the agencies, the following are the three most common complaints raised by airline customers;

  1. Delays and flight cancellations.
  2. Hidden fees and charges.
  3. Poor customer service. A number of complaints are raised in this category including poor in-flight services as well as poor airport services like lack of adequate reception guidelines or restrooms.

Other complaints that are commonly launched against the airline companies include non-reimbursements. ACA reports that some airlines do not reimburse their customers who miss flights or who incur extra costs arising from inconveniences created by airline. In some cases, for instance, the airline can postpone a flight to the next day, necessitating that the customers seek hotel accommodation for the night. It is normally the responsibility of the airline to cater for such costs hence should offer full compensation to the customers in the form of reimbursements. The other complaint that is raised against most airlines is poor accessibility, that is, their websites are prone to downtimes. Most companies have online platforms for customers to make various complaints regarding quality of services. Most of the successful companies use these complaints to their advantage. Khan and Khan (2014) observe that “Customer complaints offer organizations with a chance to correct their mistakes, retain dissatisfied customers, and manipulate customers’ future”. That is what most of the successful airlines like Virgin and Qatar airlines have developed a strong customer base. They have developed the reputations for being the ‘listening airlines’ who always listen positively to customer complaints, acknowledge their mistakes, and initiate corrective measures.

The research will be conducted using mixed methodology (Bricki & Green, 2002). It will incorporate both qualitative and quantitative methodology. The qualitative one will be important in analyzing the current situation within the airport whereas the quantitative one will aim at analyzing the data collected in the course of the research (Todd , Waldman, Baker, & Blain, 2004). Once the data has been collected, the questionnaires will be analyzed to check for clarity and completeness. The data obtained will be edited and coded for accuracy. A quantitative form of data analysis will then be used and a frequency distribution table plotted in a tabular form showing the percentages.

Data collection techniques

Both open ended and closed questionnaires will be used for this research. Surveys and case studies will also be used as the tools for data collection. (Moffitt, 2017) This will aid in getting the customer feedback, in analyzing the situation within the airport and in narrowing down previous researches so as to get to more specific details concerning it. This research will ensure that it covers a reasonable target population so that the data collected will be more accurate and serve as a representation of the whole population. Secondary data can also be collected through examination of recorded documents (Kadam, Shaikh, & Parab, 2014). The secondary sources will include data from airline associations like the ACA which keeps summarized data of customer relationship with various airlines operating within Australia. ACA also keeps records of the complaints launched by the customers for each of the airline companies being monitored by ACA. For instance, the sample complaints can be collected from the customer’s complaint book from within the airport. Tigerair also has a website that keeps historical logs of complaints made by customers. These records will be accessed to identify the common complaints and cluster them into common categories.

Other secondary sources that will be explored include articles and peer reviewed journals. These source will serve as important literature which will provide a number of possible solutions to the complaints raised by customers. Case studies will also provide research data. The case studies will be conducted on Virgin Airways, Qantas, and Jeter. These three companies are the major competitors of Tigerair, hence it will be necessary to study how they have handled customer complaints within their companies and how they have always implemented corrective measures to deal with such complaints.

Population and sampling

The target population of this research is 200 customers and 20 employees of Tigerair. Random sampling will be used to identify the 200 customer respondents. 100 respondents will be women while 100 respondents will be men so as to avoid any gender bias. As for the employees, stratified sampling will be used since employees at different management levels will be questioned.The questionnaires given to the 20 employees will, therefore, be different based on the level of employment and the specific roles of the respondent.

Data analysis

Since qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques will be used, it will necessitate the use of different data analysis techniques. The following are the qualitative and quantitative techniques that will be used for data analysis;

  1. Quantitative data: quantitative data consists of all the numerical data. The numerical data shall be derived from the closed-ended The closed-ended questionnaires will be analyzed using SPSS data analysis software.
  2. Qualitative data: the qualitative data will be extracted from the open-ended questionnaires and surveys. The opinions and views raised by the respondents shall be clustered into common categories.

All the data collected shall then be analyzed for variance using ANOVA. Charts and graphs will also be drawn to show proportions of customer complaints collected from the study.

The following are the sections/chapters that will be included in the final research document.




Start time

End time

Duration in days

Formulating the research topic
Formulating the research questions
Formulating the research design and selecting of research methodology
Chapter one write-up
Literature review
Data collection
Data analysis
Final report write-up and submission



The following is a breakdown of the budget that would be required to sufficiently achieve all the objectives of this study.

  1. Cost of carrying out literature review: the literature review will require access to journals, books, and articles, most of which are contained in e-libraries and databases. These databases require subscription fees to access. The estimated cost for this is $400.
  2. Sampling and administering of questionnaires: the questionnaires will be administered to the respondents through mail and by direct delivery. This will require at least two employees to help in this. The estimated budget for the sampling, generation of questionnaires and distribution of these questionnaires is $4000.
  • Data analysis: data analysis will be done using a number of analytical tools like SPSS. These software are not freeware hence will require money to purchase from the vendors. The estimated cost for this purpose is $1500.

Below is a tabulated summary of the budget.

Purpose Estimated budget
1 Literature review materials $400
2 Data collection $4000
3 Data analysis $1500
Total $5900


Case Analysis : Technical Flow in Aircraft Development

The emergence and development of aviation industry marks the immense advancement of human knowledge in the field of technology. In spite of many technical shortcomings and experimental flaws at the beginning, this huge industry continues to move toward perfection by the passage of time. The present paper is dedicated to presenting a case analysis on a specific flaw of an aircraft during its construction and development phase. A critical analysis of the lithium-ion battery flow in Boeing’s 787 Dreamliner, the way the manufacturers recovered the crisis and some potential suggestions on the issue will be presented here.

At around 10:20 AM on January 7, 2013, a Boeing 787 Dreamliner landed at Boston’s Logan International Airport with 183 passengers and 11 crews. Immediately after all the aircraft was disembarked, one of the cleaning staffs noticed a specific spot of the plane releasing smoke. Technicians immediately figured out the source of the smoke, that is, the lithium ion battery serving as the auxiliary power unit in the aircraft. The firefighters reached, and the blaze was under control soon. Subsequent inspection showed that the battery, provided as an accessory to the aircraft by a manufacturing company named GS Yuasa, reached a condition known as thermal runaway, where one of the battery’s cells malfunctions and become extremely heated, and gradually causes nearby cells to be heated. This was not the only incident caused by the poorly manufactured lithium ion batteries. Within only five days of the first incident, another 787 Dreamliner owned by All Nippon Airways was forced in emergency landing after technical problems were noticed in the batteries.

These consequent life-threatening incidents were followed by the immediate grounding order of the whole fleet of Boeing 787 Dreamliner all around the world by the authorities until the failing accessories were properly retrofitted. The Boeing authorities immediately started to work on replacing the malfunctioning parts of all the 787 Dreamliner wherever supplied. The replaced installations included a better insulation system for the placement of batteries, stainless steel covering to prevent the supply of smoke and ignition from one battery to another, and proper ventilation system to let the smokes out of the aircraft in case of potential battery failure.As claimed by the Boeing officials, it spent more than 100,000 hours to inspect and redesign the new installments properly. More than twelve battery experts from governments, universities and other organizations were invited to contribute to the change made in lithium ion battery installation. Around 300 engineers were sent to at least thirteen international locations to apply the new installments in all the Boeing 787 Dreamliner aircraft all around the world.

Upon the retrofitting of failing mechanisms and multiple quality tests by Boeing, Federal Aviation Administration, and International Civil Aviation Organization, the grounded Boeing 787 Dreamliner fleet was finally approved to continue their flight. The Boeing 787 Dreamliner owned by the Ethiopian Airlines was the first aircraft to resume its transportation service on April 27, 2013, after the grounding order was withdrawn by the authorities upon the retrofitting of lithium ion batteries.The Boeing Corporation immediately took proper measures to cope up with the crisis and to mitigate any such potential threats in future. I would do the same if I were to manage the inspection and retrofitting of failing parts of the aircraft. Besides, I would suggest an important measure that will be helpful in preventing potential technical threats in future. That is after the aircraft begins to provide service, all of its parts must be intensively inspected by the engineers, as opposed to regular maintenance checking by the staff, in regular interval to detect possible defects and malfunctions.

Hundreds of lives depend on the safety measures taken by the aircraft manufacturers. It was pretty unexpected from a world-famous aircraft manufacturing corporation like the Boeing to have such technical defects in their aircraft. However, the good sign is that the Boeing Corporation successfully recovered one of the greatest disasters in its career.

Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission Main Objectives

Committee of Sponsoring Organizations  was formed in 1985. COSO is a framework that guides the managers and those who are responsible about risk management, internal controls and fraud deterrence. Main objectives of COSO are discussed below.

  1. Control environment: These represent procedures, manuals and policies and internal controls required for day to day operations.
  2. Risk Assessment: This refers to the process involved in early identification of risks and possible ways of managing risks.
  3. Control Activities: procedures required to ensuring management and those responsible are carrying out their work responsibilities and chances of errors or fraud or removed.
  4. Information: This represents all information required to communicate to employees that help them to carry out their work.
  5. Monitoring: This refers to overview of internal controls by management or third party for example audit committee.

Three Common Types Of Employee Fraud

Employee fraud is defined as “use of fraudulent means to take money or property from employer”.  There are three common types of employee fraud in an organization detailed below:-

  1. Monetary Fraud: When an employee by using fraudulent means earn money which is not his right from an employer or the place he is exercising his supervision. For example, a cashier stole money without the permission of employer.
  2. Theft: When an employee using knowledge of all security measures implemented employee break into employer and steal some asset or anything for his benefit.
  3. Workers Compensation Fraud: When an employee obtains benefit by intentional accidents in terms of leaves with pay and any attached benefits. This is the most common type of fraud and also expensive for employers to manage.

White collar crime refers to nonviolent financially motivated crime it is defined as “a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation”. Bank frauds, bribing and blackmailing are the most common types of white collar crimes.

Provisions Of Foreign Corrupt Practices Act

During investigation of Watergate scandal, SEC found about 400 businesses paid about $300 million as bribery or kickbacks in order to stop such bribes and corruption FPCA in 1977 was enacted as federal law. Two provisions to FPCA ( Foreign Corrupt Practices Act )are as follows:-

  1. Anti-bribery provision that is enforced by the department of justice that prohibits any US official or resident or any person from paying or receiving the bribes or kickbacks either directly indirectly or through intermediaries.
  2. The accounting provisions enforced by SEC ( Securities and Exchange Commission) that focuses on preparation of accurate books and maintenance of financial records and transactions. Provision requires a robust system of internal controls that ensures the effectiveness of financial statement and true value and disposition of organizational assets.

Advertisements in the Broadcasting Industry


The broadcasting industry is at the helm of entertainment for the customers. In the recent years, they have experienced a boom, which happened due to changing face of the advertisement sector. In this study, a top to down approach would be undertaken on the broadcasting media with an enhanced focus on the CBB channel. The study would critically evaluate the options and processes of CBB broadcasting and discuss on the flaws and possible gaps elaborately. Thus, the study would undertake the assistance of Use Case diagrams, Activity diagrams, and Domain class diagrams to shed further light onto such processes.


  1. Customer satisfaction

One of the crucial factors of the Broadcasting industry is to meet the needs of the consumers by ensuring full television coverage for 24 hours (, 2017).

  1. Entertainment of the customers

The Broadcasting industry should assure that the television slots are all occupied so that no blank space appears during the live feed or during the airing of advertisements. This would confuse the consumers; as a result, they would switch channels.

  1. Improved services and contents

The principle aim of the industry is to broadcast and develop high quality and non-commercial content with a narrow focus on the needs of the children, diverse audiences, and core communities of public media well as unserved communities (Wilson, Hutchinson & Shea, 2010).

  1. Integration

The broadcasting industry has hatched plans to integrate with other forms of media to gain a competitive edge in the market.

  1. Timely

The industry ensures that their transmission events are not delayed by any accounts since the customers would not be happy if their favorite show experiences eminent issues.

  1. Reliable service

The channel should be reliable as they can procure a consistent array of highly educated and civil society informed content, which duly addresses multiple platforms (Sharrif & Kosmin, 2012).

  1. Market

The organisation CBB or this sector should acknowledge the effectiveness and competence of the market thus, procuring various strategies gaining the attention of the customers.

  1. Innovation

Innovation is a key driver in this industry and thus needs to promote highly innovated ideas that support public media efforts.

  1. Favoring the public media

Public media and its entities are vital for the industry as well as the organizations working under it. Therefore, the industry should devise strategies to gain the favor of the communities by highlighting their cause, projects and initiatives (Tambini, 2015).


  • The channel is ensuring to go for automated process, which may lead to de-employment
  • The directors are discussing on adding extra two channels for enhancing the service delivery for the customers. The customer satisfaction ratings would go higher as the customers would view the channels with greater mobility and content.
  • Ensure that the customers are satisfied with the highly educated content as failure may be detrimental for the organization. This is because if the customers remain dissatisfied, they might switch to the next channel for better content and quality.
  • The factors acting as driving factors for the customers should be the new trading currency for the industry since TV ratings would shed a bright light on the contents most preferred by the customers.


CBB is a newly launched television channel broadcasting around the Newcastle, NSW. They are a subsidiary of a multinational organization and thus want to enter the markets of Australia. Their current ventures lie in the NSW territory. Initially, they are transmitting the same schedule of programs across their broadcasting areas with slight variations in the advertisements. They have ensured that local news gets the maximum coverage and thus in dilemma over the automation process, which would allow them to have coverage of live feed as well as that of advertisement slots so that they do not go blank during transmission.

Strategic, tactical and operational aspects of the company

CBB has ventured into Australia quite recently and is undertaking strategic decisions for capturing the Australian markets. For this, they have devised the Ads On Time (AOT) under their operational aspects. They are ensuring that their sales staffs sell all the ad slots so that the channel never experiences obstacles during the live feed. Yang, Zhang & Zou (2015) have opined that brand loyalty of the organizations would enhance considerably if advertisement during the live game matches. Thus, the organization is looking for extra benefits by allowing the advertisement transmission during cricket matches or rugby league. Moreover, Ghirvu (2012) has stated that organizations are looking to fill the ad slots during live feed would gain competitive advantage, as the clients would look forward to lucrative deal thus leading to a win-win situation.

Internal environment analysis


·         High rates of growth sales

·         Experienced management

·         Demographic dominance

·         Large trends are covered

·         Brand names and brand loyalty

·         Market entry barriers

·         Australian Government ensures monetary assistance (Goldsmith & Thomas, 2012)


·         New entrants may face issues regarding covering local news

·         Competition is fierce

·         Higher costs

·         Productivity is low

·         CBB is still new in the country and thus have low brand name

·         Ratings may be troublesome

·         Weak cost structure

·         Narrow customer base is a pertinent issue


·         Ventures in new capital

·         New acquisitions

·         New services fetch customers attention

·         Shifting trends of customer preferences may be a bliss to conjure more benefits


·         Shifting preferences of the consumers

·         Low flow of cash

·         Limited finance

·         Raising costs

·         Changes in price

·         Technological issues

Table 1: SWOT analysis

(Source:  Goldsmith & Thomas, 2012)

Porter’s five analyses

The industry competition is analyzed by the five forces devised by Porter. The five forces analysis of the broadcasting industry is evaluated below:

Bargaining power of Suppliers This factor quite is low as there are only suppliers namely the production companies and the group of directors, technicians, equipment, and anchors.

The factor shift towards the high when few suppliers are dominates the market (Encarnaçãob & Rabaey, 2013).

Bargaining power of buyers This is a crucial factor as the brand loyalty can be an influential element. One of the prominent issues is that of the changing perceptions of the customers. This can be a negative factor as the alternative options are at large. The entrants and the substitutes are high and if the customers are dissatisfied with the channel, they can easily switch to other channels (O’Neil, 2012).
Threats of substitutes In this case, the threats of substitutions are bleak. The substitutions can dominate and fetch a significant portion of the market that is now dominated by the existing companies.

Rivals or competitors can substitute the product or the services offered by the current organizations.

One of the prominent issues cites that substitutes may count on higher customer satisfaction after the existing players fail to procure improved services.

Threats of new entrants This industry poses a potential for the entry of new entrants. One of the significant hindrances the entrants face is the barrier. However, the barriers are growing weaker with the advent of new technology; they are capable of penetrating the market (Salunke, Weerawardena & McColl-Kennedy, 2013).

They also implement growth strategies by aiming higher economic scales. Wood & Poltrack (2015) have pointed out that in this case, various niches are present within the same environment. The new entrants can ensure the breakdown of costs to enter the market and fetch the dominance of the current organisations.

Competition among the rivals The intensity of rivalry is low since only a few of the broadcasting TV channels are present. All the channels produce the same products.  Innovation and existence of varied opportunities are the primary reason for competition here. The companies here that become the source of competition set the benchmarking (Peneder & Wörter, 2014).

Table 2: Porter’s five forces

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A sweatshirt manufacturer wants to take inventory of the college logo sweat-shirts that it has in stock. The company makes sweatshirts for seven colleges.

A sweatshirt manufacturer wants to take inventory of the college logo sweat-shirts that it has in stock. The company makes sweatshirts for seven colleges.

Refer to the colleges by number,1–7.Sweatshirts come in four sizes:small,medi-um,large,and x-large.An employee gathers the inventory information by hand.Write a program that prompts the employee to enter the number of sweatshirtsin stock for each of the seven colleges in each of the four sizes.Store the inventoryinformation in a two-dimensional array.After inputting the inventory data, theprogram should display an inventory report in the following format.Inventory ReportCollege1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TotalSmallMediumSizeLargeXLargeCollege TotalTotal Quantity On Hand
At the end of each row should be the total inventory for that size.At the bottomof each column should be total inventory of each college.The Total Quantity OnHand should be the total inventory of all sweatshirts.


Pitch and Frequency

A sound wave, like any other wave, is introduced into a
medium by a vibrating object. The vibrating object is the
source of the disturbance that moves through the medium.
The vibrating object that creates
the disturbance could be the vocal cords of a person, the
vibrating string and sound board of a guitar or violin, the
vibrating tines of a tuning fork, or the vibrating diaphragm
of a radio speaker. Regardless of what vibrating object is
creating the sound wave, the particles of the medium through
which the sound moves is vibrating in a back and forth
motion at

The patient doesn’t understand why a hospital that is supposed to want to help

Compose a 200-300 word response to the following scenario: A middle-aged patient has awoken from surgery. He begins screaming for someone to talk to about his condition. Earlier in the day, he was told by his doctor that his surgery revealed intestinal cancer. No one has been in to see him since that conversation. The patient doesn’t understand why a hospital that is supposed to want to help and care for people would leave him alone for so long. Take on each of the roles below and determine how you would communicate the ill patient: -medical assistant, -hospital administrator, -family member (wife, mom, dad, sister, or brother)