Month: July 2017

Employment Law – Hiring , Firing , Discrimination – Marwan Case Study


Research employment law related to hiring/firing and discrimination, using your textbook, the Argosy University online library resources, and the Internet. Based on the facts of the case and research, write an analytical paper. In the paper, respond to the following questions:

  • What civil rights laws may prohibit Marwan’s conduct with his fellow co-worker? Do those laws apply to his conduct toward the park guest?  Explain both answers.
  • Did Marwan commit sexual harassment? If so, what type? Explain your answers and the terms you use.
  • What is the legal nature of Marwan ‘s employment?  Explain your answers and the terms you use.
  • What actions and steps should Studio Five take against Marwan? Explain what actions you considered and why you either recommend them or reject them.
  • Discuss Marwan’s allegation that he is being discriminated against based on his disability and what response Studio Five may have to that allegation. What would each of them have to prove in court?
  • If the female employee sues Studio Five Theme Park, what defenses can Studio Five use?  Are they liable for Marwan’s conduct even if they were unaware of and did not approve of Marwan’s actions? Explain your answers and the terms you use.
  • If Marwan was a member of a union that had a collective bargaining agreement with Studio Five, would that change any of your previous answers?
  • What types of company policies, procedures, and actions should businesses employ to avoid harassment of their employees?

Write a ten-page paper in Word format. Apply APA standards for writing style to your work.


Marwan has worked at Studio Five Theme Park as a character actor portraying a swash-buckling pirate. He does not have an employment contract.  He loves his job because of his seniority with the company and all the attention he receives from the guests in the park. Unknown to anyone, his prosthetic leg has no noticeable impact on Marwan’s success in this position.

Marwan has become an accomplished flirt with all this attention, and now goes to the extent of placing his hands on the female guests’ behinds when posing for pictures. The women he has encountered so far have not complained, didn’t seem to mind, or they were taken by such surprise they were not sure how to respond.

One day, Marwan grabbed the breast of one of his fellow female actors who had been recently hired. When she threatened to report him, Marwan told her that he could get her fired if she did not go on a date with him. The fellow employee reported the incident anyway and Marwan was terminated immediately. Marwan contends that he was terminated as a result of physical disability.

Continental Drift Theory Research Paper

In 1915, Alfred Wegner proposed the continental drift theory to explain the past and present location of the continents; however, his ideas were met with resistance because he could not provide a mechanism for such movement.



Write 4 – 5 pages (not including the title and reference pages) that respond to the following:

  • Describe geographic evidence collected in the last part of the 20th century to support the theory of continental drift.
  • Why do scientists today accept the movement of continents but did not accept this theory back in Wegner’s time?
  • Describe the process of the scientific method and theory development.
  • How does the scientific method help us understand the natural world?
  • Describe how plate tectonics provides the mechanism for continental drift.
  • How do plate tectonics explain the process of continental drift?
  • How do plate tectonics explain natural landforms like the Himalayas and the Ring of Fire in the Pacific Ocean?
 Continental drift theory is one of the many geography assignments that a student has to complete in order to graduate. If you would like help on your geography assignments, we are here to help. We have geography experts who will provide you with original and well research A+ papers . What are you waiting for? Order now.

Google Search Results Review – Nutrition: Getting Rid Of Obesity

Search: getting rid of obesity.


Obesity is substantially associated with the food taken by some of the populations throughout the world, especially first foods. It is a problem affecting many urban centers since most of the people use fast foods, which are plenteous in fat and have little or no nutritional values. Various websites propose different solutions to obesity.

Various websites talk of how obesity can be treated. talks of the treatment of obesity and how it is caused though it does not point out explicitly the various ways to deal with obesity since it uses languages that are sometimes indecipherable. Various English words are confused for example instead of used food it uses well. Therefore, one may be confused as a result. The website provides valuable information on the various misconceptions like eating less food to reduce obesity. Refraining from eating fatty meals as the website says is not a solution since people may get more calories from other foods. The website provides valuable information but does not provide the required linguistic understanding.

The website has a copyright of 2013 and still operates without having renewed its copyright. The websites have the domain of .in, which may be questionable since people who are not proficient in providing information concerning nutrition may have formed it. The website does not have references, which help people to know if what they are showing is credible, or not. Therefore, the sources and credibility of the information is questionable.


Author: Sharib

The website dwells on the treating obesity using home remedies.

The site proposes various treatments for obesity. One of them is green tea. Using quality green tea leaves to reduce obesity has been proven to reduce obesity significantly. It proposes the taking of green tea three times a day.

The second option of dealing with obesity as Sharib suggests is apple cider, vinegar and lime juice. The website encourages exercise in dealing with obesity. It gives reliable and realistic ways of dealing with obesity and therefore it can be proved a valid site. The presentation of the information by the website is relevant and provides invaluable information on how obesity can be treated using natural means.

The website, as a result, provides relevant information on obesity as the topic states and the sites name health tips is relevant to the topics. The website is copyrighted, and this adds to its credibility. As such, the site provides information for authorization.


Author: Unknown

Topic: 10 ways to get rid of obesity

The article is in the form of slides, which focus on the prevalence of obesity in India. The article has various references to support what it puts across. Therefore, there is credibility in the information posted on the website. The website has a copyright of 2015 and therefore it is current and up to date with its information. The website also has the .com domain name, which is a valid domain name.

The website provides information on obesity mainly focusing on the effect it has on the economic and social standing of a nation. It concentrates on causes of obesity and looks at very low-calorie diet, using foods that are low in fat and carbohydrates. The article critically analyses the various solutions that obese people need to follow to help in treating their condition. The website provides relevant information since it provides news on business, movies, and health among many others. Therefore, a site offers information on various topics with health included.


Search term: getting rid of obesity

Author: Hannah Rice Meyers

Topic: How to get rid of obesity with slim fast

That people have different reactions to obesity and even to its treatment. The articles look into the various steps that people can follow to contain obesity. It suggests different treatments that include shakes that have either chocolate, vanilla, strawberry. The website does not give references to prove that the shakes or solutions proposed by the articles have been shown. It suggests the eating of snacks between meals and balanced diets during dinner without stating whether the lunch and breakfast should have a balanced diet. The references are given near the bottom of the website and are and the diet channel. The information does not have academically researched information that backs up the various steps that deal with obesity.

The websites credibility is not in question since it has an updated copyright of 2015. It has the domain of .com, which is a commercial domain and further shows its credibility.

There are many perspectives when looking at nutrition. The academic world has come up with various measures and ways of dealing with nutrition and the nutritional disorders. Some of them embrace traditional forms of eating while others look onto modern forms of treating the various disorders. Culture has changed the way people deal with nutrition. In the modern context, people are wont to consume unhealthy foods than in the traditional setting. As a result, the culture of a place determines the nutrition. Nutrition is an important area that should be greatly researched to input important information that will help people to avoid various eating disorders.

Sociological Analysis – Oppression And Discrimination

In terms of sociological analysis, what do you make of this situation below? Is there anything Kevin can do?

Sociological Analysis – Oppression And Discrimination Assignment Guidelines

  • Address the following in 1,200–1,500 words:
    • What is oppression, and what measures can be taken to eliminate it from the workplace? Explain.
    • What are the mechanics of oppression?
    • What does scapegoating mean?
    • What does tyranny of majority mean?
    • What is a legitimizing myth, and how does it factor into discrimination?
    • Why are issues of intolerance important?
    • What issues are evident in the above scenario? Explain.
    • Based on what you have learned in this course, how would you address these issues? Explain in detail.
    • How does this issue relate to discrimination?
    • Are there any commonalities among minority groups in terms of oppression?
    • In what way can this situation be compared with other forms of discrimination?
    • Is there any legal action that can be taken? Why or why not?
    • The repeal of Don’t Ask Don’t Tell took effect in December 2010 ending a 17-year ban on openly homosexual members in the military. How has this influenced the realities for homosexual military members?
    • What are the implications for same-sex partners or spouses since the Supreme Court struck down the Defense Of Marriage Act in 2013?
      • Provide specific examples.
  • Use at least 3 scholarly sources to fully support your arguments.
  • You should reference all sources using APA style.

Scenario – Diversity in American Life 

Kevin is a hardworking salesperson at a local department store in a small town. He is a great salesperson and takes pride in his work. He is single and is new to the area.

When Kevin first started, he was introduced to everyone by Sally, his trainer. They went to the break room, and Sally said to enjoy the remainder of his break and left. Shortly after she left, one of the employees introduced himself to Kevin and made a lewd remark about Sally. The other male employees sitting in the break room laughed and made similar comments under their breath. Kevin remained silent and changed the subject.

Kevin’s friend Ned who he met playing volleyball works in a business that is close to Kevin’s store, so they go out to lunch on a regular basis. One day, Ned picked up Kevin to go to lunch and his coworkers saw them. Another time, when they were on their way to a game after work, one of his coworkers ran into them. Since then, whenever Kevin enters the break room, the other male employees give him the silent treatment. It seems that whenever he leaves the break room, the other male employees erupt into laughter. At other times when he approaches his coworkers, they abruptly stop talking and glance secretively at one another. It becomes clear to Kevin that some of his fellow employees seem not to like him, but he is not sure why.

Because of his strong work ethic and customer service skills, Kevin is promoted to assistant manager. This creates tension among the other employees who have worked there for a longer period of time. During his first week as assistant manager, Kevin asks Bill and Ted to help him stock the new shipment of merchandise throughout the store. Bill and Ted reluctantly start to help him unload the truck. Kevin leaves them to finish the job and returns to the floor. He returns later to find them on an unscheduled break. Bill is on his cell phone and Ted is found smoking a cigarette out behind the store. Much of the merchandise still remains in the truck. Kevin decides that they should be written up for the infraction.

Weeks later, Kevin’s boss, Frank, calls him into the office. He explains that there have been some complaints from customers about Kevin. Without giving much detail, Frank explains that the company’s image is very important for sales and customer satisfaction. He goes on to explain that family values are very important to the image of the store and the community. He continues to say that Kevin’s sales are not what they used to be and that there were some errors on the invoices. He goes on to say that it is unfortunate, but it is just not going to work out. He finishes by stating that the company has a policy that an employee may be let go for any reason and he is terminated.

Kevin protests and asks Frank to explain why he is being fired but Frank says that his decision is final and that the matter is closed.

Market Segmentation – Definition , Importance And Necessity

Market segmentation refers to the process of identifying the major groups in the entire market and formulating products that strive to meet the characteristics of consumers in the market segment. Market segmentation enables a company to develop advertising campaigns that focus on the market segment and campaigns that focus either one or two market segments – also referred to as niches (Dibb & Simkin 2013).

Market segmentation enables a company to obtain various benefits as opposed to treating the entire market as a whole. Market segmentation enables a company to increase its focus on a certain market segments. This increases the returns of the company. Market segmentation also enables a company to focus its efforts in a new market segment, which ultimately increases the returns of the company. Increase in focus on a certain market segment also enables an organization to increase its competitiveness. For example, focus on the youth helps in improving the brand of a company among the youth. This increases brand loyalty. Geographic segmentation is also one of the major types of market segmentation. It facilitates the expansion of the market of a company. Once an organization has catered for the needs of a certain region, it can immediately expand to the nearest regions. Using market segmentation enables a company to increase its customer retention throughout the lifecycle of the customer. It enables customers the company’s products regardless of their age. Therefore, customers may start using a certain product in the childhood and continue using the product in their adulthood. Market segmentation also leads to better communication. This is due to the fact that a company must devise spot on communication to its target market. The need for spot on communication necessitates a company to ensure it meets the communication needs of the target market. A company should not use similar communication in products that target children with products that target adults. Market segmentation also increases the profitability of an organization. This is due to the fact that it increases brand equity, customer retention, and competitiveness of a product. The ability of market segmentation to improve profitability results from the fact that it affects the major features that affect the competitiveness of an organization. Creation of a market segment reduces the need for bargaining or negotiation. For example, it is hard to see people negotiating in Ferrari shows or Gucci stores. This is due to the fact that the products target a specific market segment (Cant, Strydom & Jooste 2009).

Market segmentation is not always a good idea. This is due to the fact that markets and customers are not always homogenous in nature. This necessitates companies to customers who have similar characteristics and needs other customers that have different characteristics and needs. The needs and wants enable a company to determine the most suitable marketing mix that would help in serving the market segment. It is a vital for a company to determine the market segment that would be served more efficiently while offering the greatest opportunity. Market segmentation has three main stages. These include segmentation, targeting, and position. For market segmentation to be efficient, the three stages should be interrelated. Therefore, if a similar market has similar needs, it would be unrealistic for a company to segment such a market. Market segmentation requires a market to be heterogeneous. Diversity is a requirement for market segmentation to be effective. If a market is heterogeneous, a company should aggregate customers who have similar characteristics, needs, and expectations into a certain group. A company should ensure that has the capability of fulfilling the needs of a certain market segment. A company may use different targeting strategies. These include the undifferentiated strategy, differentiated strategy and concentrated strategy. Undifferentiated strategy involves using a single marketing mix to target a certain market segment. This makes the company’s market offerings to have zero differentiation. On the other hand, the concentrated strategy involves focusing the marketing efforts on a certain market segment that is different from other segments. On the other hand, a differentiated strategy involves focusing on different marketing segments using various marketing mixes. The type of focus is dependent on the characteristic of the differentiated markets. Positioning involves the designation of marketing campaigns that would help in meeting the needs and expectations of customers in a certain market segment. It strives to improve consumer perception and brand image. For market segmentation to be effective, the market criteria should not change. If it impossible for the above conditions to be met, a company should not segment the market (Dibb & Simkin 2013).

Failure to consider the consider market characteristics, failure to engage in efficient costing, and failure to consider the time required in market segmentation leads to over-segmenting. The nature and products that a company deals in may prevent it from reaping the benefits of market segmentation. For example if the segment is too small, it would unrealistic for a company to segment the market. In addition, market segment is not beneficial in a market that has too many brands. Therefore, it is vital for a company to determine the competition that would be offered by other products in the same market segment. Venturing into a market segment that is already too saturated would increase the costs of a company. This would lead to lower profit margins.

The above factors necessitate a company to consider costing prior to venturing into a certain market segment. This is despite the fact that the target market may be good. Therefore, if a company aspires to venture into market segment A, and does not have funds that would enable it to sell its products in places visited customers in the segment, venturing into the market would ultimately result in failure.

Market segmentation is also time-consuming. It necessitates a company to spend a significant amount of time trying to identify the target market, analyze research data, and developing marketing campaigns that strive to meets the needs and requirement of customers in a certain market segment. Market segmentation also requires companies to determine whether the market segment is large enough for them to earn significant profits from the segment. Therefore, a company should not over-segment its market if it does not have the time to engage in activities necessary in market segmentation (Cant, Strydom & Jooste 2009).

Market segmentation also makes companies omit certain customers. This is due to the fact that a significant number of customers may fall outside the general characteristics of the average customer is a certain market segment. For example, a small clothing company may target people who have low income. In so doing, the company fails to meet the needs of customers who have income. The high income may be the potential customers of the company. Therefore, failure to consider them makes the company lose a potential source of revenue and profitability.

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The Christian Moral Life

The Christian Moral Life

In The Christian Moral Life Lamoureux and Wadell consider the blind woman who has been without sight throughout her life except for a fleeting glimpse of shadows. Her plight is made stronger by the awareness that she is undergoing surgery in order to see. First, consider what this woman might be thinking about her vision and how it could affect her marriage and friendships.Second, imagine what blindness and sight mean not only to this woman but to each of us as we struggle to see. What are blindness and sight for our society?

Question 2

Sin and Conversion in the Christian Life depicts someone who unlike the blind woman in the first question has sight but remains blind to her abuses of her body and to her sense of self-love. First, why does this woman come to recognize her dignity and sense of self-worth after years of drinking and falling into bed with strangers? What do you think were reasons for her transformation? Second, this story is based on an actual woman who opens herself to others’ view for her own reasons. Why does she acknowledge how low she had fallen? Third, if she has experienced a true conversion how has she become someone through whom others with problems can see themselves with hope?

Question 3

“Vietnam’s Legacies” allows us to look back at a war that divided our nation. South Vietnam was at war within itself and its overthrow of the dictator once supported by the Western countries opened new conflicts. First, consider why South Vietnam was seen as important enough to our heads of state that a generation of young men were called on to fight. What did they fear? Second, in Fog of War Robert McNamara discusses his own role in relation to the Vietnamese conflict as well as other wars. What did you learn from McNamara’s account about the reasons why he withdrew from government during the Johnson administration? Why did he think that the war was wrong? What moral criteria did he apply?

Question 4

In “The Treasure We Seek” Lamoureux and Wadell draw on Santiago’s story in an effort to offer further refection on those treasures that we mistakenly seek out versus the treasures that are worth our efforts. First, if Santiago went forth in search of gold what do you see in this tale about gold and treasure that holds up other goals worth seeking? Explain. Second, in another chapter the authors treat “Love–the Only Path to Life” in relation to meanings of Love and our relationships. Imagine Santiago and the people in this chapter in a discussion about love: what are two points that each would make?

Question 5

“How Many Children?” raises many ethical questions that Octomom and her doctor would probably not think about. Why did Octomom and this doctor stun the nation? What are three reasons for the sense of disappointment that Americans shared as they judged the doctor as well as Octomom? Offer at least three to four reasons for your answer..

Forensic Scenario Two- Not Guilty Plea

The test results may be summarized in one paragraph as follows; Seven MMPI-2-RF scales–Suicidal/Death Ideation (SUI), Helplessness/Hopelessness (HLP), Anxiety (AXY), Ideas of Persecution (RC6), Aberrant Experiences (RC8), Substance Abuse (SUB), and Aggression (AGG)–have been designated by the test authors as having critical item content that may require immediate attention and follow-up. Items answered by the individual in the keyed direction (True or False) on a critical scale are listed below if his T score on that scale is 65 or higher. The percentage of the MMPI-2-RF normative sample (NS) and of the Forensic, Pre-trial Criminal (Men) comparison group (CG) that answered each item in the keyed direction are provided in parentheses following the item content.

Mr. M had been noted to have been undergoing psychological issues prior to the arrest. He had been hallucinating about being followed by the people purportedly hired by his rival music group to kill him. Forensic evaluation showed that indeed he had a mental breakdown and his brain was not functioning normally. The lab findings showed that he might have been sick and this is shown by the events that preceded the arrest. The rival group had used materials he had developed to create their own product and this angered the 21 year old Mr. M. who became antisocial and could spend a lot of time in solitary. This behavior had continued to the extent that he was imagining a lot of things, a clear sign of hallucination. On the day of arrest, he had thought that the gang had hired people to pursue him. When he heard the siren, he assumed that it was a stolen police car and hence did not stop. The claim was that he ran towards his parents’ home for rescue. This shows that he was clearly out of his senses at the time.

Why A Company Should Invest In A Mentoring Program

Investing in mentoring programs

In today’s operations of a company, it requires having low costs, yet high quality solutions. Initiating mentoring programs in a company will allow capitalization of the greatest resource which is human resource. Strategically, to develop a talent will contribute to organization’s innovation, growth and bottom line. It shows management’s interests, support and concern for its worker’s potential together with the company. It demonstrates to the employees that the company is willing to invest the resources and time available to assist the employees to succeed in their careers. In return, workers will be more loyal and productive to the organization.

Business leadership must promote, embrace, and value these programs in order to realize the return on their investments. Employees with few year experiences should be matched with a career mentor to assist them in growing in their positions. This creates a more engaged workforce, high job satisfaction and also it proves that the organization cares (Gershenfeld, 2014).

Return on Investment

This is a performance measure which can be used in measuring or evaluating the investment efficiency, or in comparing the effectiveness of diverse investments. It can be used to measure the amount of return as compared to the cost of investment. ROI is the most common profitability ratio although; it is not necessarily the same as the profit. It deals with the money invested in the business and the returns realized based on the company’s net profits, while profits measures the business performance.

During the business development, intended benefits can be defined as part of calculating financial returns or Return on Investment or payback period and this is always associated with the realization schedule. However, intended benefits may be realized long after project closure. Investments should be placed in tandem with the laid strategies in order to retain the workforce long enough to meet the acceptable Return on Investment on the human resource.

Evaluating legal considerations of the program

Within the company, there exist various legal considerations which would be considered within the training program aspect. One of these legal aspects to be considered would include how to face the company’s liability. There are many of reasons to why the business could not meet the legal requirement including employee and customer discrimination, and that which may cause serious legal threats to the business resulting to court room procedures. Failure to meet legal expectations as required by the law, the business faces full responsibility for any injury or discrimination which may occur to either an employee or a customer within the business environment. Also failure to follow the laid legal requirements may subject the business to financial resource losses including promoting high turnover rates leading to low production rates and negative reputation.

Mentee first meeting check list and meeting guide

First and foremost, one should take the responsibility for setting the meeting with the mentor. Research shows that these kinds of relationships are the most successful when the mentee takes the responsibility to manage the relationship. By utilizing this checklist, it will guide both the mentor and the mentee following the mutual agreement to formalize their relationship.


___ Learn all you can about the mentor before the initial meeting

___ Review the roles and expectations from the mentoring commitment

___ Have a conversation, together with the mentoring coach or individually, to discuss the match and explore the ideas which he or she may be having


___ Set boundaries for the mentoring relationship, discuss and seek clarity

___ Discuss confidentiality and be specific on things which should remain confidential

___ Listen and ask questions

___ Explain where you are and where you would like to be, and how the whole program may assist

___ Decide what you want to achieve together while setting priorities give scope of roles and also time frame

Next steps

___ Schedule the next meeting (date, time and place)

___ Write a brief summary

___ Set up frequency, length, and location of next meetings (Kelly & Christian, 2014).

ShareCar App – PESTLE Analysis

This as a tool or framework which marketers use in monitoring and analyzing the macro-environmental (external marketing environment) factors which pose an impact in an organization. Ireland’s economy has been dominated by the service sector, and which approximately it contributes to about 73% to the total GDP. In the year 2009, the country underwent through a global recession but its strong fundamentals led the country to survive the crisis. Ireland has presented strong opportunities for investment in the Information Technology business and it has been one of the leading exporters of Information Technology Business services across the globe (Aithal & Sreeramana, 2016).

For the ShareCar App, the PESTLE analysis which they will follow and due to which they have to gain profits while increasing their customers.

Political Analysis

Ireland is a democratic, independent, sovereign state with a parliamentary government system. Politically, it is a stable country and a net exporter country. Its economic growth is mainly driven by exports and it is intensively involved win trade hence the best place to invest in.

Economic Analysis

Although the economy of Ireland has been through transformation in recent past, it has evolved from agriculture focused economy to IT economy based on high-tech industries and services, investment, constrained in trade and industry.

Social Environment

Ireland’s official languages are English and Irish although most of the public notes are in English as most of the press, and this is favorable for the business plans and investments. The country is considered progressive in terms of social issues.

Technological Environment

Ireland has excellent infrastructure and which meets the requirements of the job market.

Legal Environment

The Ireland government actively promotes investments and this has fueled the growth of the economy. Its investment promotion goal is creation of employment especially in high-skill and technology-intensive industries.

Environmental Analysis

One of the Ireland’s most attractive business environment features is its low corporate tax and this makes it an attractive destination for investment.

ShareCar App Carpool services is a technology platform which will provide children a secure and safe ways to travel; our solution will solve traffic problems especially in school’s drop off lanes by providing families with carpool options and which may forgo sending their children to particular schools due to lack of transportation. Schools will be our customers as they will subscribe to our platform and offer parents a secured online resource and collaborate in determining carpool and shared rides schedules. This service will ensure proper utilization of time and also money. ShareCar will relieve parents from the burden of their kid’s transportation through public means which may not be so safe.

To get more schools to subscribe to the ShareCar service, the business will consider giving some kind of monetary incentives and which the schools will extent to offer to the participants in order to curb the limitation of penetrating to every school. Understanding that more public schools have some different pain points as compared to the private schools, doing some more discoveries with the school administrations to make them understand what technology platforms can tie in; the business will aim at targeting schools which have a high walker student percentage and who do not have any service.

The ShareCar App will be a geolocating technology and which will allow parents to create their car routes with other families. The rides minimum cost will be 8 dollars although it will be representing a saving of 20% to 40% off the cost of a ride with only one child in a single car. The rides will be consisting up to six children with the driver and the riders will be sharing the same drop-off locations, pick up locations or even both. Other features for the ShareCar services will include; Real-time tracking system which will allow parents to exactly know where their children are at, Creating groups and inviting people over through social media platforms, Chatting live with the groups while staying in touch with them all the time, Tracking the estimated arrivals and drop-off times right from the app, Sharing locations with other individuals, Using filters to identify which member is closer to you or the vise versa and creating rosters between individuals which you have invited in the group.

For some of the other companies which have explicit rules of not allowing children under 18 years old in their vehicles with proper supervision of a present guardian, ShareCar App provide parents with a friendly service which will solve most of their daily commuting woes especially to parents with many children and who are engaged in other various activities.

With all the features which the SahreCar App has, connecting to the app is very easy. It only requires one to first download the app, register and accepts the terms and conditions, where after that, one has to invite some other people to the app so that he or she can create a group and a roster. Finally, one has to have a drop off and pick up service according to the roster scheduled between parents.

Porter’s 5 Forces

Porter’s 5 Force model an analyzing tool which utilizes five forces in determining the profitability of a business and its competitive strategy. It analyses and classifies very important forces which affect the competition intensity of a business and its levels of profitability.

Rivalry among Competitors

Competition among the market players will be high and rising like the Uber Company which provides almost the same services as the ShareCar. Our pricing will be the differentiating competition aspect and the App will enable the business attain its competitive advantage.

Threat of New Entrants

Major threats of new entrants will be the initial investment and the economies of scale. The industry is growing fast and economies of the existing players are also reducing which also is expected to affect the profitability level. Barriers to entry like getting skilled drivers and government regulations will also affect the same.

Threat of Substitutes

The biggest threat to this services the substitutes like the public transportation, taxis, and the school based transport services. With the ShareCar App, the technology will allow the group chats via phone rather than meeting in person.

Bargaining Power of Buyers

The prices will be fixed by the business as there is no government interference and they will be pocket friendly.

Bargaining Power of Suppliers

Major suppliers in the industry will be the car dealers, skilled drivers, and fuel and technology products (Anton & Roman, 2015).

Competitor Analysis

The competitive landscape in which ShareCar will operate is currently occupied by other competitive companies and which have experienced rapid growth overtime. Such companies have been able to procure users through high-adoption rates through offering industry-disruptive services in the Carpool business. ShareCar will disrupt such incumbents through provision of better and value added services to the already widely adopted rideshare ecosystem. With competitors like Uber, who have well developed apps and who overtime have been credited with providing convenient transportation system, they will pose a great competitive challenge to the ShareCar services. The SharCar App has even more advanced features than those of the major competitors like; private chats, variety of payment options, luggage options, passenger contributions, location sharing, driver rating cancelling requests and many other options which are user friendly and convenient to the customer (Hanks &, Emily, 2016).

US Attitudes Toward Mental Illnesses

In the first question we read and talked about the difficulty of finding a legitimate basis for labeling the behavior of others as “abnormal” We also pointed out in lecture that this process bears a significant ethical burden as well. There can be a lot of stigma, prejudice, loss of self esteem and real harm directed toward a person who is labeled as “having a mental illness”


Please discuss for this question about U.S. attitudes toward mental illness as it relates to the different etiological models of pathology. Please discuss the following issue:

  • In your experience how is mental illness seen in today’s American Culture. How do the various models of etiology affect these attitudes?
  • Do people generally more or less understand and accept people with problems if they believe mental illness comes from problems in a person’s biology, thinking, past learning experiences or current/past cultural settings?

Individual Assignment Ethics, Intelligence & Technologies in Homeland Security

Congratulations! Given your education in homeland security, you have been newly hired to work within the DHS Science and Technology Directorate. Your first assignment, intended to leverage your exceptional research and writing skills, is to gather information about ethical considerations for the use of technology to meet selected homeland security objectives.

Although DHS has assigned this project to you with a specific focus on immigration, search and seizure applications, and the general approach to leveraging technological advancements, in crafting your “white paper,” as you provide both descriptions and analysis, you may also consider some of the following factors (in any order).

Assignment Guidelines

  • Address the following in 10–12 pages:
    • What general approach should DHS and FEMA take for retaining ethical considerations in mind as they discover, select, and develop new technologies? Explain.
      • Consider if there are any types, categories, or forms of technology these agencies should avoid—explain what and why.
    • What “environmental” factors should DHS and FEMA stay aware of as they select or employ technologies, e.g., political, economic, social, cultural, or legal? Explain.
      • Identify some of the ways conflict may arise between some or all of these factors and ethical matters.
      • Be prepared to advise your bosses on when and how any of these factors might and/or should trump ethical issues.
    • How much transparency should DHS and FEMA provide in letting the public know about current or prospective technologies? Explain.
      • Consider the ethics of using technology without public knowledge or consent.
    • How might planning and exercises reduce the likelihood of leaders or managers compromising ethics when using technological tools or capabilities? Explain.
    • What are the intentional and unintentional potentials for their actions to be models of states and localities? Explain.
      • Is this consideration important? Why or why not?
    • What slippery slopes lie ahead regarding homeland security? Consider the following in your response:
      • Immigration issues
      • Search and seizure issues
      • Technological advancements
    • Once ethics are breeched, are they easier to neglect in the future? Does this matter when executing the critical missions within homeland security? Explain.
  • Be sure to reference all sources using APA style.

The Neclace Tone

It’s very important to live your life as simple without dreaming too much about impossible things that you can’t reach. Whether being handsome or gorgeous doesn’t mean that you have to have a better life, however, being satisfied with what you have in life is better than being greedy. By Guy de Maupassant shows how the main character, Mathilde, wants to live the rich life. Her lavish lifestyle makes her miserable. She suffers permanently, because she thinks that she deserves a better life because of her beauty which leads her to face a lot of “anguish” situations in her life, while in the end, the necklace that she lost and worked hard to replace was fake. By writing this story, the narrator proves his point that everyone has to appreciate his or her life regardless of what characteristics anyone has. what I’m going to analyze about this story is her suffering with poverty, her attitude towards her husband, and her greed let her pay for ten years.
In the story of “The Necklace” the author begins by mentioning that “She had no dowry, no expectations, and no means of being known” and “suffering ceaselessly ” Maupassant shows us that Mathilde is an unusual girl in his world. Regardless of what the most important characteristic she has in the story, we see that she suffers of being poor from the beginning of her life. She doesn’t like her situation in her life at the opening of the story, because she was one of the most gorgeous girls and wants to be wealthy which she thinks that she is made in life of being rich, and she deserves a better life than she has because of her looks, but due to her poverty and dignity, she couldn’t achieve her dreams by marrying a rich husband who spoils her as she wants and fulfills her desire.
In the middle of the story, the narrator says that “Here is something for you” the author reveals that how affectionate Mathilde’s husband he is towards Mathilde. He wants to help her to feel happy instead of being frustrated and pessimistic all the time. That’s what the author means that husbands try their best to help their wives and share the good and the bad moment to let their life move with happiness and joys while wives . He thinks that his wife would be “delighted” for the invitation that he brings from work.
The day of the ball arrives and she is a success. Maupassant describes her as, “prettier than them all, elegant, gracious, smiling, and crazy with joy.” All the men wanted to know who she is, and even the minister notices her. Here the
like she was in the cage for a long time and finally his wife released her

In short,

Components Of Physical Examination

A physical examination is medical process of diagnosis or examination used to evaluate the body parts and their functions through observation, feeling, tapping and listening. It also encompasses collecting information regarding a patient’s lifestyle and their medical history. There are four Components Of Physical Examination. These are inspection, palpitation, percussion and auscultation. The process generally involves the use of the hands, ears and the stethoscope to evaluate the body parts or organs.

  1. Inspection: This is the inspection of the body for normal color, shape and consistency. The main areas a physician will pay attention to during inspection include the skin, face, eyes, neck, chest, abdomen, legs, muscles and joints (Messele, Osman &Abdurahman, 2005). During inspection of these parts the physician will look for bruises, veins, swelling, masses, cuts, lumps and changes in color.
  2. Palpation:Palpitation is the process of examining a part of the body for abnormalities by feeling using hands. During palpitation an examiner will feel the chest wall to feel the heart, lymph nodes and the abdomen. Masses or lumps are what an examiner mainly checks for during palpitation.
  3. Percussion: This examination method also uses the hands where the examiner taps areas of the body. The examiner listens to the sounds produced, which helps determine if there are fluids or masses formed inside the parts. These parts include the abdomen, back and chest wall, which tell if organs like the lungs or stomach, contain either fluids or masses where they are not supposed to be as they cause different sounds (Chemocare, 2015).
  4. Auscultation: Auscultation is another procedure where a physician or nurse will listen to the heart, neck, lungs and abdomen to detect problems (Chemocare, 2015). This is done using a stethoscope, which amplifies sounds from these areas. The tests usually detect problems in the arteries in the organs; heart beat rate and sound changes, lung normal sound change. Such changes will indicate possibility of a condition.

Civil Rights vs Civil liberties – PowerPoint Presentation

Civil Rights

  • The term civil rights is used to imply that the state has a role in ensuring all citizen have equal protection under the law and equal opportunity to exercise the privileges of citizenship regardless of race, religion, sex or other characteristic unrelated to the worth of the individual (United States Department of Justice, 2008) .
  • Therefore civil rights are obligations imposed upon government to promote equality

Civil Liberties

  • The term civil liberties refers to fundamental individuals rights such as freedom of speech, press, or religion due to process of law and other limitation on the power of the government to restrain or dictate the actions of individuals(United States Department of Justice, 2008) .
  • They are the freedoms that are guaranteed by Bill of Right.
  • Civil liberties offer protection to individuals from improper government action and arbitrary government interferences

Examples of Civil liberties cases

  • Boy Scouts of American v. Dale (2000). This is an example of civil liberty case that was taken by the Supreme Court. The case was about the right of gays in the American society (Schmidt, W. C., 2014).
  • Log Cabin Republicans v. United Sates, 716 F. Supp.2d 884 (C.D. Cal 2010. This case was about privacy and personal liberty where the military personnel operated in “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” (Schmidt, W. C., 2014).

Example of Civic rights cases in Supreme court

  • Garner v Louisiana 368 U. S. 157 (1961). This case reached Supreme court after it proved to be very difficult. Supreme court struck down the breach of peace convictions on factual grounds, namely that the protesters did nothing to actually disturb the peace (Schmidt, W. C., 2014).
  • New York Times v. Sullivan, 273 Ala. 656 (1962). The Supreme Court, in another opinion by Justice Brennan, held that in light of “the profound national commitment to the principle that debate on public issues should be uninhibited, robust and wide-open” the verdict infringed on the newspaper’s First Amendment rights (Schmidt, W. C., 2014).

Liberties cases ruled by Supreme Court

  • Brent M. Rubin, Buchanan v. Warley and the Limits of Substantive Due Process as Antidiscrimination Law, 92 TEX. L. REV. 477 (2013). The Supreme Court verdict instructed the government to enforcement of nondiscrimination norms against private parties (Schmidt, W. C., 2014).
  • Bernstein and others have called for a reinvigoration of this “laissez-faire version of civil rights” or put another way, a civil liberties approach to advancing the civil rights goal of combatting discrimination (Schmidt, W. C., 2014).

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Federal Laws and Events That Impact The Hospital

Current Federal Laws And Events That Will Impact The Hospital

There are many laws and events that may end up impacting the hospital in terms of financial management. First, hospitals that fall under the CMOs’ Inpatient prospective payment System are considered to have agreed to the pre-determined rate so as to serve the Medicare patients (Finkler, Jones, & Kovner, 2012). Therefore, the government reimbursement greatly controls the medical prices for these hospitals. With such a rule, it becomes impossible for the hospital evaluate and plan, make long term investment decisions, make effective financial decisions, and even to manage working capital. Second, there are regulations expecting that hospitals will only be reimbursed upon quality performance (Finkler, Jones, & Kovner, 2012). This is yet another regulation that will greatly impact the hospital as the control of finances is no longer within control. Any complaints, or unclear instances will lead to lack of payments due to poor performance, since the federal government only pays for value.

Third, due to the predetermined price for treating certain cases, the hospital may fail to balance its financial statements due to the extra costs that may be incurred during the process (Finkler, Jones, & Kovner, 2012). Therefore, if a patient is suffering from a disease that is yet to be determined by a series of tests and scans, the federal government may fail to cater for extra expenses once the disease is determined, and a price for treating the ailment was low compared to the incurred value. Similarly, if a patient is admitted for a long period such that the admission costs exceed the DRG rate, the hospital will be at the losing end. Fourth, the option of negotiated rates is also available, and this may positively impact hospitals (Finkler, Jones, & Kovner, 2012). This is because MCOs are sometimes given an opportunity to negotiate capitated rates. These usually feature flat monthly payments per patient, regardless of the level of medical service consumption. Therefore, the hospital will benefit from the extra amount of payment offered. Lastly, hospitals are expected to offer services to any individual needing care, even though they may not be able to pay. The federal government set this regulation as a way of balancing the excess income received from negotiated pays (Finkler, Jones, & Kovner, 2012). This, however, may lead to loses for hospitals as they may end up using expensive resources to offer services to these people.

Basically, the factors that will have an impact on the financial decisions of the facility involve regulations that expect the hospital to spend a lot more on treatment services than what the federal government is willing to pay. For instance, charity care can be very risky as individuals will constantly go on to seek medical care without payments. If the other insured individuals complete their monthly visits that have already been catered for, there will be no other way for the hospital to retrieve the losses (Finkler, Jones, & Kovner, 2012). As a result, the hospital will have to constantly depend on its own financing to balance the books. Making future plans with such a system can be very difficult as it is not reliable. The hospital will not know what to expect every month. Therefore, starting a project may lead to it being abandoned before it is completed due to lack of funds. The possibility of great profits followed by great losses that is presented by the various regulations named above will impact the financial management decisions of the hospital.

Patient Scenario Assignment With Sample Answer

Patient Scenario Information (copied from syllabus).

Mr. Smith is 60 years old. He was diagnosed with a prostate cancer five years ago. Over the past few days, Mr. Smith has been feeling weak and increasingly tired and has also been suffering from a headache that did not respond to over-the-counter medications. He scheduled an appointment with his physician.

His physician performed a physical examination and recommended a battery of laboratory tests and imaging procedures.


The table below shows Reference values in the right-hand column. These values reflect the normal range of values for patients without disease or illness.  The center column reflects the resulting values for medical test results obtained for Mr. Smith.

Take note whether Mr. Smith’s values are within normal limits.

Mr. Smith Reference Values
K+ 2.6 mmol/L 3.8-4.9mmol/L
Hb (Hemoglobin) 7.5 g/dL 13.8 to 18.2 g/dL
Hct (Hematocrit) 20.4% 45-52%
Platelet Count 49×109/L 150-400×109/L


After receiving Mr. Smith’s test results, his physician admits him to the hospital. Hospital staff treated him and discharged him.

The following week, Mr. Smith returns to his physician with the same complaint of weakness and a new complaint of shortness of breath. His blood pressure is 160/100 mmHg.  MRI reveals metastasis of prostate cancer to osseous tissue. Abdominal CT shows obstruction of intestine due to nodular enlargement of adrenal glands.


Laboratory results from Mr. Smith’s second hospital admission and medical tests show following findings:


Mr. Smith Reference Values
K+ 2.6 mmol/L 3.8-4.9mmol/L
Hb 7.3 g/dl 13.8 to 18.2 g/dL
Hct 20.4% 45-52%
Platelet Count 20×109/L 150-400×109/L
HCO3 38 mmol/l 22-26 mmol/L
Urinary K+ 70 mmol/L/24 hr 25-120 mmol/L/24 hr
Blood Glucose 460 mg/dl 64.8-104.4 mg/dL
Serum Aldosterone 1 ng/dl  <31 ng/dL
24 hour Urinary Aldosterone 8.4 mcg/24 hr 2.3-21.0 mcg/24 hr
Renin 2.1 ng/ml/hr 0.65-5.0 ng/ml/hr
ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone) 1082 pg/ml 9-46 pg/ml
Cortisol 155.5 microg/dL 0-25 microg/dL



Laboratory findings, MRI and CT confirmed metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma, hypertension and refractory hypokalemia due to ectopic ACTH production. High levels of circulating cortisol caused continuous activation of mineralocorticoid receptors resulting in hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis and hypertension.


After reading provided scenario, answer the following questions:

1.   What are the components of physical examination? Describe each component. (See Module 1, Topic B, Part B.2 – found after week 8 in the Content tab) Please use the answers from this module only and not from another source- easy points here!

2.   Mr. Smith’s blood pressure was 160/100 mmHg. How does a medical provider take or measure blood pressure? What do the top (numerator) and bottom (denominator) numbers mean in the biological sense? What is the significance the size of these two numbers? Is Mr. Smith’s blood pressure within normal range? Explain how you concluded whether Mr. Smith’s blood pressure is/is not within normal range.

3.   Based on the data provided, what laboratory tests were performed and what samples were taken from the patient?  Select one of the laboratory tests ordered for Mr. Smith and discuss why Mr. Smith’s physician might have ordered the test and the information she might have expected to obtain from that particular test.

4.   Compare Mr. Smith’s values with reference values and indicate whether MR. Smith’s values are below, above, or within normal range (compare Mr. Smith’s values with the Reference values) for each laboratory tests in the table above from the second set of tests.

5.   What imaging procedures did Mr. Smith undergo? Discuss the distinctions and similarities between the two different imaging approaches. What were the results of imaging procedures in Mr. Smith’s case?

6. Select one of the medical terms from the CONCLUSION and DIAGNOSIS section above and define what it means.  Also, discuss, in your own words and based on what you can gather about Mr. Smith’s condition, how the laboratory or imaging tests helped with drawing a conclusion or making the diagnosis. In your own words, discuss how medical providers use the scientific method to come to work through the examination and diagnosis of a patient.

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Contemporary Trends

The Health Care Scene: Contemporary Trends

As health care leaders, it is important to understand that health care is quite a dynamic field. Its constant changes are a result of continuing trends in regulation, policy, patient and provider advocacy efforts, as well as increasingly sophisticated technology and industry benchmarking guidelines.

For your assignment you review the possible topics for your Senior Project located in Week Five of your online course or in the “Components of Course Evaluation” section of this guide, and select the topic your training program will address. If you choose not to select a topic from the approved topic list, you must have your original topic approved by your instructor prior to submitting this assignment.

For this assignment, focus on a specific contemporary trend in health care and be sure to include all of the following influences:

  • Changes in client characteristics
  • Regulation of the health care industry
  • Reimbursement patterns and mandates
  • Restructuring of health care organizations
  • Impact of technology
  • Ongoing social and ethical factors

Address the information above as it pertains to your selected topic, in an eight to ten slide (excluding title and reference slides) PowerPoint presentation.

Your presentation should conclude with a summary describing the following concerns:

  • Overall, why should health care managers be aware of this change and trend?
  • What impact does this trend have on the stakeholder groups involved (e.g., patients, providers, administrators, third-party payers, legislators, etc.) for a specific organization specified (e.g., for profit, nonprofit, hospital, outpatient clinic, nursing home, etc.).

The information in this presentation will later be used as part of your Senior Project to set the context for the audience you select for a training program on the contemporary trend identified here.

Your presentation must include detailed speaker’s notes (i.e., at least 150 words) for each slide as well as a minimum of one to two scholarly sources from the Ashford University Library and one to two current, scholarly web sources.

Your presentation, and any citations used, must be in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Examples of scholarly web sources are available in this week’s recommended websites. These sources will also count toward the required sources for your Senior Project. Your presentation must be engaging and relevant to your audience. Lines of text on a slide will not be sufficient for this assignment. It should contain images, graphics, and/or multimedia that communicate your training program clearly to your audience. For tips on creating an excellent presentation, read this overview.










Senior Project

To start, select one of the following approved topics for your Senior Project. You may also have a topic of your choice approved by the instructor in Week One.  Many of the approved topics have specific subtopics outlined and, while these topics are not all-inclusive, they do provide insight into specific areas to consider.

Approved Topics:


  1. Examine how participative leadership functions in today’s modern health care organization and compare it to other types of leadership styles. Evaluate how each type of leadership style may impact organizational culture, employee performance, and how it may help or hinder the legitimacy of authority.
  2. As an administrator, address the challenges of employee recruitment and retention of health care professionals. Additional subtopics may include trends in the nursing workforce, shortage of primary care physicians, staff turnover, retention, and staffing patterns.
  3. Analyze the dual role of a manager and healthcare professional. Examine challenges that the health professional compared to those of a non-health professional, may face in terms of leadership style, and the impact these challenges have on organizational culture. The benefits of a health professional manager as an organizational resource may also be included. Explore the career trends of health professionals in organizational leadership positions, such as the types of health professional training that leaders tend to have in common, and the typical demographic background of health professional managers.
  4. The health care industry must anticipate and monitor trends that could possibly affect its overall survival. Analyze how regulation of the health care industry impacts a health care organization. Explore some of the possible survival organizational strategies such as, but not limited to, mergers, and affiliations, achieving accreditation status, professional licensure.
  5. Analyze the impact of technology on how health care services are delivered. The impact of technology on employee performance, organizational structure, and management planning may also be considered.
  6. Analyze the impact of any recent social and/or ethical trends on the health care industry. Discuss at least two issues.


After identifying your topic, choose a health care organization in your area. This organization may be small or large and may provide single inpatient health service or multiple outpatient services; it is your choice. Consider your topic in light of the leadership of this organization and research the challenges and successes it has faced in managing operational effectiveness.  You are welcome to use as many research methods as possible to obtain information for your organization and its managers (e.g., web-based resources, electronic articles, or personal interviews). The more informed you are, the better prepared you will be to complete your project.

Finally, develop a management training program that includes relevant guidelines and information to combat the issues identified in the selected topic, as well as recommendations for managers to more effectively lead health care organizations. Your training program should be in the form of a 20 to 25 slide PowerPoint presentation (excluding title and reference slides) that includes comprehensive speaker’s notes (i.e., at least 150 words) for each slide. Utilize at least three to five scholarly sources from the Ashford University Library and two to three current, scholarly web sources (total of five to eight references required). All sources must be cited according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Your presentation must be engaging and relevant to your audience. Lines of text on a slide will not be sufficient for this project. It should contain at least five images, graphics, and/or multimedia that communicate your training clearly to your audience. For tips on creating an excellent presentation, read this overview.


Creating the Senior Project


The Senior Project:


  1. Must be 20 to 25 PowerPoint slides (excluding title and reference slides) in length. There are 20 content criteria worth a total of 10 points.
  2. Must include a title slide that contains the following:
    1. Title of project
    2. Your name
    3. Course name and number
    4. Instructor’s name
    5. Date submitted
  3. Must include an introduction with a succinct thesis statement.
  4. Must address the topic of the project with critical thought in the areas of:
    1. Organization details
    2. Challenges and opportunities
    3. Training program outcomes
    4. Impact on at least three stakeholder groups involved delineated by cost, quality, and access to service
    5. Suggested actions
  5. Must include a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
  6. Must use at least five supporting graphics (images, graphics, and/ or multimedia) are included and relevant communicating the training content (two points).
  7. Must include speaker’s notes that have evidence of critical thinking and application (content analysis, synthesis, evaluation) related to the research methodology used to develop (six points):
    1. Project content
    2. Practical and relevant solutions to the organizational challenges/opportunities
    3. Appropriate evaluation of individual stakeholder groups involved
  8. Must use at least three to five scholarly sources from the Ashford University Library and two to three current, scholarly web sources.
  9. Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  10. Must include a separate reference slide, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.


Forensic Biology unit 3 individual project 3

Forensic Biology unit 3 individual project 3


As you study DNA, you find that every person’s DNA is different from another’s. Identical twins are the only people whose DNA is the same. Consider your parents and your siblings. Even though your brother and your sister have the same parents, it is unlikely that you look exactly like them unless you are identical twins. You may have common features, and you will all share common DNA among yourselves, but only identical twins will have the exact same DNA. DNA testing is used for many reasons such as the following:


  • Identify potential suspects whose DNA may match evidence left at crime scenes
  • Exonerate persons wrongly accused
  • Match organ donors


Assignment Guidelines


  • Address the following in 4–5pages:
    • In your first case, you have been asked to list and explain the steps that you would use to identify and analyze DNA from a person who has been in prison for 10 years. The results of your test may exonerate the person.
      • Once the physical evidence has been delivered to the forensics lab, what is the process of identifying DNA? Be specific, and explain in detail.
        • Consider that the evidence is over 10-years old.
      • Once the DNA evidence has been identified, what is the process of analyzing the DNA? Be specific, and explain in detail.
        • What challenges exist that can make your analysis inadmissible in court? Explain.
    • How are tissue matches made? Explain.
    • Why is it important to utilize different DNA testing methods? Explain.
      • Why is it that some methods may be preferred over others? Explain.
    • Other than forensic uses, DNA testing is essential in paternity testing.
      • What are the steps used to carry out a paternity test? Explain in detail.
      • Why might the results of a paternity test be significant in a court case? Explain.
  • Be sure to reference all sources using APA style.

Please put a title




Application to the 2016 Competition of the ALT Scholarship Program

Dear ALT Scholarship Program Coordinator

I would like to participate in 2016 African Leader of Tomorrow Scholarship Program competition. I am a holder of bachelor degree in Business Administration & Relationship Management Professional.  I have over 5 years of experience offering professional expertise and diverse range of skills in Banking Industry as Relationship Manager. I am also detail-oriented, analytical and methodical person with insightful creative thinking to assess and resolve issues with practical solutions. I am highly organized and a resourceful self-starter, with multitasking and prioritization skills that can harness limited resources to achieve good results. Beside this, I also have strong leadership, people management, and interpersonal communication skills. I am currently taking a master degree in Business Administration in the University of Nicosia. I have also taken a number of short courses related with business management and banking to improve my ability to handle my duties effectively. Some of these courses include marketing and negotiating skills, selling skills, legal aspect of banking, guaranty trust bank credit school, import finance, relationship management course, guaranty trust bank credit school and conflict resolution at workplace. With all this training and experience I believe that I have all it takes to take part into this competition.

The scholarship is important to me since I intend to promote good leadership in different work environment in Africa. I have always had a passion creating an organization with great ability to compete internationally as a result of good management and leadership. This urge pushed me into pursuing a degree in business management. However, after doing this course I still feel that I need to learn more and to be more exposed to attain my goals in life. I believe that this scholarship will provide me with a good opportunity to meet more experienced corporate leaders to learn a few things from them that will help me expand my knowledge and skills in leadership. I also intend to take advantage of leaders’ workshops and leadership professional networks enhanced during scholarship to lay a foundation for my leadership using the best evidence based skills from experienced and well trained leaders from all over the world.

Winning this scholarship would mean a lot not just to me but to all young people in Africa that intent to corporate leaders in the future. I do intend to share the acquired knowledge with other African leaders who may not get an opportunity to get the scholarship. I will share this knowledge by offering regular leadership workshops and training in my home country and Africa in general. I will also establish an online forum where leaders can share ideas on how resolve different problems that they experience in their daily life. I therefore believe that winning this scholarship would mean a lot to me and to all other existing and future leaders in Africa.

I am looking forward to receive my enrollment letter soon.

The Impact of the Railroad in the State of California

California was added as an American territory in the year 1848, and was declared a state in 1850. The fortune that the gold rush of 1848 brought to California gave birth to lots of subsequent developments in the state. All the possible efforts were made by the government and other non-government influential business magnets to establish a connection with the apparently almost isolated land of California. It took at least five to eight months to reach the east coast from New York via the waterway across the Atlantic, southern tip of South America and the Pacific Ocean. Moreover, the journey was full of dangers that included the risk of oceanic cyclones, the Red Indian attacks, typhoid fever and Cholera. An alternative communication system was necessary to ensure the proper flow of both the people and productions to boom the potential economy that the 1948 gold rush offered.

Realizing the importance of the modernization of communication system, the US congress passed the Pacific Railroad Bill and several other grants that allowed some of the railroad construction companies to start constructing railways that would become the transcontinental railroad; a path that would boost the US economy enormously. The Central Pacific and the Union Pacific railroad companies contributed greatly to this newly emerging industry. The first intercontinental railroad was completed in the year 1869 that connected Nebraska to the isolated western coast of California. As the last spike was set on May 10, 1869, the 2,575 kilometer- 1600 in mile- journey now would take only a few days which was once a matter of at least five to eight months via waterways.

The construction of intercontinental railroad proved to be a milestone in the history of California as well as of entire United States of America. Railway construction overshadowed all other industries of the time. A new flow of urbanization and infrastructural development took place. The trade of commodities related to railroad construction such as iron, steel, wood etc. encountered a huge boom (Endsley).  The concentration was now shifted from gold mining to a larger arena of trade and market flow. Before the construction of railroad, it would take around $1000 to travel between New York and California. But after the railroad was opened for public transportation, it was a matter of only $150 and a single week to reach California from the western coast of Atlantic.

The process of the construction of railroad was extremely painstaking and risky. There was a scarcity of white labor. A new wave of Chinese labors was seen at this moment. A huge number of Chinese was already living in California who came in search for gold during late 1840s and 1850s. However, these newly arriving Chinese labors were proved to be very effective for the construction work. They worked constantly for 8 hour a day and 6 days a week, with a wage rate of $1 a day. Needless to say, these Chinese labors built the base for the upcoming influx of market flow that made California one of the richest states of America. Sadly, within next few years, anti-Chinese immigration concerns grew among the white nationals, and the congress passed bills to ban Chinese emigration afterwards which was prevalent until the time of President Roosevelt.

The people of California didn’t get the expected result immediately after the completion of the railroad. It was naturally expected that the productions of Californian land were now easily transportable to the wider market, and thus, Californian economy would boost enormously. But, to great depression, the Californians experienced huge competition with a much wider, much greater wave of Eastern traders. Their products now had to compete with the nationwide circulation process as a whole. Though their products flew very well, they didn’t get the expected price. Moreover, the labors of railroad construction became unemployed once the construction was over. Thus, they all shifted to San Francisco and California in search for new means of livelihood, which in turn resulted in a decrease of wage in the state of California and the surrounding areas.

However, this temporary depression was nothing compared to the fortune that the railroad brought for the Californians. The refrigerated train bogies were of great help for the fruit producers of California. These goods, which once had no way but been disposed as garbage because of the lack of consumers, could now easily be transported to the eastern consumers. As the travel became easy, the industrialists, businessman and the creative minds from all around of America could now get an idea about the vastness of their country, about the potentialities of their professional fields, and could develop new plans for industrial and infrastructural development.

The railway carriages were transporting an average of approximately $50 worth of freight each year only within 10 years of the completion of the railroad (endsley). The state of California experienced actual boost resulting mainly from the railroad in the 1880s when the Southern Pacific Company took over the responsibility of the publicity of California. The publicity department of the railroad managed the famed national daily newspapers and periodicals to publish news and stories about the new potential image of California that resulted from gold rush and now grew much more productive as a result of the construction of the railroad.

As a result of the huge publicity, several other railroad companies reached Los Angeles by the 1885 and began to compete with the Southern Pacific. The travel fare decreased to as low as $1 which was previously around $125 ( Real estate business received a boom to accommodate hundreds of thousands of people arriving every day. 2,000,000 people arrived in California in a single year, 1887. Hundreds of new communities were established in Los Angeles with over 5,000,000 home-sites

The railroad business began to face strong competitors by the end of the nineteenth century. The main rivals this time were highway transport services, cars and airplanes. The railway as passenger transport became dominated firstly by street car service, then by the National City Line bus services. By the mid-nineteenth century, the influence of railroad almost declined in favor of its new competitors. (  The construction of railroad marks a new era of development and prosperity for the state of California. It consolidated the potentialities that the gold rush brought up. Therefore, we can undoubtedly claim the construction of the coast to coast railroad as one of the most felicitous events of the state of California.

The Great Chicago Fire of 1871

The 1871 great fire was one of the most devastating events in the history of Chicago city. It was Sunday, October 8th of 1871, and the time was around 9 PM in the De Koven Street of Western Chicago. A fire was suddenly noticed to be broken out in a barn located at the property of an Irish-immigrant couple Mr Partick and Mrs Catherine O’Leary. The fire soon turned out to be an unstoppable blaze within moments, spreading rapidly across the heart of the city. In spite of all the efforts to stop the spread of fire by the firefighters and the people, the blaze continued its devastation until it was finally stopped by the rain on October 10. The fire caused at least 300 people’s death, destroyed an estimated property of $200 million worth, ravaged 17,450 buildings, and left approximately 100,000 people homeless. Some rapid steps were taken to rebuild the infrastructural and economic bases of the city. The city soon flourished shortly after this huge shock.

Background of the Fire:

There were some obvious reasons for a simple barn fire to turn into a devastating conflagration. As the cheap transportation across the country was made available, the population of Chicago began to grow substantially during the mid nineteenth century. From a number of approximately 30,000 people living in Chicago city in the year 1850, the population grew so much afterwards that, the number became almost 100,000 by the end of the decade. But the infrastructure of the city was unable to accommodate such a huge influx of population. As a result, the cheapest possible material, namely wood, was used to build houses for the newly arriving inhabitants. At the time of the conflagration in the year 1871, almost two thirds of the houses of Chicago were made of wood. Moreover, the houses were topped with highly flammable tar and shingle roofs.

Chicago city was already suffering from the scarcity of rainfall, only 2.5 centimeters on average from July 4 to October 9 to be exact. As a result, the city experienced a heat wave that summer, causing a severe drought. The plants and wooden houses all around the Chicago city dried up and became perfectly fit as combustible materials to fuel the upcoming devastating conflagration.

Causes of the Blaze:

There are many theories regarding the origin of the great conflagration. Though none of the common legends regarding it has been declared authentic by the authorities, people used to believe mostly in any of these following culprits to cause the fire:

  • Vandals
  • Milk thieves
  • Spontaneous combustion
  • Drunken neighbor of Patrick O’Leary
  • O’Leary’s legendary cow

Among all these, the most frequently used legend blames Mrs. Catherine O’Leary, an Irish woman living in the roadside of the DeKoven Street of South-western Chicago. The O’leary couple migrated from Ireland. Her husband, Mr Patrick was a farmer, and she herself sold milk door to door from the cows they owned.

Allegedly, one of the cows of Mrs O’Leary knocked a lantern of the barn which initially ignited the nearby woods. The fire gradually broke out and reached the roof. The steady Northeastern wind did the remaining job, transporting the fire from roof to roof, from block to block. However, the investigation officers did not find any proof in favor of this allegation against Mrs O’Leary.

As she herself testified to the investigators, Mrs .O’Leary went to bed as per her daily routine at around 8:30 PM, when she heard the voice of her husband shouting, “the barn is afire!” Then both of them shouted for help and started their attempt to end the rapidly growing blaze that already went far out of their control. The whole neighborhood started to act to control the fire. Fire brigade soon arrived at the spot.

Another popular legend says that, the milk thieves caused the fire. There was a party going on in the neighborhood. A neighbor of the O’Leary family who lived directly across from their house, Daniel Sullivan, testified in the investigation that suggests this legend. He was attending the nearby party like many others. He went out from the party at around 9:30 PM when he saw the blaze was coming out from the barn of O’Leary family. He was the first one to notice it and to inform Patrick of the fire. He claimed that he saw a person in the barn who was hurrying for some unknown reason. It is therefore suspected that the person came to steal milk from the cows, and in doing so, he mistakenly knocked the lantern in the barn.

Some other popular legends blame the vandals and the drunken neighbors who were allegedly gambling in the barn. O’Leary’s son explained to the news reporters that neither her mother nor her cow had anything to do with the fire. Rather, it was the result of spontaneous combustion of the green hay. Plenty of green hay was kept in the barn for the cows, and it is the green hay that was to be blamed for the fire to break out. However, as mentioned earlier, none of these legends was mentioned in the investigation report that was prepared by the Board of Police and Fire Commissioners. After questioning 50 eye-witnesses of the incident, they decided to remain inconclusive about the possible origin of the fire, because nothing could be determined certainly.

Prevention Attempts:

As mentioned earlier, people collectively attempted to put out the fire by drawing waters with whatever they could find nearby. The firefighters were tired and there equipments were somehow useless because they fought a massive fire just the previous night. By the time they reached the DeKoven Street, the whole of the neighborhood was already consumed by fire. As the fire intensified, the wind became extremely heated. It caused the winds to inflame the objects from heat and by blowing the debris to the intact objects. Thus, the fire gradually got out the firefighter’s control. Finally, the rain began to fall on the evening of 9th October, which cause the gradual decline of blazing fire on October 10th.

The Damage Caused by the Fire:

After almost two-day long continuous burning until it was finally stopped by the rain on the 10th of October, the fire literally ravaged the whole city. Approximately 300 people died and 100,000 other were left homeless. An area of about 6 kilometers long and 1 kilometer wide was completely destroyed. More than one hundred roads were destroyed. About 190 sidewalks and 2,000 lampposts were left useless. Though an estimate of 300 deaths were reported by the authorities, the real number was said to be impossible to determine because many dead bodies are supposed to be incinerated.


The recovery of the ravaged city didn’t take long time. The government, wealthy corporations and influential individuals from all around the country and from abroad donated a huge amount of money for the reconstruction of the destroyed city. The city received $450,000 from the New York City, $300,000 from St Louis, 1,000 Guineas from the Common Council of London, and another 7,000 Euros from individual donation.

Some of the brilliant architects, namely, Louis Sullivan, Dankmar Adler, William Holabird, Daniel H. Burnham, John Wellborn Root, and William Le Baron Jenney were requested to contribute to the infrastructural remodeling of the ravaged city. With their epoch-making efforts and hard work, the city soon got a new appearance with some even taller downtown building. Departmental stores, offices and high-class residential buildings flooded the new city. Another new influx of population emigration took place in Chicago. The population grew substantially to become half a million in the year 1880 from only 100,000 in the year of the great fire. Chicago’s continued to attract people in the following years. By 1890, Chicago had become one of the most popular cities of the United States of America with a huge population of approximately 1 million people. It was the second largest in terms of population because only the New York city had a greater number of people.

Therefore, it can be concluded that, in spite of the sorrowful fate of those died of fire, and those lost their huge property, the great fire ignited the development of the city to a great extent. The incident must be considered to be one of the major milestones on the history of Chicago city as well as of the United States of America.

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Telomeres and Ageing Research Paper

Telomeres are lengths of repeating sequences (TTAGGG) that cap each end of a chromosome. As errors in transcription most commonly at the ends of a chromosome, these caps act as “crumple zones” to protect the coding sequences within from being affected. These caps are shown to shorten over time as the individual ages, Futcher and Greider (1990) was one of the first studies to show a link between aging and shortening of telomeres in vivo humans. This was shown in vivo samples taken from donors varying in age from fatal to 92 years old. This was compared to in vitro fibroblast cell samples which were already known to lose telomere length following replication. The results showed a loss of ~25% of telomere repeats between the youngest and oldest samples. However, it did not account for natural differences in telomere length between any two people of the same age nor how they differ between two different tissues in the same individual. This is an issue that has seen extensive review such as by Cassidy et al (2013). This study examined the natural variance in telomere length between 2284 women who were deemed healthy enough to act as a control group. The study found that length could vary between subjects of the same length. In addition to telomere length the subjects filled in a lifestyle questionnaire regarding diet, exercise, and body mass index. It was found that there was small but significant correlation between telomere length and these factors.

However, age remained the most significant correlation. One factor this study neglects is the role of gender on telomere length. This is the topic researched by Barrett and Richardson (2011) who analyzed existing research in order to address the longevity gap between men and women. The finding revealed a noticeable difference between men and women with men appearing to lose telomere length at a greater rate than women. This resulted in an increased risk of developing a degenerative illness and a shortened life expectancy. This correlates with males generally having a reduced life span compared to women in the UK and elsewhere. In addition, it has been shown that tissues age at different rates (Friedrich 2000). This tissue-specific aging relates to the rate these tissues are replaced with telomeres in rapidly replaced cells like leukocytes in blood noticeably shorter than those in the skin and the synovium. This study of nine elderly patients examined in vivo differences between tissues using PCR. However, this method has been criticized as a method for quantifying the length of telomeres. This is an area that has continued research in both industry and academic institutes to produce new methods for quantifying telomeres without lengthy or expensive sequencing and PCR. An example of this research is Gohring et al (2013) who examined the validity of a new product by Matlab that uses computer software to analyze large numbers of in vivo samples using a biochemical assay. This is not the first such software to do so and Gohring likens it to a previous product known as Telemetric.

The aging effect of telomere shortening is that it results in an increased rate of DNA damage, leading to apoptosis and rapid cell turnover. This effect was reviewed by Sahin and Depinho (2010) which summarized existing research. In particular, they examined the limited number of stem cell divisions and how these can promote common signs of aging associated with degenerative human diseases. They hypothesize that damaged telomeres create a cascade effect whereby damage to telomeres leads to increased p53 activation causing apoptosis and further mutations. The wide range of diseases associated with this mechanism was meta-analyses by Bojesen (2013). This meta-review analyzed dozens of studies in which individual diseases had distinct positive correlation with shortened telomeres. These primarily included degenerative diseases associated with old age such as heart disease, renal failure, and stroke. The study concludes that telomeres could be utilized as a biomarker to assess risk factor. The single largest study in Bojesen’s review was Rode et al (2012) which examined 46,396 members of the population to examine the relationship between telomere length and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The study found noticeable correlation between telomeric length and risk of COPD. However, this wider sample showed less correlation than the smaller more prescriptive samples of earlier studies. A reminder that telomeres are only one risk factor of many that must be taken into account when using telomeres as an indicator for degenerative conditions.

Current research is examining the effect of reversing telomerase destruction. This hypothesis was first trialed by Bodnar et al (1998) who induced telomerase action in normal human cells in vitro. A function most commonly associated with immortal cancerous cells where abnormally lengthened telomeres effectively counter the so-called Hayflick limit. Bodnar et al triggered lengthening in vitro cells by splicing in a new transcription site. While the normal cells expired as predicted around 30 cycles the artificially altered cells survived almost 50 cycles before senescence. Jasekelioff et al (2011) furthered this research by using similar methodology with in vivo adult cells. This was performed using mice selectively bred for shortened telomeres. These mice were genetically engineered at the blast stage to produce telomerase in adulthood. It was found that the mice suffered from advanced aging with notable eutrophication of testes and spleen. It was found when telomerase was reactivated these signs were seen to be reversed (see précis one)

Technology as a Threat to Privacy – Technophobia

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has evolved rapidly over the past century. This has transformed the people’s lives as well as the society in a more profound way (both positively and negatively). Technology advancement has led to numerous benefits globally. However, it has brought with it several ethical challenges. An example of these challenges is the threat to privacy. In this paper, I discuss the threat that technology poses to people’s privacy. This threat is more profound especially on surveillance, social networks such as Facebook, as well as computerized conversations recording.

Technology as a Threat to Privacy

Just as the Luddites had their fears on technology advancement, today those concerns, and more, still prevail. It is also justified to have fears of technology, where the most profound one is “threat to privacy.” According to Nissenbaum (2009), “information technology” has been figured as the significant threat to individual’s “privacy”. From the three top threats to privacy, surveillance is considered as the major one.

Surveillance, both by the government and “self-surveillance” poses a substantial threat to individual’s privacy. According to Kang et al. (2012), the threat does not only come from the government or company’s surveillance, but also from “nascent data practice,” which is referred to as “self-surveillance” (p. 812). Recording one’s information such as observations and one’s environments, which exposes the individual to the world, is one way that privacy is invaded (Kang et al. 2012). Government and business or company surveillance invade employees and visitors’ privacy at the workplace. The information that would rather be better-kept secret is exposed to the managers and top executives. This is unfair since there are no surveillance cameras to “watch” those senior officials and administrators. Additionally, in most times, “monitoring and tracking” especially “dataveillance” does not serve the particular purpose “but an inadvertent consequence of some other goal for which a given system was originally designed,” (Nissenbaum 2009, p. 24). This calls for more worries concerning modern technologies and their contribution to individual security and privacy. Similarly, distribution of information on global “social media” platforms like Facebook or Instagram is a threat to personal privacy.

Facebook, as a social platform, has been perceived as a threat to privacy. According to Goldie (2010), Facebook’s agenda to enhance “transparency” and efficient communication has contributed to “self-surveillance” which leads to complete disclosure of individual’s personal information to the public. Consequently, since information is stored in big databases, manipulation is possible and this invades privacy (Goldie 2010). In some instances, the information that one chooses to remain is exposed to the public. This means that Facebook is a potentially significant threat to privacy. Additionally, concerns about privacy have been facilitated by the current data collection, extensive data analysis, and collection technologies.

New technologies and innovations have been subject to criticism due to their invasion of privacy. According to Regan (1995), modern technologies advance some policy issues concerning privacy mainly at personal level. Such concerns are crucial and widely experienced today. For example, recording of phone call conversations threats one’s freedom to privacy, which results to fears against technology innovation. Similarly, such technologies give organizations and the government more power over individuals (Regan 1995). This is why the concern of technology is profound and highly justified.

In conclusion, privacy interest is a major issue that needs collective attention, both from the innovators and users of the modern technology. Governments should avoid using “security” as an excuse to invade people’s privacy. The technology fears experienced today are justified, and strategic measures need to be taken to protect individual’s interests about technology. Similarly, privacy protection should be the main agenda. Therefore, in as much as technological advancement is crucial, the question that should be emphasized is; are the advancements considerate of people’s fear of “personal space invasion” or not?

Technology In Human civilization

Human civilization has appeared to be moving forward with an ever-increasing vigor of technological and intellectual advancement. Technology has made our lives much easier, faster and productive than ever before, and it continues to do so by the passage of time. Sadly, in spite of all the advancements we are achieving with the help of technology, our society doesn’t seem to be happy and satisfied.

If we look for an answer to “what has technology given us”, we’ll find thousands of inventions that technology has bestowed upon human beings. Technology enriched our view by condensing the world into a small village. We complete a month-long travel of five hundred years ago in just five hours by dint of communication technology. The technology-driven factories have accelerated the average production with a comparatively safer environment. Medical technology enriched our hope of living. From the small electronic devices of our daily use to the wide range of architectural machineries to the technologies of rocket science, there is no way left in our lives in which we are not being assisted by technology. In brief, technological advancement covers all the aspects of our lives so enormously that, it revolutionarily changed the way our forefathers thought and lived.

Studies show that, by the passing of time, technology is turning out to be a possible threat to human society. Our society has become technology-driven nowadays. Sydney J. Harris perfectly stated, “The real danger is not that computer will begin to think like men, but that men will begin to think like computers” (ButterPatil 2017). A 2010 Kaiser Foundation survey shows that, the children of elementary age spend, on average, 7.5 hours a day on entertainment devices (Rowan 2013). Parents are not giving time to their children, and thus depriving them from parenting essential for a child’s physical and psychological growth. While increasing connection in virtual world, people are losing hold of the basic root of a society, i.e. sociability. Children are being exposed to moral and ethical degradation more than ever before due to the easy access to internet. Most alarmingly, over-dependence to technological devices causes long-term damage to operator’s health. The list will keep growing if continued.

A serious question has thus arisen among contemporary intellect. What should be the possible solution to this apparent dilemma of technology? If we continue our dependence to technology in this way, it will not take long to destroy our distinctive nature as an intellectual social species. On the other hand, if we fully reject the use technology, we’ll have to go back to a society of our forefathers who lived thousands of years ago.

Technology has always been used for two purposes; betterment and destruction. On one hand, technology widened our knowledge about the universe around us, from galaxies to subatomic particles; on the other hand, this same technology invented the deadly weapons of destruction. We are rapidly advancing in our knowledge about newer technologies. In order to keep ourselves safe from all possible technological threats, all we have to do is “to be wise in the use of technology”.

In brief, we’ll welcome all the newer technologies, unless they are proved to be possible threats to our peaceful existence. The use of technology must be restricted under a certain legal and ethical code that will check all the threatening uses of technology. This way, our society can ensure a peaceful co-existence with technology.

Technological Factors in Organizational Environments

Information and Communication Technology has developed drastically in the recent years. ICT has become more indispensable especially in the business world. With the advanced technology, sophisticated equipment, and wireless or internet communication, business transactions have become more efficient and effective. Organizations have experienced a substantial increase in business opportunities at the global level, where those that have embraced the advanced technologies can compete more favorably in the international market. Similarly, both external and internal environment have been influenced by IT development in the business platforms. For example, the decision-making process, by organizations’ executives, has been facilitated by the use of sophisticated decision-making software. Consequently, IT integration in organizations has reduced the worker’s workload, which means more can be done at a relatively shorter period. Additionally, global business transactions have become easier, leading to the fast growth of E-businesses. This memo elaborates on different technological issues affecting organizations’ environments (both internal and external).

Development of E-Business

Development of computer and related technologies has diminished the distance and location factor affecting the way of operating a business. A study by Postolov et al. (2014) focuses on the small business operations using e-business profoundly discussing “opportunities and threats” rising use of “the Internet and the electronic business” (p. 104). Small enterprises can benefit in penetrating the external environment through the proper application of e-technology. However, small firms need to be cautious of the technology since it “also brings certain drawbacks or threats” (Postolov et al. 2014, p. 104). A study by Zhu et al. (2004) elaborates on how “technology-organization-environment framework” (TOE) affects their e-business operations (p. 18). The findings indicated that the TOE framework and technology readiness are the primary factors that influence the value of electronic commerce (Zhu et al., 2004, p. 18). Similarly, according to Zhu et al. (2004), “value, while financial resources, global scope, and regulatory environment” have a substantial effect on e-business valuation (p. 18). Similarly, efficient use of electronic technology in business, especially by small enterprises and entrepreneurs, leads to smooth operations.

The success of small firms, especially in the global environment, is dependent on how well they apply the modern technology in their operations. Use of e-technologies ensures effective control of trade operations by enforcing sufficient supply of materials, timely distribution of products and services, and proper documentation while reducing service costs (Postolov et al. 2014, p. 105). It also helps small business create strong relationships with international and developed enterprises across the global through effective communication, which helps them grow in the world market. According to Postolov et al. (2014), through electronic business, small enterprises can “access the global markets and global supply chain of materials,” International customers and sophisticated promotion and marketing methods (p. 107). Contrary to the tremendous success from the use of e-technology, firms experience several drawbacks. Determining whether e-technology is valuable towards the organization’s performance and factors affecting the value of e-business are some of the challenges faced by the management (Zhu et al., 2004, p. 19). The management should, therefore, evaluate how useful the technology is and what are the drawbacks of using the technology.

In developing countries, large firms have more advantage over small enterprises. However, small companies are in a better position in developing e-business as compared to large companies in developed countries (Zhu et al., 2004, Pp. 43-44). Similarly, how well organizations perform is highly influenced by Information Technology (IT).

Impact of IT on Organization’s Performance

IT magnitude of importance in an organization is influenced by several factors. According to Melville, Kraemer and Gurbaxani (2004), both “internal and external factors” such as “complementary organizational resources of the firm and its trading partners, as well as the competitive and macro environment” dictate the extent of IT significance in an organization (p. 283). Similarly, Emphasis should not be put internal perspective in the performance rating. Performance is denoted by effectiveness, which is the attainment of the organization’s goals in its external environment through achieving a higher competitive advantage (Melville, Kraemer & Gurbaxani, 2004, p. 287). Additionally, for organizations in the same line of productions, competitive advantage can be gained through implementation of advanced information technologies, making one business stand out compared to its competitors (Melville, Kraemer & Gurbaxani, 2004, p. 287). Since technology is well advanced in the world business environment, the performance of an enterprise in the global market is highly dependent on how well they have integrated ICT in their operations of activities.

Although IT influences performance, in some cases application of technology may not lead to profits. Melville, Kraemer and Gurbaxani (2004) state that, “although in highly competitive markets firms may apply IT more efficiently, profitability may suffer as gains to IT application compete away,” (p. 306).This is why the management should be very careful when embracing technology to ensure it serves the organization positively. Additionally, small organizations can be the most affected by technology if they fail to implement it correctly. They have to compete with large and developed firms for the same markets; therefore, they should be cautious and take strategic steps in making their product and services unique. Consequently, adoption of technologies such as Electronic Data Interchange can be vital.

Utilizing Modern Technologies

Technologies such as Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) have been widely embraced by many businesses worldwide. EDI involve the exchange of documents electronically within departments or between different firms. Advanced technology has made EDI easier since one does not require a mainframe computer to effect it; a personal computer is enough (Kuan & Chau, 2001, p. 508). Use of such technologies has helped simplify the process of predicting business uncertainties in dynamic environments. This can be achieved through access to correct information about the organization’s environment and proper interpretation of that information. According to Galen and Grodzicki (2011), the “new technological innovations may help evaluators meet” challenges such as uncertainties by “automatically tailoring information content and form to groups and individuals” (p. 127). However, adoption of such technologies is dependent on various factors. Kuan and Chau (2001) state that decision for the adoption of EDI is not solely influenced by characteristics of the technology, but it “also depends on other factors related to the internal organization and external environment” (p. 519). Such factors determine the type of technology to be implemented and at what stage of operation. Similarly, it is important for small firms to embraces technologies such as EDI since it guarantees increased competitiveness in the long term (Kuan & Chau, 2001, p. 519). It is important to note that the modern business world is highly competitive and still growing at a significant rate; therefore, implementation of such technologies should not be overlooked.

On the other hand, there are some negative factors associated with IT integration in organizations’ operations. An example is the threat of job opportunities to employees with poor skills.

“Technostress” in Organizations

IT has immense significance to organizations, but still, poses some negative impacts in some instances. According to Wang, Shu and Tu (2008), advancements in the technological part of an organization mean constant refreshing of “technical skills” by employees (p. 3002). Similarly, employees have to bear much pressure from dealing with complex systems, which results to “technostress” that negatively influences their productivity (Wang, Shu & Tu, 2008, p. 3002). Wang, Shu and Tu (2008) carried their study in China and realized that companies, especially the IT firms are faced with significant pressure from competition among enterprises in this industry, since “the IT industry is” growing at a high rate (p. 3003). Consequently, internal environments are most affected by technostress. This is so because employees do not participate “in the decision-making processes of new technology introduction,” therefore, they only accept changes in technology and endures the complications associated with that (Wang, Shu & Tu, 2008, p. 3005).

Similarly, innovation has become the primary strategy for gaining competitive advantage, especially in the international marketplace. From the study, Wang, Shu and Tu (2008) found out that “employees perceive more technostress under more innovation environments because they feel that encouraging innovation will lead to a more competitive internal environment” (Wang, Shu & Tu, 2008, p. 3010). Therefore, it is important for the policy makers or the managers to consider their employees’ skills and help them adopt the new technologies. If an organization is aiming at achieving its goals, it should consider its competitive environment and strategize on ways to achieve a high competitive advantage through advanced IT integration. Additionally, this should be done systematically to ensure that employees are not negatively affected.

Conclusion and Recommendation

With the dynamic technological business environment, a firm cannot apply old operational methods and expect to compete in an international environment. New technologies are paramount to both internal and external organizational settings. Proper integration of such technologies is the “secret” to organizational success. For example, use of e-commerce to carry out business transactions has enabled firms to operate on a 24hr routine. This has improved profitability through simplified sales and purchases transactions. Modern business needs to update their systems to support the new technology for better survival even in the future.