Month: August 2017

Staffing Operations of A Manufacturing Plant – Case Study of Marcus

Marcus Jones is the Human Resources Manager for Banks Industries, which specializes in automobile parts. The company’s CEO, Matthew Banks, has informed Marcus that the company is ready to expand and become a global organization. They recently purchased a building in Hong Kong that will serve as their first manufacturing plant outside of the United States.The CEO wants Marcus to completely staff the operations in Hong Kong. Marcus is stressed about trying to determine the best strategy and approach for this major project.

What should Marcus do to ensure the manufacturing plant is ready to open in the next six months? Include the following information in your case study summary:

  • An overview of Marcus’ case.
  • Key Issues or Problems.
  • Alternatives that Marcus can consider.
  • A potential solution to Marcus’ dilemma.
  • Your conclusion on the case study.
  • Relevant additional supporting research.
  • Be sure to cite any outside research sources in apa format and references.

Why It Necessary To Harmonize Clinical Research Practices

An analysis of why it is necessary to harmonize clinical research practices with the contribution of bodies such as the International Conference on Harmonisation.

Clinical trials are critical to the advancement of valuable treatments. Human testing can be however a challenging task that must be preceded by laboratory studies, which normally encompasses years of non-clinical trials. If the non-clinical trials prove to be successful, the companies sponsoring the research submit the data to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and request for an Investigational New Drug (IND) process approval (Reisberg, et al., 1996).

Following approval, the research enters the clinical trials stage, which usually involves three phases, with each phase having a large number of participants. Phase I of the clinical trial is usually concerned with the drug’s safety and its potential side effects. Phase II lasts longer than Phase I since it involves double-blinded trials involving an experimental group and a control group. The last Phase, Phase III is also known as the pre-approval phase whereby the new drug is usually involves a series of studies aimed at offering richer understanding of the drug’s efficiency as well as its common side effects.

In 1996, ICH-GCP guidelines (International Guidelines for Good Clinical Practices) (ICH-GCP) were introduced and quality research framework designed and adopted in a good number of countries thus opening up broad opportunities to researchers to take part clinical trials(Britten, et al., 2008).Sharing study materials among different institutions remains to be the main reason behind harmonization of clinical researches (ICH E9 Expert Working Group, 1999). ICH guidelines have made communications among researchers and drug regulatory experts easier and faster. For many years, institutions and researchers have always shared information under a confidentiality arrangement. This has always been beneficial to all parties involved and it has helped in the innovation of better and more efficient drugs.The harmonization of the way clinical trials are conducted further increased the efficiency of these communications since all researchers fully understand the clinical trial process (Britten, et al., 2008).

Over the resent years, there has been growing pressure on researchers to reduce the drug development timelines. This can be done through the implementation of a number of strategies including ensuring that all players are responsible and there is a clear guideline on their duties (Reisberg, et al., 1996). Another strategy that could be used to reduce drug development timeline is ensuring that a high quality drug is produced the first time to avoid any significant modifications of the original product during later stages of development. ICH guidelines play a significant role in the success of these strategies.

The quality of the product being developed is an important area for potential partners in the clinical trial process (Reisberg, et al., 1996). There are two key areas that can be associated with quality, organizational quality and internal quality. Although the application ICH guidelines increase the administrative burden, it helps ensure that researchers follow the right participant recruitment processesand they also conduct the research in an ethical manner (ICH E9 Expert Working Group, 1999).

The introduction of the Common Technical Document (CTD), has enabled electronic submission of documents (eCTD) thus increasing efficiency. In the past, drug development applications were so many that they were conveyed to FDA by a truck. The recent implementation of an electronic submission option that allows new drug developers to submit applications electronically has made the review process much more efficient.The submissions are usually available to the reviewer instantly.

This advancement has eased the need for researchers and organizations within the industry to generate and compile the bulky paper based applications previously used. This has not only lessened the workload but it has also helped save time, thus reducing the drug development timeline (Reisberg, et al., 1996). The eCTD has played a critical role in improving the process of application submission proficiencies and increasing reviewer efficacy(ICH E9 Expert Working Group, 1999). Besides delivering application submissions to FDA, the eCTDapplication format makes it easier for FDA to use harmonized reviewer e-templates as well as review tools for the different review disciplines.

Lastly, harmonized format has made the development and application of harmonized good appraisal practices easier. Whatever is appraised in a review is usually closely related tothe data entreated(Britten, et al., 2008). Consequently, there issubstantialconnection between ICH guidelines and what may be considered as goodevaluation practices. Since ICH guidelines have harmonized most of the materialprovided for marketing approval, ICH regulators can therefore harmonize their practices easily too (Reisberg, et al., 1996). Effective review practices encourage transparency and dependability, whichare keyqualities in promoting industry regulatory structure.

Although the application of ICH guidelines has its disadvantages, it has many more advantages making it an important part of effective clinical trials regulation. To reliably increase the participation of various institutions in clinical studies, there must follow a set of clear rules and guidelines. All institutions involved with clinical trials must adapt to these guidelines so as to increase and maintain their desirability as a suitable base for sponsored clinical researches.

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Leadership Critique – Transformational And Transactional Leadership

Introduction

The type of leadership in an organization determines how far that organization can go regarding its set goals and objectives. The management is most important part of an organization that provides leadership to the subordinates through the various communication channels. The management may pass various instructions to the supervisor, managers or directors who then pass the information to their departments up to the workers at the lowest level. How the instructions are carried out through the various levels of the organization. Therefore, from the above communication and interactions in the organization one can notice the aspect of leadership and authority in the organization. The various people handling the employees at different levels have to lead their departments and usually use various leadership models that are set by the management. The leadership directs the whole organization, and if those in the management have no vision, then the company is bound to fail. If the management has a vision, they will help the company move in that direction to achieve the desired results. As such, it is important to look at the various leadership models that are in place and choose the best that will help in achieving the specific purpose set by the organization or business (Van Eeden et al., 2008). The way a leadership in the organization leads the employees determines the effectiveness and motivation of the workforce and the efficiency in operations. Leadership is, therefore, an aspect of management that should be closely monitored to ensure that those in authority carry out their tasks efficiently. The various leadership models that the paper will deal with are Transformational And Transactional Leadership.

Transformational leadership

Transformation leadership is leadership that leads to changes in the social systems and the workforce of businesses. Transformational leadership as the name suggests aims to bring major changes to the workplace to ensure that the various work processes are carried out smoothly. The name further implies that the leadership engages in transforming the organization for concerning making improvement in the organization. The main aim of transformational leadership is to change the various structures in place to foster more improvement and bring about changes in the people that are positive and benefit them at the workplace whereby they enable them to increase productivity and thus benefit the company as a result (Gumusluoglu & Ilsev, 2009). It focuses on the workforce and on how it can make the various individuals in an organizational not only followers but also leaders. It, therefore, acts as a transformative process for the both the organization and the leadership in bringing changes that have vast and far-reaching effects on the company’s performance. The effective use of transformation leadership brings about heightened morale, motivation and the eventually improved performance of the followers by the use of various mechanisms. The various mechanism includes linking the follower’s sense of identity to the collective identity and mission of the business. Also the leadership acts as a role model to the followers in inspiring them in the process, and further challenging and encouraging followers to play a greater role in their workplace by creating a sense of ownership in them for the work they do. The leaders further identify their strong and weak areas of the followers and further help them by improving their various their skills through various training and development sessions (Zagoršek, 2009).

Transactional leadership

It is further important to look at another leadership model used by most business in boosting productivity and which differs greatly from transformational while sharing only a few similarities. The model focusses mostly on what it can get out of the employees without focusing on the wellbeing of the employees. The name transaction comes into play where the leadership transacts with the employees for their services (Gong, 2009). The leadership model in question is the transactional leadership model.  Transactional leadership is another model that is used in organizations help improve performance and boost productivity. Transactional leadership is result oriented and usually aligns with an organization structure in addition to the measure of success about the system of punishments and rewards. Transactional leaders utilize their formal authority in the business especially their positions where they are responsible for the organization. The leader usually maintains various constant practices in the organizations by ensuring that the various individuals perform to the level set or expected of them and thereby managing the performance of the individual and facilitating the performance of different teams in the organization (Pieterse, 2010). The leaders in the organization put in place various principles that their subordinates should follow in addition to the requirement spelled out in their work. The leaders review the performance of their workers to judge their performance. Transactional leadership is good for workers who are proficient at doing their jobs and who only get motivation by the reward and punishment method set by the organization. Transactional according to max weber was the use of control in based on knowledge. The leadership style usually encompasses a give and take relationship whereby one group determine what the other will receive by judging their performance. The leadership, therefore, entails an exchange process where workers are given something so that they can provide for want the leaders want. Transactional tends to imply that workers are not usually naturally motivated and need constant monitoring, instructions and structure to ensure that they complete their work accurately and punctually. James Burns had a different view of how the transactional leadership should be conducted and noted that the leaders should manage workers fairly, honestly and honor the various commitments they make.

Burns further notes Avery important aspect in transformational leadership whereby in his model where leaders and workers focus on achieving higher states of motivation and morale. As such, the leaders do not impose on the workers but work in promoting an environment that will motivate and increase the morale of the workers, which is not the case in transactional leadership. An employee who is motivated and has his or her morale boosted operates at a high optimum level in the workplace that one who is not motivated. Leadership in not all about pushing people through working them like donkeys to achieve more but by making the employees self-driven and thus more adept at carrying out the various tasks (Ruggieri, 2009).  The highly motivated environment in transformation leadership brings about a great change in the organization since all the workers are leaders in their workstations and have the best internets of the organization at heart. Such workers are highly motivated and as such they aim at all costs and as much as they can to ensure that, the company follows a path of success if the leadership implements the style effectively. Transactional leadership, on the other hand, focuses on the usages of bureaucratic systems imposed on the workers by the various leaders who ensure that the works be up to standard or face consequences by the systems put in place by the organization. Such a leadership process presents a harsh environment that regards workers as machines who do not have no rights and have to conform to rules without asking or protesting. Such a leadership style focusses only on the output of the employee without considering the worker himself. As such most of the workers under such a leadership style are mostly demotivated and do not have the purpose and even the sense of belonging to the organization. The works usually perfume their duties for the sake of earning a living and may to other organization if given an opportunity especially when there are lucrative offers. The workers receive no motivation to develop themselves and, therefore, they remain at one level that is detrimental to their work functioning. The leadership, therefore, focusses on attaining excellent at all costs. Transformation leadership focusses on both aspects of the workers wellbeing considering the best interests of the business by improving eh ability of the work to function and thus become better at his workplace, and contributing to the development and motivation of the worker. Such a leadership style aims for to produce an excellent workforce in an organization that is self-motivated and that is well strategically placed to bring all efforts on board for the benefit of the leadership and the organization at large. The transactional leadership in focusing on the work apart from the worker leaves the employee at the mercy of deprivation in the development of his thought processes. Furthermore, such a worker may not effectively carry out tasks that require intelligent efforts. Such a leadership style is, therefore, detrimental to the wellbeing of the worker. The workers in such an environment cannot pursue higher professional careers as they are limited to their level of skills from the onset of their careers under such transactional leadership models (Wang et al., 2011). Such workers will tend to look unto the management in engaging them in rewards or penalties. The workers, therefore, develop various attitudes in accordance to how they are treated at work. One may group may have the best performers while another maintains the status quo. As a result, people who are under Transactional leaders tend to have a formed mind that has been developed over a long period to operate like robots.

Transformational leadership has many merits that include the working of employees. The employees usually aim for the sky and even beyond in their performance. They aim to outperform themselves. The company in developing them and helping them tap their potential increase its profitability margins and ensures that the organization performs optimally (Haider & Riaz, 2010). Research has confirmed the outstanding results in organizations with transformation leadership as being true. Such leadership can be evident in the military where platoon leaders motivate their cadets by using transformation leadership. The results from various platoon under the transformational leaders surpass those that were in the control groups.  On another hand, transactional leadership usually benefits the organization in achieving specific goals of the organization. If the model proposed by James Barnes is used it will increase the performance in such organization as the workers will be treated more respectable than with the current state of transformational leadership. Transactional leadership is mostly beneficial to multinationals who have many operations in foreign companies. The workers have diverse cultures and backgrounds and may find it difficult to work without supervision if there are no defined procedures put in place. The simple nature of transactional leadership, therefore, works easily in this process that the complex transformational leadership. The employees thus follow it easily throughout the organization. Other organization that benefit from transactional leadership are the policing, military and security agencies and organizations. The style ensures that there is consistency throughout the whole organization; as such, everyone has to know what to do in a certain situation especially when one is under pressure. Therefore, various places require the use of transaction leadership due to their nature of business like the multinationals.

In the various organizations that I have worked, I found much organization use the transactional model of leadership. The jobs as such have a certain way of doing operations according to the requirement demanded by the management. Some of the industries have a lot of controlling and a worker gets pay according to the work he or she has done. There are fewer companies that exhibit transformational leadership especially those that I have had a chance to work in. Leadership in an organization from my experience in the various organizations is to further the interests of the company first and then the employees later. Most of the employees, as a result, do not feel like part of the organization and may only be present physically and not holistically. A leadership structure according to my point of view should have the interests of the workers at hand. Leadership is only successful when those whom one leads become more successful than the leader. Leadership would thus have achieved its goal. People are led to bring the best out of them. As such, various leadership styles have tried to remove some aspects of leadership and emphasized on other to suit their interests. Transformation leadership as seen above aims to bring out the full potential of the worker (Asgari, 2008). The workers are provided a fertile environment to excel exceedingly without limiting their potential. Though most companies use transactional leadership, it has proven to be effective in the end on the part of the business but not the employees. The organization can, therefore, stress various performance strategies at the expense of the worker. Every person has a leadership potential that can be discovered through training or motivation among other factors. Once the leadership potential of someone is tapped, such a person can achieve milestones. Suppressing the leadership role in passing results in disastrous. Companies who hope to be effective in the business environment should, therefore, focus on leadership potential of the workers and the development of his personality as a whole (Nielsen et al., 2008). Companies should thus change their mentality especially in choosing their leadership models to not only focus on achieving profitability at all costs but also focusing on the development of the workers who will eventually develop the company in the end.

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Comparison Of Qualitative And Quantitative Research Approaches

A research refers to  an investigation  undertaken  with an aim of generating knowledge, the tasks of research is to generate the exact  information  that will guide in the decision making  process, the systematic  investigation  involves the gathering of information using the  appropriate instruments of data collection, for example use questionnaire or the  sampling process, quality output of the research requires the accurate analysis and the recording of the  data  that will aid researchers’ decisions .

Qualitative research

According to Merriam,(2009).Qualitative research is a type that concentrates its study by trying to understand  the perspective of the study from the  population, normally, the type of research  obtains their accurate information on opinions, values and the behaviors  in their natural social context, most of the  researchers utilizes the mode of the research because of its flexibility, they allow the   adaptation  and mostly it’s an open ended form of  questionnaire  that enables wider maximizing of data collection. It gives a respondent  freedom to respond  depending on their understanding of the subject under he study

Also the existing relationship between the  participants and the  researcher is a casual thus gives an opportunity of giving the response more elaborately and in the detailed form, the  vigorous flexibility  clearly reflects the  much and deeper understanding of  the problem that is being investigated. Moreover, the other  advantage of qualitative research  is that it clearly highlights the  purpose of the research, on other words they try to understand   how people make the  sense in the views of the world, mostly sociologist use the qualitative research since its interpretation  gives a clear  view of the world  practices which  later  transforms to  human behaviors.

Quantitative   research

It is type of research that  bases it study on the numerical  data in   determining  the generalization of   findings, quantitative research  explain the phenomenon in a  statistical manner.(Parkinson &  Drislane,2011). It essentially  collect  data in numerical way  and the question also   suits the  respondent relatively  quantitative research  naturally studies a certain subject matter in nits natural state, most of its data  is in the form  numbers and so the  end findings can be used in giving  assumptions based on  concepts, at the end it helps give  further prediction of the results ,

The advantage of the quantitative research is that the data   is collected constructively ,it  aids in the hypothesis  construction  since  the research findings  has been replicated in  sub-population  hence the  type of research is useful in obtaining more credible results (Leech,1954).

Similarities of the quantitative and qualitative   research

The existing similarities is that both research tries to  give logic triangulations  in their findings, the change  the findings  by using the variables ,they also help to provide  background information  on the context  of the subject that  is being studied. in addition, they effectively facilitate  the interpretation   between the variables by clearly explaining  the  factors underlying their relationships.

Difference between qualitative and quantitative research

Difference refers to  the state of having disparities  or  being unlike  between two objects, however, despite the two  research being utilized   by sociologist, it has some  character disparities, in qualitative research,  its content is based on  humanistic interpretation whereas the   quantitative  research it  is scientific and objective, moreover  in the analysis. qualitative research   experiences  had  description  has human existence in values of data contribution  and while drawing conclusion it does not need the use of numbers, on the other hand the quantitative research  in its analysis, it uses the numbers  and even percentages  in drawing conclusion,  it accounts the  data  in numerical  form. In conclusion the researcher might opt to use any of the two types of research, it depends on the nature and objectives of the study taken .

Program Evaluation Paper

Program evaluation is basically a systematic method for the collection, analyzing and also using information so as to answer question about the policies, projects and also programs. This is particularly about their efficiency and effectiveness. In both the private and public areas, the stakeholders are often interested to know whether the programs and projects that they are funding, voting for, objecting or receiving are producing the effects that are intended(Wholey, Hatry, Newcomer, 2010). Program evaluation focuses on some major considerations which include how much the program costs per the participants, how the same program can be improved, the better alternatives, the benefits of the program, if there are any unintended outcomes, whether the programs goals set are useful and appropriate.

Evaluators can best answer these questions. The best way however to answer this question is for the evaluation to be a joint program between the stakeholders and the evaluators. This process of evaluation is a recent phenomenon. Planned social evaluation has been documented to have dated back as 2200 BC. Program evaluation can be conducted at several stages on a project’s lifetime (Wholey et al 2010). Each of these stages comes up with different questions which are directed to the evaluator. Different evaluation approaches are needed at different stages.

There are some suggested kinds of approaches that are used in the assessment in different stages:

  • Need assessment of the program
  • Assessment of the logic/theory and program design
  • Assessment of the implementation of the program
  • Assessment of the impact or outcome of the project i.e. achievement
  • Assessment of the efficiency and cost of the program(Wholey et al 2010).

There are several types of project evaluation. These include Process evaluations, outcomes evaluations, Cost- Benefit Evaluations, Impact Evaluations.

In this case, we are going to discuss about impact evaluation. These are designed to basically measure the impact of a program by making comparisons of the counterfactual data with the actual program. The necessity of this type of evaluation is to help the evaluator assess the impact that the program might have. It assesses the potential outcome of the project. Impact evaluation should be planned from the beginning of a project and should not be undertaken until the project is mature enough so that the true impacts of the program can be implemented (Fitzpatrick, Sanders, & Worthen, 2004).

This type of program evaluation can be improved by assigning subjects such as cities, counties and individuals to isolate the program impacts to control and treatment groups. These groups must be efficiently isolated to as to avoid the spillover effect. This can end up being challenging since most programs cannot offer the services selectively. Alternatively, the control and treatment groups can be constructed in similar ways that are considered as being important (Fitzpatrick et al 2004).

Impact evaluation can be of great value to future projects as they help one to assess the changes in the households, in the well-being of individuals, firms or communities which can be attributed to a particular policy, program or project. It helps answer the question of what would have happened to the people if at all they would have not received the program of the project. This type of program evaluation is very beneficial as it helps to avoid adverse impacts by the time the project is at an advanced stage or by the time it is over.

Author’s Perception of Death and The Treatment of Death in “Everyman”

Introduction

The “everyman” is a morality play and its complete title is “The Summoning of Everyman”. The play is the most well-known and the best recognized among the other historical morality plays. The play is a depiction of what Christians gets suppose to do or how they get suppose to spend their lives to prevent conviction of their souls by death (Yaw Adu-Gyamfi P.265). For the plot and the morals understanding, every character of the play is very vital. However, Death has the most important responsibility. Certainly, the main character is the Everyman, but no would be there if Death was not there in the play (Rindfleish, p23). Additionally, Everyman would not be illuminative or informative to any person. Death gets represented in the play by the author as God messenger, liberator of people, and unkind arbitrator. The author clarifies that people must suffer for the fault made by the Adam, and the bad acts elevates the sin of Everyman. Although, Death has precise aspire, he carries out various other purposes and objectives. As a result the author perceives deaths in various perspectives.

The Author’s View of Death and the Treatment of Death

. Death is symbolized as a unrelenting antagonist of Everyman, who unsuccessfully endeavors to confer. Not only is the Death a character of the play, but also the objective of Everyman as story is a clarification of what man should do and what he should not do prior to his death. However, Everyman has decided to do more wrong acts and few good acts (“Everyman”, 28). As death clarifies to Everyman various appealing things particularly about only on opportunity for every person, Death becomes best tutor of life, and conveys judgment. As a result, Death changes the Everyman’s approach to his life and acts.

The author of the play identifies death as a servant and a messenger to God. The author directs reader for additional thoughts about actual fundamental nature of Death in the play by leaving many spaces in his description. However, this makes the character of death irrefutable. Death is the one that every person in the world must and can expect. The anonymous author under the image of Death signifies an account of bodily and allegory of ethical death. This picture of mind is an immense convincing proof of the truth, which is imperceptible in the normal life.  It puts individual in dread. Furthermore, it causes an immense concern to individual. Ironically, Everyman is afraid of Death and at the same time Death serves God. The chain of these associations in the play has an objective of changing the mind of the readers, in addition to persuading him predictability of death in real life and power of God.

The author perceives Death as very strong particularly to the common individuals; although he is God’s servant and achieves his assignment bring back people to God. Death is an element of human being condition. In such way, from beginning to end of the play the allegorical portrayals and depiction of the relations of Death with God and Everyman with Death, the writer indicates the discernment of the person prospect in the medieval people’s eye. The reader gets brought closer to apprehending of Christian faith. Nevertheless, the discernment of Death as God’s servants discloses the unordinary point of view on this relationship. In the beginning of the play the dialogue amid God and Death opens the actuality of the service of death. The dialogue illustrate Death is unhappy due to his deeds, his not generous, and as full ill motive and immense malice on persons as he requires Everyman to get punished his preceding acts. However this is illustrated on the play as he says “thy reckoning to give before his (God’s) presence” (“Everyman” 31), an indication of an approach of a prisoner.

The author also reflects Death as the manifestation of estrangement and loneliness. He shows the catastrophic characteristics of life terminating in personal accountability. In front of judgment of God every person is accountable of his own deeds. Therefore, no can assist, support, or save. The inescapability of Death opens the eyes of Everyman. It is then he recognizes that worldly things cannot save him before the God. However, although this reassessment could be the commencement of fresh life dedicated to the right and good, it could be impossible to have a complete change due to all previously wrongly spent years. Consequently, the advancement of Everyman to self-development and apprehending is an answer to preliminary summons of Death.

Death in the play remains terrifying and evil. Therefore, the author illustrates Death all through the play as an unwanted guest. However, as Everyman tries to keep away from Death during events, Death supremacy gets symbolized in the play. The phrase : “Everyman: O Death, thou comest when I had thee least in mind; In thy power it lieth me to save, Yet of my good will I give thee, if ye will be kind” (“Everyman” 29) illustrates Everyman fear.

Death gets perceived by the author as being unkind, swift, pitiless, and fearless. No one can keep away from the Death and he lives with people all over their times. Death kills time for Everyman, as he gets acquainted with that nearer or afterward Everyman will meet his time. As a result, Everyman is toothless against death. However, regardless of the all unenthusiastic in the Character of Death, he has a sky-scraping aspire: to confirm Everyman the supremacy and kindness of God. Death makes known the glory of God. Therefore, he is explanation to everything: to the know-how of God, to which he shows the way to Everyman (Slocum, p173).

The author also perceives Death as the depiction of ethical death. Everyman has decided to live a life that will guide his life to a downfall. Death has come to Everyman before his actual physical death to represent his real moral death. Therefore, the main aspire of death is to arouse Everyman and to show him the right decision. In spite of Death’s disagreeable features of the character, he still continues to be more of a mediator of correction than penalty. The deeds of Everyman in the play are an illustration of treatment of death by the author. The meeting of Everyman and Death bring sufferings and confuses to him, therefore he is afraid of Death. However, all this is because he had spent his life in sin, and now he recognizes his destiny at the end. This thought develops with the narcissism of his effort to put off death.

Conclusion

Death is an adversary of the central character Everyman. He exemplifies the only doubtless reality in life: every person is going to die. Therefore, the only question of time is meeting with death. No one can keep away from it. The adversary of the play portrays, at the outset, the physical death. The word Death creates a center of attention people since it sounds influential. The powerful, unpleasant word “death” replicates a certainty. The author comprehends the insinuations of death and utilizes it to draw the attention of the reader. Death in the play is the allegorical illustration by the author of the physical death. The reader recognizes that God have power over Death, that bring certainty, and which will in the long run visit every person. The play is a lesson to everyone that all the deeds that a person does in life are determination of his or her destiny. Death is omnipresent to remind people that whatever they do will count in the time of judgment. The play also shows that God has control of everything.

PepsiCo Compensation Plan Outline Sample Paper

A compensation plan is coordination and structure of details that illustrates employee’s pay schemes and incentives that accurately define the pay system of every company (Salary.com, 2014). Additionally, a compensation plan is created and implemented to assist, ease, and recompense the performance of employees. The compensation plan can either be in monetary or non-monetary benefits. Further, the incentives and benefits can be in the form of overtime compensation, bonus, travel allowances, stock options, insurance benefits, medical and health benefits. In this regard, I will discuss the evaluation of the existing compensation plan of PepsiCo. I will also shed light on current pay structure and proposals for improving the discretionary benefits.

Evaluation of the Existing Compensation plan of PepsiCo Inc

PepsiCo Inc. is a worldwide food, beverage, and snack food established in the United States, its headquarters are in New York. PepsiCo Inc has interests in manufacturing, marketing, and also distributing snacks, food, and beverages, made from grains, and many other products (PepsiCo careers, n.d). The operation of PepsiCo Inc is to provide its universal and comprehensive consumers with corresponding, suitable, inexpensive, and scrumptious food and beverages varying from complete breakfast lunch, and superb and terrific delicacies in the evening. The PepsiCo recognizes and acknowledges the purpose and intention of implementing employee support system through the creation of the compensation plan. The compensation plan of PepsiCo Inc centers on offering monetary and also non-monetary benefits. These incentives include wellness programs, retirement, and healthcare benefits. The purpose of the compensation plan is to reward and recompense the employees of the company for their outstanding and excellent performance.

Further, the company has also created a compensation committee, which is responsible and deals with the structuring of an ample and satisfactory compensation plan and strategy that primarily endeavors at employing, maintaining, and inspiring a larger team of skill and talent from sundry nationwide and intercontinental markets. The compensation committee devices and creates short-term and long-term incentives for recompensing the employee performances and also follows its effectiveness on the efficiency of the employees. Additionally, the committee designs compensation plans that are competitive regarding the industry principles and also in accord with the objectives and goals of the company. Also, the compensation plan established and implemented by the committee provides for the tiny and little requirements (Bailey, 2012). It also operates as a resolution for any problem and challenge experienced by the employees. The compensation plan of PepsiCo Inc values, honors, and esteems every individual employee effort and involvement in the accomplishment and success of the company. Therefore, the compensation plan enhances the employee confidence and poise. Finally, the compensation plan inspires a sense of reliance on employees and also motivates the employees to perform well as their performance is recompensed and rewarded.

The most beneficial ratio of internally consistent and market consistent compensations systems for PepsiCo Inc

An excellent and high- quality compensation plan consists of a balance amid internal equity and external competitiveness. Compensation and benefits influence the productivity and contentment of employees, as well as the capacity of every company to achieve its goals and objectives. It is a benefit and an advantage for every company to ensure that its employees creatively compensated, and they are aware of their benefits. A company’s compensation plan has outstanding outcome and achievement on its competitive advantage. Further, for a company to develop and expand a competitive advantage in the international market, it has to ensure that compensation plan supports totally the strategic plans and also the proceedings and dealings of the company (Bailey, 2012).The employment costs greatly affect the competitive advantage of a company as they signify a great portion of a company’s operating budget. Therefore, efficiently controlling these costs, a firm can achieve cost leadership. The impact of employment costs on competitive advantage is predominantly strong in service. There are other labor-intensive in some companies, where the employees expand between 40 and 80 cents of the revenue on the labor costs. PepsiCo Inc has a balanced ratio of internal equity and external competitiveness, which has highly influenced the growth of the company in the international market.

Evaluate the current pay structure used by your company and assess the recognition of employee contributions

Pay structures are used to regulate a company’s compensation plan since; they replicate the Confederacy of jobs found on relative worth. Additionally, distinctive pay structures have some rating and rank such as job clusters and career bands, which every cluster has a least or utmost salary connected. PepsiCo Inc uses various pay structures to pay its employees these include, Job Family Structures, Graded structures, and Broadband salary structures. The company uses internal equity and market pricing to create salary ranks and clusters for its employees.  These pay structures assist the company to implement a designed framework, which is reliable, reasonable and impartial, finally, the salary structures determine clusters of pay jobs and people.

PepsiCo Inc as multinational company equates its success to its employees, so it highly recognizes the efforts and contribution of its employees (Salary.com, 2014). The company recompenses and rewards employees that surpass performance principles. The rewards and the incentives show the employees that they are recognized and valued by the company. Further, the company has created a recognition system, which is straightforward, reasonable and fair to all employees. These have always inspired and motivated the employees to work hard and improve their performance.

Make two (2) recommendations for improving the effectiveness of the discretionary benefits provided by the company you selected.

According to the researched I carried out of PepsiCo Inc, revealed that although the company has created a steady compensation plan and a recognition system, there are some employees that are discontent with the benefits (PepsiCo careers, n.d).Therefore, the company should create and execute a contentment assessment to review and evaluate the employee’s perception, and feelings concerning the current compensation plan and the benefits accrued. The analysis should include the interest of all the employees and the findings from the assessment reviewed. Secondly, the company should carry out an assessment to analyze the compensation plan, and identify the ones that need to be reviewed. Finally, Pepsi as an international company should also implore opinion and responses from the headquarters all over the world and assess how their employees are treated.

Evaluate the types of employer-sponsored retirement plans and health insurance programs provided by the company you selected and compared them to that company’s major competitors.

PepsiCo Inc offers a profuse retirement package that includes of legal assistance plan, and education compensation. These comprise of the total compensation plan for all the employees. It also has a saving retirement plan for its employees; the retirement plan offers income to its employees even after they retire. Also, the company awards its employees with insurance plans that cover them together with their families. The main competitor of PepsiCo Inc is Coca- Cola, which offers viable benefits and compensation to its employees. The Coco Cola company has created and established a compensation plan that permits its employs access to savings and pension benefits (Strauss, 2014). Coco- Cola displays high loyalty and dedication to minorities and diversity and has created flexible compensation plan to suit the needs of its varied employees.

Should A Start-Up Organization Invest In An Information System Immediately

An Information system is systems that include and consist of people and computers to interpret and process information. It is also software used to sort out, arrange, classify and scrutinize data. It is essential for every business to invest in information technology to be able to acquire competition advantage (Freelock, n.d). Consequently, application of information system is a cost of doing business and also an opportunity to invest in more business dealings and transactions. However, it may not be obligatory, and essential to apply and invest immediately in an information system in a start-up organization. The

The Information system includes and consists of two sub-systems these are; Technology sub-system and Social sub-system. Further, the information system includes and comprise of four components namely; Information technology that consist of; telecommunication appliances, hardware, and software. Additionally, other components of the information system are; people, process sub-system, and structure, the four components must work together to ensure the information system to perform and achieve its needed objectives (Mc Cubbrey, n.d). For instance, if a start-up organization decides to apply information system to carry out its operation, the people involved need to be trained to carry out the processes.

Therefore, start-up organizations should invest in information system when they can offer the organization with tangible benefits as they require money and time. It is very vital and imperative for every start-up organization to have skills and trained personnel before they invest and apply information systems in their operations (Mc Cubbrey, n.d). Further, an information system application assists organizations in innovation, efficiency, and effectiveness; therefore, it is a mistake for a start-up organization to wait for long before implementing information system application. Since a sturdy plan for technology should be a part of every organization goals and objectives.

Tactical And Strategic Intelligence Collection Plans

Strategic intelligence

Intelligence Plan

Details

Getting access to technology Once a targeted candidate has been identified, the first step is to use technology in order to be able to track them down from any destination. Every detail about the candidate is collected using platforms such as telephone, directories or other recruited agencies.
Getting people who have access to other knowledgeable people In gathering strategic intelligence information, the person who is selected for the work must be one who has a connection to the local culture. Understanding of the people’s culture is important because such a person may not be seen as an alien in such a community. On the contrary, using a person who has no understanding of the culture may make the whole process to be so difficult.
Use of allied intelligence agencies In collecting intelligence information, it is important that other allied intelligence agencies should be incorporated to make the work much easier. The contacts of the targeted candidate(s) can as well be obtained from the allied agencies who are well acquainted with the candidates that are targeted. Additionally, one agency can relay critical information to other agencies who are capable of handling a given case in a much better way. For instance, a CIA officer can get intelligence information about a terrorists meeting planned to take place at a certain destination. Such a meeting can then be distorted through laying an ambush on such evil planners.
Application of intelligence information to get a target Even if an agency has very little or no information about a given target, there is still a chance for information to be gathered about that population. The use of intelligence information can always work for the purposes of getting the necessary information about the desired target. There is a chance that the agencies can gather fine details of their target through the use of social platforms or alternatively they can decide to tap phone lines and even intercept other communication that may give those links to their target.

 

Intelligence Collection Methods

Method of collection

Details

SIGINT (Signal intelligence) This type of intelligence is collected from the interception of signals that are used by the targeted candidate(s). The signals can come from the communication signals or even from the electric emissions. The SIGINT facilities are used to monitor the transmissions that emerge from the communication satellites. This type of intelligence collection is particularly useful because it enables information to be collected beyond the borders of a country. The use of the satellite enables the information to be gathered through the use of fiber optics and air waves.
HUMINT This type of intelligence is normally collected from the use of human sources. In most cases, it is the diplomats and the military attaches that use this type of collection process to gather information. HUMINT activities include the exploitation of the unclassified publications as well as conducting congressional hearings. Additionally, it involves the use of debriefing of travellers especially those who reside in the refugee camps. It is easy to gather information from the refugees especially from those who travelled to countries that are of importance to that country’s intelligence. HUMINT collection process can help in gathering information that even those who are considered to be the most proficient collectors cannot get. The technical collection systems used in HUMINT are used to determine the capabilities of the intelligence information gathered. The human collectors are normally given the duty of giving key insights of what the intentions are meant to achieve.
ELINT This type of intelligence is gathered from the interception of the non-communication signals that are sent over the electromagnetic waves.
TELINT This is a type of intelligence that is gathered through the interception of the foreign signals. For instance, a foreign country can send signals when conducting a test on the aerospace. Such signals can then be trapped by a foreign country and in turn used for gathering intelligence details. This method also allows for the collection of information using the video data links that are used by the targeted population(s).
MASINT This is intelligence that is gathered from the use of scientific methods such as qualitative and the quantitative analysis of data. Such data are in most cases retrieved from the technical sensors. The data is then used to identify the existence of distinctive features that are related to the source emitter or the sender of that information. The details gathered are then used to identify the equipment that has been used to emit the data that is under analysis. Additionally, the data can be measured in order to come up with the fine details of the metric parameters. Once the analysis is done, then the equipment and the phenomenon that was used in creating the information can then be identified.

 

Socialization Sample Research Paper- Social Behaviors

Factors that contribute to attitude

            A feeling, opinion or belief of either disapproval or approval towards something, constitute an attitude. Attitudes are acquired over a lengthy period of time through the process of learning. More often than not, behavior is a reflection of formed attitudes and beliefs. The formation of attitudes can occur in the following ways:Classical conditioning, operant condition, modeling and repeated exposure(Hewstone, Fincham, & Foster, 2005). Classical conditioning involves the process of learning where an individual repeatedly draws an association between two different stimuli. Operant conditioning refers to learning that takes place after the repetition of behavior that bears desirable outcome or consequence. Modeling or observational learning takes place when an individual observes anotherand picks things that guide their future behavior, feelings, or thoughts. Lastly, repeated exposure in the form of constant contact or experience with something reinforces attitude.

The role of prejudice, aggression, and attraction in social interaction

Prejudice, aggression, and attraction facilitate the process of social categorization and eventually helps to decode social interaction as in the structures in society that facilitate how people communicate and with others.

Prejudice is an acquired negative attitude held by a person about members of a particular social group. Attraction refers to the desire to have a relationship with others or a liking of other people.Aggression refers to physical or verbal behavior that is intended to destroy or hurt another person.People are often attracted to other people who are similar in certain ways to them but they can also be attracted to others who are unlike them especially if the differences between them offer complementary support for what they may be lacking(Millar & Tesser, 1990). Together with people that an individual identifies with, he or she forms an in-group, which is in opposition toout-groups; that are formed by those whom the in-group holds or directs prejudice and aggression.

The influence that groups play on a person’s behavior

The behavior of an individual and the attitudes that inform an individual’s behavior can be affected both negatively and positively by the presence of others. Groupthink, group-shift and de-individuation are the key concepts that explain group influence on an individual. While aspiring for conformity or group harmony, the groupthink concept suggests that, an individual’s motivation for decision-making may sway in favor of the group’s values and belief, even if they are erroneous. Since people in a group assess risk differently, group shift concept describes a scenario where one is likely to hold exaggerated and extreme positions, making riskier decisions than one would make as an individual. The process of de-individuation occurs when one loses themselves in terms of self-control and self-consciousness to the beliefs, structures, and values of a group.

Difference between conformity and obedience

Conformity differs from obedience in that when conforming, an individual seeks to match his attitudes to the norms of a group whereas when obeying, an individual is yielding to explicit orders or instructions from a figure of authority. In obedience, there is the element of outright command that is not there in conformity.

The role of social psychology in the workplace environment

Since people’s behaviors and beliefs are influenced by their interactions and perceptions of themselves relative to the world they live in, social psychology allows to understand ourselves and others betterand especially allows us to co-exist and work together more harmoniously. This would reduce conflict, increase trust, collaboration, and consequently productivity at the workplace.

Financing International Trade – Answered

Financing International Trade Assignment Instructions

“Financing International Trade” Please respond to the following:

  • Compare two (2) methods that a company can use in order to finance international trade.
  • Examine the advantages and disadvantages of financing with a portfolio of currencies.
  • Provide two (2) examples of how companies or MNCs finance international transactions by using their own “bank” or by keeping currencies on hand (marketable securities).
  • Analyze Interest Rate Parity (IRP) and two (2) methods for forecasting exchange rates.
  • Determine the primary manner in which they all affect a company’s short-term financing decision.

Support your response with one (1) example of the manner in which IRP and forecasting exchange rates methods affect a company’s short-term financing decision

SAMPLE ANSWER

Methods of financing international trade

Open account terms

This is a financing method in the international trade which may be accorded in a situation of regular or trustworthy customers. First the goods are dispatched and then paid for at a later date, or on a quarterly or monthly basis (Baker, 2003). While the high purchase method is carried on the basis that the customer makes a deposit or a down payment and then make regular payments for the hire for a specific term. The customer is immediately given the possession of the goods, though, the ownership of the item remains with the seller until the payment of the last installment.

Advantages and disadvantages of financing with a portfolio of currencies

Advantages

Many currency financing strategies aim at profiting from the trends that are completely unrelated to other asset classes, therefore they also generate a return series which are uncorrelated to the returns from other asset class (Collins, & Fabozzi, 2009).

A number of profit making investment strategies aim at taking the advantage of perceived valuation of differentials across the currency pairs.

Disadvantages

Even though diversification reduces the amount of risk involved in the investment of a portfolio of currencies, it is disadvantageous due to dilution.

The currency exchange risk is another big disadvantage in the use of a portfolio of currency. Changes in the exchange rates between one currency to another can result into a reduction of your return on the foreign investment in converting the proceeds.

Interest Rate Parity (IRP)

Interest Rate Parity (IRP) is used in the analysis of the relationship between the spot rate and a corresponding forward (future) rate of currencies (Madura, 2009). The IRP theory states the interest rate differentials between two different currencies as reflected in the discount or premium for the forward exchange rate for the foreign currency where there is no arbitrage.

Methods for forecasting exchange rates

Purchasing Power parity (PPP)

The Purchasing Power parityforecasting method works on the basis of the theoretical law of One Price, which stipulates that identical goods in different countries should have identical prices (Moosa, 2010). Based on this principle, the Purchasing Power parity method predicts that the exchange rate will change to offset price changes as a result of inflation.

Relative economic strength approach

This approach give the insight of the strength of economic growth in the different countries with an aim of forecasting on the direction of exchange rates (Moosa, 2010). The short-term financing decisions of a company can be affected by the relative economic strength approach on the basis that a strong economic environment and a potentially high growth attracts investments from foreign investors.

 

Importance of Cultural Diversity in Multinationals

Globalization has made the need and the diversity in multinational organizations an inevitable aspect. According to the fact diversity remains a significant organizational challenge, with employees finding it vital to have the abilities needed in a multicultural work place. Managers, supervisors as well as leaders have to be open to training themselves and others within the organizations to benefit multicultural differences in both customers and stakeholders to ensure that everybody is treated with dignity. Moreover, the cultural intelligence creates ability to make the diverse board of directors and workforce understand and forge ability to create a fruitful collaboration in such an environment where cultural differences play a critical role. The cultural intelligence make the workforce of the corporation to act appropriately across various cultures; interact effectively in multiple cultures. This is important in the global business of today in order to benefit and bridge cultural difference (Hofstede & Hofstede, 2011).

Cultural diversity is discovered to create a focus on teamwork that builds better relationships within a department and geared towards promoting identity within the department or organization that moves beyond surface level differences. Departments which develop a strong culture of involvement, one in which all workers were encouraged, empowered, and developed to work as a team, are perceived as managing workplace diversity better than those departments which have a weak participation culture (Hofstede, 2007). It should be acknowledged that the national culture of the country in which the individual workers are from should be integrated to a standardized relationship between participation culture and diversity management perceptions.

Geert Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions

Geert having operated in the international environment since 1965, he has given a platform for comparisons of nations into four clusters. This paper gives insights of the cultural dimensions as provided in the Geert’s four dimensions for the United States and Thailand

Power Distance

The power distance dimension states that all the individuals in the societies are not equal –thereby expressing the attitude of culture towards such inequalities amongst us. That is, power distance refers to the extent to which the members of institutions and organizations who are less powerful in a country accept and expect that power is distributed unequally (Hofstede & Hofstede, 2011).

Thailand score a Power Distance index (PDI) of 64 above the United States’ 40, showing that Thailand is a society in which Inequalities are accepted; highly strict protocol and chain of command is observed. The low PDI score of 40 for the U.S. is a clear indication of the America’s premise of “liberty and justice for all.” The American society and governance emphasizes on the aspects of equal rights.

Individualism

This encompasses the degree of interdependence a society has maintained among its members. The members of individualistic societies look after themselves and their direct family. Unlike a collectivist society in which individuals belong to group which take of them in the exchange of unquestioning loyalty.

The U.S. PDI score on individualism is 91 while the Thailand’s is at 20. With a PDI score of 20 for Thailand is a show that it is a highly collectivist country. The members commit to “groups,” that is, a family, extended relationships, or extended relationship. The highly individualistic society of America with a score of 91 reflects a society which is loosely-knit where the expectations of people is that they look after themselves and their immediate families only and there shouldn’t be too much reliance on the authorities for support.

Uncertainty Avoidance

This dimension refers to the way a society deals with the fact that the future is always unknown. The U.S. PDI score on uncertainty avoidance is below average at 46. This is perceives to put America as a society in which there is a fair degree of accepting new ideas, innovative findings and the willingness to try new or different things (Hofstede, 2007). On the other hand, the Thailand’s score of 64 on uncertainty avoidance dimension shows preference for avoiding uncertainty. There are strict laws, policies and rules to be followed in order to reduce or minimize any level of uncertainty.

Consumer’s Bill Of Rights As A Road Map For Future Legislation By Obama

In February 2015, President Obama announced the release of the Consumer Privacy Bill of Rights Act’s draft. The draft offers more comprehensive legislations that will help protect the rights of U.S. consumers better than the existing legislations do. Presently, the existing laws regulate privacy on sectorial basis such as financial privacy laws, health privacy legislations, and children’s privacy legislations among others. Each of these sector laws has a different definition of the protected data as well as the different protection types required (House, 2015). The 24-page proposed consumer protection bill is designed to codify the already established privacy principles. Additionally, the bill initiates new concepts that are anticipated to offer flexibility as well as help in keeping pace with the ever-changing technologies and business practices.

The United States remains to be one of two developed countries that do not have personal data privacy protections (Computer and Internet Lawyer, 2012). Instead, the U.S. has a number of sector-specific laws that are only applicable torelatively narrow classes of personal information, and it also has general-purpose consumer protection laws, which are enforced by the Federal Trade Commission that does not map perfectly into privacy rights (Schwartz, 2012). Since 2012, when Obama administration put forth the consumer’s bill of rights as a road map for future legislation, the administration has continued to provide leadership on the consumer privacy issue (House, 2012).

Under the existing legislation, consumers are apprehensive about how sellers collect and use their personal information and with the ever-developing technologies;consumers have a prevalent sense that majority of those sellers have lost control of their privacy (Larose & Day, 2015).  In line with this, Obama administration’s legislative proposal has tried to address this issue.  Although the bill, just like the existing one has a number of significant flaws, it seems acknowledge this and explicitly labels this section of the bill as a discussion draft.  Several elements of this section will need to be modified if the proposed bill will offer consumers comprehensive privacy protection (Allocca, 2015). As a part of my analysis, I have compiled a number of current legislatives, their provisions and their proposed changes.

The bill’s fundamental protections follow in the footsteps of the Fair Information Practice Principles.The core of the bill and one of its best feature is that the bill’s rations are deep-rooted on the Fair Information Practice Principle’ notions. The bill Focused Collection, demands Transparency, Access, Respect for Context, Accountability, Individual Control, security, Responsible Use, and Accuracy (Kang, 2010). However, a good number of the bill’s protections are founded on the harm of risk. Majority of the bill’s FIPPs-based protections are only applicable in proportion to the possessed data’s privacy risk(Schwartz, 2012).  The bill’s definition of privacy risk israther narrow as, “The potential that data could “cause emotional distress, or physical, financial, professional or other harm to an individual” (House, 2015).  This is a notable shift from theother privacy legislations’ rights-based formulation.

Furthermore, the bill exempts several business records from numerous fundamental protections.Just like personal data, which does not pose a privacy harm risk,a good number of business records are similarly exempted from given protections including data minimization as well as individual control (Allocca, 2015). Certainly, majority of data records should be immune from individual control;nonetheless, the bill’s exceptions categories are exceedingly broad (Landau, 2015). . This is a shift from the existing legislations that have a little less broad exception categories.

The bill relates correspondingly to both companies and non-profits.Under the existing legislation, the Federal Trade Commission is only given the power to handle cases that relate to for-profit commercial firms (Landau, 2015). The new bill however expandsprivacy requirements substance as well as the range of organizations to which those requirements may be applicable. This means that under the proposed bill, CDT may start being subjected to extensive privacy requirements (House, 2015).  This is a practical change since non-profits, political campaigns included, are capable of collecting substantial amounts of sensitive personal information.

The proposed bill’s definition of personal information is relatively broader than the traditional definition, which is used in most current legislations. Due to this broad definition, the bill can apply to a wider range of information as compared tothe current sectoral legislations that define personal information as “personally identifiable information (Computer and Internet Lawyer, 2012).  As privacy analysts have documented in the past, consumers have developed an increased interest in pseudonymous identifiers including cookies and device IDs since they can be used to influence user’s experience. Identifiers that cannot belinkedto a particular individual may be realisticallyexcluded from personal information.

The collection of out-of-context data necessitates opt-in consent. This aspect makes the proposed bill rather complicated.  Although consumers are given certain rights in the event that the data poses a privacy risk, in the case of out-of-context data collection, the consumers have to be given a Heightened Transparency and Control over that data (House, 2015).  When data processing is considered unreasonable in the light of context, it is usually hard to analyzesince there is an eleven-factor test for determining “context” (House, 2015).  However, previous privacy bills and legislations, such as the Rush’s Best Practices Act and the Kerry-McCain Commercial Privacy Bill among others, have adopted a much easier approach, which involves opting-out most data’s controls, and opting-in sensitive data controls.  The traditionally applied approachis much more predictable and much easier to apply as compared to the approach used by the new bill.

Privacy policy retrospective revisions no longer require permission. Under the currently existing law, the Federal Trade Commission is responsible for bringingenforcement actions to all firms thatattempted to retroactively modify privacy policies or attempted tomodify the guidelines for data that was previously collected (Larose & Day, 2015). This is justified since one cannot collect consumer’s information and then change the original terms such as not sharing the information with third parties and then modify this rule later on to accommodate third party sharing. Surprisingly, the proposed bill reverses this principle’s course (Landau, 2015).  Under section 102(e) states that if a firm changes its policy, it is only required to inform its customers about the changes in advance and then proposition compensating controls in order to easethe privacy risks that may result from the change (House, 2015).  This shift will result to a weaker law than the existing one, which will be bad for consumer privacy. This provision should therefore be removed from the bill.

The Obama administration is committed to working together with the American people in order to get a strong privacy standard bill that will cover all consumer privacy issues. The proposed bill shows remarkable progress in the achievement of that goal. Although the proposed bill is far from flawless, it is an important aspect of achieving this objective. The President and FTC calling for comprehensive privacy legislation were important steps toward that goal.  And this draft bill is an important step along the way.

Recent Trends in Juvenile Delinquency

The late 1980s through to the early 1990s, United States of America experienced a serious rise in juvenile crime. This resulted to the introduction and enforcement of state laws that unlike the existing legislations that emphasized on rehabilitation, they were tougher and emphasized more on disciplining offenders. Since then, juvenile crime rates have been reported to decline significantly. Currently, state legislatures continue to rebalance their strategies of dealing with juvenile crime and delinquency so as to identify techniques that are likely to pro­duce better results at lower cost.  Nowadays, policymakers have more and enriched information available to them in regards to juvenile crime, factors influencing it and ways it can be prevented (Levitt, 1997). This paper will analyze the reliability of some of the sourced of this information, the recent trends in juvenile delinquency, analysis of juvenile arrests between 1980 and 2012, and finally discuss the importance of determining a chronic offender at an early age.

  1. Are the official and unofficial sources of data on delinquency reliable and valid? Talk about the reliability of the UCR (Uniform Crime Report) and self-reporting.

Self-Report Studies

Self-report reports are intended to offer participants an opportunity to reveal information relating to their law violations (Brown, 2014). This method is founded on the basic assumption that the anonymity of the participant and the confidentiality guarantee supported by academic qualifications will inspire more and more people to disclose and accurately describe their criminal activities.

There is a notable discrepancy in research findings regarding the reliability of this method of crime data collection. Consequently there have been heightened criticisms of self-reports as a criminal data collection instrument. Some of the critics claim that this method may provide inaccurate data due to a number of reasons including, the respondents may lie, they may exaggerate situations, they may also forget, or understate their illegal activities. There are also other issues that are linked to unreliability of this method (Brown, 2014). They include definitional and interpretational issues of the data collected.

A research conducted in 1980 revealed that very few youths commit serious inconsistent offenses (Spaeth, Weichold & Silbereisen, 2015). Additionally, majority of the samples used for such studies are not always fully representative of the population being studied and in most cases, they do not include sufficient high-rate lawbreakers to help the researcher differentiate them clearly from other delinquents. Consequently, self-reports are not 100 percent reliable but when conducted under due diligence, they can still provide the researcher with the information they seek.

Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)

The UCR is the most popular and most widely used source of criminal data, including juvenile crime data. One of the major advantages of this method of crime data collection is that the information collected is usually accurate as compared to that collected using self report studies. Furthermore, the UCR provides information of the frequency of arrests as well as the gender, race, age and other characteristic of the individuals arrested. While UCR provides more reliable information than most other criminal data collection instruments, it still has a number of shortcomings that critics claim could alter the accuracy of the data collected. The UCR provides information relating to crimes that were reported to the police only and since not all victims report their ordeals to the police, the data collected may not be accurate. Additionally, in an incident where more than one crime was committed, the UCR does not record all the crimes but only reports the most serious crime. This means that some crimes. Although reported may not be reflected in the UCR database (Gallupe, Bouchard & Davies, 2015). This can greatly affect the reliability of the data collected. Although UCRs are not 100 percent reliable but they can still be relied upon to provide the researcher with the information they seek.

  1. Trends analysis of juvenile arrests between 1980 and 2012

1n 1980, the juvenile crime arrest rate was about 300 in every 100,000 persons ages 10-17. This figure remained relatively constant until 1986 when there was a significant rise in arrests hitting an all time high, 500 arrests in every 100,000 persons ages 10-17, in 1994 (ojjdp.gov, n.d). The number of juvenile arrests decreased slightly in the following year, 1996 and was then followed by a steady decline that was experienced between 1997 and 2001, taking the number of arrests just below the initial 300 in every 100,000 persons ages 10-17 that was recorded in 1980. There was a slight increase in the number of arrests between 2002 and 2006. This saw the number of arrests rise back to 300 arrests in every 100,000 persons ages 10-17. In 2007, the number of arrests remained relatively constant followed by a steady decline since.

In mid 200s, there was a notable increase in the number of juvenile Crime arrests, which was then followed by a steady decline since. This saw the trend heating its lowest level since 1980 in 2012 (ojjdp.gov, n.d). In 2012 the recorded arrest were only 182 for every 100,000 youth between 10 and 17 years, a rate that was 38% lower than the rate that was recorded in 1980 and about 63% lower than the rate that was recorded during the peak, 1994.

3.Why is it important to determine the chronic offender at an early age?

Identifying a chronic offender at an early age is a crucial aspect in curbing crime. Most organizations, including schools, juvenile justice, and social services focus more on preventative or remedial measures. Studies show that prevention is a much better and more fruitful approach (Spaeth, Weichold & Silbereisen, 2015). Experts claim that out of all the measures taken to reduce juvenile crime, preventive interventions are most likely to have the largest success rate in terms of crime reduction. Determining a chronic offender at an early age means that the offender will not have committed any serious crimes thus preventative measures can be implemented on time.

Parents Should Not Let Their Kids Play Football Due To The Serious Injury Risks?

When one thinks about football, the mental images that he or she is likely to have include those of children tackling others rather thoughtlessly, the NFL (National Football League), and dangerous touch downs. However, one is unlikely to consider the Alzheimer’s disease, the crippling diseases, or the concussions that any child playing football is highly likely to suffer in the days ahead according to Lehman, Hein, Baron and Gersic (2012). Clearly, these are some of the commonest consequences of playing football. These consequences bring up grave questions: Are the threats that football pose too high to be ignored? Why should one expose his or her beloved child to the threats by allowing him or her play football? Evidently, football is so unsafe that children should not be allowed to engage in it.

Football Increases the Risk of Developing Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

Children should not be allowed to play football since it makes them rather susceptible to developing CTE (chronic traumatic encephalopathy). CTE is a degenerative and fatal disease that afflicts the brain. Commonly, it develops from the recurring tackles and hits experienced by footballers and other athletes, especially the young ones. Those diagnosed with CTE are likely to have long histories of suffering brain traumas, some of which are in the form of asymptomatic sub-concussive pressures, or hits, on athletes’ heads. They would not have suffered CTE had they not engaged in games that put pressure on their heads, hence brains.

It is a well-known actuality that many professional footballers who have since retired suffer CTE. The CTE is attributable to the footballers’ histories if recurrent brain trauma. The trauma causes brain tissues to degenerate progressively as tau, an odd protein, builds up on them. The degeneration of the tissues can commence shortly following a particular brain trauma or series of brain traumas. In other cases, the degeneration commences long after the footballers who suffer the traumas retire. When a child suffers CTE, his or her life becomes characterized by memory loss, aggression, progressive dementia, depression, impulse control difficulties, impaired judgment, and confusion.

Depression

Children who play football are at a heightened risk of suffering painful depression, which predisposes them to engaging in activities like drinking, which expose them to varied injuries according to Lehman, Hein, Baron and Gersic (2012). When they are no longer able to able to play for their favorite football teams their risk of suffering depression rises significantly. Notably, at times, children are unable to play for their favorite teams owing to poor health, particular domestic commitments or schooling obligations. At such times, the children suffered decreased adulation from their peers and friends. Others feel as if they if their teammates have suddenly isolated them. They feel detached from the camaraderie associated with the world of football. Notably, even experienced footballers retiring from active football action experience depressing withdrawal pangs.

Casual surveys show that the majority of football retirees struggle with repeated bouts of depression, which increases their chance of engaging in injurious activities. Previously, the retirees were only likely to discuss their struggles with depression away from the public limelight. They viewed discussing their struggles with depression in public as an expression of weakness. Even then, presently, they come out strongly in advising children they should gear up for futures possibly defined by depression. The retirees are now rather likely to open up on the effects that the bouts of depression that they suffer repeatedly owing to their professional histories have on themselves, their loved ones, in addition to the future of football.

Are young footballers who suffer CTE likely to suffer depression that may lead them to engage in injurious activities? Depression is closely related to CTE. Children who are kept away from football are less likely to suffer CTE and depression than children who play it. CTE impacts on an individual’s capacity to control her or his emotions. CTE impacts on an individual’s capacity to think rationally. Footballers are conditioned to think about the next football assignment. They are likely to have difficulties laying down long-term plans for their lives and follow them through. That makes them face lots of challenges in life especially following their retirement from football. The challenges are well-known risk factors for becoming depressed. Many young footballers even develop suicide-related thoughts, which predispose them to grave injuries as they try to actualize them.

Alzheimer’s disease

Commonly, the injuries that children sustain in football matches predispose them to developing the debilitating Alzheimer’s disease. Particularly, the concussions that the children suffer place them at a heightened risk of developing the disease. Tau accumulates in the children’s brains, which is widely thought to cause the disease. Research shows that those who suffer memory losses or concussions owing to head injuries are quite likely to develop the disease. If one is keen on ensuring that his or her child is not unnecessarily exposed to a heightened risk of developing the disease, he or she should not allow the child to engage in football.

One should be well-advised that up till now there are no drugs that are even slightly effective in blocking the evolution of head injuries into the debilitating disease. Consequently, if particular children got concussions while playing football, they always remain at a marked threat of coming down with the disease even if they access the best of the available medical care. The children are as well at a marked threat of suffering premature death according to Lehman, Hein, Baron and Gersic (2012). Lehman, Hein, Baron and Gersic (2012) submit that their finding that the concussions and related injuries to the head increase a person’s predisposition to developing the disease is consistent with numerous previous research findings.

Lehman, Hein, Baron and Gersic (2012) appraise reports on the deaths of thousands of NFL players who were active in the NFL league from the late 1950s to the late 1980s. They established that the players were fourfold more likely to have had their deaths caused by the disease than all the other cause combined. As well, deaths were highly likely to have stemmed from complications that are largely associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

Notably, ALS afflicts the brain just like Alzheimer’s disease and causes general body paralysis. The researchers come off as acutely aware of the numerous dangers of football and other contact sports with respect to memory problems, including Alzheimer’s disease. They urge parents, doctors, and others who care for children to find ways of keeping them away of keeping them safe from activities that may ultimately trigger the onset of contact illnesses such as Alzheimer’s disease. The probability that a child who engages in football will develop the disease is highly comparable to the risk that the child who engages in risky sports like hockey horse racing, and boxing will suffer the disease at some point in his or her life owing to repeated injuries to the head.

Lehman, Hein, Baron and Gersic (2012) come off as dissuading care givers from allowing children engage in football since it puts them at the risk of suffering rather hard blows to their brains, which is are Alzheimer’s disease risk factors. Particularly, they submit that those most exposed to the blows are the footballers defined as speed players. A speed player mounts marked momentum prior to experiencing a hard tackle or prior to tackling others. The speed players in football teams include linebackers, safeties, tight ends, halfbacks, defensive backs, quarterbacks, fullbacks, running backs, and wide receivers. To ensure that one’s children are not unreasonably exposed to the risk of developing the incapacitating Alzheimer’s disease, he or she should not allow them to as linebackers, safeties, tight ends, halfbacks, defensive backs, quarterbacks, fullbacks, running backs, or wide receivers in any football team.

Post-Concussion Syndrome

The possibility that a child is likely to suffer injuries leading to post-concussion syndrome owing to football engagements is one of the numerous grounds why no child should be allowed time along with space to engage in football. It is clear from the research executed by Strauss and Savitsky (1934) that the probability of continuing symptoms after particular concussions has been established and widely known for numerous decades to date. The post-concussion syndrome term refers to unrelenting symptoms. The symptoms include dizziness, memory loss, irritability, and headache. Strauss and Savitsky (1934) came up with the term in the 1930s.

Individuals are diagnosed as suffering post-concussion syndrome if they express symptoms such as dizziness, memory loss, irritability, and headache three weeks after suffering head injuries. Some individuals are diagnosed as having the concussion about a month after suffering the injuries. Others are diagnosed as having the concussion many months after suffering the injuries according to Bazarian, Wong, Harris, Leahey, Mookerjee and Dombovy (1999).

Bailes and Cantu (2001) indicate that it is now well-known that teens and children, and particularly young females are at a higher threat of sustaining post-concussion syndrome and the usual concussions than grownups. The symptoms expressed by those having post-concussion syndrome are thought to stem from metabolic adjustments that happen with concussion. For many years, the NFL downplayed the marked prevalence of concussion along with post-concussion syndrome among players who suffer head injuries. Even then, owing to researches such as the one executed by Bailes and Cantu (2001), the NFL admits that football exposes players to heightened risks of concussion along with post-concussion syndrome.

There Is No Safe Helmet 

A child should not be permitted to engage in football even when wearing a helmet since it does not confer to him or her adequate protection from head injuries. Some parents think that their young footballers are safe since they always have helmets in place when playing. They need to reconsider that thought. There are no specific helmets that can keep any footballers absolutely safe from head injuries.  The famed Xenith helmets present their wearers with substantial risks of suffering the injuries.  The famed Riddell helmets present their wearers with substantial risks of suffering the injuries.  As well, the famed Schutt helmets present their wearers with substantial risks of suffering the injuries.

The bio-mechanists who design helmets are unlikely to design ones that are concussion-proof owing to the cost implications on helmet manufacturers. The padding found in any of the presently available helmets in the market is only effective in decelerating the head of a player adequately slowly to ensure that he does not suffer substantial head injury. It cannot prevent all the possible injuries to the head altogether. Notably, those who are involved in car crashes stop in a scope of a few feet but in football impacts, those involved stop in a scope if few inches. Those who design helmets are keen on extending the periods of the impacts by even thousandths of seconds. There is a high chance that ongoing studies may not yield to helmets that will offer more protection than the extant ones. That is because of the bother or nuisance of the amount of padding that would be required to make the helmets concussion-proof. The lack of helmets that provide absolute protection from concussions is one of the numerous grounds why no child should be allowed time along with space to engage in football. There is no helmet that can keep him or her safe for ever and a day.

Conclusion 

Football is evidently rather dangerous. The young people who play it are at heightened risk of suffering CTE owing to the many head injuries that they experience. They are at heightened risk of suffering depression. They are at heightened risk of suffering Alzheimer’s disease. As well, they are at heightened risk of suffering post-concussion syndrome. The lack of helmets that provide absolute protection from concussions is one of the numerous grounds why no child should be allowed time along with space to engage in football. Football is capable of occasioning life-changing conditions. Parents should consider all these actualities when reflecting on whether or not their children can take up football as a sport. The consideration of the actualities may mean whether one’s children will live normally or lead handicapped lives.

Company’s Important Assets To Be Protected From Threats

The company’s site has a high level plan for security where main applications, network and servers data or resources will be secured from any threat. There are main areas where this high security level plan will be employed to protect main assets. This areas include:

  • Servers holding financial data
  • Analytical application server for the company bond and stock
  • Application servers for market tracking
  • Methods and sites for online trading
  • Servers holding human resource data
  • The company internet data
  • The company data transmission system
  • The company email server
  • All servers holding different data

General Security Architecture

The company network system will focus on enhancing a high level of security to the system. This will be effected by developing the right security architecture. The system will involve the installation of a firewall which will connect the company’s LAN into the company WAN and the internet. This will be followed by routers which will be connected to the Cisco IPS and Cisco ASR Edge Router. The routers are then connected to the web server that is connected to MacAfee antivirus. In addition, the routers are connected to two distribution layer switches which have control access system and the TACLANE-Micro Encryptor. The switches in this layer are then connected to access layer which distribute the signal further to terminals and servers that are installed with MacFee products.

Twelve Specific Security Policies

The company will adopt a number of unique security policies to ensure that all concern individual employ the right measure to prevent the development of some network security loopholes. These policies are provided below:

  1. Security response procedure should be defined to assist users to report any malicious act they notice prior to IT personnel detection and also to assist in knowing and being prepared for measures to be taken and impact of any security response procedure
  2. All critical company’s internal servers must have host IDS to assist in preventing local attacks
  3. The company should ensure file system integrity check
  4. The use of the company mail must be consistent with the company policies and procedures for compliance safety and ethical conduct with proper business practices and applicable laws.
  5. There should be the employment of system monitoring technique to be able to identify any attempt to interfere with the system network or any loophole that would facilitate an attack.
  6. Each user should use a unique and strong password which cannot be cracked. Password will not be shared and users will be required to lock their accounts while not in their work station
  7. Every device in the network system must be installed with an antivirus and antispyware which will be updated on daily basis
  8. Users’ system access should be limited based on individual operation level by providing different system access rights
  9. Data used in all company department should be backed-up regularly to prevent total loss of data in case of an attack
  10. All data transmitted through the company’s network system should be encrypted
  11. The company will frequently designate the network security audit personnel to check on the company compliance with set security policies
  12. The employee should be prohibited to access network through unsecure wireless communication mechanism

Details and Rational for Each Policy

Every device in the network system must be installed with an antivirus and antispyware which will be updated on daily basis

In this case the company servers and all other computers will be installed with McAfee antivirus and antispyware to prevent them from being affected by viruses, trajons, or spywares either from individual user activities online or from any other external input or storage devices. This kind of infection would interfere with the functionality of the servers and computers interfering with data integrity, confidentiality or accessibility.

Each user should use a unique and strong password which cannot be cracked. Password will not be shared and users will be required to lock their accounts while not in their work station.

The company users should use standard password with not less than eight characters. The password should not be associated with anything that can be linked with the user for instance family members’ name, name of a hobby, favorite user’s celebrity, date of birth or important known even in the user’s life. The password should comprised of letters both capital and small letters, numbers and special characters. This is basically meant to ensure that each use has a strong password that can hardly be hacked. Users should always lock their machine to prevent others from using their accounts to perform malicious activities using their accounts or accessing information which they could not access due to rights restrictions.

Users’ system access should be limited based on individual operation level by providing different system access rights

Each user should be restricted on the information to access, based on the individual operation level in the company. These rights prevent junior workers from accessing sensitive information or data that they are not supposed to access for security purpose. It also control inappropriate data update for malicious purposes. Junior workers can be used by competitors to get data or certain information from the company and thus, this is normally limited.

Data used in all company department should be backed-up regularly to prevent total loss of data in case of an attack

Normally, it is hard to establish a 100% efficient systems. Systems are normally impacted by one problem or another. Thus the company should ensure 100% data redundancy to safe the company from any form of data loss in case of security attack. The best secondary storage should involve saving the backup take away from the entire original system possibly in a separate building to ensure 100% restoration.

All data transmitted through the company’s network system should be encrypted

Hackers normally take advantage of data in transition while trying to hack a network system. This is normally done through interception. If this data is not encrypted and the hackers succeed in their interception mission, the company’s data would either be interfered with or blocked from reaching the destination or be used to weaken the company’s competitiveness. However, if data is encrypted it would be impossible to decrypt the actual meaning of the data and thus, saving the data integrity and confidentiality. This would also save the company from any malicious act that can be conducted using the company’s data.

The company will frequently designate the network security audit personnel to check on the company compliance with set security policies 

The system audit ensure availability, confidentiality and integrity of resources and information. It also allows the investigation for probable security incidences to guarantee the conformance to the security policies of the company. It also ensure effective monitoring of system and users activity to guarantee they are suitable. The audit is anticipated to identify all the loopholes that would increase to system vulnerability. Therefore, it is very effective for the company’s security implementation.

There should be the employment of system monitoring technique to be able to identify any attempt to interfere with the system network or any loophole that would facilitate an attack.

System monitoring gives the system administrator an opportunity to identify any loopholes and other systems weaknesses. This ensures that the company has recognized its system vulnerabilities before they are taken advantage of by the attackers. Thus, system security monitoring prevent the company from successful attacks.

The use of the company mail must be consistent with the company policies and procedures for compliance safety and ethical conduct with proper business practices and applicable laws.

Email policy is placed to guarantee proper utilization of the company’s email system and to ensure that the users are aware of what they can and cannot do with the company’s email. It protect the company from being ruined through passing of important information to unauthorized individuals in the company. Email can easily facilitate the leakage of the company data to outsiders and that is why its operation must be limited to company based activities as guided by procedures.

The company should ensure file system integrity check

The file system integrity depends on an internal tables set to keep track of available blocks and inodes used. When the internal tables are not synchronized properly with a disk data, file systems and inconsistencies resulted to be replied. This prevent abrupt termination of file system and thus, it assist in ensuring effective file system operations.

All critical company’s internal servers must have host IDS to assist in preventing local attacks 

Host founded intrusion detection identify intrusion in a single host system. In this regard it prevent that one particular host from being impacted by the intrusion. This will ensure that there is no any form of intrusion gets into the company system via the hosts.

Security response procedure should be defined to assist users to report any malicious act they notice prior to IT personnel detection and also to assist in knowing and being prepared for measures to be taken and impact of any security response procedure. 

Response procedure is provided to eliminate chaotic situation in the company in case the company managers need to fix any identified security problem based on the actual location and its magnitude.

The employee should be prohibited to access network through unsecure wireless communication mechanism.

Unsecure wireless network is likely to cause havoc by permitting viruses, trajons, and malwares among other things into the company’s network. Thus, this need to be prevented since it can results to compromise of the data confidentiality, availability and integrity.

 High availability secure design for the locations

The possible four forms of attack in an organization include malware infiltration, denial of service attack, intruder threat, and reconnaissance attacks. To eliminate malware infiltration, the company will require to install antimalware or antispyware which can be provided by MacAfee’s products in the servers and other terminal devices. Data protection solution and endpoint protection installation prevent all possible malware in the company.

Denial of service attack are based on the concept which by overloading resources target, the system will eventually crash. This can easily happen in web server applications among other WAN connections. To prevent this, the company will need to install a firewall. Web application firewall will be very efficient in countering denial of service attack.

Intruder threat can be prevented by a number of measures. One of the measures is by enhancing data encryption especially all data to be transmitted via the network system. This will be done by the installation of TACLANE-Micro Encryptor. Another measure include the enhancement of file system integrity check, system monitoring and the employment of security policies. The installation of Cisco IOS IPS will assist in detection of IP attacks.

Reconnaissance attacks is an attack where in the attacker engages with the targeted system to gain more information about the system vulnerability. To prevent this, the company needs to enhance high security policies which can be supplemented by the installation of Cisco Access Control System and Cisco IOS IPS in the routers point where the company’s local system connects with the WAN.

Security Devices and their Specific Roles

Device Name

Description and Role

Cisco IOS IPS It is an inline feature of deep-packet inspection which effectually mitigates different forms of network attacks. The device integrates threat control framework and Cisco IOS feature of flexible packet matching. The device offers the network intelligence to correctly block or stop, classify, and identify malicious traffic in actual time.
Cisco ASR Router This router will be placed at the edge of the company’s network linking the company network to the internet service provider. It will be involved in managing services which include firewall and VPN. It will provide the company with inspection of deep packet and also offer encrypted, secure WAN connectivity and WAN aggregation.
Cisco Access Control System It is a highly sophisticated platform of policy offering TACACS+ and RADIUS services. The device supports the augmenting complex policy required to address new current demands for access control compliance and management. It offers access policies central management for wireless and administration device, remote VPN and wired 802.1x network access situations. It offers standards-compliant services of  accounting, authorization, and authentication to the wireless and VPN users of the company
TACLANE-Micro Encryptor It is a high assurance IP encryptor and an encryptor of crypto modernization compliant. It is optimized for strategic and tactical environment.  It will be used to encrypt all transmitted data from the new York company to other locations. Will enhance remote keying for HAIPE to HAIPE and enhance the compatibility of the IPv6/IPv4 dual stack, Ethernet.
McAfee ePolicy Orchestrator server It offers host base security to safeguard data loss, service denial, malware, reconnaissance, intrusion, and exploitation. It allows scanning of virus at all levels , data loss prevention and prevention of the integrates host intrusion

High Level Security Diagram

Improving the Efficiency of Replication

Apart for very minute networks, directory data have to reside in over one place on the network to be correspondingly efficient to all users. The Active Directory through replication services upholds directory data replicas on multiple controller of domain, enhancing availability of the directory and all users’ performance. Active Directory depends on the multimaster model replication, permitting one to make changes in the directory at any controller domain, not just as the primary designated domain controller. Active directory depends on the site concept to assist keep efficient of the replication and the Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC) to establish the most suitable replication network topology automatically.

To assist in enhancing replication efficiency, Active Directory depends on sites. Sites refer to groups of well linked computers which establish the replication of the directory data. Directory information in Active Directory site is replicated more frequently as compared to other sites. In this regard, the best linked domain controller, which are normally the domains that requires specific directory information, gain replicated update first. Moreover, the domain controllers in different sites also obtain the changes, through less often, as a way of lowering the consumption of the network bandwidth.

However, things are a bit different in this case. The network system does not have a reliable connection and thus, some of the sites are not routed completely and thus, they cannot receive active directory updates. To address this, the Server 2012 must be installed in more than one site manually. The installation should focus on the connection. Each complete connection should have an active directory site to create two or more Active directory to serve the two or more incomplete connections. This way all sites will be receiving updates and replication efficiency will be enhance (Technet.Microsoft, 2005a).

Hamburger Advertisement analysis

Hamburger is a common snack you can find in any fast food shops. However, though many have heard about, only few know how it looks like or what it is made of. Therefore, for any fast food shop to familiarize its customer with it, they must come up with the best advertisement ever that will alert the costumers what it is and if it is yummy. The number of customer convinced by an advert depends on how persuasive it is to the viewer.

The above advertisement of hamburger is so enticing just from it colors as they make it so yummy. The advertisement of the hamburger is very precise as it indicates to everyone that a hamburger is a sandwich that consists of one or additional cooked pastries of ground animal protein, generally beef, positioned inside a wedged bun. As a result, the costumer does not require asking what a hamburger is prepared from. The color of the tomatoes slice, onions and greens makes it so amazing and attractive to everyone since the colors are attractive also.

The lady beside the hamburger who seems to be enjoying it so much makes this advertisement sex appealing. The way the lady is dressed makes also makes it more sex appealing. Additionally, the lady beside the hamburger is a clear indication that the advertisement is targeting ladies and most likely the young ladies.

The placement, color, and the size of the text of this advert makes every viewer to read them since they are placed on top of the hamburger so everyone thinks that they are explaining about the hamburger. Their white color on a black background makes them very visible to everyone to see. Moreover, the arrangement of the pictures makes the advert marvelous as the viewer will be in a position of recognizing what a hamburger is from its picture and realize at the same time how appealing it is from the picture of the lady who seems to be enjoying it very well.

This advert attracts me by the colors that have been used to draw the pictures and to write the text.  The way the lady on the advert seems to be enjoying the hamburger too much makes me imagine how I could also feel if I have it. The arrangement of the pastries between the slices of the hamburger with different colors looks very amazing, therefore attracting my attention.  The way the images of the hamburger and the lady enjoying eating it have been composed makes this advert to make an aesthetically gratifying end result.  However, this is an indication that the advert made use of The Rule of Thirds.

However, sometimes individual opts to use the image of celebrities in their advert. This is because most celebrities have a lot of fans who by just seeing their picture they would like to know what is written about them and since they have a lot of influence on them they even like imitating them by having what they are having on that advert.

Download the full advertisement analysis paper together with the sample advert or order a plagiarism free analysis of any advert at an affordable price.

Is it Ethical for Barnett to Adopt the ” Fetal Protection Policy “?

Barnett, Inc “Fetal Protection Policy” Scenario

After learning that when women are exposed to high lead levels their fetuses may be harmed, Barnett, Inc. adopted a “fetal protection policy.” The policy prohibited women of childbearing age from working in the company’s Battery Division where lead is used in the production process. Female employees objected to this policy by arguing that it deprived them of employment in the higher paying jobs in the Battery Division. Is it ethical for Barnett to adopt the “fetal protection policy”? Is Barnett obligated to protect its employees from this risk?Remember to use the supplemental materials to answer the four aspects set forth in the instructions.  (West, 20003, p. 822, 40-8)

Is it Ethical for Barnett to Adopt the ” Fetal Protection Policy “?

The Barnett, Inc adapted the fetal protection policy prohibiting women of child bearing age from working in Battery Division of the company since it exposes workers to lead that is medically said to affect the health of fetus. According to Hu et al.(2006), fetal lead exposure contains an advance impact on neurodevelopment, with an effect which might be most distinct in the first trimester and effectively determined by measuring the content of lead in the maternal blood, or maternal plasma. Considering this aspect, and considering that some womendo not realize they are pregnant until four to eight weeks of pregnancy. This implies that in casea woman unknowingly gets pregnant while working in this section, she may subject the fetus to serious health hazard. To safeguard women from such occurrences, the company prevents all women in child bearing age from working in this section of the company.

Fetal protection policies refer to policies that try to safeguard fetus from workplace risks. In the past, similar policies were accused of promoting gender inequality in private sectors. The policies were also found to violate equal employment laws. They were also found to be inapplicable for bona fide occupation qualification (BFOQ) defense. According to the previous reviews, an employer has no ability to determine whether the work environment is risky for pregnant woman (U.S. Legal, 2018). Although the company uses lead whose exposure during pregnancy can harm the baby, the company may need to demonstrate the amount of lead it exposes its workers compared to the allowed amount. Only then can one tell whether the amount workers are exposed can be regarded as high level to an extent of affecting infants. Moreover, current policy applies not just to pregnant women in the company, but to all women in childbearing age. This subjects all women into a gender based discrimination at the workplace, including those who are not planning to have children any time soon and those who have completed children bearing business, despite still being at childbearing age. According to complains, the Battery Division provides higher salaries compared to any other unit in the company. The application of this policy will thus mean that the company will have prevented women from being among the highest earners in the company.Childbearing age stretches along the active career years for any worker where people try to enhance personal development to climb the career ladder. Blocking women from working in this section during their prime time of the career will only mean that no women will ever have enough skills and experience to work in battery division even after the childbearing age has passed. This would only mean that battery division is “women no go zone. “

According to the country’s occupational safety and health, an employer has the right to protect its workers from any occupational hazards. Actually, the employer is required by the law to ensure workers safety and wellbeing while at work. It is highly justifiable for the company to set policies that focus on protecting workers from work related hazards (OSHA.gov, 2016). However, while doing so, the employer should ensure that there are no aspects of discrimination based on gender, age, ethnicity, culture or sexuality among others. Although the current policy by Barnett, Inc is meant to protect workers, it is highly discriminative, limiting women’s ability to work in battery division for a certain period of their life, despite there being a possibility that majority will not have children during their stay in the company. 

Spy Case from PERSEREC

You work as a mental health professional in an organization that is examining methods to avoid potential intelligence compromises. You have been asked to evaluate an existing spy case in order to achieve a greater working knowledge of the motivation of espionage in an effort to avoid future compromises in the organization.

In a formal report, conduct an evaluation and case conceptualization. Identify the risk factors, vulnerabilities, and threats; identify the potential mental disorders, symptoms, and prognoses; and explain how this type of indirect assessment relates to the ethics code as prescribed by APA.

Tasks:

Create an 8- to 10-page report responding to the following:

  • Select a spy case from the Defense Personnel and Security Research Center (PERSEREC) case page. You cannot select a case that has already been examined or discussed in this course.
  • Conduct a case study evaluation and case conceptualization of your selected spy case as described below.
    • For the case study evaluation:
      • Summarize the case facts. Include not only the case details as outlined by evidence and a description of the act but also the characteristics of the perpetrator, such as demography, socioeconomic status, work history, and relation with the intelligence community (IC) organization where the espionage occurred. Articulate what, where, when, how, and who of the act of espionage in the case you have chosen.
      • Identify the risk factors and vulnerabilities in the spy and the threats of the case. Risk factors and vulnerabilities are intrinsic to the perpetrator and include factors that made the perpetrator more susceptible to committing the act of espionage. Threats are extrinsic to the perpetrator and bring dangers to the asset. In these cases, the asset is national security information.
    • For the case conceptualization:
      • Describe the cognitive processes, behavior, and emotional makeup of the spy, such as how he or she thinks, acts, or feels, using a major theoretical orientation on personality psychology (such as cognitive behavioral and psychodynamic behavioral).
      • Identify any potential mental disorders or symptoms that may exist and include them in your prognosis.
      • Explain how this type of indirect assessment meets (or does not meet) the ethics code as prescribed by APA. This section should be supported by the existing body of psychology literature.

Mobile Computing and Social Networks

There are thousands of iPhone Apps, iPad Apps, and Android Apps that have been developed to perform a myriad of tasks and processes. Initially, most of these applications were games intended to be played on mobile devices. The popularity of these applications led businesses to ponder whether some of their business process applications that run on desktop platforms and the Web could be redesigned to run on mobile devices. The answer was a resounding yes! For example, Nationwide developed the Nationwide® Mobile, a free iPhone App that allows its insurance policyholders to file a claim on the spot when an accident occurs. The application can snap pictures of the accident and attach them to the claim data and upload the claim information to a server. This reduces the length of time to process a claim filed this way. Nationwide competitors have followed suit and developed iPhone, iPad, and Android applications of their own. Policyholders can receive messages via Facebook or Twitter. Other business processes that have been reengineered as a result of mobile computing include Quick Response (QR) codes which have replaced one-dimensional bar codes. They are read using mobile devices, accepting credit card payments from an iPhone, iPad or Android device, depositing checks using an iPhone without visiting a bank, and many more. Write a ten to fifteen (10-11) page term paper in which you:

 

  • Assess the effectiveness and efficiency mobile-based applications provide to capture geolocation data and customer data, and quickly upload to a processing server without users having to use a desktop system.
  • Evaluate benefits realized by consumers because of the ability to gain access to their own data via mobile applications.
  • Examine the challenges of developing applications that run on mobile devices because of the small screen size.
  • Describe the methods that can be used to decide which platform to support, i.e., iPhone, iPad, Windows Phone, or Android.
  • Mobile applications require high availability because end users need to have continuous access to IT and IS systems.
  • Discuss ways of providing high availability.
  • Mobile devices are subjected to hacking at a higher rate than non-mobile devices. Discuss methods of making mobile devices more secure.
  • Use at least three (3) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Explain how the components of an information technology system interrelate in an organizational context.
  • Describe the use of network management, Web, wireless, and mobility technologies.
  • Describe and identify the uses of business process management and systems development.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in information systems and technology.
  • Write clearly and concisely about topics related to information systems for decision making using proper writing mechanics and technical style conventions.

Grading for this assignment will be based on answer quality, logic / organization of the paper, and language and writing skills.

 

Supply and Demand in a Global Market – Answered

Answer the following questions using examples and applications from the readings.  Justify your answers using economic concepts and ideas as they apply. Each response should be between 100-200 words.

Questions:

  1. The demand for labor is said to be a ‘derived’ demand.  What is the meaning of a derived demand? How does this concept help to determine the demand for labor?
  2. What are some of the factors that determine the supply of labor in a market? What significant factors have changed the supply of labor over the last twenty years?
  3.  How does a firm determine its prices and the quantity of labor required in the resource market during a specific period?
  4.  Why do income inequalities exist?  How are income inequalities measured? How have income inequalities changed from 1980 to the present?
  5. What is the role of the U.S. government, in terms of dealing with the problem of income inequalities?  What are the arguments, for and against, government involvement in this area?
  6. Why do nations trade?  What is meant by the concept of “Comparative Advantage”?  Could a nation be better off economically, if it practiced an isolation policy?
  7. The United States has had a significant trade imbalance for several years.  What are the problems associated with having a negative trade balance?  What can be done to correct the imbalance?
  8. How are exchange rates determined?  What is the significance of currency devaluations to the home country?  To other countries?

 

SAMPLE ANSWER

Economic Concepts

Derived demand can be defined as the demand that does occurs for a factor of production as a result of an existing demand for an intermediate goods or services. For instance, if college students decide to enroll in a given institution to be taught, it will be upto that institution to employ staff members who will then teach the students. Therefore such institution will increase their staff capacity as a result of the demand for education by the students. Derived labor cncept plays a significant role in the firms demand for labor. If for instance the firms output has a high demand, then the firm will employ more workers so as to boost their production capacity. On the flipside, if the demand for the firms’ products falls, the firm will demand very little labor, thereby dismissing off some workers (Cliff notes).

Labor supply can be defined as the number of hours that the workers are willing and able to supply within certain wage limits. One of the factors that affect labor supply in the market is the real wages. When the wages are high, the labor supply tends to be high. On the contrary, low wages reduces the labor supply (Steven, 1997). Additionally, the issue of net migration of labor does affect the labor supply within various industries of the economy. Finally, there is barrier to entry through placement of minimum entry requirements that bars non-qualified workers from making entry into certain professions (Riley, 2014).

There are certain significant factors that have affected the supply of labor over the past twenty years. One of them includes the supply of low skilled workers that is created as a result of attainment of low levels of education. Furthermore, the widening gap between the blacks and whites salary ranges has played a role in affecting labor supply.

For a firm to set the prices for its products, it first have to know the direct costs associated with making the product, plus the overhead costs involved in the process. Additionally, it has to know the non-manufacturing costs involved in the process. Finally, it has to set a realistic target of the profits it desires to make. On the other hand, the demand for labor will remain to be derived just as have been mentioned above. The amount of labor required will entirely depend on the demand for the products manufactured by the firm. The higher the demand for the products, the higher the demand for labor will be.

Income inequality is a measure of income distribution among households. The measure tends to create a comparison in income gaps between various households within a certain region or a certain country. Income inequalities exist due to the difference in skills of the workers, and as a result of the difference in education attainment of the workers. Income inequalities have changed over the years, with the current levels showing a high level of disparity. The current statistics shows that seven out of every twelve counties currently have a lower family median income as compared to what existed in the 1980s. The United States government can reduce inequalities through initiation of programs such as the introduction of social insurance so as to protect the citizens against risks of lowered incomes.

Countries trade with each other when the specific countries do not have the capacity to satisfy their own needs. When a country produces surplus goods, they trade with other countries in exchange of the goods they do not have, or that which they have a shortage. Economically, no sinhle country can be better off if it practiced isolation policy. Such a country will always run into deficits and therefore fail to improve on its economic prowess.

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Reflective Journal Based On Advanced Theories And Interventions With Child And Adolescents Course

My client is a 16 year old Latina. She has a history of depression and attempted suicide. The client was placed in a group home when she was 14 years old. However, her father managed to convince her to move back in with family. However, the family does not support the client. They usually taunt her due to her suicidal tendencies. This has made the client have low self-esteem. The client has managed to overcome some of the psychological problems she faces. She recently won her school elections on the student government. The win helped in improving her self-esteem. However, she still has certain problems that need to be addressed urgently.

The client has recently started to open up to me and express her feelings. This may be due the improvement in her self-esteem. The client has more disorganized. Over the past 3 months, she has lost several items. In addition, she is late to attend school or social events since she takes a long time to get ready. She has become restless and finds it hard to concentrate even on things that she enjoys. For instance, she it is hard for her to sit and watch a film to conclusion even if the film is enjoyable. She has also started to struggle academically. She also finds it hard to make and keep friends.

I had diagnosed the client with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Therefore, I was strived to determine whether she exhibited certain symptoms. According to Rutter, Bishop and Pine (2011), girls who have ADHD start having social deficits as early as preschool years. The social deficits reach their greatest impact during adolescence as the girls start separating from their family and their social life becomes more importance. Wheeler (2013) asserts that many women who have ADHD claim that they felt different from other girls when they were growing up. The girls yearn for self-acceptance during high school years is so intense that in some instance, it may lead to self-destructive behavior as the girls strive to “belong.” The client was 16 years old. Therefore, it was evident that she faced several social pressures due to the need to belong. Her election in the school government increased her social pressures.

It is a fact that family support is vital in the life of an individual. However, Rief (2015), asserts that family support cannot completely counteract the damage done to teenagers who feel that they have been rejected by their peer groups. Girls who have low self-esteem during their high school years by be haunted by the feeling later in their life. The client does not have family support. Her family taunts her due to her suicidal tendencies. In addition, they do not seem to support her endeavors. Lack of family support coupled with the need to belong increased the social pressures that the client is exposed to. The client yearns to have family support to overcome some of the challenges she faces. She feels that she is the black sheep of the family. Her father is the only person who has made an effort to integrate her into the family. However, the effort is not enough as she still has reservations for certain members of the family.

Wheeler (2013) acknowledges that despite the fact that teenage girls face self-doubt, the special challenges of girls who have ADHD heightens the feelings. For instance, the society encourages girls to be neat and “feminine. This requires them to be controlled and passive. In addition, girls are requires to be carefully groomed so that they may attract the attention of the opposite sex. They are also required to be sensitive to the feelings of other people. These feelings are directly opposite to the feelings of teenage girls who have ADHD. Teenage girls who have ADHD may respond anxiously, or in some instances, obsessively, to the society’s expectations that she is supposed to be well groomed and dressed fashionably. However, the girl may be unable to organize her room or personal life well enough to have clean, coordinated clothing for school.

According to Rief (2015), the hyperactivity of ADHD increases among adolescents due to hormonal fluctuations, which complicate and increase reactivity. Therefore, the self-doubts and competitiveness that is usually very intense among teenage girls, increases among girls who have ADHD. If the feelings of girls who have ADHD are hurt, they may have impulsive remarks or overreact. After the drama is over, the girls are usually ready to forgive and forget. However, the people who are hurt by the remarks usually become intolerant to the outburst of the girls. Therefore, they may resent them for a long period.

The social pressures of adolescents are so intense. Adolescents usually spend so much energy on peer analysis. They usually watch, imitate, compare or confront other people. This is usually an exhausting undertaking. Girls who have ADHD usually feel despair. Depression, which is common among women, usually starts during the pressure of their teenage years. It is easy to recognize this type of depression. Therefore, a significant number of girls who have ADHD are usually treated for depression while their ADHD remains undiagnosed.

It is a fact that adolescents have so much pressure to mature. In some instances, parental expectations of the girls to show maturity may have a direct conflict with the neurocognitive patterns of ADHD. However, this does not imply that it is impossible for girls who have ADHD to become “mature.” It simply means that parents of the girls should ensure that they view maturity through an ADHD lens. This was one of the major problems that the client faced. The parents wondered why the client had suicidal tendencies. As such, the client’s father encouraged her to leave the group home and move back home. However, he did not put any effort to solve the problems that the girl faced. He may have wanted the girl to behave in a more mature manner and confront her problems instead of resorting to suicide. Viewing the behavior of the girls, and consequently her maturity, through an ADHD lens would have enabled the father to recognize the problems she faced.

Academic pressures are usually at their highest in high school. Wheeler (2013)asserts that the high school environment is structured in a manner that seems to be ADHD-unfriendly. A day in school starts too early and lasts for a long period. In addition, the high school environment demands students to have high level of concentration, which is beyond the capacity of most students even those who do not have ADHD. Students are also forced to read and study subjects that they are not interested in as they would not pursue the subjects after graduating from high school. Therefore, the high school environment increases the pressures that girls with ADHD face. The client faced the above pressures. In addition, her election in the school government exacerbated the pressures even further. However, her election in the school government also had a positive impact. It made her feel important as she played vital roles in various school activities.

It is a fact that teenagers have a high risk for pregnancy. The risk is even higher among teenage girls who have ADHD due to several factors. First and foremost, teenage girls who have ADHD have low self-esteem. Therefore, they try to find affirmation by gaining sexual attention from boys to compensate for their feelings of inadequacy in other aspects of their lives. In addition, teenage girls who have ADHD usually have difficulties controlling their impulses. They also have poor planning ability and are generally inconsistent. This increases the risk of the girls having unprotected sex, using birth control inconsistently, or having multiple partners. The client certainly faced some of the above problems. However, she could not open up to me since she may have been embarrassed by some of the issues. I made an effort to share my experiences in order to make her open up to me. However, she furnished me with very little information on her sexual experiences.

Mash and Barkley (2006) acknowledge that the risk for substance abuse and other addictive behaviors usually starts when an individual is in middle school in increase significantly during high school years. Teenage girls who have ADHD have a higher risk of substance abuse. It was evident that the client had a high risk of substance abuse. I strived to tackle this by informing her the negative impacts of substance abuse. I routinely gave her brochures that encouraged her to have positive behaviors that would help in reducing some of the risks she faced due to ADHD.

Rief (2015) asserts that it is vital to acknowledge the fact that the behavior of teenage girls with ADHD had a neurological basis. In addition, the reaction of the girls usually increases when they have stress, fatigue, PMS, or hunger. Therefore, it is vital for the teenage girl and her parents to recognize the high vulnerability that she faces. They should also ensure that they identify and manage various stress inducing issues that may worsen the girl’s reactions. Use of both medication and psychotherapy is the most effective method of treating ADHD. Medication should address various complex issues that the teenage girl faces instead of ADHD alone. Since peer issues and issues on self-worth are crucial among most teenage girls who have ADHD, it is vital for psychotherapy to be designed in a manner that would help in addressing these issues.

Parritz and Troy (2013) state that group psychotherapy is an efficient means of treating teenage girls who have ADHD.  The group psychotherapy may be conducted in school by a school or in a private setting. In light of the above factors, I encouraged the client to enroll in group psychotherapy. She did not want to take part in group psychotherapy in school since she thought this may tarnish her image. Therefore, I enrolled her in group psychotherapy in a private setting.

Teenagers have significant hormonal changes. The hormonal fluctuations increase during the menstrual cycle, which complicates the confusion and unpredictability of teenage girls who have ADHD. It is a fact that pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS) is an annoying period of irritability and fatigue among a significant number of girls. However, girls who have ADHD have heightened emotional reactions and irritability. They also have low tolerance to frustration. These issues make the girls require active intervention. I encouraged the client to use anti-depressant medication to tackle the effects of PMS.

The emotions of a teenage girl with ADHD may tip very quickly if environmental stresses overwhelm the girls system, which is already distressed. As such, an accidental pregnancy, breakup of a relationship, or a college rejection letter may be enough to heighten the girl’s anxiety and depression levels such that they may require medication and psychotherapy. It is vital for parents and professionals to monitor the emotional roller coaster of a teenage girl with ADHD to determine whether the anxiety and depression levels have tipped over the edge making the girl require professional help. Anxiety and depression of girls with ADHD can be successfully treated together with the ADHD. However, it is vital to ensure that the teenage receives the right prescription. This is due the fact that certain medication for ADHD may increase anxiety.

The activities of the student government increased the pressures that the client faced. This increased her risk of having heightened anxiety levels. Therefore, I monitored the behavior of the girl closely to determine whether her anxiety levels had tipped over the edge. I asked her father to also monitor her behavior and call me when she felt that the client’s levels of anxiety were very high. The client’s father called me when she thought the girl had high anxiety levels. The girl was enjoying her time in school. However, the family decided that they would move to Texas. During one of our previous sessions, the girl had claimed that she would kill herself if her family decided to move to Texas. The relocation would have a significant impact on her social and emotional well-being. Her election in the school government had helped in improving her self-esteem. Relocating to Texas would force her to enroll in a new school. This would make necessitate her to form new friends. The client is not good at making and maintaining friends. Therefore, the relocation would have a negative impact on her wellbeing. After meeting the client, I strived to explain to her the importance of relocating to Texas. Her father had found a new Job in Texas. It would be hard for her to keep commuting to and from Texas to be with the family. I also strived to view the issues from the girl’s perception. I was sympathetic her plight. However, there was nothing I could do since the relocation of the client’s family was beyond my control. Therefore, it was vital to make the girl accept that the family had to relocate. However, the family planned to relocate to Texas in the next 3 months. Therefore, I would continue our sessions with client for the two months. I planned to recommend her to seek the services of a certain profession in Texas when they relocate.

Rief (2015) acknowledges that girls who have a special ability or talent in a certain area are less likely to have low self-esteem. Therefore, helping a teenager girl with ADHD to develop and recognize her areas of competence and talent is one of the most efficient approaches of dealing with ADHD. Making the girls be in touch with their areas of competence helps in reducing their vulnerability to the criticism and frustrations that are usually associated with ADHD. The teenage girls have various areas that the girls may develop their sense of competence and ability. Part-time work, volunteer work, and participation in various school activities are some of the activities that may be vital in building a sense of self-confidence among the girls. I actively helped the client to recognize her areas of competence and talent. I encouraged her to run for the school government, which she ultimately won. I personally congratulated her upon her victory. I strived to highlight and develop her leadership skills. I noted that she was enthusiastic to certain issues that the school faced.

Mash and Barkley (2006) state that high school years are the right moment for girls to develop their self-advocacy skills, which are vital in their independent life after high school. This is regardless of whether it is in an educational setting or in their workplace.  This is due to the fact that the girls would have to know how to express their needs confidently and convincingly to their professors or future employers who may not have the right information on ADHD. Running for school government elections was one of the most important events in the client’s life. It enabled her to develop her self-advocacy skills. She expressed her opinions in a constructive and effective manner during the campaign period, which enabled her to ultimately win the elections. As such, the school elections enabled the girl to learn how to be more assertive. It also improved her self-advocacy skills. This would be vital in the future independent life of the client.

According to Rief (2015), it is vital for teenage girls to receive support and encouragement. This is due to the fact that they are trying to become more independent. Parritz and Troy (2013) state that in some instances, it may be more helpful when someone else apart from the teenage girl’s parents to provide support and encouragement. I strived to provide support and encouragement to the client. This enabled the client to know how to be on time. It also helped the client improve her organization skills. I encouraged the client to set priorities instead of staying in a reactive mode. The development of these skills would not only help the client tackle ADHD, but also help in improving her wellbeing in other aspects of her life.

In conclusion, high school years may be very challenging to girls who have ADHD. For the girls to tackle the challenges, they need support from their parents, peers and school, which should be combined with the right medical and psychological treatment. The support and treatment is dependent on the particular needs and issues of the girls. Having the right support and intervention would make the girl overcome the challenges and make a smooth transition from chaos and self-doubt to competence and high self-esteem in their young adult life. I hope my intervention would make my client make the smooth transition.

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SOC-417 – Power and Politics – Sociological Perspectives on Power and Control

SOC-417 Power and Politics Paper Guidelines

Write a paper that explains the sociological perspectives of C. Wright Mills, Karl Marx, and Peter Berger. It should be relevant and insightful paper with 1500-3000 words and six to eight resources.

  • Provide insight into each sociologist’s background.
  • Describe each perspective.
  • Compare and contrast each of the perspectives.
  • Critically analyze the topic of power and control in America held by each sociologist.
  • Apply each perspective to both historical and current issues and give evidence of the societal ramifications.

This assignment consists of three parts during week four:   Part 1 – Outline and First Draft Part 2 – Peer Review Part 3 – Final Draft

Sociological Perspectives Of C. Wright Mills, Karl Marx, And Peter Berger – Sample Answer

Introduction

Max Weber characterized power as the capacity for attaining particular goals regardless of the attendant resistance from others. Every society is established on some structure of power as well as control. In the US and many other industrial economies, power help in establishing an individual’s societal position, or ranking, in societal structures deemed vertical. The structures are often seen as expressions or even consequences of societal inequalities (Giddens & Giddens, 2009). In this paper, varied sociological perspectives regarding social control and power are examined. Specifically, the sociological perspectives, which relate to social control and power, of Wright Mills, Peter Berger along with Karl Marx are appraised critically in the paper. Each of these perspectives presents diverse explanations regarding human conduct and the social world.

Sociological Background and Perspectives on Control and Power in America

Karl Marx

Background

The principal influence on Karl Marx’s appreciation of social control and power appear to have been Wilhelm Hegel, a leading German philosopher. Marx interpreted Hegel’s writings claiming that history, as well as reality, ought to be considered dialectically. The writings persuaded Marx to view the human history’s direction as typified by the progress towards increased rationality. In most of the writings, Hegel demonstrated that the absolute at times evolves as revolutionary, episodal, and discontinuous leaps; resisting the extant status quos. For instance, he viewed the unity of Christians as certainly capable of radically eliminating slavery, an expression and consequence of class conflict, from the US and elsewhere (Giddens & Giddens, 2009).

Perspective

The Marx’s viewpoint regarding social control along with power was hinged on the conflict perspective. Those who espouse social perspectives that are deemed functionalist take societies as having diverse parts working harmoniously as constituting societies. Even then, those espousing the conflict perspective take the societies as being constituted by diverse competing interests and groups (Giddens & Giddens, 2009). They compete for particular resources and power. That means that Marx viewed social control along with power as the outcomes of the competitions pitting particular interests or groups against others.

The perspective explains diverse facets of social environments by examining the groups having power over others and benefiting from specific societal controls, or arrangements. For instance, in the US, feminists view the society as being patriarchal and biased against females. The feminists view the males as having power over the females and benefiting from specific social arrangements or realities that enable them control over the females.

Marx asserted that the society held limited power, which can only be vested in a small group of individuals or an individual at any particular time. The group or the individual constitutes the ruling and working classes. In capitalistic economies such as the US, the few in the ruling class, the rulers, hold every power. They employ the power in exploiting those in the working class, the workers (Giddens & Giddens, 2009). Those holding the power own the means of controlling production means, hence the workers, owing to capitalism. That is the principal reason why in the majority of nations, the workers hold no power and the rulers hold all the power.

Marx opined that given that political power and economic power are closely tied together, the rulers hold both and the workers hold none of the two. That is clearly exemplified by the numbers of those accessing higher education in the US. Political processes markedly influence the allocation of resources to the institutions offering the education (Giddens & Giddens, 2009; Stolley, 2005). Generally, individuals who are from the families that are deemed powerful owing to the lots of wealth in their control have a higher chance of accessing the education than those considered as holding less power since they have control over less wealth.

The rulers do control the workers since they employ their power in socializing the workers, convincing the workers to accept something that is not in line with own will, the ruler’s ideology (Giddens & Giddens, 2009). The workers effectively suffer false consciousness since they are incapable of realizing that they admitted the ruler’s ideology as own ideology, allowed the ruler’s morals and values to be admitted across the world, and ensured that the rulers’ retain power. The US political parties are largely funded and controlled by families and corporations that are deemed powerful owing to the economic wherewithal in their possession. The families and then corporations argue for particular values and interests and present them as the values shared by all Americans, including those deemed downtrodden or powerless (Skocpol & Campbell, 1995).

The Marxist conflict perspective regarding social control and power comes off as passing over social stability and overly zeroing in on change. As noted earlier, those holding power own the means of controlling production means, hence the workers. That may not be factual where rulers own the means but let their agents, or managers, control the means, hence the workers. In some companies, the workers hold the means through the shares they hold, contradicting the perspective.

Wright Mills

Background

The principal influences on Wright Mills as a young person were the pragmatist works of realists such as William James and Charles Peirce, the writings of Max Weber and Karl Mannheim, and Marxism. He viewed Marxism as a critical sociologists’ too. He asserted that every sociologist should be amply trained on Marxism.

Perspective

Mills viewed social control along with power via the conflict perspective. Indeed, Mills is widely deemed as the foremost founder and promoter of contemporary conflict. He viewed individuals as being influenced and compelled by the development of societal structures to fit into either the “others” class or the elite class. In the US, the elite may include large corporations and the government. Mills viewed competition as being a natural occurrence between the classes over limited resources (Giddens & Giddens, 2009). The classes compete over the resources rather than agreeing on how to share them out via consensus. According to Mills, wider societal organizations and structures such as religions and governments mirror the competition and the attendant inequalities regarding influence and power. The elites employ the resources they acquire in propagating the control and the power they have over the “others”.

The elites have influence over the “others” since they employ their power in socializing the “others”, convincing the others to accept the ruler’s ideology. The “others” effectively suffer false consciousness since they are incapable of realizing that they admitted the ruler’s ideology, allowed the ruler’s morals and values to be admitted across the world, and ensured that the rulers’ retain power (Giddens & Giddens, 2009). As noted earlier, the perspective regarding social control and power comes off as passing over social stability and overly zeroing in on change. As noted earlier, those holding power, the elite, own the means of controlling production means, hence the “others”. As noted earlier, that may not be factual where elite own the means but let their agents, or managers, control the means, hence the “others”. As noted earlier, in some companies, the “others” hold the means through the shares they hold, contradicting the perspective.

Peter Berger

Background

Berger has a fairly conservative Lutheran background. His research works have been rather distinct from the modern typical sociology. They are inclined away from right-wing opinionated thinking. His background has made him adopt a humanistic perspective and social constructionist perspective on virtually all aspects with sociological worth. Largely, the perspective stresses on analyses that are devoid of value (Aeschliman, 2011; Berger, 1966). He taught in North Carolina in the 1950s. During those times, he experienced first-hand the then outrageous American intolerance of the former Confederate region’s culture (Skocpol & Campbell, 1995). The experience persuaded him markedly to take up the humanistic perspective and social constructionist perspective and employ them in revealing the ideological motivations that underlay the intolerance.

Perspective

Berger views social control and power as social constructs. He views them as shared constructed meanings that develop over time. According to him the control and power are developed since individuals are bend on rationalizing own experiences through the creation of particular social world models and their functioning. According to Berger, social control and power are socially constructed to characterize particular connotations, notions, or meanings placed on within-domain events and objects and how others appreciate own interactions with the events and objects (Berger, 1966).

For instance, in the US, the notion that the minorities are less powerful than the majority Whites is a social construct that comes off as obvious and natural to almost all the Americans who have accepted it. As well, in the US, the notion that the minorities are socially subservient to and controlled by the majority Whites is a social construct that comes off as obvious and natural to almost all the Americans (Ainlay, 1986). Notably, the notions may not mirror reality. Groups and individuals partake in the development of the notions of perceived societal reality, create the related social phenomena, and institutionalize the notions (Skocpol & Campbell, 1995). The notions are publicized and developed into traditions ultimately.

The perspective that Berger has regarding the control and power appear to follow accepted logic (Berger & Luckmann, 1966). Individuals are inclined towards maintaining their subjective existences via reaffirming with societal interactions between themselves and others (Ainlay, 1986). The identity of a society and an individual come off as dialectically connected: an individual’s social understanding of the control and power is a product of societal processes. The society orders the processes.

Contrasting and Comparison of Perspectives

The take of Marx and Mills on social control and power are hinged on the conflict perspective. Mills viewed social control along with power via the conflict perspective. The Marx’s viewpoint regarding social control along with power was hinged on the conflict perspective. Notably, one of the principal influences on Wright Mills as a young person was Marxism. Unlike Marx and Mills, Berger’s understanding of the control and power are informed by the humanistic perspective and the social constructionist perspective. Berger views social control and power as social constructs (Ainlay, 1986).

Conclusion

In the US and other societies that are defined by vertical social structures, a few individuals wield power over many others below them. Sociological theories provide researchers with varied perspectives on particular social aspects. While Marx and Mills viewed social control along with power as the outcomes of the competitions pitting particular interests or groups against others, Berger views them as social constructs.

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Journey Of The Magi – Poetry Essay

Introduction

T.S. Elliot compiled Journey of the Magi in 1927 after he converted to Anglican. The Journey of the Magi denotes a foremost change in T.S. Elliot career. The poem is a theatrical monologue of aspiration, purpose, and intricacy and is consequently appropriate to read aloud. The poem indicates Eliot’s feelings, and thoughts towards conversion, although the poem is not about Eliot. The Journey of the Magi expounds the views, and opinions of one of the Three Wise Men. The Journey of the Magi occurs and transpires before the three wise men get to the manger (Kennedy, & Gioia, 2009). The poem gives details on the adversity, and the suffering of the journey, the uncertainty of the Three Wise Men, and the background of Bethlehem. In this essay, I look at how Eliot uses different themes, symbolism, allegory, imagery and quotes to develop the poem and illustrate about the birth of Jesus Christ.

The poem starts with an extract about a journey, which is difficult and cold one. The title of the poem suggests that this is the journey of the Three Wise Men that visited Jesus. The poem continues to intricate, and explains on the hardships of the journey, involving unfriendly and expensive towns, insufficient places to sleep, irritable camels, and the fire goes out (Shmoop Editorial Team, 2008). Eliot comments and explains that the Three Wise Men chose to travel during the night, and they felt that the journey was fruitless and in vain. The writer also indicates of the Magi’s appearance in Bethlehem, a place the narrator denotes as “a temperate Valley” in the 21st line. The villagers are not aware of the place where Jesus will be born, and therefore, they are unable to direct the Three Wise Men. However, the Magi finally locate the manger, which they have to witness the birth of Jesus. The last stanza of the poem indicates that the Magi are recalling the story, and in their remembrance the Magi are uncertain and unsure if the birth of Jesus was a good or bad thing. The Magi substitutes and reinstates the birth of Jesus with their traditions, and religion, as in the end the Magi consider and regard the birth of Jesus as a bad thing. Also, the Magi desires for their death together with the death of their peoples old culture and religion.

Theme of the Poem

The Journey of the Magi describes three major themes; the first theme that I will explain is the theme of suffering. The poem starts and ends with suffering, and the Three Wise Men endure the unfriendly people, and also the bad weather. The poem also depicts emotional and mental affliction of the dying ethnicity and traditions. Also, the sufferings predict of the mental and physical anguish that Jesus will undergo as he grows up to become the Messiah. The poem illustrates that belief and holiness circles are suffering and the afflictions produce change and transformation in religion. Further, the poem depicts the theme of religion (Shmoop Editorial Team, 2008).The poem is about the birth of Jesus, the three wise men, and the Biblical insinuation and citation. Finally, the poem also illustrates the theme of tradition and culture; the poem describes and swabs a dead tradition and culture. The poem depicts an end of the culture of the Magi, and also the imminent and future doom of the birth of Jesus. Also, the Journey of the Magi is a poem that confronts the traditions and culture of a society.

The Setting

The setting of the poem is in the today Saudi-Arabia around the Persian Gulf, and towards the current Israel and the Mediterranean. From the second stanza, and line 17, 18, and 21, in particular, states that the three wise men use two days to journey from Bethlehem (Shmoop Editorial Team, 2008). Therefore, the content and the background of the poem occur in the valley that comprise of Jerusalem and Bethlehem. The setting of the poem is symbolic as it depicts a remote place and uncivilized geographical area that is visited by rich and affluent people. In the last stanza, the Magus speaks of the kingdoms he had visited as his journey to witnesses the birth of Jesus. This indicates that although the setting is luxurious, the Magus concedes and yields of his story.

The Title

The title of the poem is important and vital as the title of the poem sounds like the “The Gift of the Magi that is the classic short story by O. Henry. The title of the Journey of the Magi is vital and imperative as it depicts figurative travel (Shmoop Editorial Team, 2008).This means, the transformation from pagan to Christianity, also the title illustrates the conversion that Eliot underwent from doubter to a committed and spiritual Christian. Finally, the title is versatile and compressive as it illustrates various purposes and explains different changes and transformation in life. Further, the speaker in this poem is on one level. The poem is set up as one of the wise men travelling to witness the birth of Jesus. The narrator is sad and solemn and speaks about the far away and the long ago. The poem depicts a theatrical monologue.

Conclusion

In conclusion, Journey of the Magi is a symbolic poem that illustrates the suffering and afflictions that Christians undergo after the conversion. It also illustrates the thoughts, the feelings and the perception that Eliot experienced after his conversion. This poem marked a new and a fresh start of Eliot’s life and career. The lesson in this poem is vital and imperative to the modern Christian and society, as it describes the changes and transformation.