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Role of Risk Manager in Heath Care Assignment And Sample Answer

Assignment Instructions

In order to be successful, a risk management plan must be communicated and applied throughout the organization.

  • Prepare a paper that examines the role of the risk manager in integrating the risk management program within the organization and ensuring compliance.
  • Evaluate challenges that a risk manager might confront in developing, communicating, and implementing a risk management program.

Include at least three references, of which one must be a scholarly article.

 

Sample Answer

Role of Risk Manager in Heath Care

In most organizations, there is an overwhelming expectation to conduct their operations with minimal exposure to risks or any forms of liabilities. In order for such organizations to remain successful in terms of avoiding or minimizing exposure to liabilities, they require practicing proper risk management procedure. There should be sufficient time for such organizations to establish structural and organizational policies, which can protect them from experiencing any form risk especially financial liabilities (Kolb & Schwartz, 2009). Even though it is not possible to completely eradicate financial liability risk, effective application of risk management procedures will bring the exposure down to acceptable levels. There are various traditional methods, which various organizations implement in order to practice fundamental risk management. They include; implementing protective policies and procedures to the organization, establishing form practices of employment, development of materials for training and board orientation, and acquiring insurance coverage (Kolb & Schwartz, 2009).

In modern times, efforts geared towards quality improvement and risk management in healthcare organizations do find it necessary to support patient safety (Youngberg, 2010). It is significant to note that a risk manager performs crucial roles in an organization. Some of these crucial roles include education, patient safety, loss prevention, and identification and analysis of risk (Youngberg, 2010). Risk manager should conduct an analysis of customer satisfaction and then initiate activities, which would improve performance in respect to the findings. He/she should, also, be active in conducting analyses to establish the root-cause of events. In this regard, he/she should design systems, which would assist in implementation of improvements (Kolb & Schwartz, 2009). He/she should engage in continuous identification of opportunities in order to sustain improvement. The risk manager should, also, perform consultative roles as far as various services and departments in the organization are concerned. Such consultative services are crucial for organizational compliance, accreditation and regulatory purposes. All these activities are significant for performance and quality improvement. The manager should, also, oversee programs, which aim at upgraded patient care outcomes (Kolb & Schwartz, 2009).

In line with the roles of a risk manager, risk identification as well as control should be put on the forefront (Okoroh & Gombera, 2006). These two aspects entail adverse event reporting as well as prevention of loss and reduction. The risk managers of the contemporary times should be on the fore front to ensure effective policy review, claims management and risk financing. Risk management should, also, entail compensation of workers, mandatory event reporting, accreditation compliance, regulatory and corporate compliance, security and safety, and patient relations (Okoroh & Gombera, 2006). Some of the overlapping roles of the risk manager include strategic planning, accreditation issues, board reports, patient education, addressing patient complaints, engaging in proactive assessment of risk, and performing root-cause analysis (Kolb & Schwartz, 2009). It is worth noting that charitable and nonprofit organizations can get exposure to risks through various areas. These areas include the misappropriation of physical assets, fundraising activities, investments, possible loss of charitable or nonprofit status, tax liabilities, misuse of funds, and fraud. Therefore, for risk managers to be effective in their roles, they should establish and implement effectual internal controls (Youngberg, 2010).

There are various challenges, which a risk manager may encounter during the development, communication and implementation of a risk management program. Following the current market interconnectedness and various other factors, it is significant to note that any form of risk can pop up anywhere in the world (Youngberg, 2010). This accumulates a lot of pressure of work for risk managers due to being uncertain of potential occurrences. Risk managers of today have to deal with the challenge of maintaining the reputation of their organizations. All organizations acknowledge the significance of this exercise especially during compliance or regulatory disputes. Therefore, challenges arise whenever they ensure reputational risk mitigation in all functional areas (Kolb & Schwartz, 2009). They, also, experience the challenge of global reach especially due to the Middle Eastern volatility and the expansion of upcoming markets in China, India, Brazil, and Russia (Okoroh & Gombera, 2006). There is the challenge of cultural change where risk managers have to deal with the introduction of a culture that is more risk enabled across a global organization. Another challenge, which the risk managers do face, is the compliance records. In most cases, accountability of the compliance records of an organization is the responsibility of the corporate counsel. This is mostly common on a global scale including the United States (Okoroh & Gombera, 2006).

In conclusion, most organizations have an overwhelming expectation to conduct their operations with minimal exposure to risks or any forms of liabilities. Even though it is not possible to completely eradicate financial liability risk, effective application of risk management procedures will bring the exposure down to acceptable levels. It is significant to note that a risk manager performs crucial roles in an organization (Youngberg, 2010). Some of these crucial roles include education, patient safety, loss prevention, and identification and analysis of risk. Some of the overlapping roles of the risk manager include strategic planning, accreditation issues, board reports, patient education, addressing patient complaints, engaging in proactive assessment of risk, and performing root-cause analysis. Risk managers of today have to deal with the challenge of maintaining the reputation of their organizations. They, also, experience the challenge of global reach especially due to the Middle Eastern volatility and the expansion of upcoming markets in China, India, Brazil, and Russia.

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The Story of One Hour by Kate Chopin

The Story of One Hour by Kate Chopin was first published in 1894. Kate started writing fiction in 1889 and was known for her feminist views in her books. The short story focuses on one hour in the life of Louise Mallard during the times of the Victorian Society. The story starts when Louise’s sister Josephine tells Louise about the death of her husband Brently in a train accident, and the events that follow. Louise is a woman with a bad heart, and dies when she finds out her husband is still alive despite being told that he had died in an accident (Chopin 5).

The author shocks readers at the end of the short story and creates a debate on why Louise died. Did Louise die of a heart attack because of her short lived joy and excitement when she believed her husband was dead?  The tone of the story changes drastically from sorrow to joy and to sometimes being ironic or cynical. Louise is told by her sister that her husband has died in a train accident. The sister and Richards are carefully about how they break the news due to Louise’s heart condition because the bad news may kill her. The tone of the story is one of sorrow as Louise cries in her sister’s arms. When she returns to her room, she takes time to think about what the death of her husband means. Suddenly she starts to see life from a different perspective from the one she is living.

Louise has never imagined life without her husband and does not believe that is even a possibility. In Victorian Society, women belonged to men, where they were weak and helpless. Women could not survive without their husbands or fathers. The tone of the story changes when Louise suddenly realizes she is free and independent. She no longer belongs to her husband. This thought gets her excited as she desperately tries to fight the feeling of joy. She tries to fight this because feeling this amount of joy and excitement was forbidden in society. Suddenly she acknowledges all the excitement and joy of freedom and start acting like she is possessed. She sees her life different, free full of hope and she unexpectedly utters the word free. She says it over and over again in disbelief.  She becomes overwhelmed and begins to praying hoping this feeling will last forever.

The tone of the story suddenly changes to shock when Brently returns and just as quickly as it came, takes away her independence. The dramatic change of losing her freedom, joy and happiness kills her. It is obvious that Louise was oppressed in her marriage even though she acknowledges that her husband was a kind man who loved her very much. Despite this, she feels joy when she is told that he is dead. His death releases her from her oppression. However sadly, this is short lived when her husband comes back and she suddenly dies. The short story is full of drama and is ironical. The story shows how something drastic can change somebody’s life. Louise was an oppressed woman whose whole life suddenly changed with joy and hope due to her husband’s death. The story is also subtle and yet cruel. The impact of the story is powerful especially at the end when Louise’s husband Brently returns. Overall the story is able to depict different emotions over one hour of someone’s life and how one event can change someone’s life completely.

 

The JCAHO and Sentinel Events Assignment And Sample Answer

The Joint Commission has established polices regarding the reporting of sentinel events by health care organizations.  Visit The Joint Commission’s website and review the Sentinel Event Policy and Procedures by Accreditation and/or Certification Program for two different types of organizations (e.g. ambulatory health care, long-term health care, hospitals, etc.).

Prepare a composition that discusses the following:

  • The importance of sentinel event reporting
  • General requirements of The Joint Commission’s Sentinel Event policy
  • The role of The Joint Commission in ensuring patient safety
  • The process of conducting a root cause analysis
  • Comparisons and contrasts on some of the organization-specific sentinel event examples that are subject to review by the Joint Commission between two different healthcare organizations (e.g. differences between an ambulatory health care and a hospital).
  • The role and responsibilities of the risk management function in ensuring organizational compliance with The Joint Commission’s Sentinel Event policy

 

 

SAMPLE ANSWER

The Joint Commission performs essential responsibilities in the health sector. The commission ensures that the public receives the best health care quality. To support this mandate, the commission performs reviews of the activities of the hospital especially in response to sentinel events. This happens in the process of accreditation that entails for-cause surveys, as appropriate, full accreditation surveys, and random validation surveys (Natarajan, 2006). According to Natarajan (2006), a sentinel event is a startling incidence, which may involve serious psychological or physical injury, and to the worst extent, death. In the event that the patient suffers serious injury, then the situation should indicate a victim’s loss of function or even limb. The reason why such events bear the name “sentinel” is because they demand immediate analysis and quick response (Moore, 2008). Therefore, the joint commission continues collaborating with various stakeholders to ensure that the health care sector offers the safest and most effective care to patients.

The importance of sentinel event reporting

Sentinel event reporting has a lot of significance. It necessitates root cause analysis (Moore, 2008). This entails identification of causal or fundamental factors, which underlie the performance variation. Therefore, reporting gives details of probable occurrence or even actual occurrence of a given sentinel event. The main focus of the root cause analysis is mostly on the processes and systems and never on the individual performance (Natarajan, 2006). The report gives details of common causes in regards to the organizational processes as well as systems. It, also, gives details of special causes in regards clinical processes. Reporting is, also, essential because it leads to the development of an action plan. The processes involved in the analysis of the root cause lead to the establishment of an action plan. An action plan is essential in the sense that it identifies the approaches, which the organization should implement in order to decrease the likely occurrence of similar events some other time in the future (Ladema & Jorm, 2008). Therefore the report should give details regarding strategies, time lines, pilot testing, oversight and implementation that should comprise the action plan (Moore, 2008).

The sentinel event reporting is, also, essential because it gives details of the survey process (Ladema & Jorm, 2008). In most cases, the Joint Commission endeavors to assess the compliance of an organization whenever it organizes for an accreditation survey. During the process, the Joint Commission only requires the surveyors to avoid addressing sentinel events that are not yet known. Reporting, also, enables the public to know the progress of the organization in terms of minimizing and ending sentinel events (Ladema & Jorm, 2008). By collaborating with the joint commission, it becomes easy to understand the manner in which such events happen, and what should happen to eradicate such events in the future. Reporting an event as early it happens provides an ample opportunity to engage the staff of the Joint Commission in consultations. These consultations usually happen during the stage of analyzing the root cause and development of an action plan. Sentinel event reporting, also, provides for addition of the lesson learned during the event to be included in the sentinel event database of the Joint Commission (Moore, 2008).

General requirements of The Joint Commission’s Sentinel Event policy

It is worth noting that the Sentinel Event Policy of the Joint Commission has various requirements. Sentinel policy requires every accredited organization to provide a definition of the sentinel event (Hellings & Schrooten, 2007). This provides assistance especially regarding mechanisms of identification, reporting and management of such events. In such cases, the definition, which an organization provides should include only events whose review is provided for in the Sentinel Event Policy. The Sentinel Event Policy, also, requires that, during the occurrence of the sentinel event, the accredited organization should be prompt in conducting an analysis to establish the root cause (Hellings & Schrooten, 2007). It should, also, be prompt in developing an action plan, and implement essential improvements in order to reduce the risk. It should, also, be consistent in monitoring the effectiveness of all the essential improvements. The Sentinel Event Policy requires that reporting an event should happen through the system for event reporting, and it should happen up to the corporate level (Moore, 2008). It, also, requires that a credible analysis of the root cause of the event should happen through Root Cause Meetings. These meetings should happen within fourteen days of the occurrence of the event (Moore, 2008). All the attendees of such meetings should comprise of groups coming from different disciplines.

The role of The Joint Commission in ensuring patient safety

The Joint Commission ensures the safety of the patients through a number of ways. First, it has a mandate to practice continuous improvement of health care for the benefit of the public. It conducts an assessment of organizations, which provide health care and motivates them to maintain high quality, effective and safe health care at all times (Natarajan, 2006). The Joint Commission, also, encourages the physicians to engage in quality health care and patient safety. This is because their skills, knowledge as well as experiences are significant for positive health care and experiences of the patients (Natarajan, 2006). The Joint Commission, also, guarantees patient safety by enhancing and encouraging the involvement of physicians in accreditation.  In the same respect, the Joint Commission, also, ensures that nurses adhere to standards, rules and laws in order to guarantee desirable patient safety during their practice (Hellings & Schrooten, 2007).  The Joint Commission, also, encourages and motivates patients to ensure their own safety.

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Motivating Operations – Behavioral Psychology Essay

In behavioral psychology, practitioners hold that motivation is a key contributor to the development of certain types of behavior in individuals, in the case of both children and adults. As such it is imperative that psychologists examine and understand the various motivations of behavior to enable the design the appropriate environments that foster the development of alternative and better behaviors. Motivation is that internal state or condition that energizes behavior and provides it with direction. Motivating operations refer to events that play a role in increasing and decreasing the probability of behavior. Motivating operations serve two main purposes: to alter the effectiveness of a particular stimulus as a reinforcer and to change the present frequency of all behavior that is reinforced by that particular stimulus.  Generally, motivating operations affect how much an individual “wants” something and how hard he or she will “work” to obtain it. In behavioral psychology, Motivating operations influence the effectiveness of any intervention that is based on the manipulation of consequences (Pearson Education Inc., 2010).

There are two types of motivating operations, unconditioned motivating operations (UMOs) and conditioned motivating operations (CMOs). UMOs are unlearned and are mostly as a result of an individual’s nature or history. For example, when an individual is feeling cold, he looks for ways to keep warm. The cold (motivating operation) increases the reinforcing value of warmth. Once the individual gets warm, then becoming warm abolishes the value of warmth as a reinforcer. CMOs on the other hand are learned or acquired. Conditioned Motivating Operations are usually neutral before they are either associated with another existing MO or a form or reinforcement or punishment. For instance, a man to change the channel on the TV but the remote doesn’t work. This increases the reinforcing value of buying batteries for the device, after which the remote works thus abolishing the need for batteries as a reinforcer (Ikkandi, 2011).

An example of motivating operations as a function of behavior can be explained by examining the case of Jimmy, a sixth grade student. Jimmy’s father has promised to buy him a new computer game if he gets good grades at the end of the school term. In this case the computer game is the motivating operation. In order to obtain what he has been promised Jimmy will definitely work harder, complete his assignments and engage in activities that will earn him extra credits in school i.e. influence his behavior.

Ethical Principles of Psychologists: The Monster Study

In the early 1900s many speech therapists and pathologists believed in the mainstream theory that held that stuttering was caused by cerebral imbalances. In 1939 Wendell Johnson, a psychologist at the University of Iowa, decided to investigate the cause of stuttering in children. Johnson conducted the research through Mary Tudor who was one of the students in his graduate class. The subjects of the experiment were twenty two (22) orphan children selected from institutions in Iowa none of whom were aware of the objective of the research but were made to believe that they were going to receive speech therapy. The subjects of the research were divided into two groups: the treatment (I) group and the control (II) group. Ten of the twenty two orphans selected originally had speech problems and had been marked as stutterers before the experiment begun. Five of the ten stutterers were placed in the treatment group (IA) who were made to believe that there was no problem with their speech at all while the other five students with speech problems were placed in the control group (IB) and were told that indeed they had challenges in speaking. The remaining twelve children participating in the study were randomly selected from the population of normally fluent orphans. Six of the children were placed in group IIA and were informed that they were beginning to develop speech problems such as stuttering. The other six subjects in group IIB who were fluent speakers were treated as such and praised for their good oratory skills. The Monster Study was characterized by ethical malpractices contrary to the standards and codes that guide the practice of research in psychology today.

The above experiment was conducted between May and January 1939 and involved talking sessions with each of the children. The children in group IIA who originally didn’t have stuttering problems began to develop other psychological problems though they didn’t stutter. They were afraid to engage in conversation or read aloud in class and this led to a decline in their academic performance. Other children developed anxiety and self esteem issues. Psychologists termed Wendell’s study as the “monster study” because they felt that he had no regard for the welfare of the orphan children by exposing them to such a study. Essentially, Wendell was trying to induce stuttering to children with normal speech through negative speech therapy and to test whether stutterers would improve their speech through positive reinforcement (Gretchen, 2003). This experiment has been deemed unethical by many psychology researchers worldwide.

 

The Monster study violated some of the General Principles outlined American Psychological Association to provide guidance to psychologists in their work. The manner in which experiment was contrary to Principle A: Beneficence and Nonmaleficence which encourages psychologists to ensure that their research benefits their subjects and does no harm to them. This study eventually led to some of the children developing psychological problems showing that it was indeed harmful to some of the research subjects. Principle C: Integrity, which states that “psychologists seek to promote accuracy, honesty and truthfulness in … psychology”, was also not upheld in the Monster Study. The participants of the monster study were made to believe that they were going to receive speech therapy during the experiment. However, the researchers’ objectives were to induce stuttering to children with normal speech and try to correct the speaking problems in the stutterers. In this case Wendell and Tudor deceived their subjects and led to long term negative impacts in the health of some of the children. Another principle violated in this experiment was Principle D: Justice, which upholds that psychologists should be fair in their practice and ensure that all persons can access and benefit from the psychologists’ work equally. In this experiment, Wendell worked with subjects drawn from orphanages in Iowa. His choice of test subjects is questionable being that he chose extremely vulnerable individuals who were actually easily available and accessible in the institutions. To be fair and/or minimize bias in the experiment, some of the children should have at least been randomly selected from normal families or households.

Besides the General Principles discussed above, there were some standards for research were also violated in the Monster Study. In any experiment conducted by a psychologist, he or she is required to obtain informed consent from the individuals participating in the experiment. This means that each of the subjects should only agree to participate after having been fully and truthfully briefed on the intentions of the experiment and what is required of them as subjects. Wendell and Tudor deceitfully engaged the children who participated in the study without accurate knowledge of its objectives. In this case since the subjects were also young and may not have understood the intentions of the experiment, the researchers should have considered the children’s best interests before involving them in the study. Another standard that wasn’t achieved in Wendell’s study was that of privacy and confidentiality. In various documents reporting about the Monster study, remarks made by Tudor to the students and some of the names of the students have been mentioned and exposed to the public domain. Disclosures of research findings to the public also require consent from the participant (American Psychological Association, 2014).

In spite of the aforementioned ethical violations the Monster study can still be redesigned to achieve the desired results using a more ethical approach. The first step should be to diversify the population pool of the test subjects to ensure fairness, equal participation and eliminate the bias that was evident in the initial experiment. For instance, children participating in the experiment should be drawn from both orphanages and households with a strong family bond where the children have been exposed to a good and loving environment. Secondly, the true and objective of the experiment should be communicated to the children in a language that they can understand. Parents and other legal guardians should also be informed of the research objectives prior to the commencement of the study so that they can give their consent. Lastly, rather than using negative and degrading remarks on the children in groups IB and IIA, the researchers should have employed other means to prove their hypothesis. For instance, to correct the stuttering problem as a researcher I would try speaking to the children slowly and in short sentences, pausing before responding and avoid interrupting the children as they speak to produce the desired changes. I would refrain from negative comments that most definitely harm the child in the long run. In addition, other than trying to induce stuttering to fluent children, I would focus on investigating other causes of speech impairment such as genetics, delayed child development, neurophysiology and family dynamics (Scholastic’s Parent and Child, 2014).

Swiss Cheese Model and the Role of Risk Management in Preventing Accidents

Assignment Instruction

Review the Swiss cheese model of accident causation by James Reason described in the textbook. In addition, you may access the article online (see reading material). Reflect on the “Swiss cheese model” and evaluate the role of risk management in preventing accidents. Explain the implications of accidents on organizational performance. Include at least three academic references, of which one must be peer-reviewed from an academic journal.

 

Sample Answer

Swiss Cheese Model and the Role of Risk Management in Preventing Accidents

The Swiss Cheese model of accident causation is a widely used model used in various industries such as health and aviation. The model was first described by James Reason in his book ‘Human Error’ and uses human factors to explain accidents (Reason, 1990). The model suggests that in any system there are various levels of defense. For example in a health care environment, drugs are checked before they are administered or there is checklist done before any operation is carried out on a patient. Each of these levels has little holes which are known as latent conditions. These conditions are caused by issues such as lack of training, poor management decisions, poor designs or limited resources.

When these latent conditions are arranged in a line over successive levels of defense, they will create an opportunity for an incident to occur. They will also increase the probability of making active errors. When a combination of the latent conditions and active errors breach all the levels of defense a patient safety incident or accident will occur. The initial mode was made up of five basic structural elements; decision makers, line managers, preconditions, productive activities, and defenses (Perezgonzalez, ZiZhang, & Abdul, 2011).

Decision makers are the senior managers who formulate strategies with goals and objectives to maximize the system’s performance. Line managers are departmental managers whose role is to implement the strategy within their departments such as training. Preconditions are the qualities of the workforce, the status of machines and the environment. For example, motivated staff or proper equipment that works. Productive activities are the actual performance within the operational departments. Defenses are the safety measures put in place to deal with foreseeable incidents such as wearing safety clothing. Accidents will occur when weaknesses exist at all the above levels of the system. This may occur because a chain of events has occurred from the first level to the last level of the system. Most accidents can be traced back to the weaknesses in a system (Carthey & Clarke, 2010).

The main objective of any business is to maximize profits. However, how much risk should a business take to achieve these objectives? In a health care organization medical errors can be averted through proactive risk management. Every health care organization has a risk management program; however, the question lies in whether the program is reactive or proactive. Reactive is preventing a recurrence of accidents that have occurred, whereas proactive is preventing accidents before they occur. Proactive risk management may avoid losses and expenses that would impact on the profits of the organization (Hopkin, 2013).

Accidents affect businesses and society as a whole in terms of lost lives and suffering for families and employees. The role of risk management is therefore to prevent accidents. Risk management can be implemented in the following ways. It involves carrying out a risk assessment. This involves identifying hazards and those people at risk. The organization could eliminate all risks by substituting dangerous risks with less dangerous risks. This is done through evaluating and prioritizing the risks. The next step in risk assessment is deciding the on the preventive action and taking action. It can combat risks at their source through implementing safeguards or safety measures. It can also minimize risks by designing suitable systems within the organization. This includes training, rules, procedures and supervision. Finally the organization must monitor and review its risk management.

Every organization is confronted by accidents which result in both negative and positive outcomes. Negative outcomes are normally easier to document as they are observable. They constitute the highest costs to the organization’s bottom line. They include loss of lives, faulty products, suffering for families and employees of those injured. Positive consequences of accidents can be viewed as providing an opportunity for organizations to learn and innovate. The positive outcomes are effective in the long term when the numbers of accidents reduce. Organizations that have an effective approach to accidents are more likely to become profitable in the long run as they will innovate and implement risk management policies that prevent or reduce the accidents.

Organizations incur high costs due to accidents which include salary costs, productivity losses, retraining, compensation costs, repairs, medical expenses and occupational death and injuries.  Accidents also increase costs on staff welfare, insurance, legal suits, are time consuming for management and give a negative image for the organization. The positive implication of accidents on organization performance is long term as they learn the importance of health and safety training, first aid training, and provision of safety equipment to employees for those in accident prone area.

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Critical Review Of A Research Paper – Recruiting Project Managers

Background

This critical review is on the following research paper “ Recruiting Project Managers: A Comparative Analysis of Competencies and Recruitment Signals from Job Advertisements ”. The study is about the competencies organizations use in Project Manager Job advertisements to recruit project managers. Organizations find it a challenge to recruit the ‘right’ project manager. Choosing the ‘right’ manager, results in achieving the project objectives.    The role of the project manager is critical in project management because the managers need to have a broad understanding of the different areas that require coordination. The final outcome of the project is dependent on the project manager and thus has an impact on project management  (Meredith & Mantel, 2006, p. 139).

Selecting a project manager is one of the crucial decisions required for any project. Organizations therefore need to know which signals to use in job advertisements in order to attract potential applicants for the position of the project manager. At the same time, these signals need to reflect the standards prescribed by project management professional bodies.   The objective of the study was to provide a systematic approach to understanding the use of project manager competencies from the job advertisements, academics, and standards provided by project management professional organizations.

The study was done by Dr. Kamrul Ahsan a senior lecturer in Victoria University, Melbourne; Marcus Ho from Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand; and Sabik Khan from Trust Bank Limited, Bangladesh. The study addresses the following research questions which are clearly stated. They include: One, what are the most frequently used competencies to attract potential project managers to organizations? Two, do the competencies sought by recruitment job advertisements reflect the competencies prescribed by project management literature and professional bodies? Finally whether there are differences regionally and between industries in the use of project management competencies to attract potential project managers.

Literature Review

The researchers reviewed relevant research studies and provided a rationale for the importance of the study. The literature review highlights the research gaps and provides reasons why the research was necessary. The literature review focused on the project management profession and the role of the project manager. It looked at what makes a competent project manager and the competency frameworks from project management literature. Finally it reviewed project management recruitment and job advertisements.

The last five decades has seen a growth in the use of project management across different industries. This has led to the development of project management as a profession just like other professions like law and engineering (Hodgson, 2002). This has led to the growth of project management professionals with the Project Management Institute (PMI) having over 3.3 million members with 400,000 of these having Professional Management Professional (PMP) credentials as of 2011.

Research studies indicate that even though the development of project – based organizations has received attention in theory and practice (Sydow, Lindkvist, & DeFillippi, 2004; Turner & Keegan, 1999; Turner & Keegan, 2001). There is little research that has been done on the role of the project manager.  The role of a project manager has changed from an administrator to a managerial and leadership role. This means that the project manager needs a different set of skills, capabilities and competencies hence the need for this study. The professionalization of project managers continues to remain diverse as an occupation and profession.

Research studies indicate that the types of projects and competencies of project managers vary in depth and are very broad (Muller turner). According to Muller $turner, there is a correlation between project management leadership competencies and the success of the project. The different types of projects also require different types of leadership style. The International Project Management Association (IPMA) and Project Management Institute (PMI) are the two major project management professional bodies. These organizations have developed various project management competency frameworks. The three dimensions of project management competencies are knowledge, performance and personal.

The literature also looked at the recruitment of project managers which is critical for an organization to attract and retain talented personnel. The critical role of the competencies of project managers to an organization is vital to the success of its projects because of the complexity of project work. The matching of the project manager to the requirements of the project and objective of the organization is vital. The research indicated a gap in linking the project management competencies to the project management professional body standards and the job advertisements in recruiting the ‘right’ project manager.

Sample

The study population is made up of project manager job advertisements on print and online media. Print media includes newspapers, professional magazines and journals. Online media includes online job boards, company career web pages and social media. The researchers chose online job boards because these were bigger and more detailed than those found in published print media. The online job advertisements provided a lot of content for analysis. They are easy to navigate, manage, and access the target job advertisements. They are also easy to categorize by country, industry, role and responsibilities. The size of the sample was 795 job advertisements which were analyzed using the 15 KSAs (Knowledge, Skills and Ability) developed from the literature review. The job advertisements were representative as they covered different industries from Australia and New Zealand.

Data Collection

The researchers justified their choice of data collection. The data on job advertisements for project managers was collected from online job boards. This is because online job boards provide more details on the job competencies and requirements than print media. Print media is restricted due to the limited space provided and it is also costly when the job advertisements use a big space.

The researchers described the format of their data collection tools. The first step the researchers followed was to create variables that would be the basis of the data collection. They then identified the most cited variables from the project management literature in regards to the competencies required of a project manager. This process identified 60 variables which were grouped under the 15 KSAs. The variables were tallied and ranked based on how frequent they appeared on the job advertisements.

The next step was to identify the job website, and the researchers chose ‘Seek’. This is the largest online job board in the Australian region, and hosts 60% of the Australian job sites. The researchers did not consider other job boards as many recruiters post the same jobs simultaneously.

There was evidence of a pilot study because before the researchers embarked on data collection they ensured that the KSA variables they would use covered the most sought-after project manager competencies. The pilot study involved the analysis of 40 job advertisements. The merging and grouping of the key variables was conducted through the literature review, content analysis from the 40 job advertisements, and group consensus among the researchers. The initial 60 variables were checked and amendments made where necessary. The pilot study was a success as the researchers’ added variables to the initial 60, and other variables were discarded in the process. This ensured a robust variable set for the study.

The strengths of the data collection process were that the researchers could identify the strength of the selected variables and adjust them accordingly before embarking on the major data collection. The weakness of the process was that it was time consuming as it was done manually without the use of any software. This process was painstaking, time consuming and laborious. The researchers used 795 jobs advertisements which were reduced to 762 after screening due to lack of content or duplication. This is what was tabulated for analysis.

Data Analysis

            The data was analyzed using content analysis which is a research technique that allows for inferences to be  made based on text an in consideration of the context it was written. It uses two integrated approaches; qualitative analysis for conceptual framework and quantitative to allow for measurability. The researchers used statistical analysis after identifying the final 762 job advertisements. The analysis was done according to job advertisements under country category, under industry category, and across industries and countries category. (Holzmann & Spiegler, 2010)

The data was in qualitative form before it was statistically analyzed. Each job advertisement was printed and marked with a reference number and filed under country and industry. The researchers used the initial 60 variables and scanned each advertisement for key words, phrases that fell under the predefined variables. Variables were placed in columns and job advertisements in rows. A binary code was used where ‘1’ was a positive response and ‘0’ was the alternate answer. Researchers also recorded demographics that included the name of the company, job titles, salary, benefits and project size.

Study Results

There is a section on the results and analysis which includes the study results. This section has different sub sections that give the results under different themes. These are; job advertisements under KSA classifications; sought-after KSAs across industries and countries’ KSAs under country category; and KSAs under project industry category. Under each sub section there is a report of the results.

The qualitative data was the final 762 job advertisements that were analyzed. There is no example of any of these job advertisements. The analysis of the quantitative data was through the use of tables and graphs for each sub section. There were five tables that represented; the top 15 most cited KSAs from literature; the top five KSAs from job advertisements; the top KSAs across industries and countries; a comparison between cited and sought-after KSAs; and the top five sought-after KSAs for the top five project industries. The results also included a graph indicating the project manager KSAs comparison for Australia and New Zealand. The second graph indicated the KSAs demanded in different project industries.

The results indicated that education under the knowledge category was the most cited competency at 28%. Communication was the most sought-after competency across all industries at 61.68%. From project literature leadership was the most frequently cited competency. For competencies under country category, Australian project management jobs looked for more KSAs in their advertisements than New Zealand. In addition Australians were more concerned about time and cost management than New Zealand. There were some differences in job requirements between the two countries. Under the project management industry category, most of the job advertisements were from 8 major industries with 52% from ICT and 25% from construction. Arts and media had the least job advertisements. Overall the most common competencies were communication and education.

Discussion and Conclusions

The researchers did not compare their findings to other research studied because this particular study was the only one of its kind in project management literature. The study provided answers to the three research questions set out at the beginning of the study. The most frequently used competencies to attract potential project managers to organizations were all skills based. These were communication, technical, stakeholder management and time and cost management. Under the knowledge category, the top two competencies were education background and project management certification. The ability category was the least emphasized in the job advertisements.

Similarities exist between the competencies sought-after by recruitment job advertisements ad those prescribed by project management literature and project management professional bodies. However, there are differences on the emphasis of competencies across industries and regions. Although the study indicates that communication is the most cited competency across all industries, the results indicate that the KSAs vary between industries. This means that the role of the project manager is different under each industry.

The limitation of the study includes the focus of the study on Australia and New Zealand. Differences may exist if the study included job advertisements from other regions such as the United States or Europe. The other limitation was that there was no similar study that had been carried out that would provide a comparison.

The researchers drew accurate conclusions based on the study finding.  The most significant finding was that attention is required on the variations in KSAs that exist across industries and regions as regards the role of the project manager. These differences can for the basis of a comprehensive understanding of project management.

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Functional Behavior Assessment (FAB)

Functional behavior assessment (FBA) is a process of understanding problematic behavior, the causes how to maintain or do away with them. It answers many questions why a child behaves in a certain manner and the steps to take in changing the behavior as well as determining the purpose or function a certain behavior serves in a child (Cipani & Schock, 2011).

Early psychologists clearly showed that behavior occur in predictable and lawful manner: directly and functionally related to environmental phenomena. Several research bodies have proved the importance of utility of functional analytic approach for persons with attention deficit, behavioral, and emotional disorders as well as developmental disabilities. Functional assessment assumes all behavior is purposeful hence; its major objective is altering the environment the child belongs rather than punishing the child with the misbehavior. It teaches them the most acceptable and adaptive way of getting what they want centrally to diagnostic model that enquires for the cause and its treatment medically. Interpretation of behavior assessment tests’ responses are as samples of behavior that generalize different situations while traditional interprets data as results of internal body processes.

Major components to observe in Functional behavior assessment are; identification of the problem, generating events or antecedents that predict the likeliness of behavior occurrence and maintaining the repercussions that would increase future occurrence of the behavior.  It is a preferable method since it includes interviews, record reviews and direct observation of the child’s behavior rather than team preference based approaches, which deals with a group of children instead of an individual. The method of assessment also ranges from precise and systematic to somewhat informal. The way forward in curbing the behavior is because of hypothesis statement acquired through analyzed and summarized information that describe the behavior and the environment (Haynes, O’Brien, & Kaholokula, 2011).

Functional behavior assessment focuses way beyond behavior as it tries to solve the problem and its results are unbiased. It lays a legal basis in development of BIP(behavior intervention program) that identifies environmental, social and biological factors which initiate, maintain or end the targeted behavior in schools. Through Functional behavior assessment, legal personnel are able to execute contextual aspects that contribute to a certain behavior and select appropriate interventions. This is through analysis of past events that affect current behavior and information on environmental and social context (Jackson, 2012).

Multinational Company Employee Management

Introduction

A multinational company is the kind of a company, which has its employees and assets operating in more than one country. This paper explores the manner in which multinational companies and corporations manage their employees in foreign countries. Multinational operations in foreign countries involve a whole set of challenges that such companies rarely encounter at their domestic levels. Due to the pervasive nature of multinational firms, they possess unique advantages that differentiate them from other firms, which operate at local levels (Caligiuri & Stroh, 1995). Most multinational companies around the world enjoy a lot of successes and it for this reason they become subjects, which require close analysis. There are several critics who are always in opposition of multinational firms accusing them of being cultural dictators, agents of capitalism, and dogs of capitalism (Caligiuri & Stroh, 1995). Therefore, in order to streamline a holistic management criterion of multinational firms, the executive management requires having various sets of theoretical tools more than they have for their domestic companies. Conducting comprehensive studies to establish certain facts is essential. The issues involved in the study may be of fundamental sociopolitical, organizational, strategic, and economic orientation (Feely & Harzing, 2003). All these issues are significant in the sense that they affect international expansion of business. Besides, management of employees in multinational firms requires proper comprehension of labour relations, interest groups and government of their respective countries.

Management of employees in multinational firms requires more than the normal procedures in the domestic firms in order to make the entire process a success. A number of issues do arise; for instance, performance incentives can lead to issues of conflict in multinational firms. Both management and employees can present differing views regarding a just and fair compensation and rewards for various levels of performance (Feely & Harzing, 2003). Another set of issues entails the influences of culture on employees and the manner in which management understands and defines desirable performance. Due to the differences in the nature of cultural influences from one country to another, it becomes essential for multinational companies to embrace performance management policies for each country. For proper employee management in multinational companies, the executive management requires having language, technical and cross-cultural training programs to facilitate employees (Sumetzberger, 2005). They should, also, address the differentiated and complex nature of rules and regulations from one nation to another.

There are several human resource implications that arise from inevitable inter-country cultural differences. One of them entails the essentiality to adopt human resource practices, which conform to the local norms. Such practices may include plans for interviews, recruitment and payment (Sumetzberger, 2005). Besides, for purposes of successful operations, the management should draw human resource staff members from citizens of host country to manage such foreign subsidiaries. According to Peterson et al. (1996), whenever a human resource staff shares similar cultural background as the employees, he/she is like to be sensitive to the expectations and needs of such employees at the place of work. The overall result of this kind of sensitivity is successful management and improved overall employee performance. Human resource management in multinational companies, also, does consider economic factors. Different countries have varying economic systems, which result into variations in inter-country human resource practices (Xiaoyan & Lan, 2013). Labour costs comprise another set of factors that human resource management considers in order to manage employees in multinational companies. Human resource practices may differ following difference in the costs of labour. In situations where there are high costs of labour, there would be intense focus on efficiency in order to improve employee performance (Sumetzberger, 2005).

For multinational companies, international staffing is a key element of success or failure. Besides, categorization of international managers is a significant idea. There are four main categories on international managers that include the locals, the expatriates, the home-country nationals, and the third country nationals (Caligiuri & Stroh, 1995). Multinational firms ensure that the locals fill most of the managerial positions both in foreign subsidiary and headquarter operations. They ensure that expatriates just fill minor positions, which require technical competencies for efficient operations. This kind deployment benefits multinational firms in a number of ways. Allowing host-country citizens to occupy management positions of foreign subsidiaries enables multinational companies to decrease operation costs. Furthermore, engagement of local citizens in foreign subsidiaries enables multinational firms to manage and overcome language barriers in their operations (Sumetzberger, 2005). In respect to language management strategies, the company management normally evaluates the following three essential dimensions: the language diversity that the company expects to interact with as it conducts its operations, the number of levels in various functions that may provoke the company to engage in cross-lingual communication, and, finally, the refinement and intricacy of the requirement language skills (Feely & Harzing, 2003). These dimensions are significant in the sense that they assist multinational firms to examine their language requirements in reference to their potentials in order to note their strong and weak spots. They are, also, essential for providing the multinational organizations with the methods to match their foreign language abilities against the strategic aspirations that they have (Feely & Harzing, 2003).

In regards to international staffing policy, most multinational firms do employ a geocentric approach when recruiting top executives of the company (Xiaoyan & Lan, 2013). This approach provides room for the best management candidates around the globe with the view that they are available in any of the nations where the firms conduct their operations. Since a geocentric approach aims at the qualified people for significant positions in the entire company irrespective of their nationality, it promotes efficient management of human resources. Through this approach, the multinational firms are capable of building a consistent culture throughout the whole global management team (Sumetzberger, 2005). The use of expatriates either third-country or home-country nationals is essential for multinational firms. This is common in situations where employers encounter difficulties finding the relevant and needed technical competencies among the local candidates.

In conclusion, management of employees in multinational firms requires more than the normal procedures in the domestic firms in order to make the entire process a success. A number of issues do arise; for instance, performance incentives can lead to issues of conflict in multinational firms. There are several human resource implications that arise from inevitable inter-country cultural differences. One of them entails the essentiality to adopt human resource practices, which conform to the local norms. For multinational companies, international staffing is a key element of success or failure. Besides, categorization of international managers is a significant idea (Sumetzberger, 2005). There are four main categories on international managers that include the locals, the expatriates, the home-country nationals, and the third country nationals. In regards to international staffing policy, most multinational firms do employ a geocentric approach when recruiting top executives of the company. The use of expatriates either third-country or home-country nationals is essential for multinational firms especially for handling technical assignments.

Changes Mental Illness – Psychology

The field of psychology has changed dramatically over time with the development of new theories and techniques of screening and assessment especially for mental illness. Due to the growth of this knowledge, treatment of individuals and groups has improved. This essay will focus on the changes made in what is considered a mental illness.

The changes in the diagnosis of mental illness have led to the development of numerous definitions and criteria that are considered as mental illness. In the United States, mental disorders are classified in the DSM or the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. This manual is the standard that mental professionals such as psychologists and psychiatrists use to diagnose mental disorders. The manual includes three sections that cover diagnosis classification, criteria sets and descriptive tests (American Psychological Association, 2000).

There are many classifications of mental disorders that exist which have changed over the past millennia. Over the years there has often been little agreement on what disorders should be classified as mental disorders. Some systems use a small number of categories whereas other systems use many categories to diagnose mental disorders. The differences in these systems lies in the primary objective of the diagnosis which may be clinical, research or statistical. The development of the DMS manual started in the 1800’s with seven categories of mental illness. The manual has changed overtime to the current detailed version of DMS-5. The international classification of diseases has a section on mental disorders that indicates the criteria.

There has been a tremendous improvement in the diagnosis of mental disorders over the years. However, the number of people with mental disorders has also dramatically increased over the years. Extensive research in the diagnosis of mental disorders can improve the area number of diagnosis. Research can offer explanations as to why the number of people with mental disorders is on the rise. Medical and mental health professionals believe that a thorough analysis of the social factors is critical to understanding the reasons for this high numbers. The DSM -5 manual is a useful tool; however, it omits a critical factor which is the social determinants of mental disorders.

Ethics as a Component of Organizational Culture

Introduction

Ethics is derived from the word the Greek word Ethos, which means character. Character in an organization is the decisions that employees or management have to make when under pressure especially when no one is looking at them. Character is not about how people behave, but in the context of an organization, it is part of organizational culture. It is a culture developed by a group of people that determines how they deal with problems both externally and internally. These people must adhere to a code of ethics which are standards of behavior that tell people how they ought to act, be they citizens, professionals, parents, family or friends (Bart, 2011).

A fire department has ethical rules which are behavioral guidelines on how all firemen are expected to conduct themselves. Firemen must promote an organizational culture of ethical integrity, high standards of professionalism, compassion, loyalty and honesty. Most fire departments have a code of ethics that includes the ethical rules or ethical conduct, medical code of ethics and an oath. The ethical rules define the Fire department’s values, moral duty and obligation of the firemen.

The following are some of the ethical rules that fire departments follow in their line of duty. Firemen must conduct themselves in a manner that creates respect for themselves as public servants. Fire fighters must always maintain public trust as they always have access to citizens’ homes and possessions while on the call of duty. Firemen are always in contact with the public, and should therefore show respect, courtesy and be impartial at all times. Firemen should not perform their duties while under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Firefighters will be expected to take an oath of service to show their commitment to providing high levels of customer service, and to place the safety and welfare of the public above everything else.

The ethical rules are reflected in the culture of the fire department through the respect of the profession. The citizens of any country hold the Fire department with very high esteem. Firemen are highly respected by the public because of the trust the public has entrusted in the firemen. This in turn leads to professional ethics and morality. The leadership of the fire department also reflects the culture of the department. The Fire Chief must lead by example by making ethical decisions. A fire department that is led by an ethical leader always leads to the success of that department. A fireman may make an ethical decision but fail the loyalty test when asked to do something unethical by the boss. Ethical leaders must ensure that they do not corrupt their legacy and whole organization by ensuring they do the right thing. Firefighters are faced with challenging situations everyday which test their character. Sometimes they must decide between loyalty and ethics, hence the importance of the ethical rules in a fire department (Bart, 2011).

The code of ethics reflects the culture of the fire department, and all members of the Fire services must adhere to it. It is referred to as the minimum standards and outlines the expected behavior and performance of the firefighters. The code of ethics also defines the way the firemen ought to act within the fire department. For example, it states that all firemen must be responsible for the actions and the consequences of the same. They must act in a professional manner exercising respect, competence and loyalty.     They must recognize that they serve due to public trust which requires honesty. The firemen must sign a code of ethics which becomes an acknowledgement of acceptance of their responsibility as firefighters.

The ethical rules of the fire department are not in conflict with my personal ethical rules because the ethical rules for firefighters are based on trust, honesty, integrity and team work. However, personal ethical rules may sometimes come into conflict with professional ethical rules. It is therefore important to understand the difference between personal ethical rules and professional ethical rules. For example, a judge is required to follow the law while exercising judgments on various cases. A judge may give the death penalty while following the law, but this may be in conflict if his personal ethics are against the death penalty. A doctor may prescribe the morning after pill professionally, but personally may be against it as he views it as terminating a life (Dion, 1996).

The easiest way to reduce the conflict between professional and personal ethical rules is that a person must always follow their professional code of ethics when acting in a professional capacity, even though it conflicts their personal ethical rules. In the case of ethical rules of firefighters, their ethical rules are first and foremost based on public trust. The public trust firefighters to come into their homes to save them irrespective of their possessions. Personal ethics are broad in nature, as every human being will want to be treated with respect and therefore will treat others with respect. People value honesty and courtesy on a personal level whether it is among friends or family members. In this respect, the ethical rules in the fire department are not in conflict with personal ethical rules (Dion, 1996).

The ethical rules for the fire departments are reinforced by particular expectations or behaviors reflected in the fire department culture. The ethical rules of the fire department are based on public trust and respect for the profession. The national firefighter code of ethics is a document that was developed for all fire service organizations regardless of size, type or position. It outlines the standards of behavior required of firefighters, and is designed in an effort to maintain the high level of respect the profession wishes to achieve. It is based on the expectations of the fire department. The code of ethics encourages all fire service organizations to support the standards in order to maintain a consistent organizational culture among all fire departments. The national firefighter code of ethics distinguishes the firefighter’s profession from other professions, and at the same time removes any behaviors that might compromise it in future. It is the minimum standards of expected behaviors of firefighters. It acts as a guide for all fire departments towards high levels of ethics and integrity.

In conclusion, the ethical rules in the fire department are reflected in the organizational cultures of all fire service organizations. The national firefighter code of ethics is based on particular expectations and behaviors reflected in the fire department culture. The ethical rules creates a legacy for all fire service organizations and ensure that all firefighters who leave the fire department, leave it in a better condition than they found it. Ethics is a component of organizational culture based on ethical integrity, professionalism, loyalty and honesty.

Under the expense warranty treatment, give the entries to reflect the above transactions (accrual…

Warranties:

James Equipment Company sells
computers for $1,500 each and also gives each customer a 2-year warranty that
requires the company to perform periodic services and to replace defective
parts. During 2006, the company sold 700 computers. Based on past experience,
the company has estimated the total 2-year warranty costs as $30 for parts and
$60 for labor. (Assume sales all occur at December 31, 2006.)

In 2007, James incurred actual
warranty costs relative to 2006 computer sales of $10,000 for parts and $18,000
for labor.

Instructions

(a) Under the expense warranty treatment, give the
entries to reflect the above transactions (accrual method) for 2006 and 2007.

(b) Under the cash
basis
method, what are the Warranty Expense balances for 2006 and 2007?

(c) The transactions of part (a) create what
balance under current liabilities in the 2006 balance sheet?

Contingent liabilities:

Below are three
independent situations.

1. In August, 2007 a
worker was injured in the factory in an accident partially the result of his
own negligence. The worker has sued Rooney Co. for $800,000. Counsel believes
it is reasonably possible that the outcome of the suit will be unfavorable and
that the settlement would cost the company from $250,000 to $500,000.

2. A suit for breach
of contract seeking damages of $2,400,000 was filed by an author against Early
Co. on October 4, 2007. Early’s legal counsel believes that an unfavorable
outcome is probable. A reasonable estimate of the award to the plaintiff is
between $600,000 and $1,800,000. No amount within this range is a better
estimate of potential damages than any other amount.

3. Peete is involved
in a pending court case. Peete’s lawyers believe it is probable that Peete will
be awarded damages of $1,000,000.

Instructions

Discuss the proper
accounting treatment, including any required disclosures, for each
situation. Give the rationale for your
answers.

Multifaceted Assessment: Anne Marie’s Case

Many exceptionalities in children have a high comorbidity, which can make identification and intervention challenging for professionals. This is why, aside from legal and ethical requirements, multifaceted assessment is essential.

Review the following scenario:

Anne Marie is a thirteen-year-old girl who has always struggled socially and behaviorally. Although she has a few friends, she often argues with them, as well as with adults. Despite these challenges, she has always been successful academically, and so a formal evaluation was never conducted. However, Anne Marie’s parents are concerned that her behavior has become more pronounced this year and that she is spending even more time alone. Her parents are not sure if her problems are due to typical development (that is, puberty), a developmental disability such as an autism spectrum disorder, or an emotional disturbance.

Using the module readings, the Argosy University online library resources, and the Internet, research multifaceted assessment.

Incorporate what you learned in your readings and respond to the following:

  • Explain why it might be important to distinguish between typical development, developmental disability, and emotional disturbance for Anne Marie.
  • Evaluate the roles each of the following would play in addressing Anne Marie’s challenges:
    • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 2004
    • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
    • Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)
  • Identify any other information that might be important when assessing Anne Marie’s difficulties and designing an intervention for her. Discuss why this information would be important and how would you go about obtaining that information?

Write your initial response in 300–500 words. Apply APA standards to citation of sources.

By Saturday, post your response to the appropriate Discussion Area. Through Wednesday review and comment on at least two peers’ responses. Provide a statement of clarification, a point of view with rationale, challenge a point of discussion, or draw a relationship between one or more points of the discussion. The following are some possible discussion points:

  • How might intervention differ depending on whether Anne Marie is experiencing typical development, developmental disability, or emotional disturbance?
  • According to Piaget, Anne Marie is in which likely stage of development? What occurrence, during this stage, is important to consider in the context of an evaluation?

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Briefly explain how planning and monitoring help organisations, managers and individual job-holders to achieve results

Each answer should be no less than 100 words:
·         Briefly explain how planning and monitoring help organisations, managers and individual job-holders to achieve results.
·         List the types of plans that managers need to understand and describe how operational plans fit into the wider activities of the organisation?
·         What distinguishes a good plan from a poor plan?
·         Why do plans sometimes fail?  What actions can you take to safeguard the success of your plans?
·         What are the benefits of planning?
  1. Describe the planning skills you use in your current role and the type of plans you develop and follow.  How do you monitor these plans?
  2. …….

  1. What was the last activity you planned in detail at your workplace?  Describe how you went about planning it and the steps you followed.  How did you determine and secure the resources you needed to carry out your plan?
  1. Describe a time when you worked with others to plan and organise activities/events and when you communicated with others to coordinate the implementation of the plan. Who was involved?
  1. Describe a time when you worked with others to plan and organise a presentation, an event or something similar.  What did you do that helped and hindered?  What did others do?  What lessons did you learn for next time?
  1. What monitoring tools do you and your work team use?  Write a short essay describing these tools and explain how they conform to the characteristics of an effective monitoring system. How do these monitoring tools help in the job?
 …….
  1. In your own words, identify and describe the 7 stages of managing a project and why each element is important.
  1. What is a PERT Chart?  What is a Gantt Chart?  What is the difference between these two tools?  Search the net and find out the origin of these two charts, i.e. who designed them, where and when.  Draw both charts as examples.
  1. Write a couple of paragraphs on a project that you have worked on previously and describe how you believe it could have been better developed if the organisers had used the skills of project management when planning, preparing and delivering the project.
  1. Why is it important to have a debrief at the end of a project? Why should this be documented?
  1. Identify and describe the four steps to monitoring a project?
  1. Why must a risk management plan (including WHS) be completed?

  1. Draft a simple financial budget to include project cost considerations.
  2. …….

     

Freudian Construct Vs Rogerian Construct – Assignment Instructions

Consider the eras, life histories, and personalities of Freud and Rogers.

Identify two research articles published in the last 5 years: one that investigates a psychoanalytic or Freudian construct and one that investigates a client-centered, humanistic, or Rogerian construct.

Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper about Freud and Rogers that addresses the following:

  • Provide a summary of each article, highlighting the processes that contemporary psychologists use to develop the theories of Freud and Rogers.
  • Explain their views of human nature and their worldviews as expressed in their respective theories.
  • Which aspect of their theory do you think would be different if they were alive and working today?
  • Explain how social and cultural factors influenced the development of Freud’s and Rogers’ respective theories of personality.

Recent examples of expansionary fiscal policy

 It probably goes without staying that a macroeconomy or national economy experiences periods of expansion (usually marked by increases in real GDP, employment, and production) and periods of decline  (usually marked by decreases in real GDP, employment, and production).  A prolonged period of decline across a national economy is called a recession.  While some people define a recession as t
http://www.nber.org/cycles/recessions.html

Two of the most intense recessions in the past several generations in the United States were the Great Depression of 1929-1933 and the Great Recession of 2007-2009.  Which recession or depression was the most destructive to the U.S. economy?  Why?

2. WEEK 2 DQ 2 – Recent examples of expansionary fiscal policy

Expansionary fiscal policy is defined as a policy which a government implements which involves an increase in government spending and/or a decrease in taxation levels.  Sometimes a budget deficit might be involved with expansionary fiscal policy.  The goal with expansionary fiscal policy is to stimulate a national economy during times of declining economic activity.

Can you think of any recent examples of expansionary fiscal policy which have been used by the United States government during or since the Great Repression of 2007-2009?  How did these stimulus programs impact the economy?  Where they successful?  Why or why not?

Team Buidling Strategy Plan

 Identification of Various Strategies Available to Build Teams

Various interventions are employed in putting together effectual teams. The first intervention is the setting of appropriate goals, or clarification of goals. It stresses on formulating objectives along with developing team, as well as individual, goals. The intervention ensures that specific team members have clear expectations regarding the goals. In addition, the intervention ensures that that the teams become increasingly action and task-focused.

The second intervention is role clarification, which stresses on heightening team member communication with respect to the roles assigned to particular members. The members enhance their appreciation of their own and colleagues’ roles in making their teams successful. When the intervention is implemented, teams are defined as being constituted by sets of overlying roles. Such roles are defined as the conducts expected of particular team members. Role clarification enhances individual, as well as team, characteristics.

The third intervention is conflict resolution, or problem-solving. Conflict resolution emphasizes the making out the chief problems related to particular tasks within teams. The intervention supports the involvement of team members in planning appropriate actions and solving the problems following their identification (Salas, Diazgranados, Klein, Burke, Stagl, Goodwin & Halpin, 2009). The members formulate goals, grow societal relations, clarify their specific roles, and help enhance organizational attributes via conflict resolution tasks.

The fourth intervention is the management of interpersonal relations. The intervention is widely christened the consequences intervention. It stresses on heightening teamwork competencies like communication and mutual supportiveness. Over time, it ensures that team members attain higher and higher cooperation and trust levels among themselves. However, the intervention compromises daily team activities, possibly occasioning temporary losses. The last intervention entails the celebration of team attainments. The celebrations assist team members bond, increasing the effectiveness of their teams. Even then, the celebrations and the bonding may be injurious to creativity, which is assistive in solving emerging crises.

Challenges/Barriers to Building Teams

Organizations face diverse challenges in their efforts to put together effective teams. First, some organizations are incapable of finding staff members with the capability of working effectually within team settings. Their extant team members lack teamwork as a competency. Second, some organizations face the challenge posed by the heightening necessity to have teams working across organizations and in virtual spaces.

Organizations are faced with the growing need to have their staff in different spaces work together as teams. Such teams are incapable of building strong relations among their members. Third, globalization has made the collaborations between members of particular teams increasingly difficult (Salas, Diazgranados, Klein, Burke, Stagl, Goodwin & Halpin, 2009). The challenge is amplified when taken together with virtual working spaces that do not allow for one-on-one communication.

Determining the Best Strategy

In the Riordan Manufacturing case, the most favorable intervention for putting together a team for producing Cardiac Valve is the one with the potential for heightening team member communication with respect to the roles assigned to particular members. The most favorable intervention is the one with the potential for helping the team’s members enhance their appreciation of their own and colleagues’ roles in making their teams successful. As well, the most favorable intervention is the one with the potential defining the team as constituted by sets of overlying roles. Thus, the most favorable intervention is role clarification, which stresses on heightening team member communication.

Determination of Team Success

The success of the Cardiac Valve-producing team will be evaluated in the light of diverse aspects. The aspects will include changes in the team and its members’ performance, affective, cognitive, and process outcomes. The other aspects will include the team’s responses to negative affects like mistrust.

Assignment 5: Persuasive Paper Part 3: Possible Disadvantages, Answers, with Visuals

Develop Part 3: Possible Disadvantages, Answers, with Visuals (1-2 pages, for 7-9 total pages)

1. Included a defensible, relevant thesis statement in the first paragraph.

2. State, explain, and support the first disadvantage (economic, social, political, environmental, social, equitable, ethical/moral, etc.) to your solution and provide a logical answer. This should be one (1) paragraph.
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3. State, explain, and support the second (and third if desired) disadvantage (economic, social, political, environmental, social, equitable, ethical/moral, etc.) to your solution and provide a logical answer. This should be one or two (1-2) paragraphs.

4. Include one or two (1-2) relevant visuals that help illustrate an advantage.

5. Use effective transitional words, phrases, and sentences.

6. Provide a concluding paragraph to summarize the proposed solution, its advantages, possible disadvantages, and answers to the disadvantages. Repeat or paraphrase your thesis statement.

7. Develop a coherently structured paper with an introduction, body, and conclusion.

8. Use one (1) or more rhetorical strategy (ethos, logos, pathos) to explain claims.

9. Support disadvantages and answers with at least two (2) additional quality relevant references. Use at least eight (8) total for Parts 1, 2, and 3. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources.

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Explain the benefits of accurately documenting the As-Is process.

Resource: Need for a Lean Initiatives Paper

Create an As-Is Process Flowchart for a process that requires improvement for your selected organization.

Write a 900-word paper in which you describe at least three problem analysis tools that you applied to develop the process flowchart.

Explain the benefits of accurately documenting the As-Is process.

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.

DQ Questions 600 words

Does your organization utilize any quality improvement approaches? What benefits could your organization gain from using a mapping technique? How have these improvement techniques been implemented?

In your organization, what types of cycle time efforts have been initiated? Have these improvements impacted your organization’s financial condition? How?

You Need More Education! For more than three decades, accounting professionals, accounting…

You Need More Education! 

For more than three decades, accounting professionals, accounting educators, and accounting bodies have debated requiring more education for those entering the public accounting profession. In 1988, the AICPA passed a resolution mandating 150 college credit hours as a  minimum educational requirement for all new members of its organization after 1999.This  requirement placed added pressure on state legislators to pass new accounting legislation,  and during the 1990s, an increasing number of states passed the “150-hour rule.” Some  groups, however, oppose this move and argue that it is restrictive to entry of minority groups  and that it will unnecessarily reduce the number of accounting graduates and put accounting  educators “out of work” as students opt for less expensive educational alternatives.  Why does the accounting profession recommend more education for new accounting professionals? Why would some groups resist this move? As an accounting student, were you deterred in your decision to major in accounting because of the “150-hour rule”? Why or why not? 

The American Red Cross (ARC)

Assignment 1: “The American Red Cross (ARC)”

Read The American Red Cross (ARC) case in your textbook. This case is not available in electronic format on the course shell. You are to write a four to six (4-6) page paper that answers the following questions:

1.Determine the impact of this event on ARC’s “benefits of business ethics” (employee commitment, investor loyalty, customer satisfaction, and bottom line).
2.Determine and discuss the role that ARC’s stakeholder orientation played in this scenario.
3.Determine and discuss the ways in which ARC’s corporate governance failed to provide formalized responsibility to their stakeholders.

…….

4.Recommend steps that ARC could follow to improve their stakeholder perspective.
5.Include at least three (3) references, no more than three (3) years old, from material outside the course.
The format of the paper is to be as follows:

•Typed, double-spaced, Times New Roman font (size 12), one-inch margins on all sides (APA format).
•Type the question followed by your answer to the question.
•In addition to the four to six (4-6) pages required, a title page is to be included. The title page is to contain the title of the assignment, your name, the instructor’s name, the course title, and the date.
Note: You will be graded on the quality of your answers, the logic/organization of the report, your language skills, and your writing skills.

…….

Mr. and Mrs. Lawson brought their 4-year-old adopted daughter, Clara, to see Dr. Mason, a psychiatrist……

Mr. and Mrs. Lawson brought their 4-year-old adopted daughter, Clara, to see Dr. Mason, a psychiatrist. Clara was polite in greeting Dr. Mason, but did not smile and kept her gaze down as she took a seat. Mr. and Mrs. Lawson sat next to Clara and began explaining their concerns. They described Clara as a quiet child who has recently begun throwing temper tantrums, during which she is inconsolable. Her sleep and eating patterns have changed, and she no longer wants to go to preschool.

Create a brief response to each of the following questions:

  • What other information would you like to learn during the interview with the family? What questions would you ask?
  • In addition to the clinical interview, what other clinical assessment tools should you consider? Why?
  • Although you need more information to begin treatment, what factors might you take into consideration in designing an effective intervention for this family?
  • If you were preparing to diagnose Clara, you would refer to the DSM-IV classification system to evaluate her condition on five separate axes. What type of information would go into each axis? You are not asked to enter a diagnosis, only describe the kind of information that would be entered in each axis.
  • Do you think that diagnosing Clara would be beneficial or harmful? Explain why.

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Breach of Contract Example

Walt Shoddy, the owner of Shoddy Shoe Repair, was contemplating retirement. He therefore contracted to sell the business to Pauline Parker. Shoddy Shoe Repair was located in Hoosierburg, Indiana, which has a population of 5,233. Besides containing a provision entitling Parker to use the Shoddy Shoe Repair name for the business, the parties’ contract included a clause that prohibited Shoddy from opening up a competing shoe repair shop in Hoosierburg for a period of one year from the date of the parties’ contract. Two months after the date of the contract (and one and one-half months after the sale of the business to Parker had been completed), Shoddy grew tired of retirement. As shoe repair had been his life’s work, he opened up a shoe repair shop in Hoosierburg. Parker has sued him in an effort to obtain an injunction against his operation of the competing business, alleging a violation of the parties’ contract. How is the court likely to rule? Explain your reasoning.

regulation of intenet commerce

Question 1: King’s Trial
Appricot has approached your Toronto-based law firm to advise it on the legal issues arising out of these activities. In addition to the facts noted above, your supervising lawyer has informed you that Officer Fred King has launched a lawsuit, naming a number of individual anonymous commentors from the Pwns Video. Alice Glass, Jabberwok and Appricot are all additionally named in the lawsuit. House of Cards Communications is also named, being a local partner of Appricot. The lawsuit has been filed in Ontario. The named anonymous Jabberwok posters are listed as: “Crazy Hat”, “Marching Rabbit”, “Dorm House”, “The Duke”, and “Russ the Wall”, after the Jabberwok account pseudonyms all their postings (including those complained of by Officer King) are associated. The lawsuit holds all the named parties as liable for the anonymous defamatory comments, and asks, in addition, for the Ontario Court to order the comment board and the video to be taken down, and an order compelling all named parties to provide any information in their possession that might help identify the anonymous commenters be provided.
Your supervising lawyer also informs you that, since Alice had decided to use Cheshire to scan all messages in her discussion board for expletives, Appricot is in possession of detailed information about the posts and posters that it would not have otherwise had. This includes their IP addresses, their correlated eCaller accounts (including their real names and billing addresses), and the GPS location from which they were posting. Of the named plaintiffs, Crazy Hat’s billing address is in Vancouver, B.C., but her posts are ‘geocoded’ as being generated in Toronto; Marching Rabbit is from Toronto, and was posting from Toronto; Dorm House’s bills are sent to Ottawa, and was posting from Toronto. Dorm House and The Duke are both billed to Alberta (Edmonton and Calgary, respectively) and were posting from their Albertan homes.
Your supervising lawyer asks you to analyze legal issues relating to the lawsuit. She provides you with the following guidance to focus on:
• Is a challenge to the Ontario Court’s jurisdiction likely to succeed?
• Should Appricot be concerned about any liability for the postings in question under Ontario law?
• What are Appricot’s legal obligations in this scenario under Ontario law?
• How should Appricot respond to Officer King’s demand for identification information in its possession?
Your supervising lawyer mentions in passing that there may be some privacy concerns related to Appricot’s collection practices, but not to be concerned about these at this time. Reasonable expectations of privacy are only a factor to the extent they might be relevant to your analysis of any of the issues specified above.

This is a two-part question pertaining to bivariate regression analysis and correlation coefficient

Suppose a social psychologist collects the following data from five subjects: their scores on a test measuring the extent to which they trust other people and the number of altruistic acts they performed in the last month. Create a bivariate regression equation for these variables, treating altruistic acts as the dependent variable. What would be the independent variable?
How would a bivariate regression equation display the information listed above?
Subject Trust Altruistic Acts=Y(Depen variable)
1 70 5
2 85 8
3 92 12
4 64 3
5 79 7

For the data listed above, calculate the correlation coefficient, the coefficient of determination, and the coefficient of nondetermination. What can you conclude?
Is it possible to compute the correlation coefficient, the coefficient of determination and the coefficient of nondetermination? What can I conclude based on my results.
The meaning of coefficient of determination is 1) the percent of variation that can be explained by the regression equation 2) The explained variation divided by the total variation and 3) The square of r.
The meaning of coefficient of nondetermination is 1)The percent of variation which is unexplained by the regression equation 2)The unexplained variation divided by the total variation 3)1 – r2.

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