Browse Month: January 2018

Importance of Oversight in the Rule making Process

Importance of oversight in the rulemaking process

In the last three decades, the legislatures have improved their capability to play a more progressive responsibility in the rule or policy making process. The legislature has declared their independence from the governor, presumed a greater function in devising rules and more actively administer the duties of the judiciary or the executive branch (Hissam, 2008). Conversely, the legislative assumes or takes many forms. Firstly, the legislative standing committees are in charge of continuously reviewing the work of the state agencies in their subject areas. Secondly, the legislature has staff committees or agencies intended to assess and evaluate agency performance and operation. Thirdly, the legislature veto and reviews the regulations and rules developed by the executive agencies to employ law.

Therefore, the legislative oversight is an essential and fundamental check and balance.  While the states have assumed greater obligations for the government services and programs, the significance of the congressional oversight has amplified.  However, more dynamic and active legislative involvement increases the frictions with the executive branch. Congressional oversight is very imperative and significant in the rulemaking process as it audits or evaluates activities and programs for efficient use of resources.  With the performance audit, the legislature ensures that the funds and programs operate economically, effectively, and efficiently (Bowers, 1989). Even though the state legislatures have entrusted and delegated the authority to executive agencies, they have cautiously cosseted and protected their authority to review and, in most instances, approve administrative rules to ensure that they comply with the legislative intent and statutory authority. The legislative have the mandate to veto the rule if they determine the government does not abide by the statutory authority and legislative intent.

How oversight might impact administrative agencies, agency heads, and the rulemaking process

The regulatory agencies established by the U.S. Congress, local lawmaking bodies, and the federal Constitution. The responsibility of the administrative agencies is to rectify and redress serious social problems, oversee challenging and complex issues of governmental concern beyond the proficiency of the legislators, and manage crises (McKay,  & Webb Yackee,  2007). As a consequence, a lot of people argue that the framers of constitution motivated and encouraged the establishment of powerful administrative agencies. Nonetheless, the argument has triumphed and prevailed, and the court permits legislative bodies and the Congress to make laws, which entrust and delegate restricted and limited lawmaking authority to administrative agencies. The core, gist and substance power of the regulatory agency require to be comprehensible and logical, and a structure of controls ought to be in place to regulate and limit the credentials of the administrative agencies. Although the obligation of the courts is to investigate and ensure that the regulatory agencies meet these necessities and requirements.

The oversight impacts the rulemaking process, agency heads, and the administrative agencies through the statutory authority and the legislative intent. Consequently, the administrative agencies can arbitrate and adjudicate exceedingly intricate and minor disputes faster and flexibly than the federal and state courts. It is paramount and vital as the regulatory bodies help in conserving and safeguarding the judicial resources and encourage and promote quick and swift decrees or resolutions (Kaiser, 1988). Nevertheless, the efficiency of the administrative agencies has led a lot of opponents or critics to charge the establishment of the administrative agencies. The critics say that the administrative agencies dodge or thwart the constitutional dictates, which creates laws through elected officials or delegates.

Rumors

Introduction

Rumors have existed from time immemorial. A day cannot go by before one hears a rumor about his or her neighbor or the politicians and celebrities among other famous people in the society. Certain sections of people make up rumors and ensure that they spread for their benefit or the benefit of the society. Most rumors at present usually come from the internet through social sites and the television. The rumor may be true of a false story regarding a particular event or subject. People may have heard from others stories that may or may not be true and then spread them to the next person, and the cycle continues (Kapferer, 2013). Therefore, many people can get a certain message, which they have not proven to be true and spread it without noting the repercussions on the person in question. Rumors may lead to unrest especially if false information is spread during sensitive times especially elections. The digital age has fueled the spread of rumors more quickly than before (Doerr & Friedrich, 2012). The use of smartphones is ever increasing, as more people get accustomed to the various social media sites together with other messaging platforms like WhatsApp among others. Rumors are mostly damaging to particular people involved. Good rumors may lead to a certain amount of peace particularly when the rumor is true or is intended to quell tensions. Rumors should, therefore, be viewed with a lot of caution to prevent any misinformation  being taken in by individuals..

Various rumors have been posted on the internet of late, and they have usually involved high profile people. In the ancient times when there was no internet, a rumor could hardly live the vicinity to reach others areas especially cities. The rumor was mostly confined to the environs of a certain area, and thus, only the locals could know about the rumor especially through meetings. In those times, the society had telephones, which were mostly owned by the rich. The society then could only succeed in spreading rumors by either on the phone or face-to-face conversation. From the above assertion we note that the distance of spreading the rumor was very small. At present, the society has adopted the internet for almost all communications. The various social platforms using the internet and where many people are connecting the social media sites. More people than ever before are connected through Twitter, Facebook, Google+, Yahoo and many other social sites that include tailor made sites for institutions of learning, companies to name a few (Gianturco, 2012). Therefore, the addition of many people on one platform ensures that many people note any rumor or unproven story about an event. In the past, one could hear a rumor and try to tell people who would tell the next person when they meet or on the phone. The spread of the rumor was thus very slow. At present, a rumor can spread very fast. Therefore, the digital platforms especially social media sites have brought about a revolution in which a rumor can take much speed and be viewed by millions of people throughout the world in a minute (Rojecki & Meraz, 2016). The internet enables people to be connected through their smartphones and personal computers, and they get to view the trending news together with any rumors on the social platforms. The world, therefore, has been made a global meeting place by the digital platforms and the different technologies that involve the social media platform.

Rumors can cause great havoc especially if they concern a person who is held in high esteem by the society. A pre-internet rumor involved a bond film where the dial Mail ran a story about the possibility of inclusion of Finley light as James Bond in 1986. Another pre-internet rumor was Abe Vigoda had died though he was alive and well at the time. The rumor persisted for almost two decades sicne1982. The rumors during the pre-internet time should only spread quickly through print media especially if the person were a celebrity or famous. Therefore, some people may come up with stories from inadequate sources may be because one has not been seen in the public for a long time.

Such rumors can destroy the image of the person, and since people believe what they hear, they may end up holding to an untrue rumor to be true. Rumors tend to fuel and fan curiosity in the hearer (Starbird et al., 2014). People usually want to know something about the celebrities or politicians and may cling to a certain formation that may be untrue. Certain modern day rumors are that a certain girl got aids from swimming in a certain pool. Thousands of people have swum in many public pools, and there has not been a report that has proved the AIDs story to be true. Elections mostly have many rumors, and many rumors were spread about Obama being an illegitimately united states citizen though his state constantly proved that he was legitimate. such negative insintuations can have adverse political impacts on the candidate in question (Weeks & Garrett, 2014). Therefore, rumors, in this case, tend to point out various factors that affect a certain part of the population who may not be popular with a certain person. Other rumors during the election period were that Sarah Palin, who held and treasured family values in her campaigns, had a daughter who was pregnant, yet she had not wed.

Voters should do their homework to ensure that they get to the root of the matter especially where politics is involved. One erroneous article can ruin the aspirations of candidates in the political arena. Since more people than ever before are connected to the news sites through the internet and cable television, any rumor can spell disastrous results. Therefore, voters should be advised not to take the rumors seriously until they are proven. On the other hand, consumers should focus on getting information from the respective stores to ensure that some companies or rumors from outside the companies are validated before taken as truth. To prevent rumors people have to make sure that whatever gets to their ears is proven first before it is taken as the truth.

Conclusion

There is a thin line between false and genuine information on something or someone. Rumors have long been used for ruinous purposes especially in politics. Since most people are curious about getting certain information, they will tend to believe what they hear especially if it regards people of high status in society. The society should thus focus on the getting clear information on a matter before taking spreading it to another person. At present, there are many sources of information some of which are not credible. It is important for people to investigate the various stories and find out if they are true to ensure that wrong information about people is not spread in form of rumors.

Metrics We Wish We Had – Supply Chain Management

This paper explains the key metrics that most companies use in the management of supply chain. It is essential to note that management of supply chain requires the managing of multifaceted dependence between groups, sectors and companies that have partnerships across global boundaries; therefore it is seen as an expected zone for metrics. There are many forms of metrics, which can be utilized to measure the performances of an effective supply chain management system. They are include return on product launch and time to value the total supply chain costs as well as perfect order rate (Hugos, 2011). For a person to fully understand why this metrics are considered important, it would be necessary to determine their uses in the supply chain cycle. Considering the demand driven principle of supply chain, it is necessary that there are correlations between the demand, supply and the products in the company for the business to swiftly respond to increasing opportunities. To add on that, dimensions of measurements have to be considered, that is operational excellence as well as innovation excellence.

In order for one to measure the dimensions, hierarchies of metrics have to be used. This is where one considers which metrics are suitable for the company with respect to the type of business and products or services offered. Perfect order rate combined together with total supply chain costs provide the correct approach for measuring operational excellence, while, on the other hand, innovation excellence can be quantified using time to value, followed by return on product launch (Chopra & Meindl, 2012). The two dimensions are used because they best explain the benefits and vales of the supply chain while at the same time identifying the best performing business. Perfect order rate elaborates on the calculation of orders in the company that lack any error, and captures every phase in the ordering process. Upon identification of the errors, corrective measures are put in place which optimizes the performances in the supply chain. This explains why it is most important form of metrics in many organizations.

Return on product elaborates on the revenues earned from the sale of the product; it compares the profit margins from the product and those of the costs used in producing it. It is mainly used to measure the company’s profitability rate. Total supply chain elaborates on the time taken to fulfill a consumers order when the levels of the inventories were nil. It mainly shows the efficiencies of the supply chain and helps in identifying situations that have competitive advantages in the market (Hugos, 2011). Time to value measure elaborates on the percentages of orders that reach the customers on or before the requested time frame. This helps in promoting customer satisfaction and signposts an effective supply chain. These four metrics elaborates on the overall performances of the supply chain, and identifies opportunities that exist for the company to increase its effectiveness, investor and customer values in the supply chain.

In conclusion, it is evident that a well-designed system of supply chain metrics can increase the probabilities of a company’s success by aligning procedures across numerous firms, assist in targeting the most cost-effective market segments and obtaining a positive competitive advantage through distinguished services and lower expenditures (Chopra & Meindl, 2012). Inefficient metrics in the supply chain will eventually result in failures to meet the company’s desired expectation, missed opportunities while trying to outdo the competition and conflicts in the supply chain division.

Gloria Anzaldua: How to Tame a Wild Tongue Analytical Synthesis

Gloria Anzaldua describes and exposes her feelings concerning cultural and social difficulties that Mexican immigrants experience while they are being raised in the United States of America. Gloria ascertains and creates comparisons between Spanish, English, their differences, and how cultural colonialism control and manipulate people’s inclination to speak a particular language instead of the other. Also, she brings to our knowledge the significant social issues such as low self-esteem, identity construction, reprimand, colonialism, racism, and sexism. She luminously starts the essay with an allegory in which she identifies and describes the acculturation process as a thing that exceptionally cruel and violent (Kaye 1). Additionally, the expose intends to reveal the two sides of the acculturation process, which consist of the Hispanic and the Anglo side. The Anglo side explains the urgency of adoption where a person who desires to immigrate to America should learn, and embrace the American culture, and language so as to be accepted. The Hispanic side states that parents with Mexican culture, desire their children to live the American dream and succeed, thus the children are obligated to speak correct American language with no accent.

The desire of Gloria is to have an opportunity to have their language recognized and respected, and freely speak the Chicano Spanish. From her article, there is some advancement made, since there is the existence of political parties that defend Chicano’s rights. Also, books that were published in Chicano Spanish language (Anazaldua 317) Nevertheless, there is some questioning mark regarding the sense of belonging, freedom of expression, race, identity, and culture. As a consequence, she expresses her feeling anger and indignation, revealing how the Chicano Spanish disparaged by the Anglo people and Latinos. Further, she points out that Chicanos are linguistically isolated, leading to adverse effects on their self-esteem.

Gloria’s article is tremendously significant and valuable as it highlights crucial social issues that need to be addressed. The fundamentals of the article can be substantiated and upheld by intellectuals like Fanon, Zizek, Goffman, and Foucault. Even though it was printed in 1987, she is referred as a modern writer of the Chicano movement. Ethnically, she was inclined and influenced by social mayhem, and tumult, as she wrote the article (Anazaldua 314).  Conversely, the affluence and opulence of her writing comes from personal experience and goes on knowledge. Furthermore, the strength of the article is depicted by Gloria, when she exhibits and qualifies the acculturation process as cruel and violent. Additionally, she points out the outlook of languages as a narrow and inert pathway of adjustments, which go beyond the new grammatical rules, where these changes are integrated with social and cultural aspects.

In conclusion, Gloria in her article has revealed and developed thoughts of the social turmoil caused by the Chicano movement. Consequently, I stoutly believe that her ideas and thoughts concerning the Chicano Spanish language have added strength to the article. In the olden times, American-Mexican communities that lived in Texas and California went through 20 years isolation and segregation. The Chicanos were denied the right to quality education while the American-Mexican obtained college equal opportunities while the Chicanos were forced into vocational schools. Hence, the Chicano’s were ashamed of speaking Spanish and of their origin as they were psychologically and physically punished in school because of speaking Spanish. It is evident that cultural imperialism endorsed a stigmatized and stereotyped Mexican populace, with a little academic ability that resulted in thousands of school drop-outs.

Aria: A Memoir of a Bilingual Childhood Analytical Synthesis

Aria: A Memoir of a Bilingual Childhood

Richard Rodriguez, in his article, deals with the issue bilingual learning and culture. He disputes that it is unnecessary and impossible for learners to apply or utilize their indigenous or native language together with English in public life and school (Rodriguez 222). The followings are his arguments and reasons why he disputes students to use their native language:

Rodriguez believes that the use of Spanish, which is his mother tongue at home His use of his parent’s native language at home encumbered his social growth. His parents did not understand and speak English made him and siblings not to learn English. Consequently, he could not communicate efficiently, which made Richard think his family and himself were not part of the American citizens. Conversely, before he became an expert and skilled English speaker, he perceived that his native language was a private language, a language that was not socially acceptable or appropriate (Rodriguez 224) He developed a desire to learn the English language, which he perceived as the universal language. Apparently, after he had learned the English language, he finally felt that he has become a fully-fledged and worthy person of the American Community. He quotes in his article, “At last seven years old, I came to believe what had been technically true since my birth: I was an American citizen.”

Rodriguez confronts the thought and idea of bilingual education. He believes and considers that bilingual education is something that deters instead of helping students that speak other languages apart of English.  Also, he argues that employing more English contributes to a smooth transition, where learners develop confidence and intimacy of the English language. He believes that speaking Spanish in his family created a bond between his family members. Conversely, Spanish secluded and cut off his family from the traditional world, hence, establishing a codependency, and closeness, which was lost when him together with his siblings switched or changed to English. Further, when he advanced in age, and he was able to recognize the intimacy and variation of emotions in all languages (Lee 1). He apprehended that intimacy is created not through the use of any language, save for the people who speak the language. As a consequence, he argues that he required learning English, so as to seek opportunities and rights essential and required for full public independence.

Additionally, Rodriguez disputes the general intention and purpose of bilingual learning. He states that this kind of knowledge does not permit learners to profit and benefit in the long run. Further, he argues that any student resisting to be taught English will slow down with their abilities and capabilities in future. However, he says that it is okay to implement bilingual learning although it does not help or profit the students (Lee 1).  Consequently, Richard Rodriguez felt that he was socially estranged and separated by his native language, which made him perceive that he was not a real American, till when he became competent with the English language. The break from his native language or Spanish permitted for his advancement in the public community, and the closeness and intimacy he had with his family, which he had attached and connected it with his native language did not lessen or diminish. As he was able to comprehend that the intimacy was related not to the words alone, but it was linked with the inflection.

N!ai Movie Review- Africa Cultures

This paper reviews the movie “N!ai” emphasizing on its relevance to the current society. The authors of this movie are John Marshall and Adrienne Miesmer .It was published in United States of America. The movie talks about the way of living of the Kung people while comparing the past and present lifestyles. It elaborates on the various changes in the Kung life over a period of thirty years with the life experiences of N!ai, a Kung woman. N!ai explains how they behaved before the arrival of the white people in their community (Marshall & Miesmer, 1980). The director of the movie is trying to portray changes in the Kung society within a period of thirty years, focusing more on the life history of N!ai. It explains the life and changes of a group of people in the society personified through the strand of actuality of one person, N!ai.

The movie begins with the explanation of N!ai early life, showing the way of living of the !Kung people in the past. It was that of hunting and gathering, shown by how she had enough knowledge about the bush life. With the elaboration of how she used to follow her mother when going to pick berries, roots and nuts while seasons changed showed that women had specific roles to play in the society, while men had the roles of hunting game meat for the family. The Kung people also encouraged early marriages to the ladies, exemplified by the dissatisfaction of N!ai to her husband of whom she was married to at the age of eleven (Marshall & Miesmer, 1980). The movies goes on to explain that N!ai eventually accepts her husband at a later stage of their lives when he becomes a healer in the society, showing a sign of changes in occupations and ways of living in the community.

The second part of the movie explains the changes in the Kung community upon the arrival of the white people. With the formation of government structures and administrations, they are restricted to live in sedentary camps formed by the governments of the day. The habit of hunting and gathering is prohibited, and they have to find alternative means of living. Their eating lifestyles changes from berries, fruits and game meat to maize meal, and they earn money from tourists who take their pictures upon visiting the community (Marshall & Miesmer, 1980). The men are forced to look for employment opportunities in the South African army, and they are forced to respect and remain loyal to the white men in the army since they really need food and money for their families back home. N!ai on the other hand because of her fame, and the quilt of not contributing anything in the family, is very ready to be paid by those who take photos of her. Other opportunities like healing are available, N!ai explains that she was comfortable with her husband when he became a healer.

The movie shows a community trying to adopt modernity while at the same maintaining their tradition, same as what is elaborated in the “Umgidi” movie. Despite of the men agreeing to live a sedentary life, they still have the desire for hunting which necessitates the use of horses. But since the officials argue that the use of horses while hunting causes harm to wildlife, they are restricted from doing that. It also shows the existence of social stratifications upon the arrival of the white people (Marshall & Miesmer, 1980). The white army employees are seen as superior or of a different class compared to the !Kung army employees. It is elaborated from the fact the white army employees were respected by the Kung who feared that they would lose their sources of income, if they disagreed with their seniors. The aspect of culture change is also elaborated in the movie. The Kung people have abandoned their past culture due to the influence of the white man. Roles for both men and women have changed due to the elimination of nomadic lifestyles and introduction of sedentary lifestyles. Due to the fact that they have to feed on maize meal, they have to practice crop farming.

Comparing this movie with the “Umgidi” it is seen that they have some similarities and differences. It is evident that the communities in both movies were influenced by the occurrence of colonization in Africa, and experiences changes in their cultural practices (Schuttle & Singiswa, 2011). Due to the colonization, and visiting of the white people, both communities encountered culture changes. The differences is that for the Xhosa people in the “Umgidi” they accepted the modern lifestyles but still practiced some of their cultural beliefs like circumcision despite the influence from the white man. The Kung people in the “N!ai” on the other hand completely left their behind their cultural practices with their past and adopted the white man’s culture.

In conclusion, it evident that changes in culture had more positive impacts to the African communities than the negatives, and that it promoted the level of growth and developments in the various communities.

Philip Morris International Promotion and Communications Strategy Paper

Assignment Instructions

Do research on Phillip Morris International (Marlboro). Now focus your research on this company’s promotion and communications strategy. Find out as much as you can about the company’s promotion mix. Before starting on your paper make sure you are familiar with the five main aspects of the promotion mix – advertising, public relations, personal selling, sales promotion, and direct marketing. Review all of the background materials regarding these five aspects. When you have finished researching your company’s promotion strategies and thoroughly reviewed the main promotion strategies covered in the background readings, write a two to three page paper addressing the following questions:

  1. What kind of advertising campaigns is this company currently engaged in? What kind of media do they advertise in, for example television, the internet, etc.?
  2. What kind of public relations efforts does this company engage in?
  3. Does this company ever use sales promotions such as coupons, giving away free samples, etc.?
  4. Does this company use personal selling at all? If so, did you ever deal with one of this company’s salespersons when you purchased their product?
  5. Does this company use direct marketing? For example, do they send out emails to customers? Or use telemarketing?

Sample Answer

Philip Morris International Inc. (PMI) is a global American tobacco and cigarette company which sells its products in over 200 countries. One of the most recognised and its best-selling product is the Marlboro. It was founded in 1900 and has its headquarters in New York City, New York, USA. Its products are not only cigarette and tobacco but also includes cigars, snuff, tubes and rolling papers.

Over the past few years, many countries have imposed either total or partial bans on adverts regarding tobacco promotion and marketing. Philip Morris International however does not agree on bans against tobacco advertising as it does not believe that advertising makes people smoke. The approach it uses is what matters. PMI has been a very strong advocate for the regulations which limit tobacco product marketing(Szczypka, Wakefield, Emery, Terry-McElrath, Flay, & Chaloupka, 2007). In their opinion, if regulations are set regarding advertisements and marketing, it will ensure that all the campaigns that are carried out are following the same rule.

In its defense, they strongly advocate for marketing of their products to the adult smokers as it is fundamental to the ever growing global competition. It is also important for the adult smokers to be able to receive information on their products range as well as their preferred product choice. According to Philip Morris International, regulations can play a very big role by striking a balance ensuring that the tobacco manufacturers are able to communicate with the adult smokers and limiting effectively the tobacco product marketing(Szczypka et al2007).

Marketing is among the greatest strengths possessed by PMI and above all it remains the core pillar of their competitive strategy. Their marketing campaigns are based on three principles:

  1. All their marketing materials and packaging contain health warnings
  2. Marketing is not done to children and they do not use images or anything else that might appeal the minors
  • All their marketing practices fully respect the global standards of decency and also the local traditions, cultures as well as practices (Szczypka et al 2007).

There are several types of advertising campaigns that are used by several companies. Four of these are popularly known to build brands and drive sales and include;

  • A word hook
  • A consistent brand layout
  • A repeatable theme and a character hook

Philip Morris International in this case is using the work hood kind of advertising campaign. This is because it uses a repeatable catch phrase from ad to ad. For example, its ad on the Marlboro man represented a power of the brand by creating a lifestyle around its products. Some of the catch phrases it uses include; want to be a man? Want to be free? Want to be on the open range? This was used to define the Marlboro man. This ad was very effective as it captures the ideal lifestyle which most men have aspired at this time. They ensure that whatever product they are selling fits well in the audience’s lifestyle.

Philip Morris International mostly uses television commercials as well as the internet in its advertisements. It has its own website where they update their clients about their products. The company has however faced several challenges in television advertising especially when tobacco advertising was banned.

The company has set up a public relations strategy which they believe will enable the increase their sales. It has commissioned a research that deals with finding answers to their client’s concerns and questions regarding the effects of tobacco smoking to the human health(Ong & Glantz, 2001).

This company also uses sales promotions such as coupons and giveaways. Like for March, 2016, Philip Morris has given out offers which includes 2 sales and 2 promo codes as well.

The company uses four different types of distribution channels which are employed globally. These include the exclusive zonified distribution, distribution of their products through the single independent distributors, direct sales and distribution as well as distribution through the regional and national wholesalers. The company thus does not use personal selling at all as it depends on the retailers and the wholesalers(Penny, 2016). This range of distribution is very beneficial in that it enables the company to make distributions directly to the retailers in a single market and thus can obtain a suitable returns on their investments. In most of the markets, the company directly supplies the retail chains, the gas stations and the supermarkets as well.

Most of the tobacco companies have faced a very great challenge following its ban on advertisement on the TV’s, Internet and the billboards as well. This has caused the tobacco industry sales to drop by 5%. Philip Morris was one of the affected brands but still sponsors an American-idol like brand in the web which is known as “The Best of Marlboro Country Music. There are promotions on the college campuses, the night clubs on the internet as well as on the stores where these cigarettes are sold. The company uses a one- on-one approach but finds a way to avoid or minimize its exposure of advertisements to minors (Wakefield, Morley, Horan & Cunnings, 2002).

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Do school Kill Creativity – Creative Spark Talk Analysis Paper

‘Do school Kill Creativity’ by Ken Robinson – Educator and Creativity Expert (2006)

Los Angeles

Do school Kill Creativity TEDTalk by Sir Ken Robinson an educator and creativity expert focuses on how the formal education system undermines creativity by elevating literacy over the capacity for creativity. Having been an advisor on educational matters to the government of the United Kingdom and as a thought leader on innovation and creativity not only in education but also in business, Sir Ken Robinson champions the idea of encouraging children to pursue what they really enjoy and then turn it into their job. Robinson points out an important link between education and the future, where he rightly claims that no one can aptly make predictions of what is going to happen in the next five years(Robinson, 2006). By making this assertion, he encourages an education system that prepares children for a future far beyond the horizon and one, which equates the importance of creativity with that of literacy because children have an extraordinary capacity for innovation. According to Robinson, an education system that places literacy over creativity squanders children and robs them of the key ingredient to originality; the ability to make mistakes, which they are born with. “If you are not prepared to be wrong, you cannot come up with anything original,” (Robinson, 2006).

While posing the question of what the purpose of education really is, Robinson points that, intelligence is diverse, dynamic, wonderfully interactive, and distinct and should not be delivered in a way that seem to only be meant to produce university professors. He emphasizes the clear distinction between education systems in the industrial age of 19th century; which placed mathematics and the languages on top, and education systems in the 21st century, which should recognize and acknowledge the shift in priorities. Robinson encourages a 21st century education system that brings to the fore, ideas, creativity, and innovation by educating the whole being of a person, recognizing the rich creative capacities in humans and celebrating the gift of human imagination. He advises to move away from a strictly left-brain thinking education system that suppresses in children, creativity and the interactive brain and other bodily function that form the bedrock of innovation and creativity, warning not to continue educating creativity out of children.

In reference to some of the stages of creativity, Robinson in his talk of how school kills creativity,recognizes that ideas do not arise in an intellectual vacuum citing that preparation as a key stage of creativity should embody the characteristics of intelligence. Intelligence is dynamic, distinct, wonderfully interactive, and most importantly diverse(Robinson, 2006). For creativity to reach others and accomplish whatever it was intended to, it must be packaged appropriately taking into consideration critical thinking skills where the audience of the idea or the message is key to the creative process. This stage of creativity often known as evaluation or verification ensures that a great idea is not lost because of poor packaging. Bing an area of the creative process that many creative people struggle with, it is imperative that the 21st century education system equips students with the skills for reflection and self-criticism to identify merit in their ideas and to be able to employ sufficient resources in the development of the ideas that score highly on the merit scale. This stage calls for testing creative ideas working and re-working the idea to ensure that it actually qualifies based on set standards of innovation, utility, and purpose before implementation.

Regarding the concepts of imagination and curiosity, it is more obvious for people to see that current systems of education are failing to meet current challenges, increasing the need to create more innovative alternatives. This, as Robinson puts it, requires that cultural attitudes and national policies get liberated from the notions of the past by looking forward beyond the visible horizons. The current systems of education and obviously the most dominant the world over seem to promote a narrow view of intelligence, fostered by standardization, failing to see human talents as personal and diverse. Curiosity and consequent imagination rejects the notions of compliance by recognizing that in order for achievement and cultural progress to thrive they must be anchored in the strong foundation of imagination and creativity. Unlike the current non-performing systems of education, curiosity and imagination do not seek to cultivate a rigid and linear course for every human being but instead acknowledges and promotes a more organic and largely unpredictable course of human creativity.

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Comcast Beta Coefficient And Discussion Assignment And Sample Answer

Assignment Instructions

Using Yahoo! Finance find the value of beta for Comcast. Write a two page paper discussing the following items:

  1. What is the estimated beta coefficient of Comcast? What does this beta mean in terms of your choice to include this company in your overall portfolio?
  2. Given the beta of Comcast, the present yield to maturity on U.S. government bonds maturing in one year (currently about 4.5% annually) and an assessment that the market risk premium (that is – the difference between the expected rate of return on the ‘market portfolio’ and the risk-free rate of interest) is 6.5%, use the CAPM equation in order to find out what is the present ‘cost of equity’ of your company? Explain what is the meaning of the ‘cost of equity’.
  3. Choose two other companies, look up their “Beta” and report the names of these companies and their betas. Suppose you invest one third of your money in each of the stocks of these companies. What will the beta of the portfolio be? Given the data in (b), what will the Expected Rate of Return on this portfolio be? Do you feel that the three-stock portfolio is sufficiently diversified or does it still have risk that can be diversified away? Explain.

 

Sample Answer

Comcast Beta Coefficient

The estimated Comcast beta coefficient is 1.03411 (Yahoo Finance, 2016). Beta refers to a measure of the systemic risk or volatility of a portfolio or security compared to the entire market. Beta is considered as the tendency for returns on security to respond to market swing. A beta of below 1 indicates that the security will be less volatile compared to the market, a beta of 1 indicates that the price of the security will be shift with the market, while a beta of more than 1 demonstrates that the price of the security will be extra volatile compared to the market. The Comcast Company has an estimated beta of 1.03 which is slightly above 1 and thus, it can be said to indicate that the price of the security will be more volatile as compared to the market prices. The security shift may be 3% higher than the market value. This company will be included in my portfolio since its rate volatility may be highly beneficial especially if the shift is on the positive side (Investopedia, 201b).

Cost of Equity Computation using CAPM

Cost of equity refers to the return which stakeholders need for their investment in a firm. It is the compensation which is demanded by the market in exchange for possessing the asset and taking the ownership risk. It acts as the weighted average cost of capital integral part that is extensively used to establish the total expected cost of all capital under various financing. In this regard the Comcast shareholders will be anticipating a return of 4.44% percent on the investment they make in the Comcast Company.

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Visual Imagery Paper

Write a 500- to 700-word paper that discusses visual imagery. Include the following in your paper:

  • Discuss visual and verbal imagery and compare the two types of imagery processing
  • An argument about which of these you consider most important
  • A justification of your argument with research
  • Discuss a research study from Anderson that compares mental representations of visual images with actual visual perception of images
  • Support your discussion with research examples

Include at least three scholarly articles.

Jack and Jill are in college. They have just created a prototype for a wind powered car that can capture, convert and store wind energy and requires absolutely no other fuel or electricity.

1. Jack and Jill are in college. They have just created a prototype for a wind powered car that can capture, convert and store wind energy and requires absolutely no other fuel or electricity. They have decided to apply for a patent for this technology and explore manufacturing facilities to start mass producing the vehicle. They learned that a former Saturn manufacturing plant is on limited production and up for sale in Spring Hill Tennessee. They can easily convert this to their first manufacturing facility, and in fact may be able to save and create jobs in Spring Hill.
•Choose an entity form, and if dictated by the type of entity chosen, “form” the entity by choosing a name, a state of formation, drafting a certificate of formation or incorporation, and the governing document of the entity, such as bylaws, a partnership agreement or a company agreement. If you have chosen an entity with limited liability protection for the owners, you may also likely need a written memorandum of organizational meeting, or to hold such a meeting and prepare notes from the meeting. Your formation documents are limited to a maximum of 10 pages.
•Negotiate the purchase contract for the manufacturing facility.

the type of entity chosen and why, your entity’s name, your entity’s business purpose, a hierarchy of ownership, management and control appropriate to the selected type of organization, negotiations between the parties, excerpts from the negotiated written agreement consummating the transaction.

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Developing, Managing, and Operating a Retail Business – Assignment Instructions

Imagine that you recently took over your friend’s small retail business and you now have to do the following:

  • Rename the store
  • Create new hours of operations
  • Hire two (2) new part-time employees and two (2) new full-time employees
  • Address a new plan for building your clients and merchandise, and
  • Address the issues of the remaining employees from the acquired business, who are disgruntled because you are relocating the store to the center of the town where you live.

Consider how you are going to develop, manage, and operate your new retail business.

Write a three to six to eight (6-8) paper in which you:

  1. Propose two to three (2-3) strategies for targeting customers and information gathering that would use in order to develop your own clientele while maintaining the clients of the acquired retail business.
  2. Develop a plan that details your approach to recruiting and training a new staff while addressing the concerns of the remaining employees related to the proposed store relocation.
  3. Apply the concept of the one-hundred (100) percent location and saturation to your retail store.
  4. Create a design for the most important financial dimensions of your business, and develop a strategic plan for addressing the dimensions that you have indicated.
  5. Create a name, a mission, and a philosophy for your retail store.
  6. Define store hours, including holidays and weekends, and describe the key goals of employee management.
  7. Develop a plan for cultivating an inviting store atmosphere (e.g., music, décor, style of goods provided, services provided, etc.) and a corresponding window display.
  8. Use at least three (3) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Analyze the retailing consumer and database management in retailing.
  • Analyze human resource management and financial aspects of operation management in retail organizations.
  • Describe the dimensions of operating a retail business and the development of merchandise plans.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in retail management.
  • Write clearly and concisely about retail management using proper writing mechanics.

How Digital Networks are Transforming

How Digital Networks are Transforming

1) How is information technology, especially the growth in digital networks (LANs, wireless (at home and at the workplace), iPods, iPads, Blackberries, cell phones, etc), changing the way people work in organizational environments? Give 2 business related examples. Please provide 100 – 150 words.

2) Consider the earlier flap over Internet monitoring software demanded by the Chinese government from computer makers but that failed to get implemented. With their Internet population larger than our entire U.S. population, do you feel this technological evolution impacting the Chinese has anything to do with the rest of the world? If so, in what areas? See article for reference: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/08/24/business/china-foreign-companies-internet/index.html. Please provide 100 – 150 words.

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Application of Total Quality Management at Etisalat

Assignment Instructions

Apply the principles of one of the quality programs you have researched from your readings to a Middle Eastern organization of your choice. Include the following information in 4 page paper:
  • Background information on the organization
  • Reason why you selected the quality program for that organization
  • Ways in which the quality program may help enhance the organization’s performance

Sample Answer

Application of Total Quality Management at Etisalat

Quality management makes certain that specific services, products or organizations are consistent. Quality management comprises of varied elements, including quality enhancement, control, assurance, and planning (Brown, Hitchcock & Willard, 1994). It zeroes in on service, as well as product, quality along with how the quality is to be attained. Thus, it utilizes quality control and assurance of specific products and processes to attain constant quality. There are many programs geared towards quality enhancement in organizations (Chase, 1991; Creech, 1994). The programs include TQM (Total Quality Management). TQM is a strategy, or program, employed in management contexts to set in quality considerations in every organizational process. This paper proposes the adoption of TQM by Etisalat. Etisalat is the biggest telecommunication service provider across the United Arab Emirates. As well, it has operations in others regions, including Asia and Africa (Oxford Business Group, 2014).

Background Information on Etisalat

Etisalat, which began operations in mid-1976, is among the leading telecommunication service providers globally. Its biggest market is the UAE: where it has millions of clients. Recently, it has grown into the leading internet service provider in the market as well. It provides internet connection services to varied companies in the telecommunication industry, other businesses, and individuals according to Oxford Business Group (2014). At the moment, the company is defined by hundreds of roaming facilities worldwide.

In mid-1983, the UAE government purchased a 60% stake of Etisalat. The remaining 40% stake was floated for open-market sale. By the end of 1991, Etisalat had obtained the necessary approvals to offer unwired, as well as wired, telecommunication services across the UAE along with other nation-states. The company got licenses for the production, exportation, and importation of various sets of telecommunication equipment (Oxford Business Group, 2014). The approvals, as well as licenses, made the company operate as if it were a monopoly in the UAE. The approvals, as well as licenses, helped the government fetched considerable revenues.

As well, the approvals and licenses occasioned a business climate that allowed for the significant development of the country’s telecommunication industry. Etisalat began its international operations in 2001 by setting up operations in Islamabad. By and large, it is among the biggest firms in the UAE presently. It is the largest taxpayer in the UAE after the country’s gas and oil industry (Oxford Business Group, 2014).

Justification for Choosing Total Quality Management for Etisalat

Many companies that adopt Total Quality Management are persuaded to do so by the program’s capacity for the maximization of client satisfaction through the reduction of process errors and optimization of how the extant resources are utilized. TQM enables organizations to eliminate production errors completely at times, ensuring that clients’ expectations are all met or even exceeded. That is important, especially because the contemporary customer is keen on getting value for own money and hard to satisfy (Chase, 1991; Creech, 1994). If Etisalat adopts TQM, it will be well-placed to defeat competition by exploiting the ensuing client satisfaction and quality production competitive advantages.

Over the years, Etisalat has been keener and keener on quality management and thus the adoption of TQM should be welcomed (Oxford Business Group, 2014). The company has been keen on ensuring that persistent quality improvement defines it and addressing its challenges that are related to client contentment. Ideally, the company should adopt TQM to help advance its profitability interests, ensure that its clients are satisfied, and ensure that it registers overall growth, especially in own profits. Besides, the company needs to adopt the program to respond effectively to the changing economic milieus in which it operates by becoming more and more focused on its customers, becoming client-oriented (Chase, 1991; Creech, 1994).

As well, TQM is appropriate for Etisalat since it now focuses on enhancing its equipment’ quality to offer better services (Oxford Business Group, 2014). In the past, the company’s marketing agenda was offering specific telecommunication services or products at the lowest probable costs. Presently, it seeks to offer its clients the highest-quality services or products at the lowest probable costs. The company had registered remarkable positive results since when it started focusing on offering its clients the highest-quality services or products at the lowest probable costs (Chase, 1991; Creech, 1994). The adoption of TQM will help the company pick out any quality problems in its production processes and address them promptly.

How TQM Can Improve Etisalat’s Performance

            TQM may assist in enhancing the performance of Etisalat in varied ways as suggested by Plunkett (2008). Training enhances the capacity of staff members to deliver on specific performance targets, allows the staff members to deliver at an enhanced level. If Etisalat adopts TQM, it should make certain that each of its employees gets training that is line with his or her job’s requirements (Oxford Business Group, 2014). Even though the training will have cost implications for the company, it will reduce its operating costs substantially over time and ensure that its clients receive the products of excellent quality.

The adoption of TQM will help transform Etisalat’s working culture favorably, enhancing its performance (Oxford Business Group, 2014). TQM entails complete transformations of staff members’ working cultures. When the company adopts the program for the first time, its staff members may have challenges in adjusting to its quality requirements initially. Even then, the members will accept it gradually, enhancing the quality, hence sales, of the company’s telecommunication and internet products over time (Chase, 1991; Creech, 1994). The members will become more and more focused on attaining the company’s TQM-related quality goals, which will be aimed at building the company’s sales further (Brown, Hitchcock & Willard, 1994). The company will have a culture defined by the commitment to specific quality ideals.

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Administrative Enforcement Essay

Administrative Agencies are created by federal constitution, the US congress, state legislatures and local law making bodies to manage crises, redress social problems or oversee complex matters of governmental concern beyond the expertise of legislators (Harington, & Cater, 2015). The Administrative Agencies’ rules and regulations often have the force of law against individuals. This tendency however, has led to many critics to argue that creation of the Agencies that laws are to be created by elected officials (Billiet et al, 2014). In the US, it’s only the congress that has the power to write laws that are generally binding on the general public (Becker, 1968). The constitutional authority does not extend down to the individual citizens of the country nor does it extend down to individual businesses located in the country

It’s only the state government that has the constitutional authority to regulate the lives of those living inside the borders and the companies doing businesses.

Types Of Administrative Enforcement Actions

These administrative enforcement actions include;

  • Administrative civil liability
  • Civil judicial actions
  • Criminal actions

Administrative civil liability

According to Billiet et al., 2010, Administrative civil liability is a non –judicial enforcement actions taken by EPA or state under its own authority and do not involve judicial court proceedings. It can be in form of;

  • Notice of violation
  • An order directing an individual to comply with statutes

Civil judicial actions

They are formal law suits and are filed in court against persons or entities that have failed to;

  • Comply with statutory requirements
  • Comply with administrative order
  • Pay EPA the cost of cleaning up a superfund site

These are normally filed by US Department of Justice on behalf of EPA. They are under Civil Cases and Settlement(Harington, & Cater, 2015). An example of this is when a court order is given to individuals to stop any activities which do not uphold environmental health.

Criminal Actions

Occur when EPA or State enforce against a company or a person through criminal action. Criminal actions are usually reserved for the most serious violations, that are willful, or knowingly committed and court conviction can result into fine or imprisonment (Billetet al, 2014). For example, when a court subjects or fines a defendant to imprisonment due to crimes which violate social order or environmental health and cause harm to people. The court can thus force the criminal to reinstitute the persons affected or rather pay for the damages that may have been caused.

In my opinion, criminal action is much better compared to the civil judicial action. This is because the damages in criminal action are paid to the affected persons while civil judicial action on the other hand gives an order to stop destructive activities.

Enforcement Of Rules By Administrative Agencies

Civil Enforcement

Are generally agreed upon resolutions to an enforcement case. Settlements in administrative actions are often in the form of consent agreements/final orders. Settlements in judicial actions are in the form of consent decrees signed by all parties to the action and filed in the appropriate court.

Civil Penalties

These are monetary assessment paid by a person or regulated entity due to a violation or non-compliance. Penalties are incentives for coming into compliance and staying in compliance with Environmental statutes and orders (Billiet et al, 2014).

Injunctive Relief

According to Billiet et al., 2010, injunctive relief requires a regulated entity to perform some designated actions it also brings the entity to compliance with environmental law. Supplemental Environmental Projects (SEPs) can be part of an enforcement settlement.

Criminal Penalties

These are federal or state fines imposed by judges at the sentencing. Besides penalties, restitutions may be paid tom those affected by the violation, for example paying  local fire department for responding and containing a hazardous waste spill (Harington, & Cater, 2015).

Similarities and differences between administrative enforcement

In both the actions, there is a soft or hard punishment involved or a notice to the defendant given by the authority. Contrary to the similarities, each type of action is addressed differently(Harington, & Cater, 2015). For example civil liability is solved outside the court whereas civil judicial action is addressed in the court.

It can be concluded therefore that all the administrative actions are important in bringing social order. The violators of social and environmental laws should be forced by law to either restitute the affected persons or serve jail terms as a way of punishing them.

How The Delegation Doctrine Impacts Authority Of Administrative Agencies To Execute Statutes

The Administrative Law is the branch of the law that establishes the duties, legal requirements, and the remedies available to organizations affected by the administrative action, and governmental powers, for regulatory authorities (Harrington, & Carter, 2015). Conversely, in America, the rise of administrative agencies is simultaneous with the requirement for legislative regulation of industry.  The administrative law was set in 1887 to regulate railroads as it was of vital necessity to the national government, and the Interstate Commerce Commission recognized it. As a consequence, ICC became the archetype of the United States regulatory agency.  Conversely, any industrial abuses that called for the attention of ICC were handled by a royal commission vested with power over the most important features of railroading from the control of discriminatory practices, prescription of rates, and the administration of financial operations.

The ICC was well portrayed as super-board of railroad industry executives and had the jurisdictions over other forms of transportation like the domestic water carriers, oil pipelines, and interstate motor carriers. Furthermore, the regulation of ICC was recognized in other parts of the economy of the United States for instance, during the economic crisis of 1926 (Gale, 2008). Since then there has been the creation of a mass of administrative and regulatory agencies sculpted from the ICC. The most powerful administrative agencies are the Civil Aeronautics Board, the National Labor Relations Board, the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Federal Communications Commission, and the Federal Trade Commission. Consequently, the American administrative law emerged from the function of these various governmental agencies, vested with vital powers to decide by decision or by rule, the private obligations, and rights.  While the orders and regulations propagated by the administrative agencies, imposed more upon the society, and the bar that advocated for the agencies. Consequently, there were creations of legal rules to guarantee the subordination of agency actions to law became of apprehension to the board of judges.

Functions of the Administrative Agencies 

The administrative agencies operate on the American administrative law, which dedicates on excessive attention to the focus of the administrative process. However, it is a reasonable indication of the nation’s concern with the adjective features of the subjects. Before the Americans were concerned with the allocation of judicial power and control, conversely, this has changed, and the government has realized that the exercise of administrative agencies and their powers are of equal importance to the judicial powers (Postell, n. d). As a consequence, there has been the emphasis on the practical and procedural upholds to make sure of administrative law and power. This emphasis located an enunciation in the Federal Administrative Procedure Act of 1946 that highlights the fundamental procedures to be pursued by the administrative agencies of the United States.

In conclusion, it is imperative to say that the American administrative law is mainly the advanced and developed system in existence, insofar, as the practical necessities, which need to be followed preceding the administrative actions. Consequently, the due-process clause of the Constitution of the United States is interpreted as demand for hearing and notice. For instance, before an official verdict that negatively affects property and personal rights of a particular person are established, the entitled person due to the person’s constitutional right should notice a fair and a full hearing. The hearing need to match with the necessary adjudicatory necessities of the courtroom that mean the person has the right to an opponent trial, with the right of spoken argument and evidence, counsel, and cross-examination, before an administrative law and decision charged against the person.

Entities In A Club or Organization – Relational Database Concepts And Applications

I am a member of the home science club. This club deals with quite a number of things including sanitation, fashion and design and the largest part of its involvement is in catering. For this part. I am going to look at the catering department in the club, the entities involved and their relationship.

A data entity is a representation of the subject data from a common data model which is used in the logical data model(Hjertstrom, Nystrom, & Sjodin, 2009). In this discussion, there are four entities which we will have a look at. These include; the kitchen, the supplier, the customer and the manager. The Kitchen is the area where the food is supposed to be ordered from by the customer. The supplier is the person or a company which has been given the tender or the mandate to supply the club with several kitchen hardware together with the foodstuff that are needed, the manager is the person responsible for keeping the records, ordering and monitoring the supplies from the supplier.

Based on the below diagram, it is clear that the customer can place an order. The Order Food Process then receives the order where it forwards it to the kitchen and stores the data in the Order data store. The updated inventory details are stored in the Inventory Data Store. In this process, the Bill is also sent to the customer. The Manager then receives a report through the Generate Reports Process which also takes Inventory details and also orders as inputs from the inventory and the order data store respectively. The manager can as well initiate the Order Inventory Process by providing the Inventory order. This process thus forwards the inventory order to the supplier and then stores the updated Inventory details in the Inventory data store.

Below is the Enterprise Data Model (EDM) which is in use by this club:

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Cultural Activity Report – A Visit To Museum of Modern Art

Introduction

The museum I visited was the modern museum. The modern museum houses many pieces of art that are important in showing the various works that are associated with the modern society. The museum mostly deals with modern art and as such focusses on the different events that have happened and making art the reflects the modern society. The museum is quite exquisite in its arrangement as there is a modern touch to the surroundings of the institutions especially the rooms that house the art. The attendees in the museum are mostly young adults including men and women together with few elderly people. Some are sitting on the chairs in the exhibition rooms while others are staring at the various pieces of art. The museum is located in New York on the 53rd street. I ventured into the museum at eleven in the morning on 18 March.

The various sculptures are mostly found outside and few within the museum. Several pieces caught my attention when I ventured into the museum that I thought was involved and eye-catching was the painting by Edgar Degas, A Strange New Beauty. The painting is drawn in such manner as showing surfaces only and not focusing on the details associated with the face of the person. The painting is a monotype where the painter employed the use of the metal plate and then the painting passed through a printing press. The painting shows two people, a man and a woman. One form the first glance could think that the picture was etched or some other coloring using charcoal since the painting is in black and white. The painter mostly made his paintings then used the printing press to generate them in black and white color. The painting was done in the 1800s and contributes greatly to the methods that were used in the 19th century to ensure that modern painters learn from them and perfect on their paintings. The painting was shown on the sixth floor of the North exhibition gallery.

Another good piece in the museum is the self-portrait with cropped hair by Frida Kahlo. Fridha Kahlo was a feminist in the 1900s and eventually divorced from her husband. The picture shows her wearing men’s clothing at that time and thus speaks greatly on the issue of feminist. The picture thus tends to bring out the different events that happen during that era with feminism at the forefront and thus how women were treated. In wearing the trousers in the painting, she tended to show the displeasure with the state the women were being. An important article helps one to go back in history especially in issues related to women’s emancipation. Therefore, the painting is critical regarding showing the history affecting feminism and helping to appreciate how the women fare have gone in their quest for equality.

The museum has various galleries that display the various items associated with premodern and postmodern times. The museum houses many types of work that range from premodern to postmodern art. The build is vast, and the various rooms are sectioned to house various galleries associated with different paintings. It has a hotel, auditorium, and bookshop. The picture is clearly placed in the different rooms for exhibition with modern furnished arrangements. They are numerous sculptures outside the exhibition together with those inside the building. The building uses technology that includes multiple screens to air some of the paintings to the viewers. The museum shows various arts using many spaces and is one of the most elegant and influential museums regarding displaying art. The museum is an elegant feature itself especially with the arrangement and exhibition of the various paintings together with the sculptures in place.

Federal Equal Employment Opportunity Laws Reflection Paper

The role of equal employment opportunity laws is to ensure that practices that discriminate or are unfair to specific groups are stopped. These laws further provide a definition of the appropriate enforcement agencies that are concerned with these laws. The legislation on equal employment opportunity seeks to provide employment opportunities irrespective of national origin, gender, religion, and race, and attempts to balance the pay given to women and men. In addition to this, the legislation also prevents discrimination against individuals with disabilities and ensures that employees of all ages are treated with fairness. The equal employment opportunity legislation is based on the concepts of discrimination and affirmative action, where in the case of acts of discrimination compensation is given back and affirmative action is taken(Pynes, 2013). Affirmative action ensures that an employer puts in place steps to ensure that people within protected groups are guaranteed of equal employment opportunities.

For instance if an employer pays a lower wage to a woman in comparison to a man for the same work, then this is would be regarded as an act of gender discrimination. If in another instant, an employer refuses to hire a man who is qualified for a job but practices Islam; this would be regarded as discrimination on the basis of religion as it is not a job-relevant criteria for hiring an applicant or promoting a candidate.An employer is also responsible for harassment and acts of discrimination by its employers at the workplace and based on this can be held responsible; vicarious liability, unless the employer can prove that it put in place preventive measures to stop harassment and discrimination. Contravening the equal employment opportunities laws attracts penalties and fines for employers.It is a complex challenge for managers to manage human resources effectively because the regulatory and legal environment is changing constantly, requiring that human resources managers stay updated and always on top of things to avoid legal consequences(Pynes, 2013). There also exist areas of legal ambiguity and fiscal uncertainty that call for sound evaluation by human resources managers to ensure that legal obligations are always met in the best way possible (Rush, 2012).

At the Department of Defense, there have been cases of unlawful termination where whistleblowers in particular have not been protected in accordance with the Fair Work Act of 2009 which for certain reasons prohibits an employer from taking ‘adverse action’ against an employee. Employees who have played the role of a whistleblower in exposing improper dealings in various projects have been known to lose their jobs, including their pension. This, according to Katel (2006) points to a lack of protection for employees who find themselves caught between preserving the integrity of their jobs and the threat of losing their job security by uncovering illegal dealings at the workplace. This is irrespective of whether the actions of the employee were in fact in favor of the organization and in certain instances under the instruction of the employee’s bosses. This point to situations where junior employees can and are in fact used as scapegoats by their superiorsto take the fault for actions gone bad at the workplace and thus sabotaging employee rights.Employees considered disloyal as witnessed in the case of whistleblowing are in many instances transferred or gagged illegally(Katel, 2006).

Protection of the rights of employees in non-negotiable, and in instances where loopholes exist in the way employees are treated and protected at their place of workshould by all means be sealed by law. As exhibited in the case of whistleblowing, there is an obvious social stigma associated with the process and act of alerting others to corruption, danger, scandal, wrongdoing, and other forms of malpractice, which leads to the ostracizing of whistleblowers and a continued lack of protection for their rights as employees. These kinds of disclosures are typically unauthorized and are made through the media or directly to agencies charged with monitoring compliance to the related laws. Protection of the concept of rational loyalty where a whistleblower’s actions are evaluated in light of an organization’s interests as opposed to the interest of the people who control the organization at a given time should be prioritized and upheld by the law. The protection of whistleblowers based on the concept of rational loyalty is by extension the protection of an organization’s real values and those whom they serve; the general public(Blonder, 2010).

In reaction to this reality, Peter & Richard (2012) propose the deliberate inclusion of the term ‘conscience’ in the list of specific freedoms outlined by the constitution, drawing a clear distinction between freedom of religion  and a strongly developed freedom of conscience. In their argument, which I also agree with, the inclusion of the term ‘conscience’ recognizes it as a robust and independent freedom that contributes effectively to the development of whistleblowing practices that are valuable socially and that operates within a framework(Peter & Richard, 2012).

Unhealthy Humor in the Workplace – Final Problem Solving Researched Proposal

Introduction

Humor is an important aspect in human interaction. It plays an essential role in developing interaction and cohesion in a group. Humor also has particular impact on the organization or workplace. For employees at the workplace, humor regards their working mood and team members’ interaction. Adequate use of humor in the workplace can develop a fun environment and resolve conflicts, dilemmas, and embarrassment among individuals, creating familiarity with each other and add to the interpersonal relationship quality. It can as well accumulate extra support from other individuals so as to boost individual psychological energy (McGhee 1). Moreover, humor assists in muscles relaxation. With the laughter sound and happiness feel, one can create a positive emotions that counterbalance the negative impacts created by work pressure. Nevertheless, humor is considered as a double-edged sword which holds both bad and good traits. It can contains both positive and negative impacts. Thus among the varying humor styles, there may be some which are not suitable for mental and physical health and can even be harmful or dangerous to others or oneself. In this regard, workplace health need to be controlled to ensure unhealthy humor is completely suppressed in favor for health humor that bring in a number of benefits in a work environment (Sathyanarayana 165).

Statement of the Problem

Humor is normally used to create a relief in life. Although it was initially employed in social settings and was highly associated with unofficial settings, humor employment in work environment has been adopted gradually. This has been facilitated by extensive research that demonstrates the importance of humor in a work environment. Although workplace humor is associated with a number of benefits, it is important to note that those benefits are only enjoyed when the humor is healthy.  On the contrary, negative humor or unhealthy humor can be destructive to the workplace since it propagates the destruction of relationships, widening the gap among diverse individuals. Unhealthy humor can also be used by leaders to manipulate subordinates through fear or support. Unhealthy humor is a common problem in organizations that have embraced the use of humor. This is not uncommon to our organization. After making a close observation, I have realized that most employees are suffering from effect of negative humor directed to them by their supervisors, fellow colleagues, and managers. This humor may appear normal to other audience but one can notice the discomfort and chance of mood of the person at the receiving end. This can highly impact the organization performance negatively despite of the employment of all other possible measures to enhance the organization performance. In this regard, our company needs to identify negative or unhealthy humor that are used among workers and by managers to be able to identify the best strategy that can be employed to suppress this behavior. This ensure that the negative effects of negative humor do not nullify the organization efforts to enhance the organization performance.

 Research Objective

This research aims at identifying the harmful or unhealthy humor in the workplace and establishing its impact on workers or humor receiver and establishing the best way to suppressing the unhealthy humor in the organization.

Rationale of the Research

Humor is growing in popularity in different work environment. This has created great benefits to the organizations that have managed to embrace positive humor which is associated with a number of benefits. However, there is negative humor which is shallowly researched but which can highly destroy the organization performance. Thus, it is important to identify negative humor in organization and suppress its utilization in our organizations.

Literature Review

Humor is regarded as any communicative occasion that is perceived to be humorous and contains verbal and nonverbal communication that produce a positive erective or cognitive reply from listeners. In this regard, organizational humor contains funny communications which yield to positive cognitive and emotions in the organization, group, or individual.  However, this definition of organizational humor is only applicable in case of health humor. On the contrary, unhealthy humor may contain the humorous aspects but with the wrong intention which mostly involve enjoying a humorous laughter at the cost of others. Unhealthy humor is defined as a multilayered notion which encompasses of sarcasm, satires, slapstick and jokes.  Thus humor can also be used humiliate, or demoralize a person in the workplace (Romero and Cruithirds 59).

Regardless of the belief that workplace involve serious business, humor can ease the mood in organizational setting and change the work environment to be extra enjoyable. Workgroup are normally driven by human interaction rules, and thus comprehending the multifunctional obligation of humor in a work environment can essentially add to effective personnel management. Actually, the proper utilization of organizational humor can offer valuable advantages to organizations and even extra valuable instruments to management for staff motivation, effective communication and discord mitigation. According to (Romero and Cruithirds 58), humor contains a number of styles and facets. It is frequently regarded informally as a communicating levity approach, however, there is a science to humor which can be applied effectively as a serious leadership or management tool in an organization. More than mere laughing and joking or development of comradeship, humor can act as a complete toolkit with a number of particular tools which can be used selectively and employed by management.

Humor hold the ability to remedy a number of organizations issues and enhance healthy social association in the workplace. It supports efforts to develop group cohesion, increase creativity, improve communication, add to higher productivity, and boost satisfaction of subordinate. Humor is also found to be constructive in maintaining and creating organizational culture, generating camaraderie and promoting leadership. Humor can be used in organization leadership to enhance the association between a leader and the followers. Although humorous leadership might not be the basic principle for business success, it is very essential for developing an effectual team with great performance (Lyttle 240). Frequent utilization of humor at workplace by leaders is an effective way to restore and inspire morale. Humor can also be employed to assist leaders in attaining three basic results which include lowering work stress, to assist subordinate to comprehend the management models of leaders via communication and finally, to inspire followers or subordinates. Thus, humor plays an essential bridging role in a workplace. Apart from resolving the discomfiture resulting from various opinions, it assists in upholding good interpersonal relationship among the members of the team and boost love of colleagues. In addition, humor stands for a positive attitude to assist leaders in handling difficult business situation successfully. Actually, humorous leadership can assist organizations and enterprises in developing a more positive and proactive culture (Ho 6675).

Positive humor can be of great benefit to an organization as discussed above. However, not ever humor used in a work environment are healthy. Humor can also be used negatively mostly by leaders who wish to demoralize or humiliate their workers. The two forms of humor classified as negative humor include the aggressive humor and self-defeating humor. Aggressive humor is unhealthy humor founded on the superiority theory where by the speaker consider him or herself to be better than others. Thus, this is a form of humor that is comprised of jeer and sarcasm, ridicule, and it is insulting to the listeners. This humor is positively correlated with nervousness, aggression, and hostility. It is normally utilized in an organization to order or manipulate team members via one’s superiority sense (Ho 6676).

Self-defeating humor is another form of unhealthy humor.  In this case, speaker seems to be over insulting to herself or himself so as to please others. This is a defense mechanism that involves self-denying which appears to cover negative feelings away from issues via humor. This form of humor is frequently positively correlated with anxiety and depression and negatively associated with satisfaction of social support, happiness and self-esteem. Employment of self-defeating humor in a workplace is aimed at getting along with others and gaining their approval. Nevertheless, the use of this kind of humors by leaders might lower the subordinate confidence toward their leaders (Ho 6677).

Unhealthy humor picks on others as groups or individuals. They cause pains and widen gaps between individuals. Normally, individuals who employ negative humor focus on getting the laugh at the expense of another person. They normally fails to consider the effect of their action to the directed person, or they do it deliberately to cause humiliation. Normally, harmful humor is employed in a workplace among subordinate when an individual base the joke on race aspects, physical appearance, work mistake, gender based and other discriminative factors. This can be done intentionally or unintentionally. Whichever the case, humor based on such aspect maybe hurting to individuals in the receiving end. Negative humor can also be used to propagate sexual harassment in the work place.

Research Methodology

The research will focus on identifying negative humor in workplace, its impact to the workers and leaders and mechanism to suppress negative humor while promoting the positive one. To identify accomplish this, the research will perform qualitative research in the researcher workplace where negative humor incidences have been identified as a major problem in the organization. The main aim of conducting this research is to identify possible forms or aspects of negative humor that are used in the organization and their impacts to individual workers based in who used the humor, how it was used and who was the receiver of the humor. This will be done through the use of structured interview and structured questionnaires where workers will be required to identify cases where they have been insulted by jokes, words or acts that enticed others. The identification will include the person who initiated the joke, and who were the audience and the audience reaction.

The research will target all workers in the organization since they all have equal chance of experiencing healthy or unhealthy humor. Thus, the only discriminative factor will be used while selecting the research participant is that one must be an employee or a manager in this company.  Workers will be selected in this case since they have a higher chance of being in the receiving end of unhealthy humor. The questionnaire will take a total of 20 minutes to fill in. On the other hand, interviews will be directed to the managers of the organization who are most likely to employ negative humor to control subordinates. The interview will be recorded for later transcription. The interview will take not more than 30 minutes. The researcher will also employ literature review to identify the best strategies to employ to surpass this kind of behavior in an organization.

Research Validity and Reliability

Structured questionnaires and interviews are associated with a high level of validity since they are based on standard responses that restricts the respondent on the solutions to pick. The validity of a structured interview and questionnaire is measured at 4.0 (O’Connell 1). Thus, the research will be based on a high level of validity. The two techniques are also highly reliable since they involves use of tools that can be easily analyzed to maintain a high level of accuracy (Le. Ac 5).

Data Analysis

The data analysis will involve grouping the identified negative humors in similar group and identifying the possible theme for each group. Each theme will be provided with a number that will be used to establish its frequency of occurrence. The researcher will then make use of data analysis software such as SPSS to evaluate the probability of occurrence of a certain form of humor. To establish the best strategy for surpassing the level of negative humor in the organization, the researcher will also group the identified recommendation based on whether the recommendation is evidence-based or whether the recommendation is based on the scholar evaluation of possible solution through other means. The evidence based solution should be given the highest priority. The recommended solution must also match the identified negative humor to be able to address the actual problem that the company is experiencing (Sagepub 328).

The Research Schedule

The research will be done in a period of 4 weeks. The first 3 days of the research, the researcher will be engaged in obtaining the permission of conducting the research in the organization. This will be done using a formally written letter to the human resource manager. After obtaining the required permission, the researcher will develop the research questionnaires and interview questions for a period of 2 days. The researcher will then identify the best day to distribute the questionnaires and to conduct the interview. The entire process should take 7 days. This should be followed by 5 days of conducting intensive literature review to identify strategies that can be employed to surpass unhealthy humor in the workplace. This review should focus more on evidence based proposition and information from scholars who have credit in investing matters related to impact of humor in organizations. This will be followed by the data analysis process which will take a period of 7 days. This will be followed by data presentation and reporting of the findings which will take a period of 4 days. This scheduling is presented in the Gantt chart below.

Conclusion

Humor which has for a long time been associated with social affairs have slowly been making way to the corporate world. Humor is being used in the corporate world to enhance communication and thus, to strengthen relation in the organizations and to promote a conducive work environment. However, this only happens when positive humor is employed in the work environment. When a work environment is dominated by negative humor, negative outcomes are experienced. Unhealthy humor is a common problem in a number of organizations that have embraced humor to effect its operation. Unhealthy humor is associated with a number of negative aspects that destroy the relation among the workers and the association between the workers and the managers as well as supervisors, based on the user of the humor and the receiver of the same. The researcher’s working environment is currently experiencing the effect of negative humor and thus, something need to be done to ensure that the situation does not destroy the productivity of the organization.

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Advertisement Analysis – “Catch him if you can” Adidas Advertisement

Advertisement Analysis

Advertisements have been used by business to market their products. Different companies use the ads in a variety of ways and manners. Most of the advertisements are done on television and to a large extent on the internet also. (Zhang 187). Most people in the United States spent a lot of time in front of the television and thus in their lifetime they would have watched up to two million advertisements. The advertisements to not only appear on television but also everywhere people are especially on the roads where companies use billboards and posters, flyers to promote products, open air shows that market various products. Therefore, as one walks, drives or runs to the desired places like schools, offices and other areas of occupation he or she encounters countless advertisements on the way some of which he or she may stop to look at. Even as people communicate they may speak about an individual product especially trending items like fashionable clothes, shoes, technological products to name a few. Since people use most of the products that are sometimes advertised on the television ranging from clothes, houses, perfumes among others they are constantly bombarded by the different companies that make the products. Therefore, advertising is a complex process that involves the combination of various elements to ensure that the product is exhibited to the customer in an appealing manner.

Adidas advertisement

The advertisement that is going to be analyzed is the advertisement “Catch him if you can” Adidas advertisement. It consists of various elements that are used to pass the message about the product. The product, therefore, focusses on using the various components especially those that appeal greatly to sportsmen. The use of a celebrity in football who has great appeal throughout the world as one of the greatest football players is used. Though there are other elements in the picture, the use of Lionel Messi to endorse the produce creates a lot of difference and impact on how the targeted audience views the advertisement. Celebrities like Lionel Messi have great appeal to wider sections globally. Therefore, the product can gain broad appeal to athletes globally especially those attending the London event. Therefore, advertisers in companies look for various ways to ensure that customers are attracted to their products and in such instances opt to use celebrities. Adidas is a proven product that has long been used in sports and thus to gain a wider appeal it uses Messi. The general advertisement shows high energy and thus an active atmosphere where Messi introduces the product in his running. As such, the formidableness of Messi in the football arena is matched with that of the advertisement in its ability to be used in various sports and by different people engaged in the respective sports. Messi shows a determined face that aims at winning especially when using the product and thus creates an appeal to the product more so in association to his celebrity appeal.

Coloring

The coloring used in the advertisement has mostly dark colors and shows shadows of at the top covering Messi while bright colors that display the path he is taking. The colors represent motion ahead and the increasing speed associated with the product. The various objects in the picture are arranged asymmetrically. For example, the yellow color into eh picture shown in different rays is disproportional with the blue color on the left of the image. More weight to the balance is on the right side of the picture than on the left. Therefore, the balance moves away from the center of the picture.

Target audience

Any company making an advertisement should consider the target audience and provide a focused message regarding the pictures and words used. Many advertisements designed by corporations mostly ensure that the various elements in the ad are geared towards attracting the attention of the intended people. The intended audience of the Adidas advertisement is for the athletes especially those who were attending the London events. Such athletes usually use new shoes for such fixtures and, therefore, the company makes products and tries to appeal to the athletes to use their brand. The particular audience targeted by the ad is athletes. Though Messi is a footballer in the advertisement, we do not see him with the ball. As such, it appeals to athletes with the catchphrase that shows Adidas enabling the runner to avoid other people in the race. In the picture race is in the racing mode and the advert specifically targets athletes engaging the London Athletics. However, the shoe may appeal to other audiences like sportsmen in the National Football League, baseball, cricket, among other sports that involve running. Therefore, the advertisement mostly looks at the top athletes in the various sports especially running the event in London is associated with top athletes from various countries. Athletes mostly love the appeal of greater brands that help them to win in the various athletics events.

Elements in the advertisement

The elements used in an advertisement should be arranged in such a manner to ensure that the intended meaning is not overshadowed by other elements in the picture. The product should be shown clearly to the intended people in the advertisement (Maison 406). The connection among the various components in the pictures helps to show us in more detail what the picture means and thus it adds to the short sentence used in the advertisement. The colors help to represent the speed, especially where they form a V-shape showing increasing progress forward. As such, the shape of the colors shows increasing speed of the person in the advertisement. The picture has one person and thus it is an exclusive product that targets a particular segment of the market. The advertisement uses some warm colors especially the yellow color, which elicits excitement as one views the advertisement. The ad uses a few warm colors while the remainder includes the cold colors. The dark and lighter blue color show dependency and integrity of the product since they are cold colors. Therefore, all the colors in the picture merge to giving an exciting and excellent experience that a person can get when using the product.

White space

White space occupies a small area in the advertisement. The tactful utilization of white space is vital in advertisements as it helps to moderate the elements in it. The white space creates some harmony between the elements in the picture and as shown in the photo the white space is mostly at the center towards the top. The advertisement, therefore, has little white space with darker colors on the sides of the picture. The white space in the picture consist of a black color and starts from the center of the picture in a “v” shape upwards. Though the white space is usually white, the color that has nothing in is mostly taken as the white space. The white space required should be more than 20% and not less to ensure it captures the attention of the customer. The white space in the picture though little is not less than 20% of the picture. Adverts with a white space are conspicuous since unifying the various elements in the advert and create a contrast to the advertisement. As such though there is, less white space. The use of the celebrity attracts more attention as there are many fans of Messi throughout the world. As such, the products gain a wider appeal because of the use of Messi, who is loved by many fans throughout the world. As such, the celebrity will offset the little white space employed in the picture. Therefore, it is important for designers to ensure that the elements of the white space are positioned tactfully to create a more concise picture.

The advertisement is made in such a manner that they are appealing to the customers. Targeting position and segmentation of market are of great significant in the formation of advertisements. Business usually has a particular segment they want to reach in different markets. The individuals may be highly performing people especially those associated with the various sports with themes related to the different sports. Therefore, in making an advertisement the business has to focus on the subject and ensure that it uses elements that are conspicuous to the target audience. Most multinational that manufacture shoes, food products, and apparel concentrate on various colors and elements that they are to include in their advertisements. Therefore, in making the advertisement like the Adidas one it has to stick to the theme that is associated with athletics, which is learning. The information on it should be precise and concise to ensure that it delivers the intended message to the audience. The use of advertisement is necessary and the messages and everything that is used to make it is clearly and tactfully included in the picture to ensure that the product is marketed to the customer in an efficient manner.

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Lochol Study Synopsis Brochure And Assignment Instructions

SYNOPSIS

Title of Study:

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose safety and tolerance study of LOCHOL in healthy male volunteers

Investigative Site:

CRO

Anticipated Study Duration:

Anticipated Start Date for Study Enrollment: January, 2009
Anticipated Completion Date for Study Enrollment: October, 2009
Anticipated Date of Last Study Visit: November, 2009

Objective:

To assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of 250 mg Lochol when administered once daily for 2 weeks

Methodology:

Subjects will have a screening visit within 6 weeks prior to the Baseline visit. The subjects will be admitted to the clinical research unit on Day -7 to begin the NCEP Adults Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) Therapeutic Lifestyles Changes (TLC) Diet stabilization. The diet will be maintained through Day 17. Subjects will receive single oral doses of placebo or 250 mg LOCHOL once daily for 2 weeks beginning on Day 1. The subjects will be confined in the clinic from Day -7 to Day 17 for careful monitoring of potential study drug effects as well as to ensure maintained compliance with the NCEP Adults Treatment Panel III Therapeutic Lifestyles Changes Diet. Subjects will be released from the clinic on Day 17. Subjects will be monitored for routine safety labs, ECGs, vital signs, physical exams, and adverse events.

Number of Subjects:

24 subjects/1 cohort (16 active/8 placebo)

Diagnosis and Main Criteria for Inclusion:

Healthy males between ages 18 and 65 years with LDL values >100 mg/dL

Product Information:

Lochol is an ester of a well-known cholesterol-reducing agent that has been associated with an increase in LFTs, myalgia, and, rarely, rhabdomyolysis. Tell patients to promptly report muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness. Discontinue drug if myopathy is suspected, if creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels rise markedly, or if the patient has risk factors for rhabdomyolysis.

Lower starting doses should be considered when administered concomitantly with cyclosporine, fibric acid derivatives, erythromycin, clarithromycin, ritonavir/saquinavir, ritonavir/lopinavir, immunosuppressive drugs, azole antifungals, or niacin; additionally, physicians should carefully monitor patients for signs or symptoms of myopathy early during therapy and when titrating dose of either drug.

Comparator Product:

Placebo for Lochol

Assessments:

Adverse events
Clinical laboratory measurements
Pharmacokinetic values
ECGs
Physical exams

Primary Efficacy Measurements:

None

Secondary Efficacy Measurements:

None

Safety and Tolerance:

• Routine monitoring of adverse events (AEs)
• Clinical laboratory specimens for testing of standard safety panels for chemistry, hematology, and urinalysis
• Vital signs
• Physical exam results
• ECGs

Pharmacokinetics:

Serial plasma specimens will be taken for study drug-level determinations.

Pharmacodynamics:

Measurement of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, Lp(a), Apolipoprotein-A , and Apolipoprotein-B

Statistical Methods:

Statistical Analysis Plan:

  • Pharmacodynamic evaluation:

Total Cholesterol

HDL Cholesterol
LDL Cholesterol (direct measurement)
Triglycerides
Lp(a)
Apolipoprotein-A
Apolipoprotein-B

All pharmacodynamic parameters will be listed and summarized by treatment group. Differences at end of therapy relative to baseline will be examined by treatment group. The mean of three lipid values measured on 3 consecutive days will be used for Baseline (Days -2, -1, and 1) and End of Therapy (Days 13, 14 and 15) values in order to decrease the intrasubject variability of the lipid measurements when comparing treatment groups.

  • Safety evaluation:

All subjects who receive study medication and have a subsequent safety evaluation will be included in the safety analyses.

All adverse events reported during the study will be listed, documenting course, severity, and outcome. Adverse events will be coded to MedDRA terms.

Adverse event reports summarized by treatment group will give the number of subjects who experienced an adverse event, the maximum severity, and body system.

Laboratory parameters, vital signs, and physical exam results will be summarized by treatment group with the statistics of n, mean, standard deviation, median and range or frequencies and percentages, as appropriate, for baseline, on therapy, and posttherapy values.

All ECG data measured during the study will be listed and summarized by treatment group.

  • Pharmacokinetic evaluation:

Pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g., Cmax, Tmax, t1/2, AUC(0-24), AUC(0-t), AUC(0-inf), Kel, Ae%, CLr,, and CLt ) will be estimated for each treatment group using noncompartmental methods. Pharmacokinetic parameters will be summarized by treatment group using descriptive statistics, as appropriate.

Assignment Instructions

Risks and Benefits in Clinical Trials

Most positions on a clinical research team require that you analyze the protocol design and the protocol procedures’ implications. One aspect of protocol design is understanding the problems that could arise during the trial. This Application Assignment provides you with an example of an abbreviated protocol for a drug, Lochol, from which you can extrapolate potential problems and benefits that could arise from the study outcome.
Thoroughly review the Lochol Study Synopsis Brochure. Based on information in the brochure, consider the drug’s risks and benefits.
Write a 1-page paper that outlines the study’s potential risks and benefits. Be sure to include at least two examples of benefits and two examples of risks. Then, based on these risks and benefits, justify whether you would continue the drug development process by following up the 2-week study (as listed in the Lochol Study Brochure) with a 4-week study at 250 mg/day.
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Risks and Benefits in Clinical Trials – Lochol Study Synopsis Brochure

Those participating in clinical trials are exposed to various risks even as they benefit from the trials. The trials may offer them access to emerging, or new treatments that the public is yet to access, get professional medical care at specialized healthcare institutions, get actively involved in their healthcare, and assist others through own contributions to healthcare or medical research. Even then, the participants may suffer life-threatening, serious or unpleasant side effects or expend lots of time on the research. The treatment they receive may be ineffective. In some cases, the participants may lack insurance cover for the costs incurred during the research (Lo, 2009).

From the LOCHOL Study Synopsis Brochure will be of help to others via own contributions to the study and medical research in general. Even then, the participants are prone to suffering life-threatening, serious or unpleasant side effects after taking the 250 mg LOCHOL dosage daily. The possible, or potential, side effects include muscle pain, weakness, rhabdomyolysis, myalgia, LFTs, tenderness, or elevated creatine phosphokinase levels. , the participants will have to spend more than a few days in controlled environments without leaving to attend to their everyday chores.

(Meinert, 2012). There would be no justification for exposing the participants to side effects that may occasion their death continually.

 

Risk Avoidance Plan Topics Discussed

Risk avoidance plan

Risk avoidance is important in that it helped deals with the various risks associated with the operations of the business and ensure that the company is not adversely affected by the potential risks. It is critical for the company to find out most if not all risks and try to eliminate them to ensure smooth operation of the company and to prevent any danger posed to the business by the risk (Pritchard, 2014). Therefore coming up with a risk avoidance plan for the company is important and most includes many activities that aim to enlighten the individuals of an organization to ensure that they are not caught unawares by the potential threats. Some of the ways to deal with the risks can be done through the formulation of procedures and policies, education and training and implementations of different technologies. The paper is, therefore, going to look at various methods that can be used to reduce or eliminate potential risks for the benefit of the company. Therefore, the company in noting the different risks will ensure that tit deals with mitigation measures to ensure that it is prepared come what may.

Avoiding employee lawsuits

Employee lawsuits are a tasking process to the business since the business has to follow up in courts and in the end, may use a lot of money in compensating the employees. Mass layoffs have been the biggest problem in bringing up lawsuits against employers by employees. Therefore, employees can sue employers on discriminatory charges and get compensated as a result. More than half of the lawsuits filed in courts in the various states are usually successful. Therefore, businesses initiate strategies that will help them minimize the lawsuits by adopting policies that are fair to their employees (Olson & Wu, 2013). Some of the strategies that the company will use are to establish guidelines associated hiring, promotion and sacking and write down business conditions related to layoffs since they may occur in difficult situations. In addition, the company will focus on setting up a layoff plan and how such employees will be counseled to ensure they do not make lawsuits in future but understand that hard economic times have forced the business to lay them off.

Minimizing business liability risks

Incorporation of companies helps to minimize business liability. However, gives some protection against liability there is still some steps that the company should follow to reduce further business liability risks. Therefore, businesses cannot focus on incorporation as their only protection from their personal assets and other factors connected with the ownership of the company. Therefore, the company will adopt various practices that include among others maintain a better standing. The company will thus be maintained to ensure that they are stable systems and practices in place that will help the business in times of trouble. As such, the business will aim to keep clear and concise records of personnel, licensing, company documents and efficient accounting practices. Besides, the company will acquire liability insurance for its workforce, tighten company policies, review contracts and document most of the company’s operations to ensure that any risk that may occur and cause labiality is averted as soon as possible. Therefore, in using the different strategies the business aims at lessening any risk that might occur while the business is operating.

Avoiding lawsuits on business torts

Torts in business can be brought about by negligence on the part of  the company, and the affected parties are mostly employees and customers. They are mainly civil suits that do not result in imprisonment but settlements. For torts, the business can end up compensating the affected parties monetarily. Low quality and defective goods sold to customers may lead to torts. Employees, on the other hand, can sue the business for indiscriminately firing them off or unfairly treating them. Therefore, the company should anticipate torts and address them early to prevent any torts that may arise. The company will, therefore, seek the assistance of legal practitioners in finding out potential areas for torts into eh business and rectify immediately. Furthermore, the company will aim to put in place measures that will help the company deal with its customers’ complaints to prevent any lawsuits from arising (Duckert, 2011). Therefore, employees will be trained to handle the customers professionally and thus deal with any problem involving defective goods swiftly. As such, the company will seek to ensure that any negligent practices on its behalf are minimized or totally eliminated to prevent torts that may arise from employees and customers together with other parties associated with the business.

Company finance risks

Small and big companies need finances to run their operations smoothly. Some business may have the funds at hand, but others may seek funds from other sources. Most of the funds sought from external sources usually help the company to expand or offsets financial problems facing the business. Various risks affect business in obtaining financing options. They include the loss of assets in case of defaulting on loans, spoiled relations especially with close friends or family members (Anderson, 2014). Furthermore, the company may relinquish control to others especially if financing is from equity and the danger of accruing too much debt is imminent which can strain the business operations since more money is financing the loan monthly. Therefore, the business will analyze the various financing options and ensure that it does not choose an option that will hinder its growth or strain its business operations. Plans and strategies are going to be used mainly in projecting the various finances that will be obtained externally and whether the company should obtain any other finance and from what sources. In so doing the business will anticipate any adverse effects that will be caused by borrowing a certain amount of money from some sources of finance.

Efficient business contracts

Business usually engages in contracts in their daily activities. The contracts may involve more than two parties. The contracts made should be reviewed carefully to ensure that the business clearly understands the various agreements it is making with other parties. The contracts are legally binding. Therefore, the company will seek to make contracts that are efficient and that will help it in meeting its objectives. Therefore, business should not make verbal or word or mouth contracts but concentrating on making contracts in writing to ensure that all parties follow the contract. Therefore, the parties to the contract will have to detail their expected obligations that they are to fulfill what they require of the other parties respectively, clearly define terms involving rental, sale or lease, and lastly outline the risks and responsibilities required of each party. The company will thus formulate the various details concerning its requirements about parties in the contract. Any contract with an individual business will have to be reviewed broadly and thus ensure that the contents are understood before the company signs any contract. The business in signing any contract will ensure that it has clearly understood the terms the and the various requirements of the other party and ensure that its demands are stated explicitly to avoid cases of liability against the company.

Market Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning Of Verizon Wireless Company Products

The purpose of this paper is to explain the market segmentation, targeting and positioning of products from Verizon Wireless Company. It is a telecom operator company that specializes in provision of wireless products and services to its customers. In order for the company to market its products with the lowest costs possible, it has to find the best market segments for its products and use it (Struhl, 2013). The first one is geographic segmentation, these is where sellers segment their products according to the geographical measures, like different states, cities, nations or regions. Verizon wireless can sell its products in the international market, making it a very convenient form of marketing. The second one is demographic segmentation, which is based on variables like age, gender, religion, level of education and a person’s occupation. It divides markets into different stages making it easier for the marketer to pass out information about the products. The third one is psychographic segmentation which is obtained by observing the undertakings, interests and thoughts of consumers. It identifies the individual activities and lifestyles of the targeted people and hence it would be easy to influence them to buy the product or service.

Geographic market segmentation can be most convenient in Verizon Wireless since it is selling its products in the international marker and it has operations in different states. The fact that it collects data from both demographic and geographic proves that it provides accurate and efficient results. The segment can be well supported by Verizon Wireless since it has enough and matching resources for it. It will suit the company’s initiatives of using PrecisionID, which works in such a manner that when a consumer visits a certain website or mobile application, a request is sent through Verizon network where the advertisers partnering with the company can reach specific demographic segments  and connect with consumers (Sarli & Baharun, 2011). This will not only improve the company’s general performances but also to those of the advertisers using the tool. Considering competition, the company will retain its position of being competitive in the market. The other positive factor is that segment is growing indicating a high potential of future growth of the company as well. The size of the segment is also large which can serve the large scale productions of different products in Verizon Wireless.

The company should not focus all its resources on the new target market because the market was identified on the availability of resources to support it. Therefore it should be allocated the budgeted resources for the sector only, while the company continues to venture in other markets (Struhl, 2013). It is best for the company to concentrate on the new market but at the same time still venture in other segments because unprecedented events like inflations can occur in the new market segment which might result to heavy losses when the company relies on one market.

When introducing new product in the segment, a company look for a location in the map that has no competitor’s .And when looking for areas to supply a product, a location with many consumers of the product is considered. From the map, consumers felt that the use FiOS internet was the most distinctive and has better functionalities among the products offered by the company, while 2G internet access had the least.

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