Month: January 2018

Importance of Oversight in the Rule making Process

Importance of oversight in the rulemaking process

In the last three decades, the legislatures have improved their capability to play a more progressive responsibility in the rule or policy making process. The legislature has declared their independence from the governor, presumed a greater function in devising rules and more actively administer the duties of the judiciary or the executive branch (Hissam, 2008). Conversely, the legislative assumes or takes many forms. Firstly, the legislative standing committees are in charge of continuously reviewing the work of the state agencies in their subject areas. Secondly, the legislature has staff committees or agencies intended to assess and evaluate agency performance and operation. Thirdly, the legislature veto and reviews the regulations and rules developed by the executive agencies to employ law.

Therefore, the legislative oversight is an essential and fundamental check and balance.  While the states have assumed greater obligations for the government services and programs, the significance of the congressional oversight has amplified.  However, more dynamic and active legislative involvement increases the frictions with the executive branch. Congressional oversight is very imperative and significant in the rulemaking process as it audits or evaluates activities and programs for efficient use of resources.  With the performance audit, the legislature ensures that the funds and programs operate economically, effectively, and efficiently (Bowers, 1989). Even though the state legislatures have entrusted and delegated the authority to executive agencies, they have cautiously cosseted and protected their authority to review and, in most instances, approve administrative rules to ensure that they comply with the legislative intent and statutory authority. The legislative have the mandate to veto the rule if they determine the government does not abide by the statutory authority and legislative intent.

How oversight might impact administrative agencies, agency heads, and the rulemaking process

The regulatory agencies established by the U.S. Congress, local lawmaking bodies, and the federal Constitution. The responsibility of the administrative agencies is to rectify and redress serious social problems, oversee challenging and complex issues of governmental concern beyond the proficiency of the legislators, and manage crises (McKay,  & Webb Yackee,  2007). As a consequence, a lot of people argue that the framers of constitution motivated and encouraged the establishment of powerful administrative agencies. Nonetheless, the argument has triumphed and prevailed, and the court permits legislative bodies and the Congress to make laws, which entrust and delegate restricted and limited lawmaking authority to administrative agencies. The core, gist and substance power of the regulatory agency require to be comprehensible and logical, and a structure of controls ought to be in place to regulate and limit the credentials of the administrative agencies. Although the obligation of the courts is to investigate and ensure that the regulatory agencies meet these necessities and requirements.

The oversight impacts the rulemaking process, agency heads, and the administrative agencies through the statutory authority and the legislative intent. Consequently, the administrative agencies can arbitrate and adjudicate exceedingly intricate and minor disputes faster and flexibly than the federal and state courts. It is paramount and vital as the regulatory bodies help in conserving and safeguarding the judicial resources and encourage and promote quick and swift decrees or resolutions (Kaiser, 1988). Nevertheless, the efficiency of the administrative agencies has led a lot of opponents or critics to charge the establishment of the administrative agencies. The critics say that the administrative agencies dodge or thwart the constitutional dictates, which creates laws through elected officials or delegates.



Rumors have existed from time immemorial. A day cannot go by before one hears a rumor about his or her neighbor or the politicians and celebrities among other famous people in the society. Certain sections of people make up rumors and ensure that they spread for their benefit or the benefit of the society. Most rumors at present usually come from the internet through social sites and the television. The rumor may be true of a false story regarding a particular event or subject. People may have heard from others stories that may or may not be true and then spread them to the next person, and the cycle continues (Kapferer, 2013). Therefore, many people can get a certain message, which they have not proven to be true and spread it without noting the repercussions on the person in question. Rumors may lead to unrest especially if false information is spread during sensitive times especially elections. The digital age has fueled the spread of rumors more quickly than before (Doerr & Friedrich, 2012). The use of smartphones is ever increasing, as more people get accustomed to the various social media sites together with other messaging platforms like WhatsApp among others. Rumors are mostly damaging to particular people involved. Good rumors may lead to a certain amount of peace particularly when the rumor is true or is intended to quell tensions. Rumors should, therefore, be viewed with a lot of caution to prevent any misinformation  being taken in by individuals..

Various rumors have been posted on the internet of late, and they have usually involved high profile people. In the ancient times when there was no internet, a rumor could hardly live the vicinity to reach others areas especially cities. The rumor was mostly confined to the environs of a certain area, and thus, only the locals could know about the rumor especially through meetings. In those times, the society had telephones, which were mostly owned by the rich. The society then could only succeed in spreading rumors by either on the phone or face-to-face conversation. From the above assertion we note that the distance of spreading the rumor was very small. At present, the society has adopted the internet for almost all communications. The various social platforms using the internet and where many people are connecting the social media sites. More people than ever before are connected through Twitter, Facebook, Google+, Yahoo and many other social sites that include tailor made sites for institutions of learning, companies to name a few (Gianturco, 2012). Therefore, the addition of many people on one platform ensures that many people note any rumor or unproven story about an event. In the past, one could hear a rumor and try to tell people who would tell the next person when they meet or on the phone. The spread of the rumor was thus very slow. At present, a rumor can spread very fast. Therefore, the digital platforms especially social media sites have brought about a revolution in which a rumor can take much speed and be viewed by millions of people throughout the world in a minute (Rojecki & Meraz, 2016). The internet enables people to be connected through their smartphones and personal computers, and they get to view the trending news together with any rumors on the social platforms. The world, therefore, has been made a global meeting place by the digital platforms and the different technologies that involve the social media platform.

Rumors can cause great havoc especially if they concern a person who is held in high esteem by the society. A pre-internet rumor involved a bond film where the dial Mail ran a story about the possibility of inclusion of Finley light as James Bond in 1986. Another pre-internet rumor was Abe Vigoda had died though he was alive and well at the time. The rumor persisted for almost two decades sicne1982. The rumors during the pre-internet time should only spread quickly through print media especially if the person were a celebrity or famous. Therefore, some people may come up with stories from inadequate sources may be because one has not been seen in the public for a long time.

Such rumors can destroy the image of the person, and since people believe what they hear, they may end up holding to an untrue rumor to be true. Rumors tend to fuel and fan curiosity in the hearer (Starbird et al., 2014). People usually want to know something about the celebrities or politicians and may cling to a certain formation that may be untrue. Certain modern day rumors are that a certain girl got aids from swimming in a certain pool. Thousands of people have swum in many public pools, and there has not been a report that has proved the AIDs story to be true. Elections mostly have many rumors, and many rumors were spread about Obama being an illegitimately united states citizen though his state constantly proved that he was legitimate. such negative insintuations can have adverse political impacts on the candidate in question (Weeks & Garrett, 2014). Therefore, rumors, in this case, tend to point out various factors that affect a certain part of the population who may not be popular with a certain person. Other rumors during the election period were that Sarah Palin, who held and treasured family values in her campaigns, had a daughter who was pregnant, yet she had not wed.

Voters should do their homework to ensure that they get to the root of the matter especially where politics is involved. One erroneous article can ruin the aspirations of candidates in the political arena. Since more people than ever before are connected to the news sites through the internet and cable television, any rumor can spell disastrous results. Therefore, voters should be advised not to take the rumors seriously until they are proven. On the other hand, consumers should focus on getting information from the respective stores to ensure that some companies or rumors from outside the companies are validated before taken as truth. To prevent rumors people have to make sure that whatever gets to their ears is proven first before it is taken as the truth.


There is a thin line between false and genuine information on something or someone. Rumors have long been used for ruinous purposes especially in politics. Since most people are curious about getting certain information, they will tend to believe what they hear especially if it regards people of high status in society. The society should thus focus on the getting clear information on a matter before taking spreading it to another person. At present, there are many sources of information some of which are not credible. It is important for people to investigate the various stories and find out if they are true to ensure that wrong information about people is not spread in form of rumors.

Metrics We Wish We Had – Supply Chain Management

This paper explains the key metrics that most companies use in the management of supply chain. It is essential to note that management of supply chain requires the managing of multifaceted dependence between groups, sectors and companies that have partnerships across global boundaries; therefore it is seen as an expected zone for metrics. There are many forms of metrics, which can be utilized to measure the performances of an effective supply chain management system. They are include return on product launch and time to value the total supply chain costs as well as perfect order rate (Hugos, 2011). For a person to fully understand why this metrics are considered important, it would be necessary to determine their uses in the supply chain cycle. Considering the demand driven principle of supply chain, it is necessary that there are correlations between the demand, supply and the products in the company for the business to swiftly respond to increasing opportunities. To add on that, dimensions of measurements have to be considered, that is operational excellence as well as innovation excellence.

In order for one to measure the dimensions, hierarchies of metrics have to be used. This is where one considers which metrics are suitable for the company with respect to the type of business and products or services offered. Perfect order rate combined together with total supply chain costs provide the correct approach for measuring operational excellence, while, on the other hand, innovation excellence can be quantified using time to value, followed by return on product launch (Chopra & Meindl, 2012). The two dimensions are used because they best explain the benefits and vales of the supply chain while at the same time identifying the best performing business. Perfect order rate elaborates on the calculation of orders in the company that lack any error, and captures every phase in the ordering process. Upon identification of the errors, corrective measures are put in place which optimizes the performances in the supply chain. This explains why it is most important form of metrics in many organizations.

Return on product elaborates on the revenues earned from the sale of the product; it compares the profit margins from the product and those of the costs used in producing it. It is mainly used to measure the company’s profitability rate. Total supply chain elaborates on the time taken to fulfill a consumers order when the levels of the inventories were nil. It mainly shows the efficiencies of the supply chain and helps in identifying situations that have competitive advantages in the market (Hugos, 2011). Time to value measure elaborates on the percentages of orders that reach the customers on or before the requested time frame. This helps in promoting customer satisfaction and signposts an effective supply chain. These four metrics elaborates on the overall performances of the supply chain, and identifies opportunities that exist for the company to increase its effectiveness, investor and customer values in the supply chain.

In conclusion, it is evident that a well-designed system of supply chain metrics can increase the probabilities of a company’s success by aligning procedures across numerous firms, assist in targeting the most cost-effective market segments and obtaining a positive competitive advantage through distinguished services and lower expenditures (Chopra & Meindl, 2012). Inefficient metrics in the supply chain will eventually result in failures to meet the company’s desired expectation, missed opportunities while trying to outdo the competition and conflicts in the supply chain division.

Gloria Anzaldua: How to Tame a Wild Tongue Analytical Synthesis

Gloria Anzaldua describes and exposes her feelings concerning cultural and social difficulties that Mexican immigrants experience while they are being raised in the United States of America. Gloria ascertains and creates comparisons between Spanish, English, their differences, and how cultural colonialism control and manipulate people’s inclination to speak a particular language instead of the other. Also, she brings to our knowledge the significant social issues such as low self-esteem, identity construction, reprimand, colonialism, racism, and sexism. She luminously starts the essay with an allegory in which she identifies and describes the acculturation process as a thing that exceptionally cruel and violent (Kaye 1). Additionally, the expose intends to reveal the two sides of the acculturation process, which consist of the Hispanic and the Anglo side. The Anglo side explains the urgency of adoption where a person who desires to immigrate to America should learn, and embrace the American culture, and language so as to be accepted. The Hispanic side states that parents with Mexican culture, desire their children to live the American dream and succeed, thus the children are obligated to speak correct American language with no accent.

The desire of Gloria is to have an opportunity to have their language recognized and respected, and freely speak the Chicano Spanish. From her article, there is some advancement made, since there is the existence of political parties that defend Chicano’s rights. Also, books that were published in Chicano Spanish language (Anazaldua 317) Nevertheless, there is some questioning mark regarding the sense of belonging, freedom of expression, race, identity, and culture. As a consequence, she expresses her feeling anger and indignation, revealing how the Chicano Spanish disparaged by the Anglo people and Latinos. Further, she points out that Chicanos are linguistically isolated, leading to adverse effects on their self-esteem.

Gloria’s article is tremendously significant and valuable as it highlights crucial social issues that need to be addressed. The fundamentals of the article can be substantiated and upheld by intellectuals like Fanon, Zizek, Goffman, and Foucault. Even though it was printed in 1987, she is referred as a modern writer of the Chicano movement. Ethnically, she was inclined and influenced by social mayhem, and tumult, as she wrote the article (Anazaldua 314).  Conversely, the affluence and opulence of her writing comes from personal experience and goes on knowledge. Furthermore, the strength of the article is depicted by Gloria, when she exhibits and qualifies the acculturation process as cruel and violent. Additionally, she points out the outlook of languages as a narrow and inert pathway of adjustments, which go beyond the new grammatical rules, where these changes are integrated with social and cultural aspects.

In conclusion, Gloria in her article has revealed and developed thoughts of the social turmoil caused by the Chicano movement. Consequently, I stoutly believe that her ideas and thoughts concerning the Chicano Spanish language have added strength to the article. In the olden times, American-Mexican communities that lived in Texas and California went through 20 years isolation and segregation. The Chicanos were denied the right to quality education while the American-Mexican obtained college equal opportunities while the Chicanos were forced into vocational schools. Hence, the Chicano’s were ashamed of speaking Spanish and of their origin as they were psychologically and physically punished in school because of speaking Spanish. It is evident that cultural imperialism endorsed a stigmatized and stereotyped Mexican populace, with a little academic ability that resulted in thousands of school drop-outs.

Aria: A Memoir of a Bilingual Childhood Analytical Synthesis

Aria: A Memoir of a Bilingual Childhood

Richard Rodriguez, in his article, deals with the issue bilingual learning and culture. He disputes that it is unnecessary and impossible for learners to apply or utilize their indigenous or native language together with English in public life and school (Rodriguez 222). The followings are his arguments and reasons why he disputes students to use their native language:

Rodriguez believes that the use of Spanish, which is his mother tongue at home His use of his parent’s native language at home encumbered his social growth. His parents did not understand and speak English made him and siblings not to learn English. Consequently, he could not communicate efficiently, which made Richard think his family and himself were not part of the American citizens. Conversely, before he became an expert and skilled English speaker, he perceived that his native language was a private language, a language that was not socially acceptable or appropriate (Rodriguez 224) He developed a desire to learn the English language, which he perceived as the universal language. Apparently, after he had learned the English language, he finally felt that he has become a fully-fledged and worthy person of the American Community. He quotes in his article, “At last seven years old, I came to believe what had been technically true since my birth: I was an American citizen.”

Rodriguez confronts the thought and idea of bilingual education. He believes and considers that bilingual education is something that deters instead of helping students that speak other languages apart of English.  Also, he argues that employing more English contributes to a smooth transition, where learners develop confidence and intimacy of the English language. He believes that speaking Spanish in his family created a bond between his family members. Conversely, Spanish secluded and cut off his family from the traditional world, hence, establishing a codependency, and closeness, which was lost when him together with his siblings switched or changed to English. Further, when he advanced in age, and he was able to recognize the intimacy and variation of emotions in all languages (Lee 1). He apprehended that intimacy is created not through the use of any language, save for the people who speak the language. As a consequence, he argues that he required learning English, so as to seek opportunities and rights essential and required for full public independence.

Additionally, Rodriguez disputes the general intention and purpose of bilingual learning. He states that this kind of knowledge does not permit learners to profit and benefit in the long run. Further, he argues that any student resisting to be taught English will slow down with their abilities and capabilities in future. However, he says that it is okay to implement bilingual learning although it does not help or profit the students (Lee 1).  Consequently, Richard Rodriguez felt that he was socially estranged and separated by his native language, which made him perceive that he was not a real American, till when he became competent with the English language. The break from his native language or Spanish permitted for his advancement in the public community, and the closeness and intimacy he had with his family, which he had attached and connected it with his native language did not lessen or diminish. As he was able to comprehend that the intimacy was related not to the words alone, but it was linked with the inflection.

N!ai Movie Review- Africa Cultures

This paper reviews the movie “N!ai” emphasizing on its relevance to the current society. The authors of this movie are John Marshall and Adrienne Miesmer .It was published in United States of America. The movie talks about the way of living of the Kung people while comparing the past and present lifestyles. It elaborates on the various changes in the Kung life over a period of thirty years with the life experiences of N!ai, a Kung woman. N!ai explains how they behaved before the arrival of the white people in their community (Marshall & Miesmer, 1980). The director of the movie is trying to portray changes in the Kung society within a period of thirty years, focusing more on the life history of N!ai. It explains the life and changes of a group of people in the society personified through the strand of actuality of one person, N!ai.

The movie begins with the explanation of N!ai early life, showing the way of living of the !Kung people in the past. It was that of hunting and gathering, shown by how she had enough knowledge about the bush life. With the elaboration of how she used to follow her mother when going to pick berries, roots and nuts while seasons changed showed that women had specific roles to play in the society, while men had the roles of hunting game meat for the family. The Kung people also encouraged early marriages to the ladies, exemplified by the dissatisfaction of N!ai to her husband of whom she was married to at the age of eleven (Marshall & Miesmer, 1980). The movies goes on to explain that N!ai eventually accepts her husband at a later stage of their lives when he becomes a healer in the society, showing a sign of changes in occupations and ways of living in the community.

The second part of the movie explains the changes in the Kung community upon the arrival of the white people. With the formation of government structures and administrations, they are restricted to live in sedentary camps formed by the governments of the day. The habit of hunting and gathering is prohibited, and they have to find alternative means of living. Their eating lifestyles changes from berries, fruits and game meat to maize meal, and they earn money from tourists who take their pictures upon visiting the community (Marshall & Miesmer, 1980). The men are forced to look for employment opportunities in the South African army, and they are forced to respect and remain loyal to the white men in the army since they really need food and money for their families back home. N!ai on the other hand because of her fame, and the quilt of not contributing anything in the family, is very ready to be paid by those who take photos of her. Other opportunities like healing are available, N!ai explains that she was comfortable with her husband when he became a healer.

The movie shows a community trying to adopt modernity while at the same maintaining their tradition, same as what is elaborated in the “Umgidi” movie. Despite of the men agreeing to live a sedentary life, they still have the desire for hunting which necessitates the use of horses. But since the officials argue that the use of horses while hunting causes harm to wildlife, they are restricted from doing that. It also shows the existence of social stratifications upon the arrival of the white people (Marshall & Miesmer, 1980). The white army employees are seen as superior or of a different class compared to the !Kung army employees. It is elaborated from the fact the white army employees were respected by the Kung who feared that they would lose their sources of income, if they disagreed with their seniors. The aspect of culture change is also elaborated in the movie. The Kung people have abandoned their past culture due to the influence of the white man. Roles for both men and women have changed due to the elimination of nomadic lifestyles and introduction of sedentary lifestyles. Due to the fact that they have to feed on maize meal, they have to practice crop farming.

Comparing this movie with the “Umgidi” it is seen that they have some similarities and differences. It is evident that the communities in both movies were influenced by the occurrence of colonization in Africa, and experiences changes in their cultural practices (Schuttle & Singiswa, 2011). Due to the colonization, and visiting of the white people, both communities encountered culture changes. The differences is that for the Xhosa people in the “Umgidi” they accepted the modern lifestyles but still practiced some of their cultural beliefs like circumcision despite the influence from the white man. The Kung people in the “N!ai” on the other hand completely left their behind their cultural practices with their past and adopted the white man’s culture.

In conclusion, it evident that changes in culture had more positive impacts to the African communities than the negatives, and that it promoted the level of growth and developments in the various communities.

Philip Morris International Promotion and Communications Strategy Paper

Assignment Instructions

Do research on Phillip Morris International (Marlboro). Now focus your research on this company’s promotion and communications strategy. Find out as much as you can about the company’s promotion mix. Before starting on your paper make sure you are familiar with the five main aspects of the promotion mix – advertising, public relations, personal selling, sales promotion, and direct marketing. Review all of the background materials regarding these five aspects. When you have finished researching your company’s promotion strategies and thoroughly reviewed the main promotion strategies covered in the background readings, write a two to three page paper addressing the following questions:

  1. What kind of advertising campaigns is this company currently engaged in? What kind of media do they advertise in, for example television, the internet, etc.?
  2. What kind of public relations efforts does this company engage in?
  3. Does this company ever use sales promotions such as coupons, giving away free samples, etc.?
  4. Does this company use personal selling at all? If so, did you ever deal with one of this company’s salespersons when you purchased their product?
  5. Does this company use direct marketing? For example, do they send out emails to customers? Or use telemarketing?

Sample Answer

Philip Morris International Inc. (PMI) is a global American tobacco and cigarette company which sells its products in over 200 countries. One of the most recognised and its best-selling product is the Marlboro. It was founded in 1900 and has its headquarters in New York City, New York, USA. Its products are not only cigarette and tobacco but also includes cigars, snuff, tubes and rolling papers.

Over the past few years, many countries have imposed either total or partial bans on adverts regarding tobacco promotion and marketing. Philip Morris International however does not agree on bans against tobacco advertising as it does not believe that advertising makes people smoke. The approach it uses is what matters. PMI has been a very strong advocate for the regulations which limit tobacco product marketing(Szczypka, Wakefield, Emery, Terry-McElrath, Flay, & Chaloupka, 2007). In their opinion, if regulations are set regarding advertisements and marketing, it will ensure that all the campaigns that are carried out are following the same rule.

In its defense, they strongly advocate for marketing of their products to the adult smokers as it is fundamental to the ever growing global competition. It is also important for the adult smokers to be able to receive information on their products range as well as their preferred product choice. According to Philip Morris International, regulations can play a very big role by striking a balance ensuring that the tobacco manufacturers are able to communicate with the adult smokers and limiting effectively the tobacco product marketing(Szczypka et al2007).

Marketing is among the greatest strengths possessed by PMI and above all it remains the core pillar of their competitive strategy. Their marketing campaigns are based on three principles:

  1. All their marketing materials and packaging contain health warnings
  2. Marketing is not done to children and they do not use images or anything else that might appeal the minors
  • All their marketing practices fully respect the global standards of decency and also the local traditions, cultures as well as practices (Szczypka et al 2007).

There are several types of advertising campaigns that are used by several companies. Four of these are popularly known to build brands and drive sales and include;

  • A word hook
  • A consistent brand layout
  • A repeatable theme and a character hook

Philip Morris International in this case is using the work hood kind of advertising campaign. This is because it uses a repeatable catch phrase from ad to ad. For example, its ad on the Marlboro man represented a power of the brand by creating a lifestyle around its products. Some of the catch phrases it uses include; want to be a man? Want to be free? Want to be on the open range? This was used to define the Marlboro man. This ad was very effective as it captures the ideal lifestyle which most men have aspired at this time. They ensure that whatever product they are selling fits well in the audience’s lifestyle.

Philip Morris International mostly uses television commercials as well as the internet in its advertisements. It has its own website where they update their clients about their products. The company has however faced several challenges in television advertising especially when tobacco advertising was banned.

The company has set up a public relations strategy which they believe will enable the increase their sales. It has commissioned a research that deals with finding answers to their client’s concerns and questions regarding the effects of tobacco smoking to the human health(Ong & Glantz, 2001).

This company also uses sales promotions such as coupons and giveaways. Like for March, 2016, Philip Morris has given out offers which includes 2 sales and 2 promo codes as well.

The company uses four different types of distribution channels which are employed globally. These include the exclusive zonified distribution, distribution of their products through the single independent distributors, direct sales and distribution as well as distribution through the regional and national wholesalers. The company thus does not use personal selling at all as it depends on the retailers and the wholesalers(Penny, 2016). This range of distribution is very beneficial in that it enables the company to make distributions directly to the retailers in a single market and thus can obtain a suitable returns on their investments. In most of the markets, the company directly supplies the retail chains, the gas stations and the supermarkets as well.

Most of the tobacco companies have faced a very great challenge following its ban on advertisement on the TV’s, Internet and the billboards as well. This has caused the tobacco industry sales to drop by 5%. Philip Morris was one of the affected brands but still sponsors an American-idol like brand in the web which is known as “The Best of Marlboro Country Music. There are promotions on the college campuses, the night clubs on the internet as well as on the stores where these cigarettes are sold. The company uses a one- on-one approach but finds a way to avoid or minimize its exposure of advertisements to minors (Wakefield, Morley, Horan & Cunnings, 2002).

Download full sample paper on Philip Morris International Promotion and Communication strategy or order a unique promotion and communication strategy paper on a company of your choice at an affordable price.

Do school Kill Creativity – Creative Spark Talk Analysis Paper

‘Do school Kill Creativity’ by Ken Robinson – Educator and Creativity Expert (2006)

Los Angeles

Do school Kill Creativity TEDTalk by Sir Ken Robinson an educator and creativity expert focuses on how the formal education system undermines creativity by elevating literacy over the capacity for creativity. Having been an advisor on educational matters to the government of the United Kingdom and as a thought leader on innovation and creativity not only in education but also in business, Sir Ken Robinson champions the idea of encouraging children to pursue what they really enjoy and then turn it into their job. Robinson points out an important link between education and the future, where he rightly claims that no one can aptly make predictions of what is going to happen in the next five years(Robinson, 2006). By making this assertion, he encourages an education system that prepares children for a future far beyond the horizon and one, which equates the importance of creativity with that of literacy because children have an extraordinary capacity for innovation. According to Robinson, an education system that places literacy over creativity squanders children and robs them of the key ingredient to originality; the ability to make mistakes, which they are born with. “If you are not prepared to be wrong, you cannot come up with anything original,” (Robinson, 2006).

While posing the question of what the purpose of education really is, Robinson points that, intelligence is diverse, dynamic, wonderfully interactive, and distinct and should not be delivered in a way that seem to only be meant to produce university professors. He emphasizes the clear distinction between education systems in the industrial age of 19th century; which placed mathematics and the languages on top, and education systems in the 21st century, which should recognize and acknowledge the shift in priorities. Robinson encourages a 21st century education system that brings to the fore, ideas, creativity, and innovation by educating the whole being of a person, recognizing the rich creative capacities in humans and celebrating the gift of human imagination. He advises to move away from a strictly left-brain thinking education system that suppresses in children, creativity and the interactive brain and other bodily function that form the bedrock of innovation and creativity, warning not to continue educating creativity out of children.

In reference to some of the stages of creativity, Robinson in his talk of how school kills creativity,recognizes that ideas do not arise in an intellectual vacuum citing that preparation as a key stage of creativity should embody the characteristics of intelligence. Intelligence is dynamic, distinct, wonderfully interactive, and most importantly diverse(Robinson, 2006). For creativity to reach others and accomplish whatever it was intended to, it must be packaged appropriately taking into consideration critical thinking skills where the audience of the idea or the message is key to the creative process. This stage of creativity often known as evaluation or verification ensures that a great idea is not lost because of poor packaging. Bing an area of the creative process that many creative people struggle with, it is imperative that the 21st century education system equips students with the skills for reflection and self-criticism to identify merit in their ideas and to be able to employ sufficient resources in the development of the ideas that score highly on the merit scale. This stage calls for testing creative ideas working and re-working the idea to ensure that it actually qualifies based on set standards of innovation, utility, and purpose before implementation.

Regarding the concepts of imagination and curiosity, it is more obvious for people to see that current systems of education are failing to meet current challenges, increasing the need to create more innovative alternatives. This, as Robinson puts it, requires that cultural attitudes and national policies get liberated from the notions of the past by looking forward beyond the visible horizons. The current systems of education and obviously the most dominant the world over seem to promote a narrow view of intelligence, fostered by standardization, failing to see human talents as personal and diverse. Curiosity and consequent imagination rejects the notions of compliance by recognizing that in order for achievement and cultural progress to thrive they must be anchored in the strong foundation of imagination and creativity. Unlike the current non-performing systems of education, curiosity and imagination do not seek to cultivate a rigid and linear course for every human being but instead acknowledges and promotes a more organic and largely unpredictable course of human creativity.

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Comcast Beta Coefficient And Discussion Assignment And Sample Answer

Assignment Instructions

Using Yahoo! Finance find the value of beta for Comcast. Write a two page paper discussing the following items:

  1. What is the estimated beta coefficient of Comcast? What does this beta mean in terms of your choice to include this company in your overall portfolio?
  2. Given the beta of Comcast, the present yield to maturity on U.S. government bonds maturing in one year (currently about 4.5% annually) and an assessment that the market risk premium (that is – the difference between the expected rate of return on the ‘market portfolio’ and the risk-free rate of interest) is 6.5%, use the CAPM equation in order to find out what is the present ‘cost of equity’ of your company? Explain what is the meaning of the ‘cost of equity’.
  3. Choose two other companies, look up their “Beta” and report the names of these companies and their betas. Suppose you invest one third of your money in each of the stocks of these companies. What will the beta of the portfolio be? Given the data in (b), what will the Expected Rate of Return on this portfolio be? Do you feel that the three-stock portfolio is sufficiently diversified or does it still have risk that can be diversified away? Explain.


Sample Answer

Comcast Beta Coefficient

The estimated Comcast beta coefficient is 1.03411 (Yahoo Finance, 2016). Beta refers to a measure of the systemic risk or volatility of a portfolio or security compared to the entire market. Beta is considered as the tendency for returns on security to respond to market swing. A beta of below 1 indicates that the security will be less volatile compared to the market, a beta of 1 indicates that the price of the security will be shift with the market, while a beta of more than 1 demonstrates that the price of the security will be extra volatile compared to the market. The Comcast Company has an estimated beta of 1.03 which is slightly above 1 and thus, it can be said to indicate that the price of the security will be more volatile as compared to the market prices. The security shift may be 3% higher than the market value. This company will be included in my portfolio since its rate volatility may be highly beneficial especially if the shift is on the positive side (Investopedia, 201b).

Cost of Equity Computation using CAPM

Cost of equity refers to the return which stakeholders need for their investment in a firm. It is the compensation which is demanded by the market in exchange for possessing the asset and taking the ownership risk. It acts as the weighted average cost of capital integral part that is extensively used to establish the total expected cost of all capital under various financing. In this regard the Comcast shareholders will be anticipating a return of 4.44% percent on the investment they make in the Comcast Company.

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Developing, Managing, and Operating a Retail Business – Assignment Instructions

Imagine that you recently took over your friend’s small retail business and you now have to do the following:

  • Rename the store
  • Create new hours of operations
  • Hire two (2) new part-time employees and two (2) new full-time employees
  • Address a new plan for building your clients and merchandise, and
  • Address the issues of the remaining employees from the acquired business, who are disgruntled because you are relocating the store to the center of the town where you live.

Consider how you are going to develop, manage, and operate your new retail business.

Write a three to six to eight (6-8) paper in which you:

  1. Propose two to three (2-3) strategies for targeting customers and information gathering that would use in order to develop your own clientele while maintaining the clients of the acquired retail business.
  2. Develop a plan that details your approach to recruiting and training a new staff while addressing the concerns of the remaining employees related to the proposed store relocation.
  3. Apply the concept of the one-hundred (100) percent location and saturation to your retail store.
  4. Create a design for the most important financial dimensions of your business, and develop a strategic plan for addressing the dimensions that you have indicated.
  5. Create a name, a mission, and a philosophy for your retail store.
  6. Define store hours, including holidays and weekends, and describe the key goals of employee management.
  7. Develop a plan for cultivating an inviting store atmosphere (e.g., music, décor, style of goods provided, services provided, etc.) and a corresponding window display.
  8. Use at least three (3) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Analyze the retailing consumer and database management in retailing.
  • Analyze human resource management and financial aspects of operation management in retail organizations.
  • Describe the dimensions of operating a retail business and the development of merchandise plans.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in retail management.
  • Write clearly and concisely about retail management using proper writing mechanics.