Month: January 2018

Application of Total Quality Management at Etisalat

Assignment Instructions

Apply the principles of one of the quality programs you have researched from your readings to a Middle Eastern organization of your choice. Include the following information in 4 page paper:
  • Background information on the organization
  • Reason why you selected the quality program for that organization
  • Ways in which the quality program may help enhance the organization’s performance

Application of Total Quality Management at Etisalat – Sample Paper

Quality management makes certain that specific services, products or organizations are consistent. Quality management comprises of varied elements, including quality enhancement, control, assurance, and planning (Brown, Hitchcock & Willard, 1994). It zeroes in on service, as well as product, quality along with how the quality is to be attained. Thus, it utilizes quality control and assurance of specific products and processes to attain constant quality. There are many programs geared towards quality enhancement in organizations (Chase, 1991; Creech, 1994).

Read also Total Quality Management Tools – Force Field Analysis And Pareto Chart

The programs include TQM (Total Quality Management). TQM is a strategy, or program, employed in management contexts to set in quality considerations in every organizational process. This paper proposes the adoption of TQM by Etisalat. Etisalat is the biggest telecommunication service provider across the United Arab Emirates. As well, it has operations in others regions, including Asia and Africa (Oxford Business Group, 2014).

Background Information on Etisalat

Etisalat, which began operations in mid-1976, is among the leading telecommunication service providers globally. Its biggest market is the UAE: where it has millions of clients. Recently, it has grown into the leading internet service provider in the market as well. It provides internet connection services to varied companies in the telecommunication industry, other businesses, and individuals according to Oxford Business Group (2014). At the moment, the company is defined by hundreds of roaming facilities worldwide.

In mid-1983, the UAE government purchased a 60% stake of Etisalat. The remaining 40% stake was floated for open-market sale. By the end of 1991, Etisalat had obtained the necessary approvals to offer unwired, as well as wired, telecommunication services across the UAE along with other nation-states. The company got licenses for the production, exportation, and importation of various sets of telecommunication equipment (Oxford Business Group, 2014). The approvals, as well as licenses, made the company operate as if it were a monopoly in the UAE. The approvals, as well as licenses, helped the government fetched considerable revenues.

Read also Culture Analysis Using Geert Hofstede’s 6 Dimensions – USA, Mexico, China, Israel And UAE

As well, the approvals and licenses occasioned a business climate that allowed for the significant development of the country’s telecommunication industry. Etisalat began its international operations in 2001 by setting up operations in Islamabad. By and large, it is among the biggest firms in the UAE presently. It is the largest taxpayer in the UAE after the country’s gas and oil industry (Oxford Business Group, 2014).

Justification for Choosing Total Quality Management for Etisalat

Many companies that adopt Total Quality Management are persuaded to do so by the program’s capacity for the maximization of client satisfaction through the reduction of process errors and optimization of how the extant resources are utilized. TQM enables organizations to eliminate production errors completely at times, ensuring that clients’ expectations are all met or even exceeded. That is important, especially because the contemporary customer is keen on getting value for own money and hard to satisfy (Chase, 1991; Creech, 1994). If Etisalat adopts TQM, it will be well-placed to defeat competition by exploiting the ensuing client satisfaction and quality production competitive advantages.

Over the years, Etisalat has been keener and keener on quality management and thus the adoption of TQM should be welcomed (Oxford Business Group, 2014). The company has been keen on ensuring that persistent quality improvement defines it and addressing its challenges that are related to client contentment. Ideally, the company should adopt TQM to help advance its profitability interests, ensure that its clients are satisfied, and ensure that it registers overall growth, especially in own profits. Besides, the company needs to adopt the program to respond effectively to the changing economic milieus in which it operates by becoming more and more focused on its customers, becoming client-oriented (Chase, 1991; Creech, 1994).

As well, TQM is appropriate for Etisalat since it now focuses on enhancing its equipment’ quality to offer better services (Oxford Business Group, 2014). In the past, the company’s marketing agenda was offering specific telecommunication services or products at the lowest probable costs. Presently, it seeks to offer its clients the highest-quality services or products at the lowest probable costs. The company had registered remarkable positive results since when it started focusing on offering its clients the highest-quality services or products at the lowest probable costs (Chase, 1991; Creech, 1994). The adoption of TQM will help the company pick out any quality problems in its production processes and address them promptly.

How TQM Can Improve Etisalat’s Performance

            TQM may assist in enhancing the performance of Etisalat in varied ways as suggested by Plunkett (2008). Training enhances the capacity of staff members to deliver on specific performance targets, allows the staff members to deliver at an enhanced level. If Etisalat adopts TQM, it should make certain that each of its employees gets training that is line with his or her job’s requirements (Oxford Business Group, 2014). Even though the training will have cost implications for the company, it will reduce its operating costs substantially over time and ensure that its clients receive the products of excellent quality.

The adoption of TQM will help transform Etisalat’s working culture favorably, enhancing its performance (Oxford Business Group, 2014). TQM entails complete transformations of staff members’ working cultures. When the company adopts the program for the first time, its staff members may have challenges in adjusting to its quality requirements initially. Even then, the members will accept it gradually, enhancing the quality, hence sales, of the company’s telecommunication and internet products over time (Chase, 1991; Creech, 1994). The members will become more and more focused on attaining the company’s TQM-related quality goals, which will be aimed at building the company’s sales further (Brown, Hitchcock & Willard, 1994). The company will have a culture defined by the commitment to specific quality ideals.


            As noted earlier, quality management comprises of varied elements, including quality enhancement, control, assurance, and planning. It zeroes in on service, as well as product, quality along with how the quality is to be attained. Many companies that adopt TQM are persuaded to do so by the program’s capacity for the maximization of client satisfaction through the reduction of process errors and optimization of how the extant resources are utilized. TQM comes off as a distinct discipline. It makes company’s view quality as the ultimate product of given sets of their activities. It entails radical changes in the perspectives of service providers and producers, changing own emphasis to quality selling from mass selling. If Etisalat adopts it, it will start viewing quality as a direct contributor to the sales it makes in given periods.

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Administrative Enforcement Essay

Administrative Agencies are created by federal constitution, the US congress, state legislatures and local law making bodies to manage crises, redress social problems or oversee complex matters of governmental concern beyond the expertise of legislators (Harington, & Cater, 2015). The Administrative Agencies’ rules and regulations often have the force of law against individuals. This tendency however, has led to many critics to argue that creation of the Agencies that laws are to be created by elected officials (Billiet et al, 2014). In the US, it’s only the congress that has the power to write laws that are generally binding on the general public (Becker, 1968). The constitutional authority does not extend down to the individual citizens of the country nor does it extend down to individual businesses located in the country

It’s only the state government that has the constitutional authority to regulate the lives of those living inside the borders and the companies doing businesses.

Types Of Administrative Enforcement Actions

These administrative enforcement actions include;

  • Administrative civil liability
  • Civil judicial actions
  • Criminal actions

Administrative civil liability

According to Billiet et al., 2010, Administrative civil liability is a non –judicial enforcement actions taken by EPA or state under its own authority and do not involve judicial court proceedings. It can be in form of;

  • Notice of violation
  • An order directing an individual to comply with statutes

Civil judicial actions

They are formal law suits and are filed in court against persons or entities that have failed to;

  • Comply with statutory requirements
  • Comply with administrative order
  • Pay EPA the cost of cleaning up a superfund site

These are normally filed by US Department of Justice on behalf of EPA. They are under Civil Cases and Settlement(Harington, & Cater, 2015). An example of this is when a court order is given to individuals to stop any activities which do not uphold environmental health.

Criminal Actions

Occur when EPA or State enforce against a company or a person through criminal action. Criminal actions are usually reserved for the most serious violations, that are willful, or knowingly committed and court conviction can result into fine or imprisonment (Billetet al, 2014). For example, when a court subjects or fines a defendant to imprisonment due to crimes which violate social order or environmental health and cause harm to people. The court can thus force the criminal to reinstitute the persons affected or rather pay for the damages that may have been caused.

In my opinion, criminal action is much better compared to the civil judicial action. This is because the damages in criminal action are paid to the affected persons while civil judicial action on the other hand gives an order to stop destructive activities.

Enforcement Of Rules By Administrative Agencies

Civil Enforcement

Are generally agreed upon resolutions to an enforcement case. Settlements in administrative actions are often in the form of consent agreements/final orders. Settlements in judicial actions are in the form of consent decrees signed by all parties to the action and filed in the appropriate court.

Civil Penalties

These are monetary assessment paid by a person or regulated entity due to a violation or non-compliance. Penalties are incentives for coming into compliance and staying in compliance with Environmental statutes and orders (Billiet et al, 2014).

Injunctive Relief

According to Billiet et al., 2010, injunctive relief requires a regulated entity to perform some designated actions it also brings the entity to compliance with environmental law. Supplemental Environmental Projects (SEPs) can be part of an enforcement settlement.

Criminal Penalties

These are federal or state fines imposed by judges at the sentencing. Besides penalties, restitutions may be paid tom those affected by the violation, for example paying  local fire department for responding and containing a hazardous waste spill (Harington, & Cater, 2015).

Similarities and differences between administrative enforcement

In both the actions, there is a soft or hard punishment involved or a notice to the defendant given by the authority. Contrary to the similarities, each type of action is addressed differently(Harington, & Cater, 2015). For example civil liability is solved outside the court whereas civil judicial action is addressed in the court.

It can be concluded therefore that all the administrative actions are important in bringing social order. The violators of social and environmental laws should be forced by law to either restitute the affected persons or serve jail terms as a way of punishing them.

How The Delegation Doctrine Impacts Authority Of Administrative Agencies To Execute Statutes

The Administrative Law is the branch of the law that establishes the duties, legal requirements, and the remedies available to organizations affected by the administrative action, and governmental powers, for regulatory authorities (Harrington, & Carter, 2015). Conversely, in America, the rise of administrative agencies is simultaneous with the requirement for legislative regulation of industry.  The administrative law was set in 1887 to regulate railroads as it was of vital necessity to the national government, and the Interstate Commerce Commission recognized it. As a consequence, ICC became the archetype of the United States regulatory agency.  Conversely, any industrial abuses that called for the attention of ICC were handled by a royal commission vested with power over the most important features of railroading from the control of discriminatory practices, prescription of rates, and the administration of financial operations.

The ICC was well portrayed as super-board of railroad industry executives and had the jurisdictions over other forms of transportation like the domestic water carriers, oil pipelines, and interstate motor carriers. Furthermore, the regulation of ICC was recognized in other parts of the economy of the United States for instance, during the economic crisis of 1926 (Gale, 2008). Since then there has been the creation of a mass of administrative and regulatory agencies sculpted from the ICC. The most powerful administrative agencies are the Civil Aeronautics Board, the National Labor Relations Board, the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Federal Communications Commission, and the Federal Trade Commission. Consequently, the American administrative law emerged from the function of these various governmental agencies, vested with vital powers to decide by decision or by rule, the private obligations, and rights.  While the orders and regulations propagated by the administrative agencies, imposed more upon the society, and the bar that advocated for the agencies. Consequently, there were creations of legal rules to guarantee the subordination of agency actions to law became of apprehension to the board of judges.

Functions of the Administrative Agencies 

The administrative agencies operate on the American administrative law, which dedicates on excessive attention to the focus of the administrative process. However, it is a reasonable indication of the nation’s concern with the adjective features of the subjects. Before the Americans were concerned with the allocation of judicial power and control, conversely, this has changed, and the government has realized that the exercise of administrative agencies and their powers are of equal importance to the judicial powers (Postell, n. d). As a consequence, there has been the emphasis on the practical and procedural upholds to make sure of administrative law and power. This emphasis located an enunciation in the Federal Administrative Procedure Act of 1946 that highlights the fundamental procedures to be pursued by the administrative agencies of the United States.

In conclusion, it is imperative to say that the American administrative law is mainly the advanced and developed system in existence, insofar, as the practical necessities, which need to be followed preceding the administrative actions. Consequently, the due-process clause of the Constitution of the United States is interpreted as demand for hearing and notice. For instance, before an official verdict that negatively affects property and personal rights of a particular person are established, the entitled person due to the person’s constitutional right should notice a fair and a full hearing. The hearing need to match with the necessary adjudicatory necessities of the courtroom that mean the person has the right to an opponent trial, with the right of spoken argument and evidence, counsel, and cross-examination, before an administrative law and decision charged against the person.

Entities In A Club or Organization – Relational Database Concepts And Applications

I am a member of the home science club. This club deals with quite a number of things including sanitation, fashion and design and the largest part of its involvement is in catering. For this part. I am going to look at the catering department in the club, the entities involved and their relationship.

A data entity is a representation of the subject data from a common data model which is used in the logical data model(Hjertstrom, Nystrom, & Sjodin, 2009). In this discussion, there are four entities which we will have a look at. These include; the kitchen, the supplier, the customer and the manager. The Kitchen is the area where the food is supposed to be ordered from by the customer. The supplier is the person or a company which has been given the tender or the mandate to supply the club with several kitchen hardware together with the foodstuff that are needed, the manager is the person responsible for keeping the records, ordering and monitoring the supplies from the supplier.

Based on the below diagram, it is clear that the customer can place an order. The Order Food Process then receives the order where it forwards it to the kitchen and stores the data in the Order data store. The updated inventory details are stored in the Inventory Data Store. In this process, the Bill is also sent to the customer. The Manager then receives a report through the Generate Reports Process which also takes Inventory details and also orders as inputs from the inventory and the order data store respectively. The manager can as well initiate the Order Inventory Process by providing the Inventory order. This process thus forwards the inventory order to the supplier and then stores the updated Inventory details in the Inventory data store.

Below is the Enterprise Data Model (EDM) which is in use by this club:

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Cultural Activity Report – A Visit To Museum of Modern Art


The museum I visited was the modern museum. The modern museum houses many pieces of art that are important in showing the various works that are associated with the modern society. The museum mostly deals with modern art and as such focusses on the different events that have happened and making art the reflects the modern society. The museum is quite exquisite in its arrangement as there is a modern touch to the surroundings of the institutions especially the rooms that house the art. The attendees in the museum are mostly young adults including men and women together with few elderly people. Some are sitting on the chairs in the exhibition rooms while others are staring at the various pieces of art. The museum is located in New York on the 53rd street. I ventured into the museum at eleven in the morning on 18 March.

The various sculptures are mostly found outside and few within the museum. Several pieces caught my attention when I ventured into the museum that I thought was involved and eye-catching was the painting by Edgar Degas, A Strange New Beauty. The painting is drawn in such manner as showing surfaces only and not focusing on the details associated with the face of the person. The painting is a monotype where the painter employed the use of the metal plate and then the painting passed through a printing press. The painting shows two people, a man and a woman. One form the first glance could think that the picture was etched or some other coloring using charcoal since the painting is in black and white. The painter mostly made his paintings then used the printing press to generate them in black and white color. The painting was done in the 1800s and contributes greatly to the methods that were used in the 19th century to ensure that modern painters learn from them and perfect on their paintings. The painting was shown on the sixth floor of the North exhibition gallery.

Another good piece in the museum is the self-portrait with cropped hair by Frida Kahlo. Fridha Kahlo was a feminist in the 1900s and eventually divorced from her husband. The picture shows her wearing men’s clothing at that time and thus speaks greatly on the issue of feminist. The picture thus tends to bring out the different events that happen during that era with feminism at the forefront and thus how women were treated. In wearing the trousers in the painting, she tended to show the displeasure with the state the women were being. An important article helps one to go back in history especially in issues related to women’s emancipation. Therefore, the painting is critical regarding showing the history affecting feminism and helping to appreciate how the women fare have gone in their quest for equality.

The museum has various galleries that display the various items associated with premodern and postmodern times. The museum houses many types of work that range from premodern to postmodern art. The build is vast, and the various rooms are sectioned to house various galleries associated with different paintings. It has a hotel, auditorium, and bookshop. The picture is clearly placed in the different rooms for exhibition with modern furnished arrangements. They are numerous sculptures outside the exhibition together with those inside the building. The building uses technology that includes multiple screens to air some of the paintings to the viewers. The museum shows various arts using many spaces and is one of the most elegant and influential museums regarding displaying art. The museum is an elegant feature itself especially with the arrangement and exhibition of the various paintings together with the sculptures in place.

Federal Equal Employment Opportunity Laws Reflection Paper

The role of equal employment opportunity laws is to ensure that practices that discriminate or are unfair to specific groups are stopped. These laws further provide a definition of the appropriate enforcement agencies that are concerned with these laws. The legislation on equal employment opportunity seeks to provide employment opportunities irrespective of national origin, gender, religion, and race, and attempts to balance the pay given to women and men. In addition to this, the legislation also prevents discrimination against individuals with disabilities and ensures that employees of all ages are treated with fairness. The equal employment opportunity legislation is based on the concepts of discrimination and affirmative action, where in the case of acts of discrimination compensation is given back and affirmative action is taken(Pynes, 2013). Affirmative action ensures that an employer puts in place steps to ensure that people within protected groups are guaranteed of equal employment opportunities.

For instance if an employer pays a lower wage to a woman in comparison to a man for the same work, then this is would be regarded as an act of gender discrimination. If in another instant, an employer refuses to hire a man who is qualified for a job but practices Islam; this would be regarded as discrimination on the basis of religion as it is not a job-relevant criteria for hiring an applicant or promoting a candidate.An employer is also responsible for harassment and acts of discrimination by its employers at the workplace and based on this can be held responsible; vicarious liability, unless the employer can prove that it put in place preventive measures to stop harassment and discrimination. Contravening the equal employment opportunities laws attracts penalties and fines for employers.It is a complex challenge for managers to manage human resources effectively because the regulatory and legal environment is changing constantly, requiring that human resources managers stay updated and always on top of things to avoid legal consequences(Pynes, 2013). There also exist areas of legal ambiguity and fiscal uncertainty that call for sound evaluation by human resources managers to ensure that legal obligations are always met in the best way possible (Rush, 2012).

At the Department of Defense, there have been cases of unlawful termination where whistleblowers in particular have not been protected in accordance with the Fair Work Act of 2009 which for certain reasons prohibits an employer from taking ‘adverse action’ against an employee. Employees who have played the role of a whistleblower in exposing improper dealings in various projects have been known to lose their jobs, including their pension. This, according to Katel (2006) points to a lack of protection for employees who find themselves caught between preserving the integrity of their jobs and the threat of losing their job security by uncovering illegal dealings at the workplace. This is irrespective of whether the actions of the employee were in fact in favor of the organization and in certain instances under the instruction of the employee’s bosses. This point to situations where junior employees can and are in fact used as scapegoats by their superiorsto take the fault for actions gone bad at the workplace and thus sabotaging employee rights.Employees considered disloyal as witnessed in the case of whistleblowing are in many instances transferred or gagged illegally(Katel, 2006).

Protection of the rights of employees in non-negotiable, and in instances where loopholes exist in the way employees are treated and protected at their place of workshould by all means be sealed by law. As exhibited in the case of whistleblowing, there is an obvious social stigma associated with the process and act of alerting others to corruption, danger, scandal, wrongdoing, and other forms of malpractice, which leads to the ostracizing of whistleblowers and a continued lack of protection for their rights as employees. These kinds of disclosures are typically unauthorized and are made through the media or directly to agencies charged with monitoring compliance to the related laws. Protection of the concept of rational loyalty where a whistleblower’s actions are evaluated in light of an organization’s interests as opposed to the interest of the people who control the organization at a given time should be prioritized and upheld by the law. The protection of whistleblowers based on the concept of rational loyalty is by extension the protection of an organization’s real values and those whom they serve; the general public(Blonder, 2010).

In reaction to this reality, Peter & Richard (2012) propose the deliberate inclusion of the term ‘conscience’ in the list of specific freedoms outlined by the constitution, drawing a clear distinction between freedom of religion  and a strongly developed freedom of conscience. In their argument, which I also agree with, the inclusion of the term ‘conscience’ recognizes it as a robust and independent freedom that contributes effectively to the development of whistleblowing practices that are valuable socially and that operates within a framework(Peter & Richard, 2012).

Unhealthy Humor in the Workplace – Final Problem Solving Researched Proposal


Humor is an important aspect in human interaction. It plays an essential role in developing interaction and cohesion in a group. Humor also has particular impact on the organization or workplace. For employees at the workplace, humor regards their working mood and team members’ interaction. Adequate use of humor in the workplace can develop a fun environment and resolve conflicts, dilemmas, and embarrassment among individuals, creating familiarity with each other and add to the interpersonal relationship quality. It can as well accumulate extra support from other individuals so as to boost individual psychological energy (McGhee 1). Moreover, humor assists in muscles relaxation. With the laughter sound and happiness feel, one can create a positive emotions that counterbalance the negative impacts created by work pressure. Nevertheless, humor is considered as a double-edged sword which holds both bad and good traits. It can contains both positive and negative impacts. Thus among the varying humor styles, there may be some which are not suitable for mental and physical health and can even be harmful or dangerous to others or oneself. In this regard, workplace health need to be controlled to ensure unhealthy humor is completely suppressed in favor for health humor that bring in a number of benefits in a work environment (Sathyanarayana 165).

Statement of the Problem

Humor is normally used to create a relief in life. Although it was initially employed in social settings and was highly associated with unofficial settings, humor employment in work environment has been adopted gradually. This has been facilitated by extensive research that demonstrates the importance of humor in a work environment. Although workplace humor is associated with a number of benefits, it is important to note that those benefits are only enjoyed when the humor is healthy.  On the contrary, negative humor or unhealthy humor can be destructive to the workplace since it propagates the destruction of relationships, widening the gap among diverse individuals. Unhealthy humor can also be used by leaders to manipulate subordinates through fear or support. Unhealthy humor is a common problem in organizations that have embraced the use of humor. This is not uncommon to our organization. After making a close observation, I have realized that most employees are suffering from effect of negative humor directed to them by their supervisors, fellow colleagues, and managers. This humor may appear normal to other audience but one can notice the discomfort and chance of mood of the person at the receiving end. This can highly impact the organization performance negatively despite of the employment of all other possible measures to enhance the organization performance. In this regard, our company needs to identify negative or unhealthy humor that are used among workers and by managers to be able to identify the best strategy that can be employed to suppress this behavior. This ensure that the negative effects of negative humor do not nullify the organization efforts to enhance the organization performance.

 Research Objective

This research aims at identifying the harmful or unhealthy humor in the workplace and establishing its impact on workers or humor receiver and establishing the best way to suppressing the unhealthy humor in the organization.

Rationale of the Research

Humor is growing in popularity in different work environment. This has created great benefits to the organizations that have managed to embrace positive humor which is associated with a number of benefits. However, there is negative humor which is shallowly researched but which can highly destroy the organization performance. Thus, it is important to identify negative humor in organization and suppress its utilization in our organizations.

Literature Review

Humor is regarded as any communicative occasion that is perceived to be humorous and contains verbal and nonverbal communication that produce a positive erective or cognitive reply from listeners. In this regard, organizational humor contains funny communications which yield to positive cognitive and emotions in the organization, group, or individual.  However, this definition of organizational humor is only applicable in case of health humor. On the contrary, unhealthy humor may contain the humorous aspects but with the wrong intention which mostly involve enjoying a humorous laughter at the cost of others. Unhealthy humor is defined as a multilayered notion which encompasses of sarcasm, satires, slapstick and jokes.  Thus humor can also be used humiliate, or demoralize a person in the workplace (Romero and Cruithirds 59).

Regardless of the belief that workplace involve serious business, humor can ease the mood in organizational setting and change the work environment to be extra enjoyable. Workgroup are normally driven by human interaction rules, and thus comprehending the multifunctional obligation of humor in a work environment can essentially add to effective personnel management. Actually, the proper utilization of organizational humor can offer valuable advantages to organizations and even extra valuable instruments to management for staff motivation, effective communication and discord mitigation. According to (Romero and Cruithirds 58), humor contains a number of styles and facets. It is frequently regarded informally as a communicating levity approach, however, there is a science to humor which can be applied effectively as a serious leadership or management tool in an organization. More than mere laughing and joking or development of comradeship, humor can act as a complete toolkit with a number of particular tools which can be used selectively and employed by management.

Humor hold the ability to remedy a number of organizations issues and enhance healthy social association in the workplace. It supports efforts to develop group cohesion, increase creativity, improve communication, add to higher productivity, and boost satisfaction of subordinate. Humor is also found to be constructive in maintaining and creating organizational culture, generating camaraderie and promoting leadership. Humor can be used in organization leadership to enhance the association between a leader and the followers. Although humorous leadership might not be the basic principle for business success, it is very essential for developing an effectual team with great performance (Lyttle 240). Frequent utilization of humor at workplace by leaders is an effective way to restore and inspire morale. Humor can also be employed to assist leaders in attaining three basic results which include lowering work stress, to assist subordinate to comprehend the management models of leaders via communication and finally, to inspire followers or subordinates. Thus, humor plays an essential bridging role in a workplace. Apart from resolving the discomfiture resulting from various opinions, it assists in upholding good interpersonal relationship among the members of the team and boost love of colleagues. In addition, humor stands for a positive attitude to assist leaders in handling difficult business situation successfully. Actually, humorous leadership can assist organizations and enterprises in developing a more positive and proactive culture (Ho 6675).

Positive humor can be of great benefit to an organization as discussed above. However, not ever humor used in a work environment are healthy. Humor can also be used negatively mostly by leaders who wish to demoralize or humiliate their workers. The two forms of humor classified as negative humor include the aggressive humor and self-defeating humor. Aggressive humor is unhealthy humor founded on the superiority theory where by the speaker consider him or herself to be better than others. Thus, this is a form of humor that is comprised of jeer and sarcasm, ridicule, and it is insulting to the listeners. This humor is positively correlated with nervousness, aggression, and hostility. It is normally utilized in an organization to order or manipulate team members via one’s superiority sense (Ho 6676).

Self-defeating humor is another form of unhealthy humor.  In this case, speaker seems to be over insulting to herself or himself so as to please others. This is a defense mechanism that involves self-denying which appears to cover negative feelings away from issues via humor. This form of humor is frequently positively correlated with anxiety and depression and negatively associated with satisfaction of social support, happiness and self-esteem. Employment of self-defeating humor in a workplace is aimed at getting along with others and gaining their approval. Nevertheless, the use of this kind of humors by leaders might lower the subordinate confidence toward their leaders (Ho 6677).

Unhealthy humor picks on others as groups or individuals. They cause pains and widen gaps between individuals. Normally, individuals who employ negative humor focus on getting the laugh at the expense of another person. They normally fails to consider the effect of their action to the directed person, or they do it deliberately to cause humiliation. Normally, harmful humor is employed in a workplace among subordinate when an individual base the joke on race aspects, physical appearance, work mistake, gender based and other discriminative factors. This can be done intentionally or unintentionally. Whichever the case, humor based on such aspect maybe hurting to individuals in the receiving end. Negative humor can also be used to propagate sexual harassment in the work place.

Research Methodology

The research will focus on identifying negative humor in workplace, its impact to the workers and leaders and mechanism to suppress negative humor while promoting the positive one. To identify accomplish this, the research will perform qualitative research in the researcher workplace where negative humor incidences have been identified as a major problem in the organization. The main aim of conducting this research is to identify possible forms or aspects of negative humor that are used in the organization and their impacts to individual workers based in who used the humor, how it was used and who was the receiver of the humor. This will be done through the use of structured interview and structured questionnaires where workers will be required to identify cases where they have been insulted by jokes, words or acts that enticed others. The identification will include the person who initiated the joke, and who were the audience and the audience reaction.

The research will target all workers in the organization since they all have equal chance of experiencing healthy or unhealthy humor. Thus, the only discriminative factor will be used while selecting the research participant is that one must be an employee or a manager in this company.  Workers will be selected in this case since they have a higher chance of being in the receiving end of unhealthy humor. The questionnaire will take a total of 20 minutes to fill in. On the other hand, interviews will be directed to the managers of the organization who are most likely to employ negative humor to control subordinates. The interview will be recorded for later transcription. The interview will take not more than 30 minutes. The researcher will also employ literature review to identify the best strategies to employ to surpass this kind of behavior in an organization.

Research Validity and Reliability

Structured questionnaires and interviews are associated with a high level of validity since they are based on standard responses that restricts the respondent on the solutions to pick. The validity of a structured interview and questionnaire is measured at 4.0 (O’Connell 1). Thus, the research will be based on a high level of validity. The two techniques are also highly reliable since they involves use of tools that can be easily analyzed to maintain a high level of accuracy (Le. Ac 5).

Data Analysis

The data analysis will involve grouping the identified negative humors in similar group and identifying the possible theme for each group. Each theme will be provided with a number that will be used to establish its frequency of occurrence. The researcher will then make use of data analysis software such as SPSS to evaluate the probability of occurrence of a certain form of humor. To establish the best strategy for surpassing the level of negative humor in the organization, the researcher will also group the identified recommendation based on whether the recommendation is evidence-based or whether the recommendation is based on the scholar evaluation of possible solution through other means. The evidence based solution should be given the highest priority. The recommended solution must also match the identified negative humor to be able to address the actual problem that the company is experiencing (Sagepub 328).

The Research Schedule

The research will be done in a period of 4 weeks. The first 3 days of the research, the researcher will be engaged in obtaining the permission of conducting the research in the organization. This will be done using a formally written letter to the human resource manager. After obtaining the required permission, the researcher will develop the research questionnaires and interview questions for a period of 2 days. The researcher will then identify the best day to distribute the questionnaires and to conduct the interview. The entire process should take 7 days. This should be followed by 5 days of conducting intensive literature review to identify strategies that can be employed to surpass unhealthy humor in the workplace. This review should focus more on evidence based proposition and information from scholars who have credit in investing matters related to impact of humor in organizations. This will be followed by the data analysis process which will take a period of 7 days. This will be followed by data presentation and reporting of the findings which will take a period of 4 days. This scheduling is presented in the Gantt chart below.


Humor which has for a long time been associated with social affairs have slowly been making way to the corporate world. Humor is being used in the corporate world to enhance communication and thus, to strengthen relation in the organizations and to promote a conducive work environment. However, this only happens when positive humor is employed in the work environment. When a work environment is dominated by negative humor, negative outcomes are experienced. Unhealthy humor is a common problem in a number of organizations that have embraced humor to effect its operation. Unhealthy humor is associated with a number of negative aspects that destroy the relation among the workers and the association between the workers and the managers as well as supervisors, based on the user of the humor and the receiver of the same. The researcher’s working environment is currently experiencing the effect of negative humor and thus, something need to be done to ensure that the situation does not destroy the productivity of the organization.

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Advertisement Analysis – “Catch him if you can” Adidas Advertisement

Advertisement Analysis

Advertisements have been used by business to market their products. Different companies use the ads in a variety of ways and manners. Most of the advertisements are done on television and to a large extent on the internet also. (Zhang 187). Most people in the United States spent a lot of time in front of the television and thus in their lifetime they would have watched up to two million advertisements. The advertisements to not only appear on television but also everywhere people are especially on the roads where companies use billboards and posters, flyers to promote products, open air shows that market various products. Therefore, as one walks, drives or runs to the desired places like schools, offices and other areas of occupation he or she encounters countless advertisements on the way some of which he or she may stop to look at. Even as people communicate they may speak about an individual product especially trending items like fashionable clothes, shoes, technological products to name a few. Since people use most of the products that are sometimes advertised on the television ranging from clothes, houses, perfumes among others they are constantly bombarded by the different companies that make the products. Therefore, advertising is a complex process that involves the combination of various elements to ensure that the product is exhibited to the customer in an appealing manner.

Adidas advertisement

The advertisement that is going to be analyzed is the advertisement “Catch him if you can” Adidas advertisement. It consists of various elements that are used to pass the message about the product. The product, therefore, focusses on using the various components especially those that appeal greatly to sportsmen. The use of a celebrity in football who has great appeal throughout the world as one of the greatest football players is used. Though there are other elements in the picture, the use of Lionel Messi to endorse the produce creates a lot of difference and impact on how the targeted audience views the advertisement. Celebrities like Lionel Messi have great appeal to wider sections globally. Therefore, the product can gain broad appeal to athletes globally especially those attending the London event. Therefore, advertisers in companies look for various ways to ensure that customers are attracted to their products and in such instances opt to use celebrities. Adidas is a proven product that has long been used in sports and thus to gain a wider appeal it uses Messi. The general advertisement shows high energy and thus an active atmosphere where Messi introduces the product in his running. As such, the formidableness of Messi in the football arena is matched with that of the advertisement in its ability to be used in various sports and by different people engaged in the respective sports. Messi shows a determined face that aims at winning especially when using the product and thus creates an appeal to the product more so in association to his celebrity appeal.


The coloring used in the advertisement has mostly dark colors and shows shadows of at the top covering Messi while bright colors that display the path he is taking. The colors represent motion ahead and the increasing speed associated with the product. The various objects in the picture are arranged asymmetrically. For example, the yellow color into eh picture shown in different rays is disproportional with the blue color on the left of the image. More weight to the balance is on the right side of the picture than on the left. Therefore, the balance moves away from the center of the picture.

Target audience

Any company making an advertisement should consider the target audience and provide a focused message regarding the pictures and words used. Many advertisements designed by corporations mostly ensure that the various elements in the ad are geared towards attracting the attention of the intended people. The intended audience of the Adidas advertisement is for the athletes especially those who were attending the London events. Such athletes usually use new shoes for such fixtures and, therefore, the company makes products and tries to appeal to the athletes to use their brand. The particular audience targeted by the ad is athletes. Though Messi is a footballer in the advertisement, we do not see him with the ball. As such, it appeals to athletes with the catchphrase that shows Adidas enabling the runner to avoid other people in the race. In the picture race is in the racing mode and the advert specifically targets athletes engaging the London Athletics. However, the shoe may appeal to other audiences like sportsmen in the National Football League, baseball, cricket, among other sports that involve running. Therefore, the advertisement mostly looks at the top athletes in the various sports especially running the event in London is associated with top athletes from various countries. Athletes mostly love the appeal of greater brands that help them to win in the various athletics events.

Elements in the advertisement

The elements used in an advertisement should be arranged in such a manner to ensure that the intended meaning is not overshadowed by other elements in the picture. The product should be shown clearly to the intended people in the advertisement (Maison 406). The connection among the various components in the pictures helps to show us in more detail what the picture means and thus it adds to the short sentence used in the advertisement. The colors help to represent the speed, especially where they form a V-shape showing increasing progress forward. As such, the shape of the colors shows increasing speed of the person in the advertisement. The picture has one person and thus it is an exclusive product that targets a particular segment of the market. The advertisement uses some warm colors especially the yellow color, which elicits excitement as one views the advertisement. The ad uses a few warm colors while the remainder includes the cold colors. The dark and lighter blue color show dependency and integrity of the product since they are cold colors. Therefore, all the colors in the picture merge to giving an exciting and excellent experience that a person can get when using the product.

White space

White space occupies a small area in the advertisement. The tactful utilization of white space is vital in advertisements as it helps to moderate the elements in it. The white space creates some harmony between the elements in the picture and as shown in the photo the white space is mostly at the center towards the top. The advertisement, therefore, has little white space with darker colors on the sides of the picture. The white space in the picture consist of a black color and starts from the center of the picture in a “v” shape upwards. Though the white space is usually white, the color that has nothing in is mostly taken as the white space. The white space required should be more than 20% and not less to ensure it captures the attention of the customer. The white space in the picture though little is not less than 20% of the picture. Adverts with a white space are conspicuous since unifying the various elements in the advert and create a contrast to the advertisement. As such though there is, less white space. The use of the celebrity attracts more attention as there are many fans of Messi throughout the world. As such, the products gain a wider appeal because of the use of Messi, who is loved by many fans throughout the world. As such, the celebrity will offset the little white space employed in the picture. Therefore, it is important for designers to ensure that the elements of the white space are positioned tactfully to create a more concise picture.

The advertisement is made in such a manner that they are appealing to the customers. Targeting position and segmentation of market are of great significant in the formation of advertisements. Business usually has a particular segment they want to reach in different markets. The individuals may be highly performing people especially those associated with the various sports with themes related to the different sports. Therefore, in making an advertisement the business has to focus on the subject and ensure that it uses elements that are conspicuous to the target audience. Most multinational that manufacture shoes, food products, and apparel concentrate on various colors and elements that they are to include in their advertisements. Therefore, in making the advertisement like the Adidas one it has to stick to the theme that is associated with athletics, which is learning. The information on it should be precise and concise to ensure that it delivers the intended message to the audience. The use of advertisement is necessary and the messages and everything that is used to make it is clearly and tactfully included in the picture to ensure that the product is marketed to the customer in an efficient manner.

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Lochol Study Synopsis Brochure And Assignment Instructions


Title of Study:

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose safety and tolerance study of LOCHOL in healthy male volunteers

Investigative Site:


Anticipated Study Duration:

Anticipated Start Date for Study Enrollment: January, 2009
Anticipated Completion Date for Study Enrollment: October, 2009
Anticipated Date of Last Study Visit: November, 2009


To assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of 250 mg Lochol when administered once daily for 2 weeks


Subjects will have a screening visit within 6 weeks prior to the Baseline visit. The subjects will be admitted to the clinical research unit on Day -7 to begin the NCEP Adults Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) Therapeutic Lifestyles Changes (TLC) Diet stabilization. The diet will be maintained through Day 17. Subjects will receive single oral doses of placebo or 250 mg LOCHOL once daily for 2 weeks beginning on Day 1. The subjects will be confined in the clinic from Day -7 to Day 17 for careful monitoring of potential study drug effects as well as to ensure maintained compliance with the NCEP Adults Treatment Panel III Therapeutic Lifestyles Changes Diet. Subjects will be released from the clinic on Day 17. Subjects will be monitored for routine safety labs, ECGs, vital signs, physical exams, and adverse events.

Number of Subjects:

24 subjects/1 cohort (16 active/8 placebo)

Diagnosis and Main Criteria for Inclusion:

Healthy males between ages 18 and 65 years with LDL values >100 mg/dL

Product Information:

Lochol is an ester of a well-known cholesterol-reducing agent that has been associated with an increase in LFTs, myalgia, and, rarely, rhabdomyolysis. Tell patients to promptly report muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness. Discontinue drug if myopathy is suspected, if creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels rise markedly, or if the patient has risk factors for rhabdomyolysis.

Lower starting doses should be considered when administered concomitantly with cyclosporine, fibric acid derivatives, erythromycin, clarithromycin, ritonavir/saquinavir, ritonavir/lopinavir, immunosuppressive drugs, azole antifungals, or niacin; additionally, physicians should carefully monitor patients for signs or symptoms of myopathy early during therapy and when titrating dose of either drug.

Comparator Product:

Placebo for Lochol


Adverse events
Clinical laboratory measurements
Pharmacokinetic values
Physical exams

Primary Efficacy Measurements:


Secondary Efficacy Measurements:


Safety and Tolerance:

• Routine monitoring of adverse events (AEs)
• Clinical laboratory specimens for testing of standard safety panels for chemistry, hematology, and urinalysis
• Vital signs
• Physical exam results
• ECGs


Serial plasma specimens will be taken for study drug-level determinations.


Measurement of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, Lp(a), Apolipoprotein-A , and Apolipoprotein-B

Statistical Methods:

Statistical Analysis Plan:

  • Pharmacodynamic evaluation:

Total Cholesterol

HDL Cholesterol
LDL Cholesterol (direct measurement)

All pharmacodynamic parameters will be listed and summarized by treatment group. Differences at end of therapy relative to baseline will be examined by treatment group. The mean of three lipid values measured on 3 consecutive days will be used for Baseline (Days -2, -1, and 1) and End of Therapy (Days 13, 14 and 15) values in order to decrease the intrasubject variability of the lipid measurements when comparing treatment groups.

  • Safety evaluation:

All subjects who receive study medication and have a subsequent safety evaluation will be included in the safety analyses.

All adverse events reported during the study will be listed, documenting course, severity, and outcome. Adverse events will be coded to MedDRA terms.

Adverse event reports summarized by treatment group will give the number of subjects who experienced an adverse event, the maximum severity, and body system.

Laboratory parameters, vital signs, and physical exam results will be summarized by treatment group with the statistics of n, mean, standard deviation, median and range or frequencies and percentages, as appropriate, for baseline, on therapy, and posttherapy values.

All ECG data measured during the study will be listed and summarized by treatment group.

  • Pharmacokinetic evaluation:

Pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g., Cmax, Tmax, t1/2, AUC(0-24), AUC(0-t), AUC(0-inf), Kel, Ae%, CLr,, and CLt ) will be estimated for each treatment group using noncompartmental methods. Pharmacokinetic parameters will be summarized by treatment group using descriptive statistics, as appropriate.

Assignment Instructions

Risks and Benefits in Clinical Trials

Most positions on a clinical research team require that you analyze the protocol design and the protocol procedures’ implications. One aspect of protocol design is understanding the problems that could arise during the trial. This Application Assignment provides you with an example of an abbreviated protocol for a drug, Lochol, from which you can extrapolate potential problems and benefits that could arise from the study outcome.
Thoroughly review the Lochol Study Synopsis Brochure. Based on information in the brochure, consider the drug’s risks and benefits.
Write a 1-page paper that outlines the study’s potential risks and benefits. Be sure to include at least two examples of benefits and two examples of risks. Then, based on these risks and benefits, justify whether you would continue the drug development process by following up the 2-week study (as listed in the Lochol Study Brochure) with a 4-week study at 250 mg/day.
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Risks and Benefits in Clinical Trials – Lochol Study Synopsis Brochure

Those participating in clinical trials are exposed to various risks even as they benefit from the trials. The trials may offer them access to emerging, or new treatments that the public is yet to access, get professional medical care at specialized healthcare institutions, get actively involved in their healthcare, and assist others through own contributions to healthcare or medical research. Even then, the participants may suffer life-threatening, serious or unpleasant side effects or expend lots of time on the research. The treatment they receive may be ineffective. In some cases, the participants may lack insurance cover for the costs incurred during the research (Lo, 2009).

From the LOCHOL Study Synopsis Brochure will be of help to others via own contributions to the study and medical research in general. Even then, the participants are prone to suffering life-threatening, serious or unpleasant side effects after taking the 250 mg LOCHOL dosage daily. The possible, or potential, side effects include muscle pain, weakness, rhabdomyolysis, myalgia, LFTs, tenderness, or elevated creatine phosphokinase levels. , the participants will have to spend more than a few days in controlled environments without leaving to attend to their everyday chores.

(Meinert, 2012). There would be no justification for exposing the participants to side effects that may occasion their death continually.