Month: January 2018

Risk Avoidance Plan Topics Discussed

Risk avoidance plan

Risk avoidance is important in that it helped deals with the various risks associated with the operations of the business and ensure that the company is not adversely affected by the potential risks. It is critical for the company to find out most if not all risks and try to eliminate them to ensure smooth operation of the company and to prevent any danger posed to the business by the risk (Pritchard, 2014). Therefore coming up with a risk avoidance plan for the company is important and most includes many activities that aim to enlighten the individuals of an organization to ensure that they are not caught unawares by the potential threats. Some of the ways to deal with the risks can be done through the formulation of procedures and policies, education and training and implementations of different technologies. The paper is, therefore, going to look at various methods that can be used to reduce or eliminate potential risks for the benefit of the company. Therefore, the company in noting the different risks will ensure that tit deals with mitigation measures to ensure that it is prepared come what may.

Avoiding employee lawsuits

Employee lawsuits are a tasking process to the business since the business has to follow up in courts and in the end, may use a lot of money in compensating the employees. Mass layoffs have been the biggest problem in bringing up lawsuits against employers by employees. Therefore, employees can sue employers on discriminatory charges and get compensated as a result. More than half of the lawsuits filed in courts in the various states are usually successful. Therefore, businesses initiate strategies that will help them minimize the lawsuits by adopting policies that are fair to their employees (Olson & Wu, 2013). Some of the strategies that the company will use are to establish guidelines associated hiring, promotion and sacking and write down business conditions related to layoffs since they may occur in difficult situations. In addition, the company will focus on setting up a layoff plan and how such employees will be counseled to ensure they do not make lawsuits in future but understand that hard economic times have forced the business to lay them off.

Minimizing business liability risks

Incorporation of companies helps to minimize business liability. However, gives some protection against liability there is still some steps that the company should follow to reduce further business liability risks. Therefore, businesses cannot focus on incorporation as their only protection from their personal assets and other factors connected with the ownership of the company. Therefore, the company will adopt various practices that include among others maintain a better standing. The company will thus be maintained to ensure that they are stable systems and practices in place that will help the business in times of trouble. As such, the business will aim to keep clear and concise records of personnel, licensing, company documents and efficient accounting practices. Besides, the company will acquire liability insurance for its workforce, tighten company policies, review contracts and document most of the company’s operations to ensure that any risk that may occur and cause labiality is averted as soon as possible. Therefore, in using the different strategies the business aims at lessening any risk that might occur while the business is operating.

Avoiding lawsuits on business torts

Torts in business can be brought about by negligence on the part of  the company, and the affected parties are mostly employees and customers. They are mainly civil suits that do not result in imprisonment but settlements. For torts, the business can end up compensating the affected parties monetarily. Low quality and defective goods sold to customers may lead to torts. Employees, on the other hand, can sue the business for indiscriminately firing them off or unfairly treating them. Therefore, the company should anticipate torts and address them early to prevent any torts that may arise. The company will, therefore, seek the assistance of legal practitioners in finding out potential areas for torts into eh business and rectify immediately. Furthermore, the company will aim to put in place measures that will help the company deal with its customers’ complaints to prevent any lawsuits from arising (Duckert, 2011). Therefore, employees will be trained to handle the customers professionally and thus deal with any problem involving defective goods swiftly. As such, the company will seek to ensure that any negligent practices on its behalf are minimized or totally eliminated to prevent torts that may arise from employees and customers together with other parties associated with the business.

Company finance risks

Small and big companies need finances to run their operations smoothly. Some business may have the funds at hand, but others may seek funds from other sources. Most of the funds sought from external sources usually help the company to expand or offsets financial problems facing the business. Various risks affect business in obtaining financing options. They include the loss of assets in case of defaulting on loans, spoiled relations especially with close friends or family members (Anderson, 2014). Furthermore, the company may relinquish control to others especially if financing is from equity and the danger of accruing too much debt is imminent which can strain the business operations since more money is financing the loan monthly. Therefore, the business will analyze the various financing options and ensure that it does not choose an option that will hinder its growth or strain its business operations. Plans and strategies are going to be used mainly in projecting the various finances that will be obtained externally and whether the company should obtain any other finance and from what sources. In so doing the business will anticipate any adverse effects that will be caused by borrowing a certain amount of money from some sources of finance.

Efficient business contracts

Business usually engages in contracts in their daily activities. The contracts may involve more than two parties. The contracts made should be reviewed carefully to ensure that the business clearly understands the various agreements it is making with other parties. The contracts are legally binding. Therefore, the company will seek to make contracts that are efficient and that will help it in meeting its objectives. Therefore, business should not make verbal or word or mouth contracts but concentrating on making contracts in writing to ensure that all parties follow the contract. Therefore, the parties to the contract will have to detail their expected obligations that they are to fulfill what they require of the other parties respectively, clearly define terms involving rental, sale or lease, and lastly outline the risks and responsibilities required of each party. The company will thus formulate the various details concerning its requirements about parties in the contract. Any contract with an individual business will have to be reviewed broadly and thus ensure that the contents are understood before the company signs any contract. The business in signing any contract will ensure that it has clearly understood the terms the and the various requirements of the other party and ensure that its demands are stated explicitly to avoid cases of liability against the company.

Market Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning Of Verizon Wireless Company Products

The purpose of this paper is to explain the market segmentation, targeting and positioning of products from Verizon Wireless Company. It is a telecom operator company that specializes in provision of wireless products and services to its customers. In order for the company to market its products with the lowest costs possible, it has to find the best market segments for its products and use it (Struhl, 2013). The first one is geographic segmentation, these is where sellers segment their products according to the geographical measures, like different states, cities, nations or regions. Verizon wireless can sell its products in the international market, making it a very convenient form of marketing. The second one is demographic segmentation, which is based on variables like age, gender, religion, level of education and a person’s occupation. It divides markets into different stages making it easier for the marketer to pass out information about the products. The third one is psychographic segmentation which is obtained by observing the undertakings, interests and thoughts of consumers. It identifies the individual activities and lifestyles of the targeted people and hence it would be easy to influence them to buy the product or service.

Geographic market segmentation can be most convenient in Verizon Wireless since it is selling its products in the international marker and it has operations in different states. The fact that it collects data from both demographic and geographic proves that it provides accurate and efficient results. The segment can be well supported by Verizon Wireless since it has enough and matching resources for it. It will suit the company’s initiatives of using PrecisionID, which works in such a manner that when a consumer visits a certain website or mobile application, a request is sent through Verizon network where the advertisers partnering with the company can reach specific demographic segments  and connect with consumers (Sarli & Baharun, 2011). This will not only improve the company’s general performances but also to those of the advertisers using the tool. Considering competition, the company will retain its position of being competitive in the market. The other positive factor is that segment is growing indicating a high potential of future growth of the company as well. The size of the segment is also large which can serve the large scale productions of different products in Verizon Wireless.

The company should not focus all its resources on the new target market because the market was identified on the availability of resources to support it. Therefore it should be allocated the budgeted resources for the sector only, while the company continues to venture in other markets (Struhl, 2013). It is best for the company to concentrate on the new market but at the same time still venture in other segments because unprecedented events like inflations can occur in the new market segment which might result to heavy losses when the company relies on one market.

When introducing new product in the segment, a company look for a location in the map that has no competitor’s .And when looking for areas to supply a product, a location with many consumers of the product is considered. From the map, consumers felt that the use FiOS internet was the most distinctive and has better functionalities among the products offered by the company, while 2G internet access had the least.

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Analysis Of The Diverse Nature of Psychology

Assignment Instructions

Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper in which you analyze the diverse nature of psychology as a discipline.

Address the following items as a part of your analysis:

  • Evaluate the influence of diversity on psychology’s major concepts.
  • Identify two examples of subdisciplines and two examples of subtopics within psychology. Examples of major concepts and their subtopics include the following:
    • Motivation: theory of emotion, and approach and avoidance
    • Behaviorism: aggression, cheating, and binge drinking
    • Cognition: cognitive dissonance and false memories
  • How can the subdisciplines and subtopics you identified be applied to other disciplines and venues in contemporary society?
  • Relate the subdisciplines and subtopics to your theoretical perspective.
  • Conclude with your psychological contribution to society in the areas of work, education, health, and leisure.

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.  Use at least 3 peer-reviewed references/citations.  Remember to cite within the text of your paper.

Is Book of Khalid A Good Example Of Arab American Culture?

The book of Khalid represents the greatest works in Arab American literary. Ameen Rihani wrote it almost a century ago. Rihani takes us through the eyes of two characters who show the Arabic point of view of America. The book shows many instances involving the similarities and differences of culture associated with the Arabic and American culture. The writer uses two characters who travel from their home country to the United States to seek for greener pastures and thus obtain a better life. The setting is mostly in the American context where the book explores the lives of the two characters in the book who are Khalid and Shakib.

The author uses the two characters to give us a sneak preview of the immigration process and their life after that. The characters in the book pass through various events in America that change their mindset and the way of life. As they interact with the American society, they can note the differences that occur. The author uses Khalid experience mostly as he interacts more with the society. We learn about the significant variation in the cultures of America and those of Arabs. The book of Khalid thus brings out various issues that affected the relationship between Arabs and the Americans regarding differences in religion, culture and the immigration problem associated with the Arabs in American history. The author thus uses the two authors to explain differences associate with the Arab culture and the American culture and hence helps come up with the first Arab American literature piece

Therefore, the book of Khalid brings the Arabic aspect in the American culture and states to bring out the various interactions that the first Arabs had within the United States thus forming a historical background on how to view their immigration and whether there was any assimilation or not. The author uses two people who are of different origins as Shakib defines himself as a Christian while the author shows Khalid as a Muslim particularly when he refers to the al-hadith. Therefore, though both are from different religions they share a room and live together peacefully. Thus in focusing on religion from Christianity to atheism, the author shows how the American society is degraded. We see other strange practices carried by a medium who practices sorcery and where eventually works as an assistant. Khalid demonstrates a lot of naivety and, therefore, shows the gullibility of the immigrants in acclimatizing with the new culture and thus the different ways of life.

As an important book in American literature, the book of Khalid tends to enlighten the readers on the life of the Arabs and their cultural shock as they reach the new land. The Arabs have a different culture from that of the United States where most women are greatly related to the lowest position in society. However, the American society proved challenging regarding accepting the culture and the different religion they sometimes had no choice but to plan to go back. The two individuals interact with the culture in the American context which largely changes their mindset since they are facing a different culture from theirs. Rihani takes us through the eyes of the two individuals and the differences that they encounter while in the United States. He uses the various characters to show how there can be unity between people from very different cultures and mostly stark differences in religion (Bulshrui 39).

From the religion point of view, we see the various tensions through the eyes of Khalid. Khalid reads “Monsieur Pascal” which drives him to read the Bible, and he develops a liking for the book of Jeremiah. As such, the author brings out the theme of religion in a different manner about the Muslim and Christian. The various radical points of view associated with both of the religions mostly prevent them from interacting peacefully. Most of the interaction between Muslims and Christians are usually hostile. In this case, Rihani shows that Muslims can still read the bible and appreciate it while at the same time remaining Muslims. Therefore, he tends to imply that religions can coexist peacefully. The book further shows the culture in America that has evolved to non-believing people, which ascribe to atheism.

They do not believe in God. As such the book touches the various aspects of religion and the two characters take us thoroughly through the various adventures of religion pursuit especially that of atheist. Shakib is soberer than Khalid showing tow people who approach issues differently is. He warns his friend not to attend the atheistic meeting that taints the name of God and disrespects their original land, the holy land. They are Christians who have lived in the Arabic culture, which is quite different from that of the US.

Khalid is one such character who has embraced the western thoughts and ideas and wants to educate his friend Shakib on adopting the same viewpoint in achieving unity. He read many volumes and eventually burns them once he finishes reading them. He gets many insights into philosophy and politics, which broadens his mind and thus his perceptions of the world. He thus has a different viewpoint that is different from that of Shakib. Shakib mostly deals with poems and songs and thereof does not venture into much reading of the books, which speak most of the American culture. Through the various instances happening in the book about the politics, we are given a sneak preview of that time and how the society was run.

The write in these cases uses the various characters to deal with different issues that are prevalent in Americans and the Arab world. One such consistently conflicting issue is religion. Khalid focuses on adopting the western idea of tolerance in religion and, therefore, providing the world that has a peaceful coexistence regardless of the religion of the respective people. In America, their religion is tolerated while in their country they are not to tolerate other religions apart from their own.  Therefore, in the book we see the differences in how the Muslims view the world especially in the American context. Therefore, in his book he focusses on the various issues affects Muslims and what separates them from other societies especially with the West, particularly the United States.

The book further deals with American-Arab relations and the two characters substantially show the differences and the viewpoints of the American society towards Arabs. Therefore, as one reads, the book he can interact with the Arab side and the American side of society and Khalid and Shakib view the different features in America. For example, Khalid compares the statue of liberty with that of Eros and chooses the later as better than the former. The author takes through the immigration problems faced by the immigrants especially how they were frisked and the medical status checked. Some could not be allowed in the United States because of various complications like trachoma, which is linked to the eye. The immigration departments show the many nationalities who aspire to venture into the United States but most ultimately pass the checks in place to enter in the United States.

Therefore, the immigration one can determine the various countries and the respective people who want the United States and how the immigration system was working at the time. The history further goes to state and describe the living conditions of Khalid and thus show the sorry state of most emigrants though they have a chance of making a living selling fake holy land objects by exploiting the ignorance of their customers. As such, the author shows the various ways business is conducted and how the population, as a result, is deceived especially in buying goods from foreigners.  As such, we learn from the various interactions that America has a modest business environment. The two immigrants have great difficulty in obtaining their daily bread since they are new in the society and have to sell their wares to obtain a living. The culture, therefore, shows that those who are strong survive.

The book further uses poems and song that we see in both characters. Khalid specializes in poems while Shakib does the singing with his lute. One of the poems in the book that is composed by Khalid is “I dreamed I was a donkey boy”. Rihani further uses sayings in his book that are related to the American society. One such saying is used to describe Khalid’s adventurous exploits in America. The saying used by Rihani is “Cart before the horse”. There are many other saying that are employed in the book especially those with an Arabic origin and from their homeland. They associate the various situations they face with the sayings as a result. Such use of language adds to the richness of literature frequently used in American literature and, therefore, merging the two different cultures to make the American Arab literature.

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Cultural Activity Report – Oakland Museum of California Visit

Introduction

The Oakland Museum of California is one idea and thrill filled space of art, the place is engaging. I attended the Oakland Museum of California (OMC) in March 10th 2016, during this time many people I interacted with were students doing projects and assignments for school. I was wowed at the museums thematically organization, it is divided along three themes: California Creativity, California People and California Land. This made it easy to understand different works by artists like David Ireland, Edward Weston, Albert Bierstadt, Richard Diebenkorn and Dorothea Lange. This being the main highlights of art for me, easy viewing and experiencing the unexpected was expected. Art can be intricate; the museum provided an avenue for people to understand more on certain pieces got different perspectives and explanations to art at the museums lounge where people were asking questions in regards to the collections featured.

Description of two Pieces at the Museum

Most of the art at the museum features collections on California, conceptual works, craft, photography; sculptures and painting of the region were present. There were collections of landscape paintings of the 1850s-1880s, furniture and decorative arts by the renowned artists Arthur and Lucia Mathews.

The first piece of art that caught my attention is a piece by Dorothea Lange, an artist with a personal archive of prints, journals, manuscripts and contact sheets dating from 1919-1965.A photograph titled “Migrant Mother,Lipomo,1936” features a woman and three children, the emotion on the woman’s face is that of a distraught, sad and worried woman. The woman was holding a young baby and two others leaning on her shoulder facing behind. You can sense hunger, deprivation and grim conditions from this picture which demonstrates the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World war 2.The major issues of that period were emotional and I felt the intimacy of the photograph which was under a theme “Politics of seeing”. Art of this kind definitely helped advocacy and mind swaying for change in the nation’s history.

The second piece of art that intrigued me was a photograph by Andrew J. Russel called “Salt Lake from Trestle Work”. It is a side view of the railway works back in 1830-1902.This landscape photography is a part of many, works that help document the Union of Pacific Railroad and construction of a transcontinental railroad. The landscape photographs by this artist told everything from the impacts of the railroad to the Native Americans. Through this photograph Andrew J.Russel captures the big scale of the western land, the growth of small towns and how much was incorporated in the railroad building enterprise. The photograph and many others on the railroad building influenced western mythology and history; the pictures were engraved in newspapers and used for advertisements.

Conclusion

The nimble way provided by the museum to view art, allowed me to pull a chair examine a painting, touch materials, draw portraits and write in a journal. California ceramics, Gold Rush Era Works and jewelry by Margaret De Patta from the 1930, were pieces of art that added to my knowledge while visiting the museum. The legacy of the California people continues to be told through ethnographic materials, natural specimens and historical artifacts at the Oakland Museum of California. I loved the way history was told through art of the land and the people, it was so easy understanding certain aspects through a simple description and just looking at a picture.

Action Plan to Prevent Plagiarism

This action plan provides details of how I intend to prevent plagiarism in my program. One of the best strategies that I will embrace in order to avoid plagiarism in my program is to try and write everything totally on my own. However, in circumstances where I will lack extensive knowledge about a particular subject, I will have to gather information from relevant resources, which will be cited appropriately in my paper. In this case, I will ensure that where I use other people’s ideas in my work, I will make it clear to the readers that I am not the original source of such ideas. This means that I will indicate sources that were not quoted directly in quotation marks to signify the ideas that are not originally mine. Besides, I will cite all sources that will have been used in any assignment in a proper manner. I will, also, ensure that facts, which do not fall in the category of common knowledge have correct citations. Furthermore, to ensure that I completely prevent plagiarism in my program, I will ensure that I learn and understand the information about the required styles. Besides, I will ensure that I gather information about the difference between paraphrasing and plagiarism to be able to avoid all forms of plagiarism.

To further prevent plagiarism in my program, I will consult my instructor and other relevant resources for more information regarding academic honesty and integrity. In this manner, I will be able to learn about my responsibilities and thus appreciate my commitment to the rest of my program. In continuously education myself, I will find out the correct definition of plagiarism and the correct ways of avoiding it. I will, also, adopt effective strategies for conducting research in order to be able complete assignments in a successful manner. For instance, where collaboration or cooperative learning, or group project activities will be required, I will need to have adequate comprehension of improper and proper cooperation, and the manner in which I should contribute to such projects. I will, also, ensure that I stay informed by constantly checking out additional information that my instructor will provide on the web. Besides, I will ensure that I pay close attention whenever any discussions about plagiarism occur in class so that I obtain the details I need. Also, attending sessions of bibliographic instructions will be essential for me so that I familiarize with the available resources in the library and be able to know how to use them.

I will, also, remember to prevent plagiarism in my program by controlling the way the topic will be presented and the manner in which arguments will be will be developed by utilizing information from relevant sources to be able to make my points. I will, also, consider the necessity of utilizing the correct citation styles as required by the discipline so that I paraphrase using the right techniques. I will, also, ensure that I acknowledge all the sources of ideas, organizational pattern, sentence structure, and wording by use of correct citation styles.

Academic Dishonesty – Annotated Bibliography

Adam, L. R. (2015). Understanding the connection among impulsiveness, personal efficacy, and academic motivation to college cheating. College Student Journal, 50(5), 110-139.

The paper elaborates on a study that involved undergraduate students that aimed at discovering personal features that would have a potential correlation with cheating. The investigation attempted to evaluate self-control vs. impulsiveness among people as they accomplished their goals. The results of the study indicated that the more students engaged in behaviors of academic dishonesty, the more they were likely to view it as a normal and positive behavior.

Chapman, N. (2013). Practical approaches to decrease dishonesty in online courses. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 11(7), 188-215.

The author aimed at elaborating on the methods that can help in reducing cases of student cheating especially in online courses. The four practical approaches that were suggested are: a) modify the process that students use to turn in their written assignments; b) ensure distant students get the information; c) establishment of non-consecutive chapter assortment of queries; and d) change the process of administering exams.

Collins, S., & Byron, J. (2015). Academic integrity in web based distance education. TechTrends, 29(9), 39-51.

The article elaborates on the cheating frequencies both in traditional as well as online classes and presents suggestions for preventing academic dishonesty. Some of the suggested strategies include open book assessments, and use of essay questions instead of multiple choice formats. The author, also, suggested the use of project as a form assessment to help students relate the subject with their life experiences.

Dan, S. (2012). Turnitin: the student perspective on using plagiarism detection software. Active Learning in Higher Education, 10(9), 165-191.

The authors examined the views of postgraduate students about the use of a plagiarism software known as Turnitin. According to the study, the students showed positive views in regard to their experiences with Turnitin. Besides, 80% of them preferred getting their feedback via Turnitin.

Daniel S., & Kennedy, K. (2012). Academic dishonesty and distance learning: students and faculty views. College Student Journal, 30(3), 200-215.

The researchers examined the views of faculties and students regarding the relationship that exists between distance learning and cheating. In the study, various issues were highlighted such as methodology, rate and form of cheating. A few questionnaires were availed to both the faculty and the students. The findings of the study indicated that female and male members of the faculty who had been actively involved in teaching online courses gave 50-50% opinion regarding whether delivery of courses via electronic means was the reason for the increased academic dishonesty. The results indicate that there was little variation in the perception of the faculty and students. However, both agree that students can cheat with much ease in online classes.

 

David, D., & Kenneth, C. (2013). Plagiarism by adult learners online: a case study in detection and remediation. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 9(3), 11-19.

This research particularly focused on the degree of internet plagiarism as considered in five provinces of virtual or distance learning in the period starting from July 2003 to June to 2004. The authors were interested in presenting the results about survey of the prevalence, detection and remediation of plagiarism among adult online students. The main focus was on word-for-word copying of the work of another author, and plagiarism that arises from copy-and-paste scenarios. According to the findings of the study, coping from internet resources is the main plagiarism type that many students could have the tendency of involvement.

Frank, A. (2013). New systems keep a close eye on online students at home. The Education Digest, 79(9), 59-80.

This article elaborates on the new technologies that a few colleges and universities have tried to implement as ways of preventing the likelihood of cheating in online setting. Some of the measures being implemented include advanced technologies such as web cameras for recording students as they take exams, devices for identifying fingerprints to identify the identity of the user, and typing speed recognition software. The study indicates that most of these colleges and universities have reluctant to embrace these technologies of their high cost.

Gabriel, B. J., & Braumoeller, B. (2013). Actions do speak louder than words: deterring plagiarism with the use of plagiarism detection software: Political Science and Politics, 29(9), 830-853.

The article was presented by two university professors teaching in different universities who jointly undertook a plagiarism study that involved political science students. During their investigation, the researchers used Essay Verification Engine (EVE) to detect plagiarism instances. Their experience with the software indicated that EVE was not accurate at identifying the percentage of plagiarism present in a paper.

Harrison, S., Wiseley, P., & Stuber-McEwen, D. (2014). Point, click, and cheat: frequency and type of academic dishonesty in the virtual classroom. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 11(2).

In this article, the author aimed at exploring the regularity of academic dishonesty that were self-reported in a virtual classroom environment. Besides, the study, also, examined the various forms of cheating in traditional and online classes in order to compare the situation in both environments. The findings indicated that students learning in traditional classes were more attempted to cheating than those involved in online courses.

Kenneth, J., Nowell, C., & Grijalva, T. (2012). Academic honesty and online courses. College Student Journal, 45(6), 145-155.

The authors utilized a random response information methodological approach to test the similarity between the college students’ attributes who like cheating in the traditional classroom environment and college students’ attributes who have a liking for cheating in online classes. The findings of the study indicated that the both settings of learning lacked significant difference as pertains cheating prevalence in traditional vs. online classes.

Lawrence J., & Harmon, O. (2012). Are online exams and invitation to cheat? The Journal of Economic Education, 41(7), 99-111.

The data that the authors used in this study came from two distance learning or online courses in economic field to approximate an approach that can help in predicting examination scores from student characteristics’ independent variables. The researchers did not proctor the final exam in one course while in the other course, they proctored the final exam. The results of the study generally indicated that administering online exams in an environment that is proctored may assist in addressing issues surrounding academic dishonesty in the case of online courses.

Lupton, R., Bronson, E., Apgar, C. (2012). Creating a campus culture of integrity: comparing the perspective of full and part-time faculty. Journal of Higher Education, 77(6), 123-150.

Authors in this study were interested in investigating the roles that part-time and full faculty have in establishing a culture of integrity in the campus. Post-hoc Chi-square analysis was combined with analysis of variance (ANOVA) to investigate relationship between students, both faculty, part-time and full-time. The findings of the study indicated that both faculties were less likely than students to exercise lenience in their views towards certain behaviors.

 

Malcolm, J., & Muhammad, S. (2012). Embedding plagiarism detection in the assessment process. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 12(10), 30-49.

The article was interested in examining the application of program for plagiarism detection technology as a formative assessment and evaluation to minimize plagiarism instances in students’ written assignments. The study conclusively indicates that software tools are essential tools for formative assessments especially where students are able to obtain feedback.

Martin, A., & Mian, S. (2013). Internet plagiarism: A teacher’s combat guide. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education 1(3), 49-86.

This article elaborates on the meaning of plagiarism, pinpoints the major indications of plagiarism and many essential approaches that can be embraced to prevent plagiarism. The authors identify various steps to follow while evaluating the work of a student for plagiarism such as paper writing using paste approach, alterations in formatting styles and writing patterns. The authors, also, elaborate on some of the services for plagiarism detection, which are available for commercial use although they do not provide much details about challenges that arise from using such services.

Peter, A. (2013). Student dishonesty and faculty responsibility. Teaching in Higher Education, 14(5), 255-265.

This article focusses on the mechanisms and causes that allow existence of academic dishonesty in an academic environment. The arguments that the author considers encompass deliberate ignorance of academic dishonesty as it occurs, normative expectations, consequentialism position, and unavoidable action. The arguments of the author collectively indicate that the faculty that permits dishonesty should take moral responsibility for the actions of the students.

Robert, N. (2014). Cheating in online student assessment: beyond plagiarism. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 9(5), 22-33.

The article particularly focusses on ways of preventing plagiarism while less consideration was given to various other issues that associate with academic dishonesty in regard to online assessment. The author dwelled on the forms of problems that are likely to occur and the strategies that educators should embrace to avoid them.

Samuel, J., & Watson, G. (2011). Cheating in a digital age: do students cheat more in online courses? Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 12(1).

In this article, investigators studied the academic dishonesty level that prevails both in online and live course. The study involved 635 graduate and undergraduate students studying in Appalachia who provided the information. The instrument that was used in the study (Academic Dishonesty Assessment) aimed at determining the particular behaviors of dishonesty students knew about in reference to online and face-to-face courses. The most interesting outcome in the study was that most students admitted to having found cheating in usual classroom environment as compared to online situations.

Simon, M. (2012). Perceptions of academic honesty in online vs. face-to-face classrooms. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 7(5), 180-186.

The article focused on two main research questions: 1) are there any differences in perceptions of other student’ behavior regarding the course type between traditional classroom and online approach? ; and 2) are there any variations in the views of students’ integrity regarding their personal behavior in reference to course type? The findings for the two research questions; however, did not to show any substantial variation between learners registered in traditional vs. online courses in regard to academic dishonesty.

Stephen, A. (2014). Confronting plagiarism: how conventional cheating invites cyber-cheating. Change, 35(3), 11-20.

The article discusses the significance of a paradigm shift regarding teaching and learning as a way of preventing plagiarism in the current world. The author emphasizes the need for a guided, interactive and hands-on process that involves the instructor taking an active role of guiding students through research. Furthermore, the author highlights plagiarism prevention strategies, which are essentially developing the writing and research skills of students and diminish most of the incentives that lure students into teaching. The article, also, advocates for adoption of conventional teaching methods by instructors as a way of sealing loopholes that encourage plagiarism.

Wycliffe, S. (2013). Contemporary strategies of teaching. International Journal of Educational management 12(1), 215-238.

In this article, the researcher points out various fundamental approaches of teaching that can assist in encouraging academic honesty in a learning environment: 1) continuously observing the work of students; 2) creating a culture of honesty; 3) one-on-one discussion with leaners about their work; and 4) continuous review of their work. The article is essential in the sense that it provides information about pedagogical approaches in a classroom environment to prevent the likelihood of cheating by students. The guidelines enable creation of an environment that will have students less motivated to cheat.

Cartesian Skepticism

Skepticism, in philosophy, refers to a global view, which is more than doubting argument. It is an approach, which is beyond critical facts, rather it questions the evidence. Therefore, skepticism is an outlook, which we cannot understand everything about the world with sureness.  Although, we are used to the reasoning that we have information or knowledge concerning things we have learned or experienced. Consequently, skepticism inquiries or questions whether there is some truth with the knowledge experienced or attained (Study.com, n. d).  There are two types of skeptical views, which are against experiential or empirical knowledge. These skeptical views are founded on claims, which argue practical knowledge are conquered or defeated by the possibility, that we can be misinformed and deceived as far we can understand. In this assignment, I will discuss Cartesian skepticism, as a skepticism that we have learned in class.

Cartesian Skepticism

The idea and essence of Cartesian skepticism argument, declares that various empirical suggestions and intentions such as that we are trees, cannot be verified or recognized as we might be misinformed.  Conversely, connected forms of these claims assail our reasoning for deeming various empirical suggestions founded on deception (Mandik, 2004). As a consequence, these forms of reasoning challenge arguments to knowledge, which is an essential condition for knowledge. Often, the claims examined by the Cartesian skepticism are of the variety of experience. However, they are easily transformed into the claims of reasoning or justification through reinstating all phenomena of knowledge with reasoning.

Below are two examples of Cartesian skepticism argument or claim:

Example 1:

  1. I recognize and understand that there are trees only if I am aware that I am not deceived that there are trees.
  2. I don’t acknowledge that I am being deceived that there are trees.
  3. Consequently, I am not aware that there are trees.

This first example seems to be a valid argument, however, is it sound?

Example 2: 

  1. If I am a brain in a silo or vat, in that case, I cannot think that I am a brain in a vat.
  2. I can imagine and believe that I am a brain in a vat.
  3. As a consequence, I am not a brain in a vat.

The two arguments are valid; however we need to understand if they are sound (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2001). Consequently, the soundness and eligibility of the two examples depend on the mentioned premises. Conversely, let us assume that I have lived an ordinary life as a personified brain, taking pleasure in all kinds of regular casual contacts with brains and vats, until two days ago when I was abducted in my sleep, and I bowed or turned into a hectic or hallucinating brain in a vat. Therefore, it appears then that I could be a brain in a silo, and I think am a brain in a vat. Also, if all the trees in the world were not clear to me, entirely ruined, then my synchronized hallucination, which indicated there are trees, is an extreme deception. As a result, example 2 of the brain in a vat makes sense and holds water. Apparently, tough defenses of the premises of the Cartesian skepticism are available, which allows sound and valid arguments.

Response to Cartesian skepticism

The author of Reason, Truth, and History, Hilary Putnam challenges the Cartesian skepticism through proving that a brain in a silo or vat cannot imagine or suppose as a brain in a vat. He argues that for the skepticism to be a valid reasoning, thought must connect to something in certainty.  Since the brain has an idea or notion about itself and it must exist in actuality (Derose, 1999). Therefore, going with the Putnam argument, Cartesian skepticism seems to be incorrect. Conversely, Putnam declares physical substances like the brain, vat, lamp, tiger, or rock is only objects to what they refer. Moreover, the correlation between the term and the thing is made by pointing to an item and naming the subject. Apparently, the speaker makes the name achieve or obtain a reference.  As a consequence, we cannot use these terms or items in a logical manner without referring to the substances or objects in the world, which the act of naming interrelates them.

Additionally, Putnam argues that if we were to call the objects as assortments of premises that we call vat.  Nonetheless, for Cartesian skepticism to be substantial, and gain weight, the similarity and correspondence must not exist (Derose, 1999). Subsequently, Putnam’s reasoning very powerful, as it refers to objects that are used correctly. However, it is imperative to keep in mind that Putnam argument, references or names only the objects that are around us, either made from substances or molecules. Further, it is vital to note that not everything that comes into your perception becomes a thought. Furthermore, the argument of Putnam does not need that all things should be thought; apparently, the argument utterly presumes that there exists objects or items which are not thoughts.

Implication of the Cartesian Skepticism

Skepticism does not eradicate the question of how people should live their lives. Nevertheless, skepticism establishes something about actuality and certainty where the question needs to be answered (Woodward, 2011). As a consequence, when we study about basic definitions such as truth, reality, and knowledge, does not assist us to decide the kind of beliefs that are consistent and dependable.  Often, we develop a desire to search for detailed and various definitions of truth, knowledge, and reality, which are more practical and constructive for differentiating unreliable reasons from certain reasons. Furthermore, these adjustments do not change what skepticism reveals; instead, the alterations are founded on the revelation.

It is easy to alter ideas and languages so as to assist us to obtain new ways of reasoning, which allow us to answer our query of how we should live our lives. Consequently, we shift from coherence theory of truth to a correspondence theory of to truth to a more practical and realistic definition. The implication of Cartesian skepticism recommends reasonable and mechanical doubt as the right method of differentiating between the known and the unknown. The Cartesian skepticism is a correct argument and one of the ideal requirements for perfect knowledge (Woodward, 2011). The Cartesian doubt is very vital as it shows us what does not matter or count as knowledge. The skepticism is polluted or tainted by some levels, uncertainty, and ambiguity. The change offers us with the claim that despite all things we perceive we know, there could be an existence of an evil demon that analytically gearshifts our perceptions and thoughts, which causes our insights and understanding to become false.

In conclusion, my stand and support are on the Cartesian skepticism as it is a right theory and argument, which provides absolute necessities for ideal and perfect knowledge.  The ambiguity in the skepticism becomes the foundation for defining accurate knowledge, which allows us to identify and recognize the existence of a vice that logically controls our judgment and opinion.

Task 1 For Database Modelling Process – Business Narrative

Company Introduction

The database will be based on a business by the name YX Quality Sport Enterprise. YX Quality Sports Enterprise is a retail store selling sports products to all sports individuals of different disciplines. The business will develop a database system to hold all the business products and their details. Each product will be categorized based on the sport it is used in. The system will be used by customers to make online purchase, by sales person to display new arrivals and market them online, the inventory department to monitor on sales and to enhance new orders, by accountants to carry out business accountings and by the managers to obtain different business reports. The business sells sports products for different games that include soccer, rugby, handball, baseball, basketball, table tennis, and golf. The products extent from sport attires that include shoes, clothing, hockey, helmets and other protective gears, bags, balls, nets, playing sticks  for those who needs them among others. The business customers involve all individuals interested in sports. This includes individual customers and team players. The business caters for all customers of all age including young children especially with regard to sports attires. The customer only needs to identify the game he or she is interest in and all the relevant items will be presented to him or her. A customer will be allowed to review the available items to identify what is needed and to make a selection.

The business will use both online retail sale as well as stores sales. However, all sales made through the store must be document in the system for easy of accounting and to enhance job efficiency. Payment can be made online using a master card of a visa card or paypal for those who opt to buy online. Those who purchase in the stores can make cash payment or payment using their master card or visa card where possible. For those who will opt for online sales, the shipment will be done to the customers residential based on the provided address. Thus, the customers will be required to give correct physical address to enhance the shipment. THe delivery delay will highly depend on individual location. For those living in different states their shipment will be one via curio. The shipment for those living within the state their shipment can be done via the business pick-up or truck.

The sale reps are highly involved in products marketing. They are involved in advertising for the products using different means which include email marketing and also using other forms of marketing. They are also involved in posting new products and providing their description online. This includes their cost, appearance, their use, and other related products that they are used together with. The sales persons will be paid based on their piece work. The business will be an agreed fee for every item posted in the company’s website or advertisement. It will also pay different price for editing information posted earlier regarding an item. The report needed for the business will include the sales report describing items sold per day, their sport category, their quantity and money generated. The second report include the inventory report to assist in tracking the product in the stock and those that may need to be added, sales person report based on the new items posted per day and the number of editing per day to assist in computing their payments. Other reports include reports on shipment an order status among others.

R Edward Freeman’s Argument Against Separation Fallacy And How Milton Friedman Would Respond

R. Edward Freeman’s argument against the Separation Fallacy and How Milton Friedman would respond to Freeman’s argument.

Most businesses are believed to be in need of ethics. Ethical considerations are very important when making any business decisions. If ethics and business could be divorced, the business decisions that will be made afterwards will solely be for the profits. The business people with thus fail to put into considerations the impact their decisions might have on other people, societies and businesses as well. This is because at that time, business decisions will be made and not ethical decisions.Freeman calls this the separation fallacy (Freeman, 2010).

Almost any decision made in business has some ethical content in it. This is confirmed by answering the following Open Questions Argument among Freeman’s Arguments:

  1. Who benefits or is harmed by this decision?
  2. When making this decision, whose values are realized and whose rights are enabled?
  • What kind of people will making this decision make us be?
  1. Whose value is destroyed or created by this value?

These are the questions of ethics. For example, we would not find these questions odd if our decision is, “I would like to break into the office and steal the money left.” Business decisions are some sort of decision and thus addressing these questions is paramount. According to Freeman, this is a rule of philosophy that is termed as “addressing the like cases alike.” According to him, the differences between all other decisions and the business decisions is negligible and thus have to be treated in the same way (Freeman, 2010).

Another argument by Freeman is the Responsibility Principle. In this, he states that most people at most times should be ready to accept the responsibility of the effects their actions might have on others. According to Freeman, it should apply to managers of businesses in the same way that it is applicable to everyone else (Freeman, 2010). It is basic to ethics. For example, if we say a statement like, “Mike hit Tony pretty hard”. It is natural that we may find one asking the question like, “Why did Mike do that?” This question shows that someone is responsible for the action.

According to Freeman, the habit of giving responsibility to people is in most cases not limited to the “bad” actions. The good things can also be given responsibility. Giving the responsibility to people can be termed as a double edged sword. If one wishes to be given responsibility for the good things they have done, they should as well be ready to accept responsibility in case of a bad action.

According to Milton Friedman the executive’s have the responsibility of making profits which are subject to ethical custom and law. Friedman supports ethics and believes that a business should not at one point be free of ethics but should ensure that at all times the business makes maximum profits just as long as ‘it stays within the rule of the game’. With this, he meant that a business should engage in a free and open competition which should transpire without fraud or deception (Friedman, 2007). A business has only one social responsibility. It has to use all of its resources and engage in several activities which are designed to increase its profits. This will only happen if it stays within the rule of the game as described earlier.

Friedman’s rule might seem as easy as it sounds but that’s not so. This is because as Friedman implies, ‘the rule of the game’ are not set by the impartial referees. In the US for example, the laws and the regulations are crafted in a system that can be deemed political and some businesses may expend huge sums of money so as to ensure that the rules are in their favor. Friedman also focuses on making profits for the business. He however does not give suggestions on how long or the time-frame that the profit increasing strategy needs to transpire

In his theory of social responsibility, Milton also fails to provide proof that the exercise of social responsibility in any business is by its nature a socialist and unfair practice. Most people perceive this to be for only profit making purposes and not for any other purpose and that one should do anything so as to achieve what they want even if they have to steal or use the unethical means. This is because most people do not read this rule to the end and thus end up misunderstanding it. This might thus make Milton’s theory seem wrong.

On the other hand, Freeman’s model is less confusing. This is because it gives people the chance to view things ethically. The four questions presented earlier are set to be used by any business personnel when making business decisions. These provide guidance to the making of decisions about several issues in the business so as to avoid regrets later. Freeman also suggests that as much as other decisions deserve some bit of seriousness, business decisions also require the same level of seriousness. None of them should matter more than the other. As well, he urges people to be ready to take responsibility for the good and the bad (Freeman, 2010). A compliment for doing something good should be very well appreciated and at the same time, a mistake done should be acknowledged as well.

In my view, I can say both the authors are right. It is only that there degree of thoughts differ. As much as Friedman’s theory may leave one asking a lot of questions, it in makes sense. This is because, when a business is set to start, the business person always hopes to make some profit from the business. This is always the motive of the business. He however incorporates the issue of ethics within profit maximization by insisting that the managers abide by the rule of the game even when making profits. Freeman on the other hand also ensures that a business is carried out while keeping in mind the impact it might have on others when making the decisions you opt for. Both of them are right. It basically depends on the understanding of someone and the means they chose to employ this. This is so despite of the many disadvantages of Milton’s thoughts.

According to the above discussion, it is clear that most business decisions have some bit of ethical content. The separation fallacy thus prevents us from making ethical decisions and thus should be done away with.