Month: March 2018

Contemporary Business Leaders

Contemporary Business Leaders Assignment Instructions?

Many names have been recognized as notable business leaders. Steve Jobs, Bill Gates, Elon Musk, Mark Zuckerberg, Jack Welch, and Colleen Barrett are all leaders identified for their unique approach to leading people. Please review the “Contemporary Business Leaders” document to locate more business leaders. Select one leader from that list and respond to the following questions.

Discuss (1,250-1,500 words) what you learned about the selected individual as a leader and the leadership style used. Include the following in your discussion:

  1. Identify a leader and justify why you selected that particular leader. What organization(s) is the leader affiliated with? In what industry is the leader recognized? How long was the leader in a leadership position?
  2. Discuss which leadership theory best describes the chosen leader’s approach to leading people.
  3. What was the leader’s greatest achievement?
  4. Identify a significant challenge the leader faced and how the challenge was handled. Did the response align more with a managerial role or a leadership role?
  5. What power base did the leader use in handling or resolving the challenge?
  6. Compare the leadership style used by your selected leader against that of the leader’s successor/predecessor (or competitor if successor/predecessor is not applicable). Was there a difference in the leadership style? Which leader do you think is more effective and why?
  7. Include a personal reflection and identify two to three attributes you hope to emulate or avoid (based on studying this leader) in order to be a successful leader.

You are required to use at least two external sources to provide evidence to support the leadership style your selected leader showed. This should not be completed based on an opinion.

Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines

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Cross Cultural Experience

Cross Cultural Experience

Introduction
The best way to learn any subject is to experience it. To this point in the course you have learned a good deal of theory related to culture and communication, and have had the opportunity to dialogue with one another on these two topics, but now it is time to experience what it means to communicate with someone from another culture.

Task

In your community, locate someone who is from another culture other than Canadian (in this case we are not talking about work cultures but rather ethnic culture) who has moved to Canada in his or her generation (in other words, recent enough that he or she can remember the immigration experience). This person can be an existing friend or an acquaintance that you have had brief encounters with in the past (a shop keeper, someone who works in your bank, someone you know from school, etc.). It is best that the person not be a relative should you have one who fits the assignment description.

Plan to meet with the person you have identified from another culture (it may take more than one or two meetings to explore their culture in some detail) in an informal setting if possible. Explain in advance to the person you have identified for you Cross Cultural Experience that you are in this course and that you would like to chat with them about their culture for the purpose of completing a course assignment (most people are sympathetic to students with an assignment). Through the use of a journal ask or experience the following questions and record them in your journal (try not to make the experience sound too much like an interview, but rather a collegial dialogue intended to get to know one another better):
• What culture and/or ethnic background did the person originally come from?
• Why did he or she choose Canada as place to immigrate to?
• What difficulties did he or she encounter on arrival in Canada?
• Was language/communication a barrier and if so, how did he or she overcome this barrier?
• Has he or she experience cultural prejudice since arriving in Canada and if so in what form?
• How difficult was it for him or her to secure employment? Was it the job he or she had hoped for?
• What would he or she consider their greatest challenge living in Canada as an immigrant?
• What are the major differences between this person’s culture and that of main stream Canadians?
• During the time you spend with this person, make a mental note and record later in your journal their body language, unique gestures, ability to communicate with you in English, their ability to understand you in communication, any other aspects of this person that makes them unique to Canadian society (remember here we want to be very respectful of this person and not make him or her feel uncomfortable).

Record any other aspect of your time with this person that you found noteworthy. Think or what you have learned on this course to date and bring that knowledge to bear in getting to know this person and his or her culture better. Remember, you want to communicate and gain insight into another culture, not simply fulfill the requirements of this assignment.

Conduct

Once you are satisfied you have experienced another culture and have found sufficient information to address the questions in the task section of this assignment and anything else that comes to mind in getting to know this person, transfer the contents of your notes into a proper essay format based on what you learned in Lesson #1. Be sure to include and properly cite at least two references to the course notes (topics you consulted in preparing your essay and interview) in the essay. The essay is to be no more than four (4) pages double spaced (excluding references and cover page if used) using Times Roman, 12 pt font. The essay is to have an Introduction introducing the person you interviewed for this assignment and a Conclusion summarizing what you learned from this assignment

Marks

This assignment is worth 18% of your final grade. Marks will be awarded as follows:
• 3 Marks for Grammatical Structure and proper references.
• 15 Marks for Content and completeness of the assignment in addressing the assignment questions.

 

Has Controlling and Cost-Cutting Contributed to Toyota Recent Massive Recalls?

Controlling At Toyota – Assignment Instructions

Controlling represents a very important function of management. Necessary at all levels and all aspects of the organization, controls should be applied to organizational design, planning, employee performance, etc., among many other functions. Level-wise, controls should be part of headquarters, of division, or departments. Lack of control can lead to costly delays or financial losses, among others.

Toyota is a well known Japanese car manufacturer, well known for its quality, until relatively recently. Toyota has been in the news recently for quality problems. It has recalled millions of 2009-2010 Corollas, Camrys, Avalons, and more recently, even Priuses.

For this case study, we will read two articles about Toyota and analyze how its growth, with no apparent controls (such as structures, and implicitly strong quality controls) may have lead to quality problems (among others). But this case illustrates the importance of the controlling function.

Please read the following articles about Toyota cost-cutting and the interview with the CEO (few years back).

Assignment Expectations

Write a 2-3 page paper, answering the following question:

Has controlling and cost-cutting contributed to Toyota recent massive recalls?

Format

  • In order to develop good business communication skills, it is recommended you write papers using the following structure, using headlines and titles.
    • Introduction (road map, explain main issue and list and main points)
    • Main Body: Develop each point in the Introduction, applying theory to facts, in subsections (one subsection per main point).
    • In Part I, I recommend 2 major subsections: Functions and Style. Each subsection should have several further subsections. For example, for functions: vision, communication, motivation, being a change agent. For style visionary, transformational, etc.
    • In Part II, subsections of causes of recalls and a subsection of general discussion and analysis.
    • Conclusions: Summarize main paper points
    • List of references.
    • Citing your Sources:
    • APA Style

Balance-of-Payments

Mexico Balance-of-Payments Recently, Mexico experienced large-scale trade deficits, depletion of foreign reserve holdings, and a major currency devaluation in December 1994, followed by the decision to freely float the peso. These events also brought about a severe recession and higher unemployment in Mexico. Since the devaluation, however, the trade balance has improved.

Investigate the Mexican experiences in detail and write a 3-5 page, APA-style report on the subject. In the report, you may:

• Document the trend in Mexico’s key economic indicators, such as the balance of payments, the exchange rate, and foreign reserve holdings, during the period 1994.1 through 1995.12.
• Investigate the causes of Mexico’s balance-of-payments difficulties prior to the peso devaluation.
• Discuss what policy actions might have prevented or mitigated the balance-of-payments problem and the subsequent collapse of the peso.
• Derive lessons from the Mexican experience that may be useful for other developing countries.

In your report, you may identify and address any other relevant issues concerning Mexico’s balance-of-payments problem.

Explain in detail how the presence of the five species listed below impacts the ecological balance of the Great Lakes in the U.S.

1. Explain in detail how the presence of the five species listed below impacts the ecological balance of the Great Lakes in the U.S. (Cite your references.)

2. If you were going to build a water purification plant in Lake Michigan, explain how this would be done. Compare and contrast this plant with the building requirements of a water purification plant located in the Red Sea.

3. Water Contamination Lab Investigation

Open the detailed results for each site by clicking on the appropriate button (Site One, Two, Three or Four above) and compare that site to the Lake Michigan Standard that is shown on the left. Based on the data provided for each of the four sites, list the correct contaminant (Oil and Byproducts, Industrial Waste, Sewage, and/or Peat) in the table below.

Site Contaminant
One
Two

 

Three

 

Four

 

 

Borderline Personality Disorder

The information must be in format of a 3 sided pamplet/brochure- Topic should be thoroughly researched  using DSM-V text books 4 and 5, textbooks, journals etc. sources must be cited and referenced. no wikipedia

1.Brief narrative; Describe disorder with an overview; what are some common facts:Does it affect children or adults or both? Indicate causes (ie. genetics, diet, environment), if any; prevention options(i.e, behavior managements), if any: associated with any other disorders or medical conditions. Are there specific symptoms to look for?  Are there multiple types of the disorder to know about?
What is the current diagnois? How does one know if she or he has this disorder?
2.Current Treatment Options/Methods: Lifestyles changes? counseling therapy (be specifiic) Medications(types used and what they do)?
3.Implications for Counselors: What is expected of the professional counselor? ( in sessions and outside of sessions) how often should client with this disorder be seen? What should be the focus of the session?
4.Follow Up Requirements: Seek or continue psychiatric, psychological, or medical services? Seek or continue taking medicines, counseling, or lifestyle changes?
5.Prognosis/Outcome Expectations: How does one deal with this diagnosis over time? Does one stay in counseling forever?

Research the Viability for Swiss Goats’ Cheese Sells in Shandong Province in China

Topic:Research the Viability for Swiss Goats’ Cheese Sells in Shandong Province in China

YANTAI HUAXUAN SHANGMAO CO., LTD (this is a company which exist, but if you think this topic goes better without a real exist company, let me know )

AIM: to explore the factors affecting the marketing success of Swiss Goats’ Cheese sold in Shandong Province, based on the case study of  the YANTAI HUAXUAN SHANGMAO CO., LTD, ShandongProvince.

In order to achieve the research aim above, this research is to focus on the following research objectives:

·        To analyse the difficulties and challenges faced by the YANTAI HUAXUAN SHANGMAO CO., LTD, ShandongProvince by using PESTEL and SWOT analysis

·        To investigate the consumers behavior towards the Swiss Goats’ Cheese

·        To explore the critical factors affecting the marketing of Swiss Goats’ Cheese sold in ShandongProvince

 

 

Research questions :What are the difficulties and challenges of that the Swiss Goats’ Cheese faces with when it comes into the Chinese market? What is the enterprise’s scale currently? How does this Company deal with the difficulties and challenges? What are the perceptions of the public and government in ShandongProvince about Goats’ Swiss Cheese comes into the Chinese market? Who are the target consumers of the products? How does the company attract the customers to buy this cheese?

 

From my point of view. (you can make adjustment if you think it is not cool. Because I am not sure to be honest)

In the introduction part, you can talk about Chinese food safety situation. And then mention why you choose this topic, what your research questions is. Your objectives and how will you structure this dissertation.

And in the second part. You can analysis the challenge and opportunities of goat chess market. And then analysis consumer behavior. Introduce some market position.

 

Methodology I think we can use questionnaires.

 

Strategic Change, Its Importance And How To Manage It

Background to Organizational Strategic Change

Change is a stark reality that humanity has had to grapple with over the years. It keeps situations, circumstances or conditions fluid, and ultimately creates contemporary versions. During most occasions, individuals have had a harder time accepting and adapting to change due to their sheer rigidity in attitude. Change often disrupts daily routine and forces all those involved in this paradigm shift to accept these new circumstances for them to fit in appropriately (Black, 2014). Such indifference to transformation has seen many people view change in negative light. The uncertainty that looms around making a complete alteration of the usual regimen has seen many develop parochial feelings towards making this huge step into the unknown owing to their fear of the unknown. Nonetheless, it’s vital to acknowledge that change can be a positive force, accompanied by numerous perks that an individual or organization can capitalize on fully for exponential growth. Globalization, fueled by new age innovations has seen change occur at the highest rate in recorded history with innovative ideas being transferred from one country to another at a quicker pace (Auster and Hillenbrand, n.d.). For instance, it’s now much more easier for a successful change strategy and approach to spread from the People’s Republic of China (PRC) to firms in the United States to aid in making changes in their operations. The only challenge in such a situation is the fact that suspicion of ideas borrowed from a country adhering to a different dogma might be heightened. Therefore, the purpose of this report is to ensure that all managers and would-be-managers at Aluminum International fully understand the importance of strategic change and how to appropriately manage it to benefit the organization, drawing on the available models and theories of strategic change.

Models of strategic change

Research carried out on strategic change, and its effects on organizations was first examined using theories developed Lewis, Kotter, and Prosci. These pioneers are widely credited with allowing many of the stakeholders involved to understand change management better. From these arguments, models were developed that were thought appropriate in enabling organizations deal with change while capitalizing entirely on the benefits that might accrue from these changes. John Kotter, in particular, is hailed as the world’s foremost expert in change management and the numerous ways in which it may influence an organization. As a renowned professor at the prestigious Harvard Business School, he is one of the leading voices and accepting change for an organization benefit. One of his most significant contribution to this discussion is his Eight Step transformational model that delves into change and how best to manage it. In this model, he insists first on the vitality of developing exigency in any organization (Black, 2014, p.78). Urgency becomes a valuable tool that can be used appropriately to deal with any changes. Forming influential federations also becomes an essential building block for the organization to sufficiently understand the difference that may be taking place at any given moment and how to capitalize on its potential. At the same time, leaders at the helm of power must ensure that they develop a clear vision for the organization in question. Such an approach will ensure that appropriate strategies are designed to incorporate these changes into the organization’s objectives while providing that it becomes common knowledge to all those involved. By so doing, each will be sufficiently empowered to actualize it will while making sure that the changes are incorporated into the institution.

On the other hand, influential theorist such as Lewin was keen to institute programs that would fully embrace any changes that would be taking place in an organization to improve its operational capacity. The Lewis Change Management Model suggested the use three phases deal with any changes that a structure may be confronted with as time goes by. The first phase would include unfreezing all the causative agents responsible for the changes being witnessed and coming to terms with the need to accept reality as it is and accept the changes that might be occurring at any given moment (Bevington and Samson, 2012). Observing and dealing with the movement also serves as an integral phase where new demeanors are readily accepted as current realities that are necessary for the implementation of change (Blake and Bush, 2009). Ultimately, refreezing serves as the last phase that sees the changes stabilized to ensure that the organization is now able to use during all operations readily. Moreover, the Prosci’s ADKAR Model also served as a groundbreaking development that was poised to see managers take advantage of any changes that might occur by first aware of their presence.  Organizations need to tweak their attitude to change viewing it as a positive modification of their routine. All stakeholders willing to change have to be sufficiently armed with essential information on change and how it would be executed best for the best results.  Additionally, it’s important to reinforce these changes so that they take root in the organization and enforce the changes above.

An Evaluation of the Relevance of Models of Strategic Change to Organizations in the Current Economy

Strategic change models have emerged as some of the best reference points for executives that seek to ensure that their organizations or conglomerates are always moving in the right direction and benefiting them. The relevance of these models first lies in their ability to build accord within the organization. They allow for consensus that aids the organization reach crucial decisions while having an elevated conceptual level. Similarly, they always ensure the organization has a futuristic outlook to deal with any issues that may emerge as a result of the changes being observed. In essence, acting proactively is a result of these models that will enable the firm always to look ahead, anticipating any changes and solving any problem that may emerge. A concerted effort of all members is the most important step in ensuring that the best decisions are made (Leban and Stone, 2008). They should be for the greater good of the corporation that provides a vision that resonates with all the members. Errors are therefore corrected promptly and those culpable given corrective punishments necessary for systematic growth. Moreover, these models are vital in making premeditated interventions. These strategic moves serve as a tool to address any unfamiliar scenario that the organization may be faced with. For instance, mergers or rapid increase in sales may present situations where those caught up in this maze might find models of strategic change as the best way to deal with unchartered waters.

An Assessment of the Value of Using Strategic Intervention Techniques in Organizations

             Strategic intervention techniques have emerged as a critical element in ensuring that changes that occur are readily embraced for the greater good of the company (Leban and Stone, 2008). A firm’s human resource is an asset that can be understood better using these techniques. At Aluminum International, these changes affect all aspects of the employee’s lives and contribute positively to ensuring that they better individuals. A techno-structural intervention is especially vital in situations where a firm is subjected to a rapid growth that may not be sustainable in the long-run.  Activities such as downsizing and offering an objective scorecard will ensure that the company is sufficiently capable of dealing with its growth.  A human process intervention is vital in occasions where massive changes are bound to occur primarily in environments that deal with vast numbers of employees. Activities such as delegating duties and the development of coaching practices are benefits of this process together with all the changes that are bound to take place during such an instance.

Need for Strategic Change in an Organization

Currently, the financial status around the world has seen most first aware of the dangers that lurk at every corner. The recession has proven, time and again, that its adverse effects are capable of negatively impacting any large corporation that is ill-prepared. Aluminum International is fully aware of this current state of affairs which is likely to lead to an increase in bankruptcy and substantial unprecedented loses. Customer expectations about the products produced by Aluminum International are a reason why strategic change is instrumental. The development of advanced smelting techniques and diversification of available products have led to massive competition, which points to a need in making strategic moves. A modification of the mission often requires changes in the strategies needed by the firm.  These changes have to be in line with the firm’s mission for it to develop appropriately. Mergers are known for the changes that soon follow to ensure that the new management and the staff present are on the same page regarding the collective vision for the company.

An Assessment of Factors Driving Need for Strategic Change

As mentioned earlier, change is an inevitable occurrence that is bound to affect any in given institution at a particular point in time. Aluminum International is well aware of this reality together with all the reasons behind. Environmental factors are some of the main culprits in driving the need for strategic change. Changes in the environment might affect the sales and impact the firm negatively if not sufficiently prepared. Moreover, the presence of an uncertain and jerky economy is one of the primary reasons why measures have to be put in place. Recessions are dealt with appropriately is strategic intervention techniques are already well-established to confront the changes. Additionally, fiscal pressure is a reality in most organizations coping with changes. Products have to be produced in time, and targets met within the time allotted. Changes are vital in such a situation to avert any danger that may result from these factors. Budget cuts are often instituted to serve as a measure to reduce spending financial dips. An austerity measure of such a nature assures the firm of a fiscal balance during a state of recession. Lastly, technological innovations have been responsible for massive changes in how a typical organization functions. Techniques utilized marketing or the manufacture of the chief goods under production has been developing at break-neck speed due to these technological advancements.

An Assessment of the Resource Implications if the Organization Fails to Respond to Strategic Changes.

            A company has to be prepared for any eventualities as there are occasions when an organization might fail to respond to the changes that might be taking place within the organization. It’s not unusual for activities to stall in an organization owing to strategic changes that were made earlier on. If all the vital modifications fail, recruiting new employees becomes a viable option. The resultant effect is that time, and precious resources will be spent on this process which is a very costly affair.  Additionally, a reorganization of the Human Resource Department will be a necessary step in the event an organization is non-responsive to strategic change. The process would now entail a complete restructuring of the individuals holding particular offices for the greater good while ensuring that the company works. Furthermore, there is a possibility that various actions carried out by the organization may soon be rendered obsolete. This will be as a result of ignoring proper steps to deal with changes, therefore, impeding the strategy’s ability work efficiently (Iskan, 2016). Lastly, chances that retraining staff is will occur always high whenever strategic changes fail. It’s a time-consuming process, taking up lengthy periods and using up useful resources.


The Development of Systems to Involve Stakeholders in the Planning of Change

Stakeholders have always been known to pay particular attention to the planning process owing to their vested interests in the outcomes of the investments made. One such system involves the use of the Multiple Cause diagram that uses all the intricacies of involved to map out a composite situation. Causal and passable causes are both represented in this particular case as a single entity that cannot be told apart. The system, therefore, appears as a dynamic combination of various events that come together to serve a singular purpose. Additionally, the use of an input-output transformation mock-up represents a transformation system capable of bringing the much-needed change. Inputs such as land and equipment are successfully transformed finished goods that the consumers often await enthusiastically (Cameron and Green, 2001). All organizations strive to ensure that their transformation process is successful and satisfies the customer’s wants and needs.  On the other hand, cultural web points six elements in the work environment that are interconnected. An evaluation all the factors available in this intricate web, one is, therefore, able to make the necessary changes to ensure that a working model is adopted. Moreover, influencing skills have become an essential system in getting activities done in the work environment. Managers make use of their subordinate’s commitment to the enterprise to ensure that teamwork exists between all the departments.

Developing a Change Management Strategy with the Stakeholders

Coming up with a working strategy is one of the most complex situations that managers might be met with.  However, in the case of Aluminum International, the most feasible change management strategy would be the stakeholder circle where they always track the activities taking place in all available projects.  Identifying all the stakeholders is the first step in ensuring that the project will meet all their requirements. The next step would be to make a priority list to determine which stakeholder would be requiring the services first. Communication is also quite vital in such a situation in ensuring that an open channel is maintained between all the parties involved.

An Evaluation of the Systems used to Engage Stakeholders in the Scheduling of Change

Using a stakeholder strategy map is essential, especially in serving as a communication conduit between all the different parties involved. Messages are relayed to stakeholders during every single step of the way. Additionally, it’s important in providing a comprehensive list of all individuals who have successfully qualified to handle that particular project. An evaluation system will ensure that it states those who are eligible to participate in ways that would ultimately benefit the organization.

Strategy for Managing Blatant Resistance to change

            The first step in trying to manage change is first to understand all intricacies that are found in resistance and why individuals may choose to go down this route. One of the reasons why strength is so standard has to do with the formation of a habit in an organization. Persons in this organization are so used to doing things in the same manner that any slight deviation from routine is met with stiff resistance (Paton & MacCalman, 2008). Changes are therefore loathed by the majority who see then as possible implements to their productivity. Breaking such a habit is the first step in ensuring that resistance is at an all-time low. Similarly, selective perception has long been a cause of resistance. Each in individual perceives reality in different degrees, with some viewing change as a negative force that should be resisted by all means possible.

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Anthropology Of Sexuality And Culture

Introduction

From time immemorial, sexuality has proven an integral component of any society. It’s this construct that defines individuals through gender subsequently assigned to them and the roles that they have to play. For the longest time, various tenets of sexuality and the assortment of accepted practices remained unknown to most of the world as researchers just didn’t see it as a discourse worth exploring. The formative years of the 20th century remain ground-breaking in history as anthropology chartered the way in making attempts to explain gender, sexuality and their relationship to culture from a broader scope. Prominent researchers such as Bronislaw Malinowski and Margaret Mead made comprehensive assessments of sexuality across various cultures across the world in a bid to have a better understanding of the subject.

Theirs was a quest to establish the cross-cultural comparisons of different societies and attitudes towards sexuality from a cultural context. Ethnography was emerging as an essential tool in making these studies viable and the primary reason why these pioneers intended to use anthropology as a fundamental methodological approach. These studies began in the 1920s and extended to the 1930s, with Malinowski traveling to the Western Pacific to study the customs and sexual mores of ethnic groups residing in the Trobriand Islands. Further research on sexuality and culture was at an all-time high during the 1970s due to the massive changes that were taking place in society. Social norms were changing dramatically especially with the rise of the gay and lesbian movement together with numerous scholarly works on ted emergence of feminism (Maed, 2001). The purpose of this research paper is to provide an in-depth evaluation of how an anthropological approach can shed light on the relationship that exists between culture, society, and sexuality.

Content Literature Review

            Understanding sexuality and its connection to culture were integral to early researchers since they now lived in a rapidly transforming society. Modernization was a force to reckon with since it was responsible for globalization, which subsequently led to numerous changes in the manner in which individuals viewed sexuality. Anthropology’s role was an important one since it sought to demystify the intricacies that existed in sexuality from one community to another. A study into the cultural constructs of sexuality would serve these researchers well as they would, for the first time, have a unique opportunity to review sexual diversity amongst cultures around the world and the social dimensions present. According to Vance (1991), the study of sexuality and its connections to culture is a central to anthropology, even though researchers seem to ignore the subject intentionally (p.1). The primary reason for this state of affairs is the complexity of the issue at hand and the attitudes of others in questioning the researcher’s motive.

Similarly, it was also noted that a considerable difference existed in how sexuality was viewed in the Western world and other cultures around the globe (Mead, 2001). During her 1928 study, Margaret Maed made it abundantly clear that there existed significant variations in how different cultures approached adolescence. An ethnographic fieldwork carried out in Samoa was instrumental in her work as it would reveal various nuances, such as sexuality and sexual relations together with how Pacific Islanders viewed this particular construct. According to Malinowski (2001), anthropology is best suited to investigate sexuality in different cultures around the world since a researcher can make use of a cross-cultural approach (p.43).  Malinowski is considered an anthropological great owing to his extensive research in ethnography and his unusual ideas. His views on sexuality were in direct contrast with those held by leading researchers such as Sigmund Freud. In particular, he sought to use his anthropological outlook to expose the intricacies of sexuality while challenging suppositions such as the Oedipus complex.

Researchers were also keen on solving various problems concerning sexuality using anthropology.  All this would be done by introducing a global lens to explore controversial issues such as homosexuality. Clasters (1969) sought to understand the intricacies surrounding homosexuality among the Guyaki, a native Amerindian tribe in South America (p. 147). His work soon revealed that, even for indigenous tribes that had little or no contact with the outside world, there was a transparent gender system. In other cases, individuals who would normally be considered as transgender would play a significant role in the community and how their acceptance was linked to that particular culture. According to Keller and Evans-Pritchard (1975), anthropology is one of the most fundamental disciplines in understanding the link existing between sexuality and a specific culture using an ethnographical research. On the other hand, perspectives such as those shared by Spronk (2014) during her study of sexuality and subjectivity in Nairobi, Kenya indicates the extent to which anthropology is useful to the subject at hand (P.2). She explores modernization and the effects it has on sexuality using body-sensorial knowledge, which ends up defining a whole generation.

Anthropologic Descriptions of Sexuality

Anthropology has over the years been concerned with sexual cultures of different communities across the globe. In particular, these experts wanted to focus on sexual practices as cultural constructs that appear specific for specific communities. Communities are diverse in their sexual relations and how they approach sexuality. In essence, their perspective on the issue differs significantly from that of the contemporary Western Society, hence the need to bring this point to the forefront and help elucidate it to this audience. The climax of this anthropological pursuit was during the 1980s when society had to deal with various drastic changes that were taking place. The cultural dimension of sexuality was, therefore, an integral piece of the puzzle as it would allow as it would allow for a more holistic view of the issue(Margaret Mead made me gay: personal essays, public ideas, 2001).  The practicality of various problems emerging during this period has also been cited as issues of significant influence on the anthropological view of sexuality and culture. Topics such as an increased rate of migration, globalization, same-sex marriages, awareness of the importance of sexual health and the changes in perspective brought about by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic were vital in creating these perspectives. It is for this particular reason that anthropologists opted for a paradigm shift in how sexuality was studied and how identities were forged.  In Margaret Mead made me gay: personal essays, public ideas (2001), Esther Newton makes mention of the importance of these changes and how they positively influenced her anthropological work

Theories influencing Sexuality and Culture in Anthropology

Making viable suppositions was the first step in ensuring that sexuality and culture were conclusively tackled. It was therefore imperative for lead anthropologists to come up with theories that would seek to break down this problem and ensure that that they put forth their unique views on the issue at hand. The Feminist perspective was one such deposition that mainly focused on this movement and how it had been used earlier on to end the oppression experienced by women. Many feminists have a unique view of womanhood and view it as a term driven by gender and the social position that a woman occupies in society. It becomes possible to make a clear demarcation between sex and gender which subsequently ensures that sexuality can be explained through anthropology. Feminists espouse these distinctions by countering biological determinism and establishing a clear perspective was therefore responsible for the widely accepted claim that gender was, indeed, a social construct.

Individuals are therefore socialized into their respective genders using various influences present in their separate environments. These acts of socialization might be carried out unconsciously by members of a particular society through the use of gender-stereotypical language. Women studies have also made massive contributions to the never-ending quest to explain sexuality and culture in anthropology. The Queer theory has emerged as one of the most widely known anthropological approaches in defining gender. Homosexuality is an issue of grave concern here with the assumption seeking to challenge gender as being part of the self. Identities feature considerably here as a society often attempts to assign them to different individuals while observing their behavior to determine which category they would fall under. The queer theory acknowledges that a state of divergence is standard in society and hence the existence of gender ambiguity and identities such those of intersex bodies.

The Relationship between Culture, Society, and Sexuality in a Contemporary World

Constructs such as sexuality in any culture have always been of great concern to researchers and notably how they would transform with time. Technological advancements and globalization have been citing as some of the leading causes of changes observed in sexual behavior and being honest about one’s orientation. Sexuality doesn’t take a linear path whenever changes occur. New ideas are easily combined with existing ones to create a fusion that now seeks to define them. Modernization has meant that individuals have had to travel from remote settings to new localities where they are free to make decisions for themselves especially about their sexual orientation (Spronk, 2014). Such is the case in Ho Chi Minh City, in Vietnam where life in the city has meant that more individuals are coming out openly to express their sexual orientation. Spronk (2014) carried out extensive studies in Nairobi Kenya on the effects of modernization on individuals in this population, and especially on the young professionals. Many of those featured in this review seeks an independence to express their sexuality and legitimize their sexual desires, even when fully aware that they are living in a deeply conservative society.

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Plural Executive, Single Executive Model And Texas Governor

Holding office as governor of Texas essentially means that the said individual would, at any given point, have weaker powers in comparison to their counterparts in other states. The primary reason for this state of affairs has more to do with the tumultuous political history of the state of Texas during the Reconstruction period (Champagne et al.). The war between the secessionists and the unionists had greatly divided individuals residing in this state. Political intrigues played well into the highest office in the state with the appointment of unionist, Edmund Davis in 1869, as governor (May 195). Most Texans worried that the far-reaching powers in this office would impede the fidelity of their state’s politics and opted to weaken the State Government in 1876 with a new constitution.

A plural executive involves the use of officials strategically put in various dockets to make critical decisions affecting the state. These individuals act in unison as state officers tasked with the arduous task of ensuring that they give orders on actions that need to be set in motion. In reality, they perform functions that would ordinarily be performed by a single official (Ferguson 67). On the other hand, the single executive model that places all power in the hands of the President. In such a scenario, the executive branch is therefore firmly under the Presidents hold.  In comparison, plural executives starkly differ from the single executive mode since the state governor has no power to appoint executive officers.

Proponents of the plural executive laud it for fostering diversity in the political and administrative sphere. The governor has no powers, whatsoever, to appoint officials serving in the state government. As a result, elected officials appointed to serve in various capacities such as the comptroller, lieutenant governor and attorney general may be from different parties (Jillson 56). Detractors of the plural executive system point to the governor’s weakness as the main reason why the system is not viable in the long run. A majority of the offices and boards are occupied by individuals elected by the citizens as opposed to appointments by the governor. The result is a much-weakened governor who ostensibly plays a ceremonial role.

On the flipside, the plural executive is a more democratic as compared to the single executive model since power is not concentrated on one individual. The tenets that serve as building blocks for democracy hold the distribution of power and equal representation as a key to its function. For instance, the Texas Executive Branch is not under a single individual but a conglomerate of individuals working autonomously to decide for the greater good of the citizenry.

There is a heightened state of accountability in a plural executive since there is most officials are independently elected. Moreover, powers vested in these officials are substantially limited to ensure that the approach matters with a utilitarian approach. Executive officials, for instance, have powers that are greatly reduced as a measure in fostering accountability and most importantly, to ensure that all officials holding public office are accountable to the general public.

I opine that the power of the governor should be increased to enable them to serve the people effectively while carrying out their constitutional mandate. The move by the 1876 Constitutional Caucus was initially viewed as a move for the greater good (Maxwell, et al.). Nevertheless, this state of affairs creates a weakened governor who plays a somewhat ceremonial role, which may lead to stalemates in the event an important decision is to be made, and officials fail to reach an agreement. A governor with far-reaching powers will, therefore, have the ability to make these decisions swiftly and avoid wasting valuable time that could be spent discussing more pressing issues.

Economic Outlook Forecast

Develop a 4 to 6 page economic outlook forecast that includes the following:

  • Analyze the history of changes in GDP, savings, investment, real interest rates, and unemployment and compare to forecast for the next five years.
  • Discuss how government policies can influence economic growth.
  • Analyze how monetary policy could influence the long-run behavior of price levels, inflation rates, costs, and other real or nominal variables.
  • Describe how trade deficits or surpluses can influence the growth of productivity and GDP.
  • Discuss the importance of the market for loanable funds and the market for foreign-currency exchange to the achievement of the strategic plan.
  • Recommend, based on your above findings, whether the strategic plan can be achieved and provide support.

Use a minimum of 3 peer-reviewed sources from the University Library.

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.

CRJS 270 Security and Loss Prevention Discussions – Order Unique Answers Now

CRJS 270 Security and Loss Prevention Unit 1 Discussion Board

Joseph Wellington is a certified fraud examiner (CFE) and an active member of the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE). He makes presentations to universities throughout the country as well as at professional conferences about the dangers and true occurrences of fraud. He has just been asked to review a case of identity theft of university professors. He has asked for your help because you are an expert in the field.
Please post an answer to the following questions listed below. Support your answers with academic or real life criminal justice examples to accentuate your point.

  • In your opinion, what would be your plan to review the case of identity theft toward the university professors? Why?
  • Do you think identity theft can be stopped? How would you propose to stop it or at least slow it down?

CRJS 101 Foundations of Criminal Justice Systems Discussions – Order Unique Answers

CRJS 101 Foundations of Criminal Justice Systems Unit 2 Discussion Board

Assume you are a campus security coordinator and have observed an alarming rise in sexual assault in and around an area with nightlife popular to local college students. Many of the victims are local students, and they have been assaulted between the hours of 12:00 a.m. and 5:00 a.m. in the vicinity of the schools.
Please post an answer to the following questions. Also support your answers with academic or real-life criminal justice examples to support your point.

  • If you were approached to make a public service announcement that might be issued to help other students avoid being victimized, what would be your message? Why?
  • What types of proactive measures may be taken to address this situation? Why?

 

Forensic Biology Discussions – Order Unique Answers Now

Forensic Biology Unit 3 Discussion Board

Assignment Guidelines

This unit specifically studies the molecule known as DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is the genetic material of all living organisms. DNA is a nucleic acid. Nucleic acids are a type of organic molecules that contain genetic material. DNA is found in the nucleus of every cell in the human body. Cells of living things are made of prokaryotic cells or eukaryotic cells. In prokaryotic cells, DNA is circular, and in eukaryotic cells, DNA is linear. The human body is made of eukaryotic cells, which is why your chromosomes are linear. The majority of the work involved in forensics is based on DNA. History discusses many people as having input into the discovery of DNA, but the most familiar names are James Watson and Francis Crick.

  • In 4–6 paragraphs, address the following:
    • What is the history of DNA?
      • Out of all of the contributors to the field, who do you think has made the greatest contribution to the discovery of DNA? Why?
    • In your own words, describe and explain the components and arrangement of DNA.
    • In your own words, what is the process by which DNA replicates?
    • In your own words, what is the relationship between DNA, genes, and chromosomes? Explain.
    • What do you think is the most important use of DNA testing and analysis? Explain in detail.

Forensic Biology Unit 4 Discussion Board

Assignment Guidelines

DNA fingerprinting is used in other kinds of court cases than criminal cases. Other cases in which DNA profiling is used are custody, paternity, estate settlement, hair analysis, forensic IT, and many more. Because of the information contained in a single sample, it is very important that the same be obtained and maintained in a manner that does not jeopardize the DNA sample.

  • In 4–6 paragraphs, address the following:
    • List and discuss the different processes that should be utilized to avoid contamination of DNA fingerprinting samples.
      • What do you think is the most significant contamination issue with regard to DNA testing? Explain.
        • What about DNA fingerprinting? Explain.
      • Provide 2 examples where court decisions have been made directly because of DNA evidence contamination.
        • How do you feel about the outcomes of these cases? Explain.
    • How significant is DNA evidence in determining the outcome of modern court cases? Explain in detail

Finance Discussion Questions – Order Unique Answers Now

Finance Discussion Questions With Sample Answers

  1. If a good friend of yours has had serious financial misfortunes lately and is unable to meet her debt payments, what advice can you give? Be sure to include the topic of bankruptcy because she has heard that it eliminates all your credit problems. In your discussion, distinguish between straight bankruptcy and a wage earner plan. Use the Library and other Internet sources to supplement your information.
  2. Describe the different ways in which capital can be transferred from suppliers of capital to those who are demanding capital.
  3. What types of changes have financial markets experienced during the last two decades?  Have they been perceived as positive or negative changes?  Explain.
  4. Differentiate between dealer markets and stock markets that have a physical location.
  5. What is free cash flow?  If you were an investor, why might you be more interested in free cash flow than net income?
  6. Would it be possible for a company to report negative free cash flow and still be highly valued by investors; that is, could a negative free cash flow ever be viewed optimistically by investors?  Explain your answer.
  7. What does double taxation of corporate income mean?  Could income ever be subject to triple taxation?  Explain your answer.

Microeconomics Questions – Get Unique Answers Now

  1. Why might bargaining break down when parties negotiate to remedy a market failure and its associated externality?
  2.  Explain why risk-neutral people can make a profit off both risk-averse and risk-seeking people. You must use original numerical examples and EV equations to demonstrate demonstrate your answer.
  3. What are the main differences between microeconomics and macroeconomics? Provide an example of a microeconomic and macroeconomic phenomenon.
  4. Would you give an example of a microeconomic decision you’ve made at work or home? What factors contributed to making that decision?
  5. Would you give an example of how a macroeconomic phenomenon has impacted a personal or business decision of yours? In the end, what was the result of your decision?
    Write out the text of your speech.

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Management Functions used by Today’s Health Care Managers

Write a 350- to 700-word paper that defines the roles and application of management functions used by today’s health care managers. Address the following in your paper, based on this week’s readings:

  • The four major functions of management in a heath care setting
  • How these functions apply to managing others or even yourself in your current or previous job
  • The most important role for a health care manager and leader in the diversified health care industry
  • The most significant aspect related to health care management that you want to gain by taking this class
  • Cite at least three references, one of which may be your course textbook, to support your position.

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.

When the Simulated Patient is for Real by Taneisha Grant

From the encounter with Mr. G, the narrator learns the importance of using her patient-centered interviewing skills and sensitivity to calm the situation and attend to an aggressive patient. It is clear that she did not learn much about cultural awareness at school, which she uses to create a connection with her patient and help him understand the circumstances that he was in during his stay at the hospital: “I also remembered my multi-cultural seminars from medical school and how my teachers strived to teach cultural awareness and sensitivity” (Grant). Her interaction with the patient was the first step in gaining this knowledge. She is brave enough to face the man and suture his bro when deep down she already knew that he was potentially belligerent and could hurt her at any given moment: “The profile of an angry, handcuffed man in police custody, possibly intoxicated possibky intoxicated by drugs is enough to make someone reproachable” (Grant).  The narrator understands that even though the man feels vulnerable for being abused by the police and being restrained to a hospital bed. It was at this moment that she acknowledges that Mr.G is straggling to grapple with the reality that confronts him. Moreover, the doctor now realizes the critical role that they play in the lives of their patients. She calls his mother, as per wish and promises to ensure that he gets the breakfast he has been requesting while at the Emergency Room (ER). The narrator also learns that most of the individuals who find themselves in a hospital setting are intimidated by the medical encounter. It is for this reason that she understands Mr.G’s situation owing to the fact that he was merely scared of the environment and the persons who were about to handle his case: “I try to empathize with my patients because I realize that the medical encounter can be intimidating”(Grant). The narrator realizes any person who walks through that ER door ceases to be anything else but a patient to her.

Donald Trump’s Regulation of Birth Control

The 20th century introduced marvels of medicine that were bound to revolutionize the lives of average individuals. One such development came in the form of oral contraceptives that would assist women in preventing pregnancies. For the first time, women had a chance to engage in other activities in society, other than raising children at home, and had a say in the size family they wanted. Presently, over 11 million women in the United States alone use oral contraceptives as their preferred method of family planning and due to its effectiveness in inhibiting symptoms that often accompany their menstruation cycle (Wilkinson). In essence, it also serves to prevent manifestations such as tension, depression and the irritability that often accompanies it every month.  In the United States, colleges, universities and employers providing health plans that cover every single facet of their lives. Also included in this program, were birth control plans that would benefit this same bracket of individuals in the society (Dania Palanker, Center on Health Insurance Reforms, Georgetown University). However, a decree issued by President Donald Trump has urged these institutions to drop their birth-control coverage. In this essay, I will discuss reasons why this is a step in the wrong direction and why employers should include birth control in their health plan.

Developments in the Trump administration came as a shock to many when it was soon clear that employers and institutions of higher learning were now at liberty to eliminate birth-control coverage as part of the health benefits enjoyed. These changes were made based on moral and religious protestation on an issue that elicits harsh criticism from various quarters.  Under this regulation, employers and insurers would be exempt from covering any cost of contraception. It is the culmination of the onslaught that religious institutions have been having in the United States over the ACA in 2010 (Juliet Eilperin, Amy Goldstein And William Wan). Even though birth control was not mentioned discretely as a health care requirement covered in the plan, it was still provided under the women’s healthcare services. It was for this reason that the Federal Government required all employers to choose one method of birth control that was approved by the FDA and was to be provided exclusively as part of the healthcare package. The clash of principles came when enterprises that were under the Catholic Church, such as charities, schools, and hospitals, were expected to implement these policies. Under lawsuits such as Zubik v. Burwell, these institutions wanted to be excluded from this plan. The Trump administration answered these calls by scrapping the ACA 2010 plan which now means that employers would be under no obligation to provide birth control under their health care plans.

Scrapping the Contraceptive Coverage Mandate would now mean that thousands of women who grapple with rape, drug addiction or domestic violence would be at grave risk. It is a reality that there are a section of individuals in society who struggle with ills that make them quite vulnerable. Many of these individuals live in inner-city neighborhoods where they have to go the extra mile to ensure that their families are adequately catered for. These adversities put them at risk and are further exacerbated when these women fall pregnant. If such an individual fall is pregnant, their productivity will be affected. Most of these women are breadwinners in families that depend a great deal on them. They have to stay at work so that they can ensure the financial stability of families which rely on them for basic needs and sustenance. Moreover, getting an extra mouth to feed will also strain the family’s overstretched resources that which will continue making life even more difficult for the family (North). The rash decision taken by Trump’s administration to remove such women from their employer’s health care plan would mean that thousands of families will be affected directly by such an arbitrary shift in policy.

The implementation of these new policies will also witness a surge in employers and insurers illegally rolling back on their health care plans so that they can save money. Employers are now free to act arbitrarily, without taking the all the women that will be affected by this change in policy into consideration. In reality, it serves as a classic form of discrimination against women. It is important to acknowledge that these changes in the system would affect health services that are only offered to women (“Trump Guts Requirement That Employer Health Plans Pay For Birth Control”). The earlier inclusion of birth control in the health services provided for women underscores its importance in society. It wasn’t a policy that was implemented overnight, but one that had involved a plethora of researchers who saw it fit for employers to include it as part of the health service package that women would receive. Excluding it therefore means that the Trump administration is downplaying the vitality of birth control to women all across the United States (Vann R. Newkirk II). Health care providers across the world agree unanimously that birth control is integral to the preventive health services offered to women and should be offered without cost-sharing. Some women use birth control to prevent pregnancies that they would otherwise be unable to carry to term. Miscarriages affect a sizeable amount of women with others acknowledging their health condition and therefore avoid this risk by employing the various birth control methods that are on offer.

I opine that it is against American values to prevent women from accessing birth control. Women occupy a prominent position in society and need to be treated with respect. They are mothers who care for their children, supportive wives to their husbands and the pillar that holds homes together. Denying them the right to contraception borders on discrimination based on gender. It was clear, from the onset, that the only group that would be affected by this change in the law were women. Majority of these women are unable to cater for such medical expenses as they are costly and most probably affect their financial status. Furthermore, apart from preventing pregnancies, it has also been proved beyond any reasonable doubt that these medicines are vital in suppressing symptoms such as severe abdominal cramps. Women would be more productive if provided with these health services because they would not have to worry about their health and the risks that they might be facing at any particular moment.

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Karl Marx, Marx Weber and Emile Durkheim View On Social Change and Order

Theorizing Social Life

We live in a society that is continuously transforming. Change has proven over time to take place on various facets during our lifetime. One common form includes social change which often has far-reaching consequences. In essence, it alters the prevailing social order condition found in the community in a bid to allow new circumstances to take precedence.  Furthermore, it has always been known to institute its effects on social relations, institutions, and nature. Human beings are still searching for better ways to solve their problems and living fuller lives, a primary factor in instituting social change. Progress is a typical goal of human beings, often responsible for the socio-cultural evolutions that are all too common in society (Williams & Arrigo, 2004, p. 43). Modernization, for instance, is a form of social change that also includes the economic structure present for a long time. From time immemorial, prominent theorists have given their intellectual takes on the issue with perspectives of why change is a regular part of a typical lifecycle. Karl Marx, Marx Weber and Emile Durkheim rank as some of the most vocal voices in matters of change in societies order. In this essay, I will compare the views of these three theorists concerning social change and order together with a critique of the opinions that they held.

Karl Marx was a firm believer in the existence of a social order and the changes that would always follow. Social change was central to his thinking to an extent that most of his writings were solely based on it. In his opinion, change was an unavoidable variable that was bound to affect man, one way or the other. Marx opined that man was in constant motion which explains why the change was always close by. In a bid to achieve his goals, humanity was known for manipulating the environment to serve its needs and therefore perpetuating change in the process. Moreover, man was lauded for creating a niche in society that would enable him to meet his needs and in the process find a suitable change that would benefiting of his life. These assertions are observable presently in man’s quest to transform his surroundings to suit his needs while seeking the best tools that would enable adaptation to take place. It was through this process that man was able to create a material life that was dependant on their progress. Marx saw man as the author of his destiny; always remaking his life and fashioning it in a way that would suit him best (Bratton & Denham, 2014, p. 294). Moreover, Marx introduces labor as a determining factor in social order and its morphing into a new form. It is remarkable how Marx points to the cooperation that results from a “productive force” that is subsequently responsible for the change.  A situation of servitude emerges where the holders of means of production, trapping the unsuspecting laborer. In Marx’s opinion, social change in a capitalistic society was inevitable as it would lead to a communist revolution.

Max Weber’s views on social change differed significantly from those held by Karl Marx. As a holistic believer, he opined that we all dwell in a system that was interconnected, one change leading to a chain reaction. Weber used atomism to describe society as a collection of different individuals who play an integral role in effecting change in social order (Weinstein & Weinstein, 2010, p. 56). As an idealist, he believes that the notions held by various individuals were responsible for shaping society and all those individuals in it. These ideas bordered on being creative while seeking ways that would go a long way in improving the lives that persons lived. Society was, therefore, a considerable collection that was more important than merely singling out individuals who would, later on, act as representatives of the whole.  One striking opinion held by Weber was that there were no laws in society that were put in place to effect change. It is surprising that he would hold such an opinion when it was a well-known fact that he was in rationalist. Rationalism is a complex disposition that holds that a plethora of forces does not drive life, but one that controls everything else. Weber also believed that human beings could use their intelligence to interrogate the world around them and make necessary changes rationally. It is only after this statement that human beings progress to logical rationality. In contrast to Karl Max’s opinion, Weber was a firm believer in private hands holding the means of production. A free market would then allow these individuals to sell their labor, creating changes in the social order.

Emile Durkheim had a holistic view of society and the change that was always bound to take place. To him, culture was an organism with different parts that were all dependent upon each other. Durkheim was a firm adherent of holism and saw the community as a mirror the individuals that were found in it. Society was, therefore, a positive construct that played an integral role in controlling people and ensuring all regulations are followed. Similarly,  Durkheim was critical of Karl Marx’s view that capitalism was a negative force in societal change and didn’t believe that it was capable of making people greedy (Marx & Stenning, 2012, p. 45). Through empirical analysis, he opined that cause and effect were the typical causes of all the changes that were taking place in society at any given moment. Furthermore, he believed in the presence of evolutionary shift in culture that would create the organic solidarity necessary in effecting social change. Durkheim is one of the few theorists who presented opinions that were more practical, especially his view that changes happening in society were not sustainable due to their rapid nature. One adverse effect of this abrupt change is that society becomes unequal. A wealth gap creates a situation where wealthy children readily get opportunities as their poor counterparts struggle.

In conclusion, an assessment of the opinions held by the three theorists reveals that they agree that the economy plays an integral role in societal change. Karl Marx believed that social change would come about as a result of the inequality that would be at odds with human nature. His criticism perhaps lies in the fact that the ruling classes in a capitalistic country were seen as the oppressors who would have to be removed by a communist revolution. In my opinion, Weber introduces a sophisticated point of view by involving an ideological viewpoint in assessing the causes of societal change. Durkheim also puts forth a viable disposition by linking economic factors to societal changes. He is wary of societal change, but for a good reason as it is apparent that he doesn’t want a situation where inequality would be rife, therefore requiring drastic societal changes.

Theme of Justice in Plato’s Republic

Plato was a well-known figure in Classical Greece primarily due to his philosophy. He is also famed for incepting the first institution of higher learning in the Western world, popularly known as the Academy. It was here that he would spend most of his time teaching philosophy and coming up with new ideas about the world around him. He is also known for laying down the building blocks for science and the development of Western philosophy later adopted across Europe. Among his many innovations were his dialectics and forms of written dialogue which he used to structure his political philosophy in the Republic. Plato’s primary objective in producing this discussion was to interrogate political questions using a philosophical outlook. It was in this manuscript that he would also critique the nature of justice and how it applies to the question of human existence. Plato also focuses on the virtue of justice and examines its application from many different angles. According to him, justice was expected to be moral and working in an equitable manner for man’s good (Lycos, 1987, p. 14). Justice also covered a person’s character and how it affects those around them at any given moment. He was a clamor to view justice as a quality of an individual’s soul which would allow them to set aside all their selfish desire in the pursuit of a decision that would benefit all.  In this essay, I will analyze the theme of justice as presented by Plato in the Republic while evaluating his stance on the subject.

Plato wrote on justice at a time when he was increasingly becoming dissatisfied with the political condition in Athens. In reality, the situation had degenerated to a point where democracy was about to be perverted by forces beyond his control. In his view, freedom was the only remedy and would go on to save Athenian democracy from ruin. Plato noted with great concern that the ruling class was not agitating for anything that was for the good of the people and was driven by a form of amateurish politicking that was selfish. Teachings about self-satisfaction were responsible for the state of individualism witnessed in Athens where citizens wanted to capture State office for their selfish gain as opposed to the benefit of the people. It was this paradigm that eventually created a rift between the people and creating a classed society. Plato opines that the only way to building an ideal culture was by letting justice supersede all available constructs, reigning supreme and curing the evils that were in existence (Plato, Taylor, & Jacobs, 2010). It was only then that the people would be successful in creating an ordered society different from the rest. He explores the issue by starting from crude constructs to the most refined argument that would enable him to interpret society. Moreover, he draws some of his concepts from criticizing the ideas of Cephalus, a leading figure in explaining the nature of justice. As a custodian of traditional morality among the trading class in Athens, Cephalus saw justice as people’s right to conduct themselves as they saw fit. Justice was, therefore, an individual’s decision to speak the truth even in times of adversity.

Plato wanted to avoid a situation in life where person’s spirit of the right would be violated and the reason why he was critical of Cephalus’s principle in the first place. He saw it as an act of returning deadly weapons to man even when it had proven beyond any reasonable doubt that he had gone mad. Thinkers such as Thrasymachus had earlier developed critical views bolstering radical approaches to justice. The interests of the stronger were acknowledged and represented justice (Stauffer, 2001, p. 45). Thrasymachus, therefore, suggests that the strongest will always run government affairs and will work only for its interest. Justice can thus be equated to personal interests of those in the ruling class as they make laws that would benefit the most. Those who are contravening these laws were, therefore, rebels who deserved the full force of the law meted out to them. Justice here represents superior intelligence and character while injustice is when one lacks both. A person’s self-assertion is not the source of their strength as it may lead to conflict rather than bring people together around a common cause. Man is happier when justice prevails as he is now able to live a better life (Plato, Taylor, & Jacobs, 2010). Others like Glaucon put forth the social contract theory as the moral basis of judgment. His description of society’s evolution includes the truth as a defender of the weak. In his former primitive self, the man was free to engage in all activities where the stronger ones ruled, the weaker ones. Here justice was unnatural as it was artificially constructed. In all these theories, Plato noticed that the common denominator was the treatment of justice as an external convention that intervenes during the conflict.

Plato was particular in referring to justice as the right condition that the human soul while interacting with nature. Justice resides internally and found in the souls of those in question. It acts as an inward grace as it involves the study of the inner composition of man in his natural state. Plato’s theory of justice puts a social organism against a human one.  A person, therefore, acts in a just manner when the does its work with no interference. Plato views justice as a form of specialization where persons have the will to fulfill the duties of their stations and not to interfere with those of another location (SANTAS, 2010, p. 35). Man is therefore expected to practice only those things that the body is adapted for as it is the rule of nature that should be adhered to the all duties. Real justice, in this context, was one that involved the principle of non-interference in all its affairs. Every citizen in a state forms the perfect whole to appreciate the effort made by all the other members of society. Justice in such a country would be bound together in a manner that is orderly as society is only for the fittest. Furthermore, justice holds human virtue together to form a community and all that is in it. Justice does not fight for the strong alone but sees to create a state of sufficient harmony as a whole.

In conclusion, Plato is famed for his thoughts and was responsible for penning down remarkable dialogues such as the Republic. Justice is one of the areas that he focuses on in his quest to create a just and balanced society. According to Plato, justice occurs in a binary state both in the individuals involved and in the community at large. Justice hence acts as a human virtue that makes man good and maintains the consistency of this demeanor.

Eritrea People Oppression And Its Similarity With Slavery in America

The People of Eritrea

Eritrea is a country with a rich history wrought with instances of domination by imperialist nations and a struggle for independence. Its ideal northerly position made it the envy of many powers during the early years of trade through the Suez Canal. The Egyptians, Ottoman Turks and the then Kingdom of Italy had all shown interest in this particular swathe. Eventually, it was the Italians who managed to overrun the territory during the annexation of Abyssinia. Italian rule was however short-lived as they were soon kicked out by the British Expeditionary Force at the Battle of Keren in 1941 (Welde 34). It would now remain under the stewardship of this Allied force until the end of the Second World War when the Allies would discuss its new status.  Many historians see the complicated political intrigues that surrounded this nation at this particular time in history as the cause of all the problems that soon followed. As the liberator, Britain proposed to have Eritrea subdivided and shared with its immediate neighbors. No one took into consideration the voice of its inhabitants, and it wasn’t long before the matter got even more complicated. Emperor Haile Selassie I also claimed this territory and was soon rewarded with it by the United States or its loyalty during the war. The Eritreans soon formed the Eritrean Liberation Movement (ELM) which merged with the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) to resist this forceful occupation of their lands. After a protracted conflict, Eritrea secured its independence from Ethiopia and has been under the one-party rule of Isaias Afwerki since 1991. Some independent human rights organizations have explicitly claimed that the conditions in Eritrea are akin to slavery. In this essay, I will discuss the oppression of the people of Eritrea and why the situation is similar to slavery in America.

Totalitarian rule is the basis of slavery in any given situation. During the heydays of European imperialism, the British commanded the high seas and thrived in commerce, a precursor to their territorial conquest of new territories. The New World was an appropriate location to expand its influence leading it to acquire its 13 original colonies eventually. Since Native Americans were thought to be weak and prone to diseases, the British became an active participant in the trade of human cargo. African slaves were transported to the New World, a long voyage the lasted nearly four months coupled with a high cost in human lives. At this point in history, the white man had total control over his African slaves. He decided when they would, eat, work and sleep. A slave’s destiny was in the hands of his Master and could not make any decisions that were meant to guide the course they intended to take in life.  In modern times, these conditions correspond to those witnessed presently in Eritrea. Many independent actors refer to Eritrea as one of the few remaining dictatorships that have still pitched camp in Africa. Isaias Afwerki is the first and only president that the country has known after the end of the Eritrean War of Independence. As a paranoid leader worried about the annexation of its nation by Ethiopia, President Afwerki rules with an iron fist.  Pundits are unanimous in supposing that Afwerki is the epitome of dictatorship. Forceful conscription of all able-bodied Eritreans is a requirement that takes center stage in the country. The primary reason for this attitude has to do with its mistrust of Ethiopia. A large standing army is meant to protect the sovereignty of the state in case of future incursions by Ethiopians. Eritreans are therefore trapped in this cycle of compulsory military service and are unable to pursue their dreams.

African slaves were transported to the United States to provide forced labor. The need for slaves came during the development of nascent industries in Europe that required a constant flow of raw materials. The United States and island colonies such as Jamaica, Bermuda, and Trinidad were ideal localities to produce these raw materials en masse. Sugar was mostly grown in the wet-warm tropical climate of Jamaica while cotton was primarily raised in the American South (White et al. )African slaves, therefore, served as ideal sources of free labor, purchased for life and the perfect example of a gift that kept giving. African slaves have mainly viewed the best investment any settler farmer could make as they were owned for life. As long as a slave was well-fed and healthy, a farmer could harness their labor at no whatsoever. It is this very reason that made the early slave owners of the American South some of the wealthiest people during their time. Nonetheless, their wealth was built on the back of African Slaves who toiled for their Masters. Similarly, the reports out of Eritrea indicate that government forces are increasingly abducting individuals for baseless accusations such as being spies working with the Ethiopian government to infiltrate the Eritrean society. Most of these individuals end up being incarcerated for re-education and are under the control of the state. Additionally, conscripts have also fallen victim to this trap and often serve as forced laborers. Under the guise of “national service,” President Afwerki has made forced manual laborers out of the thousands of conscripts who are forced to work in for international corporations. Most recently Nevsun, a Canadian firm received backlash from various human rights groups when it soon became apparent that forced laborers provided the labor provided by its subcontractors. Bisha mines were the focal point of this investigation that reveals the manner in which Eritrea has been transformed into a haven for contemporary slave owners who thrive on forced labor.

Slavery was maintained using a system that espoused torture, rape, and violence. These were often the first threats that most of these individuals received when they set foot on this alien land. They were required to work their fingers to the bone without pay for their Master’s benefit. Occasionally, a bold slave would abscond in protest of the conditions that they were put through. In response, the overseer would use violence to remind the slaves of their position in society and who was in control.  During this epoch, whippings were a common sight in the American South, as a strategy to dissuade any other slave thinking of skipping duty or working nonchalantly on the plantation. A simple offense such as looking a white man straight in the eyes was not tolerated and would be met with violent beatings.   Things were worse for women as rape was common in these plantations. A combination of these extreme measures was employed to ensure that the slaves were concerned only by work and focus on providing the labor. Cases of violence meted out on slaves in America were common throughout the South and permeated all states found in the region. Presently, Eritrea uses the same methods when dealing with is many conscripts to avert any military junta or mutiny from taking place among its ranks. Violence is often to ensure that new recruits follow all orders provided by their seniors without questioning.  A strong environment such as the one created by the security forces in Eritrea ensures that all personnel follows the directives offered (even if it means providing back-breaking compulsory “national service” for international mining firms. The military is one of the most critical assets that Eritrea possesses and the reason why it would ensure that it uses coercion to provide that all its officers are loyal to its cause. Furthermore, reports on sexual violence in military camps are rife with most of these involving female conscripts.

Dissent was never tolerated among slaves in America with troublemakers often executed. The aim of having a plantation was to ensure that one made the highest possible fortune and therefore improved their standing in society. Having obedient slaves was one of the best assets a plantation owner would have as they would always work hard to please their Master and avoid punishment. Slaves could not talk most of the time freely and had to wait for an opportune moment when the white man was not within their locality to communicate with each other. The slightest whiff of rebellion or a rabble-rouser among the slaves was treated with the utmost violence with most of them meeting violent deaths. Slaves who were often tired of their situation would incite others to fight back and resist any attempt to hold them against their will. In most occasions, this ended badly for those caught up in this intricate web as they would be summarily executed or hung from a tree. Servitude came with obedience and anyone who went against this doctrine often faced. Such was the case in 1831 when Nat Turner decided to incite a group of slaves who went on a killing spree from one plantation to another and finally retaliating. Eritrea has a similar system where any individual marked by the government as being opposed to is often abducted and murdered. Extrajudicial killings are a common phenomenon in this young country with security forces spying on its citizens (Plaut 13). Censorship is also a standard feature of life in Eritrea where the local media is permanently gagged from expressing any dissent towards the totalitarian regime of President Afwerki. Those who are brave enough to attempt and speak against the one-party rule of this strongman are often the subjects of a violent response by the security apparatus. These policies are implemented to avoid a popular uprising that would possibly oust the ruling party from power.

Conditions during 1699 and 1885 when slavery was common were so adverse that slaves were known to cross state lines and flee in search of freedom. Their best chance at a life of freedom and liberty was to escape to the North which was more liberal and even had most of the first abolitionists. Slaves from the American were aware of the consequences that awaited those who tried to run, but some only wanted a taste of liberty. They were ready to risk it all, even if it meant dying in the process. A similar trend is presently taking place in Eritrea where the youth who are often forced to enlist decide to flee from their country of origin in search of a better life elsewhere. In the beginning, most of these individuals would land in refugee camps in Sudan and Eritrea. The migrant crisis in Europe is also a product of President Afwerki’s oppressive regime which often sees waves of Eritreans escape from their country on a yearly basis. Most Eritrean citizen’s head to Europe where they hope to live a better life. Crossing the Mediterranean Sea from Libya is usually the most challenging part of the journey, especially considering nearly half of this number never succeeds. These persons are typically ready to have a brush with death so long as they escape oppression and tyranny.

In conclusion, Eritrea is one of the youngest countries in Africa and still struggles to maintain its sovereignty. Under the one-party rule of President Afwerki through the People’s Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ) a system of compulsory conscription has been responsible for a classic case of modern-day slavery. The conditions in this Horn of Africa country are similar to those experienced by slaves in America where forced labor, violence, rape and repression were commonplace.

Wrongful Convictions In United States Of America

The issue of wrongful convictions is a problem that has haunted court systems throughout the United States. The news depicts individuals being saved from death row when new evidence arrives or when evidence that was provided is proved to be false. Judges have always been expected to decipher and correctly judge every case, specifically pertaining to criminal acts. The expectations derive from the nature of individuals’ lives being in the hands of the judgment of the particular judge.

Please write your paper to answer the following questions. The answer or opinion must be supported by an academic source or real-life criminal justice finding.

  • How common is it for an individual to be wrongfully convicted in the criminal justice system?
  • Is the United States court system judged fairly in this manner by the public?
  • What do you think is a reason why an innocent person is convicted of committing a crime that he or she did not commit? Are there rules or measures that can be put in place to prevent future wrongful convictions?
  • Does the court system have adequate protections in place minimizing the risk that innocent people could be convicted and then punished even though they are innocent? What additional protections would you recommend?
  • Are wrongful convictions an issue common only to the United States Judicial system, or are they common in the judicial systems of other countries? Look at 3 other countries to compare.

Your paper should include specific references and demonstrate knowledge of the criminal justice system, guiding theories, and administrative practices. You will be graded on the clarity of the analysis, recommendations, and the presentation.

Worldviews and Approaches to Inquiry

Worldviews and Approaches to Inquiry

Creswell?s four worldviews are postpositivism, constructivism, advocacy or participatory, and pragmatism. Considering an issue or problem that you might want to study, focus your discussion on the four worldviews, along with

the associated strategies of inquiry. Rely on the figures and tables that Creswell uses to explain his model.

Focus your discussion on the following:
?How might that issue or problem be investigated differently using each of those worldviews?
?Explain how this view could be used in designing a study for your selected issue, basing your analysis on the discussion in Arbnor and Bjerke, chapter 1.
?Speculate whether this study might be quantitative, qua

 

Synthesis Essay – A Modern Day Threat: Is Wal-Mart Killing Small Businesses?

By all contemporary standards, many would openly castigate me for shopping at Wal-Mart. The reason why such is the case has something to do with the assumption that this simple action is, in reality, destroying the regular shops all around the country. These small business enterprises were started by individuals whose sole goal was to sustain their families while serving their community. It is for this reason that shopping in Wal-Mart is akin to committing a grievous crime as this chain preys on smaller businesses that are obliterated within a short period. It is a disposition that has in the past put me at odds with what I stand for and the virtues I would like to extol as someone who stands for free enterprise.

Wal-Mart was the brainchild of an investor who was merely following his “American Dream.” By 1995, the store had approximately 2,609 stores in the United States alone and was poised on opening new ones that same year (Fishman 56). These stores soon gained traction, with a sizeable amount of individuals in the population choosing to shop in this elite store. Profits were in the billions, and annual sales were always on the rise. Economists now believe that a single Wal-Mart store can generate up to $12 million every year and would also be the source of employment for thousands of Americans seeking gainful employment (Hicks 34). One of the primary reasons why this store chain has become quite popular among shoppers in the United States are the discounts offered here. Everyone fancies a bargain once in a while, but Wal-Mart provides a deal on a daily basis. Local stores end up bearing the full brunt of this development as customers would typically go for the lowest prices available in the market. It, therefore, serves as one of the reasons why everyone is up in arms opposing its encroachment in small towns.

Detractors are up in arms against this change in local culture due to the adverse effects it will have on the people’s habits especially in urban areas. These stores often ensure that they target towns with a sizeable population where it would be quite simple to influence attitudes and ultimately drive them to its shelves. Blind consumerism soon becomes a problem, especially when individuals start investing in items that they do not necessarily need. One might even view it as a classic case of “brainwashing” since these individuals have no control over their shipping habits and seem to be on a path toward homogeneity. Their shopping is mindless. Moreover, the shopping areas where they invade have no locally owned stores under them, proving that it is a self-serving Leviathan. It is part of a campaign by large corporations all across the word to open as many franchises as possible which would, in turn, multiply their net income. Wal-Mart is going by this script, and it seems as though it will stop at nothing to see that its fiscal goals are met (even if it means stepping on some toes along the way).

The truth of the matter is that a single Wal-Mart enterprise makes a killing yearly in annual sales. 12 million dollars is not a small figure, considering that they have thousands of chains across the country at any given moment. It is quite surprising that apart from claiming to employ the local communities, nothing much can be said about how they plan on giving back. Wal-Mart makes billions of dollars yearly but only create about 270 jobs in the areas where they have set up shop (Roberts and Berg 45). A correlation analysis reveals that this is just a small fraction of the population meaning that a significant demographic still misses out on potential job offers. Is this to say that Wal-Mart is a modern-day leech? Well, it has the money to create these jobs in small towns where it puts other business owners out of the game but still does very little regarding the contribution that they ought to be making. A large chunk of this money goes up the chain and finally lines the pockets of the executives. These individuals receive astronomical sums of money as their monthly salaries, money that could be used to develop local communities. It is for this reason that critics see Wal-Mart as a threat to the culture of small urban towns as it is directly contributing to stifling them economically.

Opposition to Wal-Mart is now a standard phenomenon in small towns. These individuals have had to come to terms with the conduct of this retailer and taking measures that are meant to keep it out. Questions, however, arise regarding how they intend to implement their action plan, considering that the retailer spends millions of dollars annually on strategists who help them in surmounting these challenges. These experts study the behavioral patterns of residents in their target locations and come up with feasible ways that would allow them to make the most out of their opportunity. Evidence collected from shopping habits reveals that Wal-Mart is now successful at creating a cult-like following where individuals would dive for miles on end just to shop in one of their chains (Scott and Hawkins 67).If such is the case, keeping the enterprise out of small towns will be a futile gesture especially when it is evident that it has been successful at creating a shopping culture among most Americans. If it is prevented from penetrating a particular town, it will proceed to another town and establish its base of operations there. It is the shoppers who will subsequently follow the retailer wherever it goes.

In conclusion, the rise of enterprise chains such as Wal-Mart has had a significant effect on the society. It has been blamed for the unnatural death of many small businesses which are not likely to recover. Additionally, it has been responsible for changing consumer behaviors and is a leading cause of consumerism across the country. On the flipside, Wal-Mart claims that it provides jobs in every new town where it opens a franchise, but evidence reveals that only a small fraction of the population benefits from such initiatives. The rest of the community is left grappling with unemployment while the executives profit from their woes. Nonetheless, keeping them off these towns seems impractical due to the influence that it now wields over people. For small business owners to weather the storm, adapting to these changes is integral. These small stores have to move out of their comfort zone and team up to create more substantial enterprises that can compete with Wal-Mart.