Month: October 2018

Is Mathematics is a Useful Invention or Absolute Truth?

Different philosophers and scientists have different views regarding the origin of mathematics and how it came to be. While some think that it is absolute truth  created by God and installed in people conscience, other believe that mathematics was invented and ended up taking control of various activities that take place in the universe. Mathematics is very important to the universe and the life of humankind. Its invention played a great role in solving numerous problems that faced the world in the past and that continue facing the world even today. Although mathematics is very important and acts as the central nerve of the universe, it cannot be regarded as the absolute true. The mathematical concepts may have been part of the universe, but they are not as obvious as people may consider them to be. A lot of mental work, practices and imagination are required to employ mathematics in different ways, to solve any given problem. Moreover, it involves a number of assumptions and need to proof some discovered concept to convince people that a certain mathematical aspect can be applied in a certain way to solve a certain problem.

This means, mathematics cannot be regarded to be a window of absolute truth since the assumption made in various computations may not be absolutely true.  However, we can all see the significance of mathematics in peoples’ life and thus, no one doubts its usefulness. It is also important to note that not every person has the ability to compute, discover or develop mathematical proof. A talented mind that can utilize the computation cognitive ability given to human by God during creation may be needed to manage this. This means that mathematics does not occur as an absolute truth, but human have a cognitive ability that makes it possible for them to invent it from the universe (Johnson, 1998). This ability may depend on individual exposure and interest in relating various aspect of life with mathematical events. Thus, in my opinion, mathematics can highly be regarded as a very useful invention in the human mind.

Human Memory Cognitive Aspect Development Throughout the Lifetime


Cognitive development refers to the buildingof thought processes that include decision-making, remembering and problem solving from childhood to adolescence all through to adulthood. Cognitive development denotes how a person thinks, perceives, and acquires understanding of her or his world via the learned factors and the genetic interaction. Among the cognitive development areas are memory, information processing, language development, intelligence and reasoning. The cognitive development of a human being changes with individual growth and development. Children learn at early age and continue to learn as they grow. There is also massive mental growth during early age and during the teenage. This paper evaluates the growth and development of human memory cognitive aspect from childhood through adolescence to the adulthood.

Memory Development and Changes throughout the Lifetime

Memory is referred to as the process or the power of recalling or reproducing what has been retained and learned particularly via associative mechanisms. Memory is among the cognitive areas that vary for children, the elderly and young adults. There are three kinds of memory that changes during human development. They include immediate recall, long-term or remote memory, and short-term memory. The long-term memory includes both declarative and non-declarative memory. Declarative memory includes semantic memory which involves recall of factual or general knowledge, episodic memory which is explicit events recollection, and source memory which involves memory on the context where in the information was learned. Non-declarative memory include procedural memory which involve non-conscious motoric sequence acquisition, priming which is implicit effect which past exposure to stimulus contain on later performance of test.  This section discusses memory changes with different stages of human development (Connor, 2001).

Children memory differs greatly from that of adults. With regard to long-term memory, children characteristically have outstanding recognition memory, but comparatively poor recall memory. With regard to working memory, the ability of older children to recall items matches almost that of young adults in colleges. Another main variation between child’s memory and that of an adult is that memories of children are not set in the brain up until a later age. Based on the research, young children have a high ability to recall earlier memories compared to older children. The three elderly, adults and children age brackets all face variations with regard to memory. The human brain attains its peak performance in early twenties, and matures maximally at the age of 25. It then begins to decline in the following years. Once an individual attains the age of forty, the cortex begins to shrink, causing slight variations in the ability of a person to multitask or recall specific things that include new names. The aging normal brain experiences decline in the flow of blood. This decline makes it complex for the brain to initiate different parts into work (Brooks, 2016).

Elderly people normally complain of problems of subjective semantic memory when for instance they report struggle recalling the common objects name or any other information that is well learned. However, irrespective of these subjective struggles, semantic memory is one of the most stable systems of memory across the lifespan of adults. Semantic memory is a form of memory that is least impacted in the elderly. The elderly perform considerably well in long-term memory, especially on the test related to the semantic memory. According to the study, individuals aged from 50 to 80 perform well compared to individuals aged from 30 to 40 on crossword puzzles. However, prospective memory does reduce with age since it depends on working memory. In most cases, elderly individuals will have working memory decline, which eventually impacts their prospective memory (Brooks, 2016). Semantic memory is frequently integrated as part of crystallized intelligence definition which shows an information accumulation acquired with time and which is considerably impermeable to the influence of mild brain disease or normal aging. Semantic memory demonstrates very minute reduction in normal aging. Actually, semantic memory and knowledge accumulation increase into the age of 60s and 70s and might afterward only demonstrate a gradual decline (Brickman & Stem, 2009).

Nevertheless, episodic memory reduces significantly with age. For instance, when prompted, older adults contain extra trouble recalling what they ate for breakfast compared to younger adults. Episodic memory is characteristically assessed by demanding people to learn explicit information and recall it after a certain time. The three episodic memory aspects include phases of encoding, storage, and retrieval of stored and encoded information. The three phases demonstrate varying aging impacts. Elderly demonstrate general complexity on episodic memory tasks might be accounted partially for by an extra shallow encoding depth, as contrasted to younger adults.  Elderly in this case remember less information due to extra limited processing of the initial stimuli of study. According to research, age-related decline of episodic memory starts as early as 20 years and linearly decline until around the age of 60, where in extra precipitous decline is noted. There is also high evidence that elderly people experience difficulties remembering the source of information, even when they remember the information clearly (Brickman & Stem, 2009).

Elderly also have a slow ability of learning procedural memory, however, their ability increase to match that of young adults in case they relearn the procedure. Working memory is said to decline two fold from the age of 70, especially when the information to be applied on is given visuospatially or verbally (Brickman & Stem, 2009). The elderly vary from middle or young adults based on the affected form of memory. As an individual gets older, various forms of memory are impacted. Flashbulb, sources, and episodic memory are the forms of memory that are mostly impacted. Semantic memory and procedural memory which deals with concepts and facts are impacted the least.  On a memory test entailing recalling numbers which are in order, older and younger adults achieved similar results. When the test entailed more complex tasks that include multitasking, a great variation between older adults and younger adults was noted (Brooks, 2016).

Memory Improvement

Based on the analysis, the memory of a person start from a low level during childhood and grow as one grows. However, this massive growth stops after reaching the mid-20s where it starts declining. To prolong the effective functionality of the brains to enhance memory, one may consider memory training. Some of the applied techniques include loci, mnemonic, and drill techniques (Connor, 2001). Memory can also be improved by socializing, having physical exercises, and checking on ones’ hearing and seeing ability. Memory loss is also highly associated with other conditions such as poor nutrition, substance abuse, dehydration, and cognitive disorders that include depression, anxiety, and psychological stress among others. In this regard memory can be improved by checking on diet, and ensuring psychological health through therapy and social support. Alzheimer is another disease that plays a great role in memory loss. Although it cannot be fully treated, therapy should be used to reduce its effect on elderly population (, n.d.).

Cognitive Development Throughout the Lifetime – Assignment Instructions

The purpose of this paper is to understand how cognitive processes develop from childhood through old age, and how children’s/elderly individuals’ cognitive processes differ from that of adults. Choose an area of cognition covered in this course (e.g., human memory, language, cognitive mapping, attention). Based on the area you selected, and utilizing at least four scholarly sources, write an essay of 1,000-1,250 words outlining the differences between children, the elderly, and young adults in the area you selected. Refer to the “Suggested Resources,” but you may use any scholarly sources you wish. Address the following questions:

  • How do children differ from adults in the area?
  • Are there differences based on age within each group?
  • How do the elderly differ from young/middle adults in the area?
  • What are some suggested ways to improve performance in this area in children and the elderly?

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Interest Group Analysis Assignment

  1.  Select one of the interest groups/organizations listed below.
    • AARP – American Association of Retired People
    • ACLU – American Civil Liberties Union
    • AFL-CIO – American Federation of Labor – Congress of Industrial Organizations
    • American Conservative Union
    • FPA-Farm Policy Action
    • AIPAC – American Israel Public Affairs Committee
    • Council on American-Islamic Relations
    • Family Research Council
    • Handgun Control, Inc.
    • GLAAD- Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation
    • NAN-National Action Network
    • National Right to Life
    • NOW – National Organization of Women
    • NRA – National Rifle Association
    • American Humane Society
    • Public Citizen
    • Sierra Club
    • U.S. Chamber of Commerce
    • VFW-Veterans of Foreign Wars
  2. Perform a web search to locate the group’s main web site. Also, perform a web search for recent information about your group’s activities. You can either type up your report as an essay or you can give your information in a bullet-point list. Make sure your paper answers all the questions. Separate your responses with two spaces between answers.
    • What is the organization or group’s website?
    • What are the issues your organization or group is concerned with?
    • What actions does your group take to try to influence policy and the public agenda?
    • Assess your group: What are its strengths and weaknesses? Back up what you say with specific examples demonstrating their effectiveness (or lack of effectiveness). Remember to find weaknesses of the group, you will likely need to research beyond the group’s main website.
  3. Summarize two recent news articles from the organization or group in a paragraph. Be sure to look for news other than that on the group’s website, such as news articles in newspapers online.

Symptom Severity and Functional Impairment

For this Assignment, you evaluate and select an appropriate test to measure symptom severity as well as functioning and apply it to your virtual client.

How severe are a client’s symptoms and how do they impact a client’s functioning? Consider the case of Sami in this week’s Introduction. Sami came to counseling because she was having regular panic attacks, particularly when driving her car. On certain roads she began to hyperventilate, and on one occasion she had to pull over and call for help. She cannot figure out why she is experiencing the panic attacks and she decided to seek treatment for them. Upon beginning therapy, her counselor assessed her current level of functioning to measure the severity of her symptoms. After doing so, Sami and her counselor devised an initial treatment plan which included learning stress management and relaxation techniques. Sami came to counseling faithfully and after 3 months, her treatment was ending.

Sami’s experiences during driving had grown to the point to which she feared having a panic attack behind the wheel and was apprehensive about driving at all. How might a clinician evaluate these symptoms and incorporate the results into the development of a treatment plan?

The Assignment (4–5 pages):

  • Select two tests of symptom severity (one must be a mental status examination) and two tests of functional impairment from the Mental Measurements Yearbook. (Select from the list below and see attachments to find the tests).
  • Complete a comparative analysis of the tests and select one of each test (symptom severity and functional impairment) which is most appropriate for your virtual client and explain why.
  • Justify your selection.
  • Explain one limitation of the two tests you selected and explain why they are limitations.

Support your Application Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation. You are to provide a reference list for all resources.

Data/Information/Knowledge/Wisdom (DIKW) Model


The selected theoretical framework to address nursing and clinical informatics is Data/Information/Knowledge/Wisdom (DIKW) Model. Concepts of wisdom, knowledge, information and data are the information science and library building blocks. These terms were initially put together into a one formula in 1989 by Russell Lincoln Ackoff. Ackoff postulated a hierarchy where wisdom lay at the top, and others that include understanding, knowledge, information, and data follows in that order. Moreover, he approximated that about 40% of mind of a human contains data, 10% contain understanding 30% contains information, 20% contain knowledge, and practically no wisdom. This Phrasing permits us to perceive his prototypical as pyramid, and actually it has been copied ever since. This paper reviews the Data/Information/Knowledge/Wisdom (DIKW) Model author, the major construct in the model and the applicability and relevance of the model and its major constructs to the health information technology and nursing profession (Bernstein, 2009).

Biography of DIKW Model Author

The DIKW model was initially put together by Russell Lincoln Ackoff. Ackoff was a significant early advocate of the operations research field, and remained a determined advocate for vision of expansion in the field he worked in. He was a leading American expert in system theory management. He in 1957 published a book titled “Operations research” which was co-authored by Leonard Arnoff, and C. West Churchman. THis book acted as a pioneering text which assisted in the field definition. He was also regarded as the system thinking community dean. Ackoff had a bachelor degree from the University of Penneslvania in Architecture Doctorate of Philosophy in science from the same university, and Doctorate of Science from Lancaster University (Curious Cat, 2017). He acted as a leader in various institutions and universities positions and also published various articles and books. His latest professional positions included the Wharton School Professor Emeritus, and the Institute for Interactive Management Chairman of Interact. His work in education, consulting and research has engaged over 50 governmental agencies and 250 corporations in the U.S. and international countries. He published more than 150 articles in different journals and co-authored or authored 20 books (Curious Cat, 2017).  He worked on Data/Information/Knowledge/Wisdom (DIKW) model when he was working as a former management science professor and management consultant at the Wharton school majoring in organizational theory and operational research. During this time he wrote an article articulating what is currently commonly referred to as the Data-Information-Knowledge-Wisdom hierarchy (DIKW). This article was initially given as international Society for General System Research presidential address in 1988. This is when he was acting as the fifth president of the Operations Research Society of America where he was a founding member (Bernstein, 2009).

The Major Construct in the Model and the Applicability

Informatics has been defined among the nurses’ core competencies at all levels of operations, and not only for informatics nurses. The DIKW are regarded predominant concepts backing up all of informatics and nursing practices. The concepts of DIKW frequently described as a pyramid, originated in information science and computer, particularly in the knowledge management subspecialty. The DIKW concepts are constructed upon one another, developing in meaning and scope as they turn to increasing sophisticated and abstract. Overlapping or fuzzy boundaries exist at an intersection between every one of the concepts. This section describes the major model constructs which include data, wisdom, knowledge and information.


Data refers to the DIKW framework smallest unit. They are characteristically regarded as symbols which represent events, objects, as well as their properties. Data is presented in various forms which include pictures, numbers, sentences, or words. Data has been defined as the observation products, as well as discrete fact with limited interpretation. Thus, in isolation a single data piece has no or limited meaning. Data are the kind that is commonly stored in patient records, and they are utilized as a foundation for further discussion, calculation, or reasoning (Matney et al., 2011).


Information refers to data with a meaning. It can be obtained through data processing. Information stands for the ideas and facts which are accessible to be known in a particular context. When data is fit into a context and integrated in a structure, information is generated. Information provides answers to the questions which start with basic phases that include how many, who, when, what, and where. It might be arranged in manners that serve the discipline interests.


Knowledge refers to synthesized information to formalize and identify relationships. Knowledge addresses questions that start with why or how. Although there are various forms of knowledge the two forms of knowledge described in the knowledge management field include explicit and tacit. Tactic knowledge is hard to communicate with other and to summarize. It is context-specific, personal and thus, hard to formalize. Explicit knowledge on the other hand can be formalized and generated, and it is extra amenable to transmitting and encoding in a formal management. Explicit knowledge refers to what systems of knowledge management seek to share, capture, transfer, store, and codify. Information transformation to knowledge in information system and nursing can be intellectualized as a field of increasing understanding. Knowledge is developed by discovering relationships and patterns between forms of information(Bermstein, 2009).


Wisdom is regarded as the suitable knowledge use to solve and manage human problems. It refers to a kind of ethics which involves knowing why certain things should not or should be carried out in practice. It is an action-oriented, reciprocalprocess. Wisdom entail identifying what is most significant, by making discrepancies among alternatives. It contains the experience application, knowledge, intelligence, and creativity, as arbitrated by value toward common good achievement (Matney et al., 2011).


The DIKW gives nursing informatics foundation framework which is significant for the extensive nursing community and in giving a foundation for connecting practice and theory. Nursing informatics facilitates DIKW integration to support nurses, patients as well as other providers in making decision in all settings and roles. This support is attained via the utilization of information technology, information processes, and information structures. The Data/Information/Knowledge/Wisdom (DIKW) model offers an epistemological interaction foundation between e-patients and clinicians which can utilize Gadamarian hermeneutics and constructivism. DIKW contains strong epistemological basis for connecting practice to theory and defining basic tiered scaffolding in data management and information technology application (Gee et al., 2012).

Theoretical Framework Developed to Address Nursing and Clinical Informatics

Purpose and Overview 

The purpose of this assignment is to identify and examine a selected nursing or clinical informatics theory. Scholars in the field of nursing and clinical informatics have developed definitions and theoretical frameworks to guide their work based on the ANA standards and scope of practice for nursing informatics. 


  • Identify and select a theoretical framework developed to address nursing and clinical informatics. A few examples of appropriate theories models include, but are not limited to, the following:
    • Graves and Corcoran’s Model
    • Schiwirian’s Model
    • Turley’s Model
    • Data/Information/Knowledge/Wisdom (DIKW) Model
    • Sociotechnical Theory
    • Rogers’s Diffusion of Innovation Theory
    • Lewin’s Change Theory
    • Information Theory
    • General-System Theory
    • Chaos Theory 
  • Develop a 750-1,500 word (4 page) paper, following proper APA format, identifying and examining the nursing informatics theoretical or model framework. Using the study materials listed in the module and outside academic research, include at least three scholarly references and in-text citations.
    • Identify and present a brief professional biography of the author. Identify the major constructs in the theory or model and its relevance and applicability to the nursing profession and health information technology.
Note: Keep in mind that your final paper for this course will be developed using the theoretical framework or model presented in this assignment to demonstrate how it may be applied to a specific nursing informatics issue.
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Marketing in Action – Subaru Case Study Questions And Answers

Subaru Marketing in Action Case Study – Case Summary

The case reviews measures that Subaru is employing to enhance its sales through marketing. Subaru brand is developed with a love theme. The company has tried to show love to people, wildlife, environment, and learners. With this theme the company has not only shown the world its ability to help or care for others, but it has as well developed an intimate connection between its customers and the new cars brand through their marketing campaign and the vehicle interiors and exteriors design. The company is currently targeting young, vibrant generation that loves adventure. The company has designed a new brand for active, upscale, and loyal buyers, mostly millennials that still have interest in adventure. With its sport gear and roomier interiors, the company has managed to attract more buyers from this generation which it believe that it is more appreciative of the company’s effort to nature the environment and care for all. The company has also for the first time in history reduced the price as one of its marketing strategies. The company has adopted a new styling which increases its ability to increase Subaru brand awareness in the market and to expand buyers. To capture its targeted customers, the company is employing digital media to expound its appeal. This has made the company to be more competitive in the American market and thus increasing its market shares, particularly in southern California and Sun Belt. The company wishes to expand its market share to other parts of the country, however, it is not sure on whether the tactics employed in the current market will bear fruits in other regions. It is also not certain of the effect that change of the marketing strategy may create on its current buyers (Case Study, n.d.). This paper focuses on analyzing the situation to give a recommendation on the best way to handle the situation.

Decision Facing the Company

Subaru wants to expand its market share in other parts of the United States. Its main aim is to increase sales in other regions of the country, just as it has managed to in its current targeted market. It still wants to reach out to young, vibrant customers who love adventures and prestige. The company has to come up with a successful marketing plan for this mission. The decision facing the company in this case is whether to employ same marketing strategies it is currently employing to the current market, or change the approach.

Important Factors in Understanding the Decision Situation

To understand the decision situation, it is important to understand that the company has come a long way to manage its current position in the market and it is not willing to ruin its current relation with its customers. Thus, the decision made should not in any way affect its image in its current market which has played a great role in its success. It is also important to consider that the company main aim is to increase its market share by venturing into other regions. The company is not planning to change on its targeted customers (, 2013). Based on the company’s analysis, there are about 6 million cause-minded consumers that fit the company’s target customers. Thus, it is still focusing on young vibrant buyers, but in other regions, other than its current region of operation. It is also important to know that the company’s theme of love must be sustained irrespective of the market the company is going to explore in the world. Another factor to consider is that the company only wishes to expand its market shares and not to reduce them in any way.

Possible Alternatives Recommended Decision

We are currently living in a global world where people of the same age group share almost similar characteristics due to media influence. It is therefore very probable that what is trending in a certain age group in one region will also trend for the same age group in another region. This mostly applies to the new vibrant generation which is among the intensive users of modern communication technologies. The main advantage in this case is that there is no great variation in culture, since the company new target market is still within the United States (Euromonitor International, 2015). In this regard, the company should first try the strategy it is currently using in its current area of operation. Although it may end up being a waste of time in case the company’s approach fails, the company will not experience great losses since it will not have invested in design change either in marketing or the product. Based on the fact that the company still target the same generation as its current, it is highly likely to succeed using this approach (Kirkpatrick, 2016). The most important thing from this approach is that it will not in any way impact its image in the current market. Another alternative is conducting a market survey in the new regions it is planning to venture into, to acquire a general view of its targeted customers. The survey should focus on the difference between the new targeted market and its current market. This will assist the company in defining things that it may need to change to win its targeted customers in the new region. The survey should guide the company on the direction or approach to take to meet its goals. This should be carefully done to ensure that it does not negatively affect the company’s image in its current market.

Ways to Implement the Recommendations

The first recommendation can be implemented by globalizing or nationalizing its current marketing techniques, hoping to attract customers from any corner of the country or the world. The company should then conduct survey to see the customers’ response of its new move and base its next move on the customers’ feedback especially from new targeted regions. In this case, the company will ensure all its video ads, discounting policies, and love them is employed to all. Online marketing employing techniques employed in its current market should be made available. The company should then open a social media platform where it can get feedback from new customers or potential customers. This will give an insight on the preferences of the targeted customers in other parts of the world and also show the company its success potential using the current strategy in other parts of the country (Euromonitor International, 2015). The second recommendation is having a market survey of each newly targeted region at a time. The process should focus on the new model targeting the youths. Information should be gathered on the targeted customers’ views on design, prices, and advertisement strategies. This information should then be used to design something suitable for the targeted customers at regional level. A similar approach should be employed when a new market case is involved. This way, the company will be sure that the approach employed is workable in identified region.

Group Mathematics Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GMADE) – Achievement Test Review

The selected achievement test in this case is Group Mathematics Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GMADE). This is analytical mathematics test which assesses individual student abilities in the main math areas. It is normally done by children in K-12 grade. The test is administered in full battery by a teacher, where the child is required to have a pencil and a paper to write the test. This test is considerably detailed since it requires 50 to 90 minutes to be completed. This can either be done as a single test or in a number of shorter sessions. This means that the test is managed with a high level of flexibility. GMADE is a group-administered in-depth test that assists educators to identify student’s area of weakness in mathematics, where they may require instruction or further assistance. Thus it can be regarded as a test that guides the teacher in assisting children to improve their computational skills among other mathematical aspects (Pearson Education, Inc, 2009).

GMADE test measures skills which include communication and concepts, application and process, as well as computation and operations. GMADE is a spring and fall norm-referenced, grade-based and age, based. The tests available scores include values of growth scale, stanines, equivalents of normal curve, percentiles, standard scores, age equivalents and grade equivalents. GMADE test involves four main parts which include taking the test, analyzing the test results, teachers’ intervention by providing materials and assistance to improve the poorly performed sections and finally reassessment. Reassessment involves GMADE parallel forms to evaluate the student progress. Its main aim is to determine whether the student managed to improve aspects they were weak in (Pearson Education, Inc, 2009).

Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – Intelligence Test Tool Review

General Features

The selected intelligence test tool is Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence;Fourth Edition (WPPSI-IV). This is an all-inclusive clinical tool, anticipated  for evaluating the cognitive operational among kids aged from two years and six months to kids aged seven years to seven months. The WPPSI-IV was written by David Wechsler and it was published by Pearson in 2012. WPPSI-IV is a tool that is individually administered, to be employed by trained examiners with up to Level C assessment training. It is also recommended that the test results may only be interpreted by a professional with adequate training on how to administer and analyze and interpret the results. The WPPSI-IV age range is split into two group bands with the first group including kids aged from 2:6 to 3:11 and the second group involving kids aged from 4:0 to 7:7. The average time of administration for the first group is 27 minutes while that for the second group is 31 minutes (Wechsler, 2012).

Test Description

The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence;Fourth Edition offers comprehensive general assessment of cognitive operation. The test is an integration of three main components that include the ancillary index, the primary index scale (PIS), and the full scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ). FSIQ offers an extra general overview of the cognitive functioning of the child. The primary index scales provide extra comprehensive assessment of the cognitive functioning of a child founded on more narrow abilities. On the other hand, ancillary index scales are extra relevant in clinical environment where process-specific and extra domain evaluation are needed, for instance evaluating language delays in a child. The primary index scales and FSIQ are developed from three component scores that include working memory index (WMI), visual spatial, and verbal comprehension for the 2:6 to 3:11 age group, and two extra components that include processing speed index (PSI) and fluid reasoning for the second age group. The WPPSI-IV has replaced the performance IQ and verbal IQ in WPPSI-III with phrases visual spatial index and verbal comprehension index (VCI), respectively while fluid reasoning is a novel scale addition. WPPSI-IV has managed to decrease the test time (Wechsler, 2012).

Psychometric Properties

The author of WPPSI-IV test presents an all-inclusive assessment of the validity and reliability measures and gives tables containing suitable statistics for results validation. The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence;Fourth Edition internal consistency is measured via the split-half technique, and the coefficients were acquired via the formula recommended by previous researchers, based on age groups. The values average coefficient for subtest level performance internal consistency were separately reported for both special groups that include those with expressive language disorder and intellectually gifted as well as the age groups. The average values of coefficient for subtest performance level, including both age groups ranged from excellent with greater than .90 to acceptable with .75. The WPSI-IV measures of reliability for subtests are generally improved or maintained upon the reliabilities of WPPSI-III subtests. At component level, the values of coefficient were established to be between excellent for over .90 and good for .86 ranges, with reliability coefficient for FSIQ being recorded at 0.96, with no important variation between age groups coefficient values, at the component and subtest levels.  The tool was also found to have a high test-retest reliabilities as well as a ranging from 0.75 for acceptable, 0.84 to 0.89 for good and from 0.93 for excellent. A similar result is documented for inter-rater reliability, though with a much higher subtest correlation range of 0.96 to 0.99 (Syeda&Climie, 2014).

The cotemporary principles of assessing the validity of the test depend on various validity evidence lines instead of types. The tool validity was founded on the American standard. Enough efforts were employed to guarantee that the subsets and the items of the WPPSI-IV effectively evaluate what they anticipate to measure. This include comprehensive reviews of the literature and advisory and expert panel reviews were carried out at every stage of research to evaluate the test content and to assess the new subtests and items. This ensured a high level of content validity. In the stage of test development, test writers screened for incorrect response occurring frequency (Syeda&Climie, 2014). The rationales for these poor responses were determined and correction made to improve those aspects. This enhances the response process validity. Internal structure validity was ensured by analyzing the correlation among composite scores. Subtests, andtest items to offer support for its validity. To ensure the test correlation with others, WPPSI-IV test score were assessed in association to past editions of the instrument and associated measures to give advanced support to divergent, convergent, and concurrent validities. All these measures assisted in guaranteeing high instrument validity in assessing children intelligence (Buros, 2014).

The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence;Fourth Edition scoring can be conducted using scoring software or by hand. The subtests raw scores can be transformed into two forms of age-corrected scores standard that include composite and scaled scores. The score has standard deviation and mean to assist in gauging a child. Percentile ranks which are based on are also accessible. Practitioners might carry out discrepancy evaluation by contrasting various composite indices and evaluate cognitive weaknesses and strengths of examinees by contrasting a basic index score with the overall performance indicator. The scoring and administration manual is ordered with suitable tabs, and also contains instructions for the verbal administration printed in various font colors. The manual also offers enough sample responses to assist examiners in various differentiating among 2, 1, and 0 point subjective subtest responses and offers guidance on responses of the query. The record forms are designed to mark suitable beginning points for each age group for all subtests, and give the discontinue and reversal rule for every subset, as well as providing accurate response for a few subtests. Moreover, examiners utilize an ink dauber rather than a pencil to cancel and search for bugs, greatly lowering requirements for fine motor on speed tests processing (Wechsler, 2012).

Discussion Items

The WPPSI-IV test for the first age group focuses on determining information they have which measures on receptive vocabulary and naming of the picture as a measure of VCI and GLC and eventually FSIQ. The design block with object assembly as a measure of PRI and later FSIQ, and recognition of pictures, which involve a visit to the zoo as a measure of WMI and FSIQ.The second age group also tested for the same aspects which include information comprising of comprehension, similarities and vocabulary; VCI, design block comprising off object assembly picture concept and matrix reasoning; PRI, picture recognition; WMI, and bug busters which involves cancellation and animal shapes; PSI and receptive vocabulary involving pictures naming. All these, apart from receptive vocabulary are connected to FQSI measures. The full scale basically measures the processing speed, verbal comprehension, working memory, visual spatial, and fluid reasoning for the older group and working memory, visual spatial, and vital comprehension for the younger group. The test provides objective results (Parsons, n.d.).


The ethical issue related to this test is that those who administer it must be well trained on using the test. This highly determines the level of accuracy of the result. Untrained administration may provide biased results that are not a true reflection of the child’s ability. The test result is also highly based on the child’s level of exposure ad growth. The age difference in one group plays a great role in the response provided and thus, it can be highly biased when the result of the child aged 4.0 is compared to a child aged 7, the level of exposure is not the same and neither the level of processing. Thus it can easily give a negative picture of the child ability in case the score comparison standard did not ensure even distribution of the sample based on age.


The test main strength is the availability of the subtest and composites which can assist in measuring specific aspect of intelligence and thus, it is easy to identify the aspect that a child is poor in. The high level of review and refining, being the 4th edition, the instrument has been refined to eliminate constrained noted since the first version was established and thus it is more perfect. It also has provision for children with disability or high intelligence. The main weakness is it may misjudge children at the extreme low age in each group, especially when their performance is compared to those in the extreme high age in each group. However, the test has been highly refined, with high level of validity and reliability and thus, good for its use.

Possible Confusion Between Theological Beliefs And Ethical Principles In A Commonly-Held Religious Belief System

The debatable nature of theological beliefs is the basis of religious variability. Conventionally, different people perceive and account for the concept of the “spirit” distinctly, and this serves as a major explanation for the presence of numerous religions around the world (Paul & Elder, 2009, p. 36). The heritage of each belief system subjects the believers to its habits and customs. Thus, members of a particular belief system often perceive their philosophy as the only reasonable way of doing things. The result is often a misperception of religious philosophies and ethical principles. On this line of thought, this paper shall give an example of confusion between theological beliefs and ethical principles in a commonly-held belief system. Theological beliefs are drawn from the religious text and religious tradition while ethics are moral based principles governing an individual’s behavior in the concepts of right and wrong conduct(Paul & Elder, 2009, p. 36). When religious beliefs are dominantly adopted by a group of people, they tend to shape the individuals in that particular group with certain rules, requirements, taboos, rituals and traditions. More often than not, these doctrines are neither ethically right nor wrong but just a representation of the group’s preferences and culturally subjective choices.

An example of a scenario that illustrates the confusion of theological beliefsand ethical principlesis the infliction of the catholic “moral” codes on the followers and the government. Notably, the Roman Catholic Church has not only ruled nations in the past, but also advised governments on what is right and wrong. A case in point is the long-debated subject of abortion. Popes, priests, and religious leaders have used religious beliefs as references to decide the correctness of abortion on behalf of the people.

History portrays the church as a strict antagonist of abortion.But the Catholic Church has shown a shift in its conviction in the recent past. According to Williams (2016), Pope Francis softened his stance against abortion in 2016 when he granted catholic priests the ability to grant absolutions for abortions. This meant that those who practiced abortion would be forgiven. It was seen as a historic move by the media and an emblematic shift in church doctrine. Previously, the Catholic Church had strong anti-abortion stances and condemned all kinds of abortion. Yet, over the course of this periodic shift in religious belief, the church continued to impose its moral beliefs of abortion on its followers. The teaching of a religious body invokes revelation and employs symbolism. It also claims authority, which further binds the moral doctrine that it upholds with the believers. However, it disregards those outside its boundaries.

The issue of abortion is central to the morality of man(Sumner, 2014). Thus, contemporary ethical principles about this theme are based on various circumstances. When the mother is at risk, some philosophers maintain that it is moral to abort the child in order to save the life of the mother. When it is not, they believe otherwise. Similarly, there are many situations when the society considers it as a decent way of performing medical procedures. Americans abide by the abortion law which restricts, prohibits, permits and regulates the legality of abortion. The law’s restriction varies depending on ethical principles that envelop the societal sacredness of life. Thus, abortion laws vary to favor individuals who are trapped in certain situations, unlike religion.

The abortion debate surrounds the legal, moral, and religious status of induced abortion(Sumner, 2014). However, certain religious groups like the Catholic Church impose their religious views on their followers. In this manner, they enforce their theological concepts on the people in order to shape their morality. Thus, there is aconfusion between theological beliefs and ethical principles in the Catholic belief system.

Everyone is entitled to choose their religious orientation. Hence, the United States constitution (Article 18) clearly articulates that “Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief.” Sometimes religious beliefs unconsciously violate ethical principles through intolerable punishments, intimidation, sexism, persecution, rape, fraud, deceit and religious warfare. Yet, these beliefs often conflict with common ethical principles. Philosophers maintain that ethical judgmenttriumphs over religious belief,and as observed over time, many have become victims of torture and murder under the pretense of religious zealousness. Religious persecution and atrocities are still a common practice in the modern-day society, but no religious belief can justify suchviolations of basic human rights. In other words, theological beliefs cannot override ethical principles. Hence,this draws a clear line between theological beliefs and ethical principles.

Can The Nursing Informaticists Role Be Justified?


If a healthcare organization is considering hiring a nursing informaticist, one consideration is that such a role does not involve direct patient care. How can this role be justified? Consider your current experience in working with individuals from your nursing informatics department. What types of roles and responsibilities do they perform in your organization? If you do not interact with such a department, utilizing what you have learned so far, what value do you see nursing informatics professionals bringing to your organization?

Nursing Informaticists Role Be Justification

Nursing informatics refers to field which integrates information science, computer science, and nursing science to communicate and manage wisdom, data, knowledge, and information in practicing nursing. Nursing Informaticists main role is to manage information that would assist other nurses in enhancing quality primary care. Thus, it is true, nursing informaticists are not directly involved in providing primary care to the patient; they do not have direct contact with the patient. However, they facilitate the primary care process by enhancing capturing and storing of patient information and medical history, and ensuring that those performing primary nursing care have enough professional literature to guide them and enhance quality of care. Thus, they indirectly contribute to primary care (Andrea, 2014).

Nursing informatics involves competencies in informatics skills, information knowledge and computer skills. Nursing informaticists main roles include retrieving and searching data on patient demographics using a computer, using information technologies, telecommunication devices, and patient care documentation to enhance nursing care. They also assist in ensuring safe use of computer technology and networks safely. They also assist in computerization of health care information to enhance patient information accessibility and constant update. This enhances patient monitoring process. With their informatics skills nursing informatics also assist in information flow interpretation in an organization, preparation of charts for process information flow for all clinical systems aspects, the development of database and standard structures to enhance research, clinical care, administration and education. Nursing informatics has added the organization value by enhancing IT integration in the nursing field. This has provided nurses with better patient management system which has eventually improved the quality of care provided in the organization (Darvish et al., 2014).

Personal Leadership Platform – Assignment Instructions

The purpose of this assignment is to apply the concepts and theories from the course to your own personal leadership platform. As you read each chapter in Leadership in Organizations and Lincoln on Leadership, take notes that summarize the ideas that form the basis for what you believe about effective leadership and the type of leader you aspire to be. Develop a paper that describes your personal leadership platform (PLP) and documents the sources that support this platform. This paper should describe what you believe about leadership, why these things are important to leadership, and the specific things a leader must do that are consistent with your beliefs about leadership.

Your PLP will be the result of readings, discussion, debate, and reflection on your personal commitment to leadership principles related to your leadership style, definition of leadership, moral and ethical perspective on leadership, individual values related to leadership, thoughts on followership, values related to leading a team, and any other relevant leadership issues.

While some of your thinking on leadership will come from personal experience, the ideas you present in this paper must be substantiated with references from the assigned texts as well as at least five other scholarly/literary materials. The paper must reflect your personal thoughts and values.

Paper must include: title page, with your name and course number; a 100-word abstract (which is a brief summary of your paper); the body of the paper, with introduction, findings, conclusions, and references. All references must be cited in the body of the paper. Eight pages minimum, ten pages maximum. 12-point font, normal line spacing.

Job Analysis/Job Description- UnderCover Boss Episodes

Go to YouTube, located at, and search for an episode of “UnderCover Boss”. Imagine you are the CEO of the company in the selected episode.

Write a two to three (2-3) page paper in which you:

  1. Compare two (2) job positions from the episode and perform a job analysis of each position.
  2. Describe your method of collecting the information for the job analysis (i.e., one-on-one, interview, survey, etc.).
  3. Create a job description from the job analysis.
  4. Justify your belief that the job analysis and job description are in compliance with state and federal regulations.
  5. Use at least three (3) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources.

GRE Psychology Test – Intelligence Tests

The GRE Psychology Test consists of 205 multiple-choice questions intended to test the knowledge of standard courses offered in the broad field of psychology(Educational Testing Service GRE, 2016). The questions require the application of principles, analysis of relationships, thememory of facts, construction ofvalid conclusions, and evaluation of research design. The participants are required to answer them over a testing span of 170 minutes. This paper will use this intelligence test as a sample inthe analysis of age ranges, language, subtest, and scores as applied in psychological testing.

The test under focus is designed for undergraduate students. Hence, the age range reflects the mental age of college or university students. Similarly, the language of the test, including its syntax, units (morphemes, phonemes, phrases), reading process, bilingualism, meaning, and speech perception’s, among others, manifests the mental age of college students. It is also part of the subtests within the test itself.Other subtests include memory, thinking, learning, sensation and perception, behavioral neuroscience, lifespan development, measurement and methodology, personality, and social, clinical, and abnormal subthemes. The test presents these subtests in three broad categories: experimental, social, and other areas.

The test’s multiple-choice questions define the score reporting technique. Here, the raw score, which comprises of the number of questions attempted by the participant minus one-fourth of the ones answered correctly, is converted to the scale score(Educational Testing Service GRE, 2016). The scale score is then reported. The conversion assures the researcher that a scaled score for any edition of the GRE psychology test is comparable to any other version of the same test. Therefore, an equal scaled test in a specific test indicates the same level of performance despite the version of the test administered.

Why the Health Industry do NOT Promote the use of Essential Oils

Despite the ridicule and disapproval by pro-conventional medicine advocates and the larger healthcare industry, essential oils are a popular alternative medicine. They are part of a large pool of alternative treatment options that rely on philosophies and techniques which are outside common disease-based theories of modern medicine. Using this as foundation of the argument, the author of this paper will briefly discuss the key reason why the health industry stringently opposes the use of essential oils in treatment. Essential oils are made up of highly concentrated constituents found in plants (Burt, 2004, p. 223-253). Unlike modern-day drugs, theyhave no side-effects, and yet, they bring a broad range of health benefits when used.

The natural unconstrained healing effects of essential oils are a notable advantage over the unnatural and often multifaceted healing mechanism of modern drugs. Their therapeutic properties are an unattainable benefit owing to their composition. A typical essential oil can contain over 200 chemical compounds, each of which contains distinct healing benefits(Isman, 2000, p. 603-608). Since this type of alternative medicine does not rely on complex technology, surgery, or prescriptions, its use would lead to huge financial losses in the modern healthcare system. In fact, it would render many doctors, pharmaceuticals, and health insurance companies impracticable.

Essential oils are a replacement for modern medicine and a detested treatment alternative within the modern capitalistic health sector. What is more, there is plenty of guidelines about them for practitioners to follow, which means that, any ordinary person is capable of using such material for comprehensive home reference purposes. Thus, essential oils provide a shortcut to treatment and a justification to abandon the overpriced modern healthcare system.

Item Evaluation Stage – Test Development Stages

After the psychologist has made decisions about the format of the test and the response options, as well as established an initial group of test times, the next stage involves refining the measure by making selections of the best items for inclusion in the final scale version(Schinka at al., 2003). This essay will discuss critical steps and guidelines to follow in this stage. Specifically, the author shall point out the aspects of the stage and the items that the researcher must include during the development of a test.

At the item evaluation stage, there is no defined way of identifying the professed best items on the scale. During the selection process, it is crucial to bear in mind that there is no single qualitative item parameter that the researcher is supposed to use as an independent and definite criterion of item selection. A researcher’s overreliance on one particular parameter predictably leads to many undesirable psychometric properties and only one desirable one(Schinka at al., 2003).By recognizing this, the application of the construct validation approach prevents numerous downsides related to naïve empiricism in the process of test construction.

On the whole, the researcher‘s aim is to feature items with a conspicuous balance between various item parameters of interest. These include the empirical attributes as well as the content coverage. It ensures that the resulting scale is useful in different applications.  Since the construct validation approach stresses theoreticaland observational systems of test development, methodologies for choosing things ought to incorporate both calculated and measurable examinations(Schinka at al., 2003). It is critical that these assessment procedures be applied instantaneouslyin picking items.

Importance of Considering Test Bias

It is essential to follow test administration procedures in order to obtain valid results. It is even more vital to consider test bias. Test bias is invalidity or systematic error in how a test measures for members of a particular group(Reynolds & Kaiser, 1990). By being systematic,it creates a distortion in test results for members of a particular group. Test bias is a significant risk to a test’s construct validity. Examples of test bias include construct, methods, and item biases. This paper willexpress andemphasize the importance of considering test bias and three major factors to bear in mind.

Recognizing and avoiding test bias in assessment is essential in achieving reliability and validity. The first factor to look out for is the construct of the test. A test construct is the internal trait of a test that is not observable(Flaugher, 1978). Cases in point include intelligence, self-esteem, and motivation. If a researcher conducts an intelligence test on participants from the Asian culture using items from the western culture, they create a test bias. Thus, avoiding such instances can aid in averting construct bias.

Secondly, taking into consideration the methods of a test is crucial in maintaining the genuineness of a trial. Methods refer to factors that surround the administration of a test. Examples include the length of a test, the testing environment, and assistance by the researcher. If a participant is used to receiving support during standardized tests but fails to receive it during test administration, the test would create inaccurate representations. Methods bias constitutes to test bias and researchers should critically examine the methods they use to ensure validity.

Lastly, considering the individual items of a test is fundamental in realizing reliability and validity. Item bias refers to problems that arise with discrete items of the test(Jensen, 1980). For instance, poor use of grammar and poorly written assessment items are common causes of item bias. Therefore, psychologists should bear in mind the choice of articles they include in specific tests. Additionally, it is critical to watch out for clear and systematic differences between results in a test because they signify the presence of possible test biases.

Prospects for Establishing a Critical Society as Described by Graham Sumner

Critical thinking is a vital tool for eliminating and solving problems in the society. In 1906, William Graham Sumner envisioned a critical society in his book, Folkways. He said that best men are produced in a society that is grounded on the critical habit of thought (Sumner, 1963). Critical thinking makes people to become slow in belief. Rather than holding things with certainty, they proceed by examining the issues at stake and making the inferences later.

Summer outlined the prospects for achieving a critical society, and among them,the most significant is education. A society must present education as the most critical faculty to its people. Only then can it produce good citizens. The critical faculty is achieved through training and teaching (Sumner, 1963). It gives people a sense of mental power and the habit of critical thought. Society will be able to think critically when it starts examining issues and testing them before openly accepting them. They first establish the extent of their reality before embracing them.

Critical thought offers assurance against deception, fallacy, illusion, and misconception of oneself and otherworldly situations. According to Graham Sumner, critical thinking is the tool that will bring desired changes to individuals and the overall society (Sumner, 1963). When used effectively, it will eliminate cajolery and prejudice in the society

CMIT 370 7982 Windows Network Proposal Project Instructions

WingSonghas hired you as computing consultant. Your job is to create a Windows infrastructure proposal. WingSong produces Wind turbines.Your proposal needs to meet the following criteria.

Current Implementation/Concerns:

  • The company will have 3 locations (New York, Chicago, and Washington) but are planning to grow rapidly due to high demand in Wind turbines. Main staff will be at Boise and Washington offices.
  • Data security is priority.
  • The Chicago site needsa secure remote access to Washington office.
  • The WAN connectivity is in place and it is not an issue. There is ample bandwidth in place.
  • Feel free to make other assumptions but they need to be noted in the paper.
  • Will this be an expensive task?

Topics to Cover:

Your document should cover the content presented in the course. The outline below contains recommended points to cover. You are free to add other related information.

Describe the technical and business reasons for each choice, citing other resources as appropriate. The Windows Server 2012 operating system should be used for all aspects of the solution.

Active Directory:

  • What forest/domain model should WingSong implement? What is the domain name?
  • Where should the domain controllers be place? Should RODC be part of the consideration?
  • FSMO Roles placement
  • Plan for AD backup and recovery
  • What type of authentication method will be for WingSong? (For example pins, token, and etc)

Group Policy:

  • Is Group Policy needed?
  • What settings might be considered via Group Policy?
  • What are some advance audit policies that can be used?


  • What will be the fully qualified domain name?
  • What namespace should WingSong implement?
  • What types of zones needed?

File Services:

  • How will the shares be secured? ( What kind of methods?)
  • Will quotas be used? FSRM be configured?
  • Will DFS be implemented?

Remote Services:

  • What technology will be implemented to provide secure remote access for users?
  • Who should have remote access?
  • If you use a VPN connection which type will you use?


  • How will the servers and clients be updated?
  • How will new servers be deployed?

Submission Requirements:

There are specific requirements for the assignment: The final submission should contain at least 6 pages’ worth of text written by the student (not counting title page, images, diagrams, tables, or quotations), but may be longer, not to exceed approximately 10 pages’ worth of student-supplied text. (With the required diagram, and other images, title page, etc., the final submission may end up being more than 10 pages in length.) It must be double-spaced, have 1-inch margins, and use 12-point Times New Roman or 10-point Arial/Helvetica font. A title page is required; APA format for the title page is optional.

  • At least one original diagram must be included (not counted towards the minimum length described above). You can have more.
  • Ensure that your paper how no extra white space between paragraphs.
  • The submission must cover all of the 6 major topics outlined above. Each choice should be explained with technical and business reasoning. The solution should be reasonably detailed.
  • The structure of the final submission is flexible. There is no specific format required, although it should be organized logically and represent a single, unified solution. It is likely that the format will include separate sections for each of the 6 topics required, as well as a summary.
  • At least one non-textbook, non-LabSim, non-Wikipedia reference is required; preferably, this would be a “best practice” guide or similar content from Microsoft or an experienced provider of Microsoft solutions. A minimum of 4 references.
  • Be sure to properly quote or cite any sources used. APA format is required for in-text citations and the list of works cited at the end. It is expected that you are already familiar with UMUC’s “Policy on Academic Dishonesty and Plagiarism.” It is available in the Academic Policies section of the Syllabus; there are also links in the Webliography. In its simplest form, if you are using text from a source, you must cite and/or quote it. If plagiarism is found, then there will be a penalty to the grade.

Plea Bargain – Possession of Methamphetamine and DUI Charges

Assignment Instructions

Assuming the role of a prosecutor prepare a plea offer for Mario. Assume he was charged with possession of methamphetamine and with DUI (with a blood alcohol content of .08/.09).

Assuming the role of defense counsel, prepare a counter-offer, following the same structure as outlined above.

You can be creative with realistic details that you provide, consistent with the parameters of the facts above, but each offer should be persuasive.

  • Explain what you would offer the opposing side.
  • Describe what factors you would consider in your offer.
  • Include a paragraph justifying your offer.


A Sample Plea Offer for Mario

Prosecutor Plea

On 25th of March 2017 at around 5:20 pm, Mario was arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol in U.S. Route 1. His arrested was triggered by dangerous driving that prompted the traffic police manning that route to stop his car. The Alco-brow test demonstrated that Mario blood content contain 0.08/0.09 alcohol, which is above the limit in which one is allowed to drive on the state roads. Driving under the influence of alcohol has proved to be very fatal to all road users, Mario included. Drunken driving is what contributes to the high number of fatal accidents, which have claimed people’s life and injured others.  Mario was stopped for driving careless, which means he was already a threat to the life of road users. Extensive search indicated that Mario was also in possession of Methamphetamine, which is counted as one of the illegal seductive. Thus, Mario is charged of those two offenses and he will be punished under the drug possession and DUI law.  Based on this law Mario license will be seized for 12 months, jailed six months for driving under the influence of alcohol, and pay a penalty of $2000 (, 2016). Drugs have proved to be a major problem in the country. Being in the possession of drugs is a crime punishable by the law with minimum of 2 years and maximum of 10 years in prison. Being the first time that Mario has been found with drug, then Mario will be given a light punishment of 2 years imprisonment and a fine of $10000. Thus, for the two crimes, Mario will serve two and a half years in prison and pay a penalty of $12000 (, 2017).


Defense Lawyer Plea

On 25th March 2017 at around 5:20 pm Mario was arrested with accusation of driving under the influence of alcohol and drug possession. The defense would like to reach a plea agreement whereby Mario pleads guilty for the offense of driving under the influence of alcohol. However, Mario denies having been found with possession of drugs. Moreover, the blood analysis did not show any drug content in his blood. Thus, he was not under the influence of drugs but alcohol. My client is ready to pay a penalty for DUI offense. However, the defense would like you to drop the drug possession charges and allow us to settle for the DUI offence. My client is ready and willing to undergo therapeutic session to help him overcome the alcohol addiction. This will ensure that he will not repeat any of the offenses he is currently being accused of in the future. The defense also request that you may drop the imprisonment option for the DUI in exchange for probation, where the prosecution will ensure that he undergo outpatient treatment foralcohol addiction. Mario is ready to do without a license until he is completely treated and also he is willing to pay the fine. However, having no previous criminal records, we would request that you consider giving the minimum penalty possible. It is important to consider that Mario did not cause any accident or harm anyone in his drunken state, thus, his crimes are not very fatal. Mario has agreed to solve the problem by fighting his alcohol addiction and thus, it is important to give him a chance. This settlement will save court’s time and the cost of conducting trial, and thus, this settlement will benefit all of us (, 2017).

Concepts And Types Of Reliability And Validity That Apply To Tests

Reliability denotes the consistency or repeatability of a result of a test in case a similar test is done again or for a second time. A test is said to be reliable if the result in the two tests are similar. In case the two tests give varying results, then the test is not reliable. This is normally based on the same testing environment to ensure that the result do not change due to change of environmental factors.

A test with very poor reliability demonstrates a great variation of the result. The different forms of reliability include test-retest reliability, internal consistency reliability, parallel or alternate form reliability, and inter-rater reliability. Reliability can be improved by ensuring clear conceptualization to ensure that the true meaning is obtained, by increasing the items number, through standardization, by using many indicators, using more exact measurements, and through replication and pilot testing (Miami Psych,2011b).

Validity denotes the believability or credibility of a test. It determines the accuracy of the test and whether the rests are genuine. Validity can be evaluated by checking on whether the right test has been used, following the right procedures, and maintaining the required standards. The different types of validity include content validity, face validity, discriminant validity, criterion validity, convergent validity, and construct validity.

Validity can be improved by using the right equipment with the right items and that are constructed correctly or calibrated effectively to ensure correct measurements. Validity can also be improved by enlarging the sample to ensure that the result can stand for a more extensive population. Validity can as well be improved by investigating the instrument using double-blind or single-blind study method (Miami Psych, 2011a).

Criminal Trial Procedural Steps

Criminal trial entails imposing public behavior codes as exemplified by the laws, where the accused are prosecuted by the government. Government in criminal case brings charges over an individual suspected to have perpetrated the crime. The case starts by filing of the complaint by the victim, or witness among others based on the case. The case is investigated, and when enough evidence is gathered against the offender, the police may make an arrest with warranty or just an arrest if found in process of committing the crime (, 2017). The court may also give summon to the defendant through mail, or by sending a server in special process. Summon informs the offender of the lawsuit filed against them. The defender is then provided with a particular time period to provide the response to the filed complied by denying or admitting the complaint. This response will determine if the case will be taken to trial (, 2016).

In case of arrest warranty, the offender is taken to the court immediately for the first appearance where the magistrate the lower court reads the charges and explains the penalty. The offender is then advised on the right to trial and to jury trial if preferred as well as right to a lawyer. In case the defender asks for a lawyer, the judge appoints one. The right to trial and a lawyer are normally employed in the criminal justice system to ensure that justice prevail in any criminal trial (, 2017). With the help of a lawyer, the offender enters a plea for either guilty or not guilty. In case one pleads guilty a sentencing date is set. Bail is given in case one pleads not guilty while allowed, and the next hearing is set. In case the defendant does not file for plea, the case is taken to preliminary hearing, where the prosecutor tries to convince thejudge that the defender has committed a crime worth trial. In case the judge is not convinced the case is closed (, 2015).

The case trial begins by opening statement where the complaint and defender sides tell the judge or juror their facts regarding the case. These facts have to prove that the accused is guilty beyond a judicious doubt.  This is followed by direct witness examination where complaint lawyer or the prosecutor calls witnesses and ask them direct questions to extract circumstantial and direct evidence. Only facts are provided by witness at this stage. This is followed by the cross examination by the defendant lawyer. The lawyer is constrained within the issues raised in the direct examination (, 2014).

After listening to all witness and evaluating all evidence, the jury is instructed by the judge on the relevant laws to employ while making their deliberation on the case. Lawyers are then allowed to make their last argument regarding the case based on the provided evidence and testimonies. After this is done and instructions are given, jury gets to jury room where they start the process of deliberation. A presiding juror may be elected to guide the deliberation process especially the voting process and ensuring no external interference during the deliberation process. This assist in ensuring no fraud enacted to change jurors stand (, n.d.).

In case a decision is reached, the jury informs the sheriff’s officer, who informs the judge. All the case participants are gather again in the court to announce the decision, which is read by the presiding juror or the court clerk If a verdict is not reached by the jury, the case may be tried before another jury in the future. In case the offender is imprisoned, the judge sets the sentencing date (, 2017). Investigation is carried out before this to ensue suitable sentencing is done. After sentencing, one may appeal the case. However, this should only be done if there was identified error during trial. In this case, the appeal court may just consider using the case written material to identify the error and order for novel trial in case an error is identified. Other rulings include reconsidering new evidence, modification of correction of ruling (, 2017).

The Roles and Responsibilities of Prosecutor, Lawyer, and Judge

Players of the Court

The criminal justice system refers to the set of processes and agencies proven by governments to manage crime and enact penalties on persons who violate laws. To accomplish this role, criminal justice systems contain five components, among them being courts with judges as the main role player, prosecution, where prosecutors take charge, and defense lawyer. This paper discusses the roles and responsibilities of the judge, lawyer and prosecutor in a criminal justice system.

The Roles and Responsibilities of Prosecutor, Lawyer, and Judge

Normally, a suspect is arrested by the police, after they have gathered enough evidence to permit the arrest. After the arrest, the police handle the case file prosecutor; together will all the gathered evidence. Prosecutor refers to a lawyer that represents the federal or state government lawyer in the court, in the entire court proceedings; from the initial accused appearance in court up to the point where the accused is sentenced or acquitted. After receiving the evidence from the police force, the prosecutor evaluates it and makes a decision on whether to drop the case or file charges. When the prosecutor decides to file the case, he or she presents the court with the evidence, cross examine the witnesses, and make a decision on whether to discuss appeal bargains with the offender at any time following the filing of charges, Prosecutor normally contain great freedom or pleasure to decide on how a case should be prosecuted. Although the prosecutor does not work on behave of the victim but the state, a victim can obtain more information regarding the case from the prosecutor. While doing all this, the prosecutor should focus on enhancing justice rather than convicting the offender (Americanbar, 2017).

Once the case is filed, an offender is permitted the right to a lawyer, commonly regarded as the defense lawyer. This lawyer defends the offender over the case of the government. Defense lawyer can either be assigned to the offender by the court or hired by the offender. Lawyer assignment only happens to offenders who cannot manage to hire their own lawyers. The defense lawyer’s main role is to represent the accused in the court. The lawyer in this case gathers evidence to prove the accused innocence. Defense lawyer also cross-examine the witness to ensure no false testimony is given to victimize the accused. Defense lawyer works closely with the offender with intention of gathering the counter evidence to nullify or weaken the prosecutor’s argument (, 2008).

Basically, after a case is filed by the prosecutor, the case is assigned to a judge, who will examine the prosecutor and defense lawyer arguments, evidence and witnesses, and use them to make a ruling. The judge main role is to ensure that the law is implemented during the trial, and to supervise the court proceedings. The judge always has an upper hand on deciding on the offender’s fate. The judge may make a decision to release the accused before trial, especially after the first court hearing when the accused is informed of the charges. The judge at this stage may also consider releasing the accused in bond, recognizance, or bail. In case the judge finds that there is no enough evidence to support the case, the judge may release the defendant and close the case. He or she also reject or accept plea agreements, sentence the offender who is found guilty, and oversee trials (, 2008).

Correctional Substance Abuse – Case Study on Best Practices in Corrections

Given the increasing rates of drug-related crimes over the last thirty years, there arose a need for correctional substance abuse programs which aim at reducing crime spurred by substance abuse. These programs were constituted and are practiced in many states. However, there needs to be an effective practice to ensure that these rehabilitations are effective. As a result, correctional substance abuse encompass treatment practices that help criminals with substance abuse problems through the rehabilitation so that they can get clean and be morphed into productive citizens.

Risk, Needs, and Responsivity Practice

This practice is used to assess and determine the models of treatment options each substance abuse offender should be given. The risk factor determines the extent of offenders’ future crime involvement in that those that are high-risk offenders are assigned the most costly and intense treatment options while the low-risk offenders are given moderate attention (Ogloff&Davis 2004). This system of assessment helps to manage resources to ensure that most of the facilities’ resources are reserved for offenders who need more attention to ensure the effectiveness of the program.

The needs aspect is used to determine and assess the criminogenic needs of a substance abuse offender. This implies that the assessment involves understanding whether these offenders are cognitive-thinking deficient, employable, their problem-solvingdeficits, egocentric aspects as well as their social or antisocial attitudes (Ogloff&Davis 2004). This practice is efficient for practitioners to understand the treatment approach for each offender to ensure the rehabilitation proves effective and offenders can blend into the outside community without engaging in future crimes.

The responsivity aspect is a model used to assess these offenders’ modes of learning, their personality traits, and treatment attitude. This practice enables the rehabilitation officers to evaluate progress and determine the responsiveness of the treatment offered. Studies show that the risk, needs, and responsivity factors are effective practices that lead to a decrease inrecidivism (Ogloff&Davis 2004).

Case Management Practice

This practice involves the provision of other activity-related rehabilitation other than treatment. This implies that substance abuse offenders are allowed to participate in social services and vocational training so that they would acquire skills which help them improve their employability as well as adapt to the working environment. Case management alsoencompasses family engagement in that family members of offenders would be involved if the treatment approach saw it fit to ensure responsiveness (Cook 1993). Another aspect of case management practice involves exercising a skill oriented treatment program where offenders are given a chance to improve their skills as a way to focus their strength on their skills and reduce therisk of drug dependency.

The case management practice is a national model sanctioned by the treatment Accountability for Safer Communities.  It is a constitutionally oriented practice that was put in place to eliminate treatment barriers and expand the offenders’ access to social services as well as monitor their progress (Cook 1993).

Treatment Modality Definitions

This practice is used to identify the primary models of drug and substance abuse treatment. The treatment options exercised are the social learning treatment model and the disease model. The disease treatment options identify substance abuse as achronicdisease. Hence aspects that align with spiritual, mental and physical attitudes are used in training to help offenders adapt to a life of abstinence as they are inclined, through a 12-step practice to consider the addiction a disease whose treatment is abstinence. Emphasis is therefore placed on teaching substance abuse offenders how to abstain from drug use (Anglin, Longshore &Turner 1999).

On the other hand, the social learning treatment option identifies substance abuse and addiction as a learned habit which can be treated by modifying behavior and teaching prosocial behavior. In this treatment method, emphasis is placed on teaching offenders how to adapt to new habits since their drug addiction was learned, and can, therefore, be unlearned (Anglin, Longshore &Turner 1999). These treatment options are used during the rehabilitation programs to help offenders learn to abstain from drug abuse and ensure the effectiveness of the rehabilitation programs.

Screening and assessment for selection

This practice involves the screening of substance abuse offenders to identify their drug-involved patterns, personality, environmental influence, family backgrounds, job training and mental stability (Anglin &Maugh1992).  The scrutiny of these aspects helps rehabilitation officers and doctors group these offenders in terms of intervention platforms and recidivism expectations as well as select the most effective primary treatment approach.

The criteria used in this practice looks into the offenders’ abuse history, developmental age, social preferences, gender, sexual orientation, spiritual standing, physical health, family history, psychological characteristics and employment history. These aspects help rehabilitation practitioners to identify the intensity, duration, and sequence of treatment as well as the evaluation of therehabilitative progress of the offenders (Anglin &Maugh1992).

Monitoring and evaluation

This practice involves constant assessment of the offenders’ responsiveness and improvements in learning abilities and cognitive therapies (Cook 1993). This practice also looks into the nature of compliance and ensures that there is total compliance from the offenders through constant supervision and frequent drug testing of all staff as well as the offenders.

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