Month: November 2018

Management of Human Capital in the Organization – Google Inc

Human Capital Management in Google Inc

Google Inc has adopted a very unique culture with regard to human resource management. The company employs its resources to keep workers happy. Google developed distinctive work environment which motivates, attracts, and retains the best workers in the company. The company has occasionally been listed in Fortune Magazine as the best place to work. Google gives special treatment to its employees as a way of boosting their working morale and their commitment to the organization. It gives free gourmet food choices which include espresso stations and sushi bars to its workers. They also have access to doctors, gyms, on-site child care, shower facilities, and video games. The company also offers paternal leave of fourmonths with payment equivalent to 75% of the full payment, and also provides the family with $500 to take the new born out with the rest of the family (, 2017).

The company in addition promotes individual workers development through provision of training programs as well as performance enhancement program. The organization training program focuses on promoting innovation among the employees. Google employee training contains the analysis section where the employee’s needs are identified and a training done specifically to address individual needs. The company’s performance management practices are connected directly to the company’s human resource management objectives, to ensure that workers are capable of supporting business activities of the company. The individual performance analysis focuses on determining individual weaknesses and working towards improving them, as well as promoting those demonstrating positive improvement. The company also enhances the culture of open communication and idea sharing. Google employs diverse workforce and it embraces inclusion as well as effective diversity management (, 2017). It also promotes innovative culture which is characterized by making trials and constant implementation of new ideas. This has played a great role in promoting Google Inc performance among its competitors.

Leading Organizational Change – Assignment And Sample Solution

Assignment Instructions

Purpose of Assignment

The purpose of this assignment is to provide an opportunity for the student to integrate and apply the individual and organizational leadership learning from this course by developing a plan for organizational change.

Assignment Steps

Review course assignments for Weeks 1-5, including the results of the Mastering Leadership Self-Assessment taken in Week 1.

Select an organizational change in your company or one you know.

Develop a 1,050-word analysis designing the action plan for you, as a leader, to address the organizational change.

Include the following, in any sequence you choose:

  • Identify the organizational change process steps you would take and prioritize the order in which you would take them.
  • Include both individual and organizational leadership actions.
  • Scholarly citations must be given to support your rationale and proposed actions.

Format your assignment consistent with APA guidelines.


Sample Solution – Adopting New Technology in an Organization


Change taking place in this case is transitional change involving the implementation of new technology. The company is adopting technology in dealing with the various work processes such as communication, billing and reporting. The new technology will involve an information system that will help in enhancing the work processes in the organization. The implementation of new technology borders on the change of dealing with business processes and aligning them with technology (Burnes, 2014). Technology as such will be embraced in the carrying out of various processes in the organization and training, and development sessions will be conducted to ensure the employees can deal with changes being implemented. Tasks and skills, in this case, are important and therefore training and preparing the workers on how to deal with and embrace the change is quite remarkable. Selection of systems of the new technological changes further has political inclinations and may be meddled with in the process. People may not readily accept the changes and may find ways to oppose it, and it is therefore important for efficient communication to be in place for the workforce especially about the information system. The organization, therefore, has to decide on systems and their approval through communicating effectively to the workforce and management.

The absorbing of the new technology in the workplace is another important issue. Users should be able to use the new technology quite efficiently. This will arise by the adoption of training and development procedures (Griffins, 2014). Employees are part of the organization and are an important part of the organization especially in executing the daily tasks that help keep the organization running smoothly. Their involvement in the change process is quite important. Not only will the management be involved in the use of the technology but also the employees. Therefore, it will be important to come up with various ways that will help in ensuring that the employees understand and know how to use the new technology.

The new technology will be designed and tested by the respective developers. The developers will work together with the management and staff to ensure that the adoption of the new technology takes place smoothly. The experts implementing the program for the company will implement it especially in accordance to the needs of the organization (Campbell, 2014). The development of the technology especially into the business processes will be done to ensure the new technology fits with the business activities of the company and processes of the organization. Testing the technology will be another important step in ensuring that it fits in with the organizational needs. The IT department will test the program to ensure that it is well adopted in the company. Any bugs found will be dealt with especially by informing the developers.

Investigation of new technology is important before setting it up in the organization. Technology has many benefits, which can improve a company’s performance, and it is important to ensure that the processes are correctly linked to the working activities to provide more efficiency. Identifying various issues and seeking a solution to them will help in ensuring that the change processes takes place smoothly in the organization. The plan will concentrate on dealing with the various businesses processes as much as possible to ensure that disruption to the business processes is minimal. Knowing the technology will give the company enough information that will help in preparing the workforce (Waddell, Cummings & Worley, 2007). The company, in this case, will consider the use of new technology and the effect it has on the workforce and its processes. Therefore, the new technology will follow the various needs that the organization needs to be improved and workers told what to do.

Training and launching will further be done to ensure that the workforce is ready to embrace the new technology. The implementation of the technology will take place to ensure that workers graph the usage of the different systems. The workers will learn through the different pieces of training on how to use the different systems. Launching of the new technology and offering training will further ensure that the employees are not surprised when the company changes the various businesses processes (Moran, 2015). The launch will ensure that the people, in this case, are part of the process as they will be involved in the execution of the new change. The employees will be trained on the skills they need to get and further shown on how the technology will aid them in improving on their daily tasks.  The trainers will have follow-up programs to ensure that each worker understands the use of the technology. The plan will further include the evaluation process to be carried out to ensure that the new technology is effective.

Having change agents in place is important for the implementation of the new technology. Change agents understand more about the technology and will help in guiding their respective departments towards adopting the change. The change agents will be told of the various processes and enlightened to ensure that they educate their fellow colleagues at the workplace to prevent any negatively that may arise due to the adoption of the new technology. Such people will further help in lessening any opposition and reduce the resistance to change (Stanford, 2015). There are many processes that need to be changed in the adoption of the new technology, and therefore it is important to ensure that the worker is taken along systematically to understand them. The collaboration of the worker in the process of introducing the new technology will be important.

Coming up with the new technology, in this case, concerns the adoption of new technology to carry out business processes like communicating and the changes that will affect each worker. Communicating the change process is further going to be used in ensuring that the workforce has more knowledge on the new technology. Since each has different learning styles, the training will follow the various needs to ensure that all workers understand the process easily (Roper et al., 2013). Different kinds of learning materials will show the staff the various ways on using the new technology. The workers, in this case, will have to deal with the various communication processes especially in ensuring that the process is wholly understood by the company. Improving communication channels from the management to the workforce will further help in creating a better environment and boosting the learning process.


The process of dealing with new technology in the workplace is quite challenging. New technology entails changes to work processes that employees have long gotten used to. Therefore, to come up with new technology will involve collaboration between the workforce and the IT department. Collaboration between the departments, developers, and the workforce is important in ensuring that more people understand its use. Dealing with the interface will mean the involvement of the employees together with their feedback to ensure that the system in place is effective and helps in improving the work processes of the organization. The teamwork processes that will ensure the effective working and adoption of the technology will be done through the various interactions with the software and by the IT department.

Major Christological Perspectives Discussed in the Ecumenical Councils of the Fourth and Fifth Centuries

The Controversy over the Deity of Jesus

There was controversy regarding Christ divinity and the completeness, or integrity of his humanity. The argument was highly based in the book of John 1:14 in the bible where the word is said to be flesh (Logos-sarx).The first argument was presented by Arians who regarded Jesus Christ as an intermediary being and neither human nor divine. In his argument there was only the Father and the word in the beginning, and the word was used to create everything else. Thus, Jesus was not either of them. Thus, he was not of the same composition as the father. This notion was supported by some bishop while others rejected it. This resulted to a synod in which ancient creed was reviewed to Nicene Creed that rejected Arian view despite wide support in the region (Cunningham, 2002).

This was followed by Apollinarianism view that held that the soul active principle was replaced by the word in Christ. In Christ subordination to the word, humanity of Christ lacked its personal active principles. This view was rejected by most Christians and the First Constantinople Council. In the fifth century Cyril view the Christ unity based on the word is stressed that humanity role of Christ is obscured, but its reality is evident. There was also Antiochene view stressed on two distinction natures in Christ. All these controversies arose due to different interpretation of the bible regarding Jesus existence and his relation with God. The bible was not very clear on the relation between God and Christ, and the process of Jesus huminification (Fiorenza, 2011).

The Outcome

In the Nicaea council, the Arians view regarding the divinity of Christ was rejected. The council reviewed the old creed that was used to explain this issue to develop a new Nicaea Creed. The new creed rejected word subordination to the father, and the Son was professed as “true God from true God” of similar substance as the father, and not made but begotten. The creed also introduced of homoousins term which was not biblical. The term prohibited lessening of the Christ divinity and ended up being the fidelity touchstone to the teaching of conciliar.The first Constantinople Council was formed to evaluate the Apolinarianism view regarding divinity of Christ and to defend the Holy Spirit divinity over the Pneumatomachians. The apollinarianism claimed that if Christ contains no human soul then he cannot truly be regarded as human and thus, is Christ is not truly human then he cannot be said to save mankind. Thus mankind is not truly saved. This was rejected by the council (Cunningham, 2002).

There was also another council in Ephesus which was established to discuss the legitimacy of the theotokos title to the Mary, which was basically meant “the bearer of Christ.” The council affirmed the title legitimacy. The Chalcedon council was done to create a new creed after the previous one was found to be ambiguous particularly by Roman legates. Bishops commission succeeded in developing an acceptable creed that was later adopted. The creed formed in Chalcedon end up being the classical Christological doctrine formation. The purpose of the adopted text was to admit both the Christ unity and his humanity and divinity completeness. The doctrine was expressed by the council in different ways. First the definition professes belief in the Christ unity with the humble confession that Christ the Lord Jesus is one and the same Son. These decisions were meant to create clarity on the right doctrines to be followed and to eliminate confusion. The decisions were also meant to bring unit in the church (Fiorenza,2011).

Application and Analysis

Christology is very important in the modern Christian fellowship since it plays a great part in guiding what worshipers believe in and remove any doubts that would make them think that they are not worshiping the true God. With clear information on the relation between God and Christ, Christians get the meaning of who they are titled to follow and depend on him as they would depend on God. Although Christology has not prevented the emergency of many denomination in the Christians religion, it has always help Christians to remain in unity by sharing their faith and believe in one God, with three parts which include God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit. This defines who they are, what they believe in, and what guide their religious path.

Although there are a lot of similarities between the Christology and Nicene Orthodox, the two differ in the relation between Christ, Father and the Holy Spirit. Nicene perceive them as unique identities with its own role separate from others. While Christology acknowledges Christ as the Son of God, Nicene only acknowledge Jesus as a giver of life who proceeds from the father. The Nicene is not precise on the relation between Jesus and God as a father and a son. Moreover, though Nicene worship the three together, it does not acknowledge the Son, and the spirit, and the father as the three parts of one God.

The Christianity fellowship main departure from the Nicene orthodoxy is the fact that the Christians declare faith as individuals and not as a group. They use of the word “I” rather than “we”. This demonstrates personal relation with God and thus, the individual believe on the salvation of Christ, personal judgment, and resurrection. This makes one to consider his or her ways as an individual. Although the two creeds look very similar one focus on the faith of the congregation while the other focuses on individual faith in Christ.

The thinking of modern Christians is aligned with that the Nicene Creed in that they all believe in the same thing only that the Christians version is more precise and direct to the point. It is considerably hard to understand what part of the Nicene Creed really mean. However, they share the main point. They all believe in One God, the Father almighty, the creator of everything.

Role of Challenge Administrators in the OSHA Challenge Voluntary Cooperative Program

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) offers various cooperative programs under which, businesses, labor, groups and other organizations can work cooperatively with the agency to help prevent injuries, fatalities, and illnesses in the workplace. One of them is the OSHA Challenge Voluntary Cooperative Program which aims to provide the participants with an avenue to work with their assigned challenge administrators.

Essentially, the key role of the challenge administrators is to develop and improve the safety and health management programs of the challenge participants through training, progress-tracking and mentoring(Bennett & Deitch, 2010, p. 404). They are obligated to follow the program’s three-stage process which includes assessing, learning, and developing (Stage 1), implementing, tracking, and controlling(Stage 2), and reassessing, monitoring, and improving (Stage 3) the participant’s safety programs.

During the first stage, challenge administrators are responsible for educating the participants about elements that are necessary for the development and implementation of effective safety and health management programs. They then proceed to challenge participants to successfully complete and implement the developed policies in the second stage. Participants are expected to improve their programs as guided and begin to integrate policies for special trade contractor safety management program requirements. Lastly, the challenge administrators challenge them to continue reassessing, monitoring and improving their programs(Bennett&Deitch, 2007). After the completion of each stage, OSHA provides the challenge participants with letters of recognition.

Stress Cardiomyopathy – Evidence-based Chronic Disease Analysis

Analysis of the Chronic Disease – Stress Cardiomyopathy

Definition of Stress Cardiomyopathy

Stress cardiomyopathy refers to a condition caused by intense physical or emotional stress, resulting to severe or rapid weakness of the heart muscle. This condition was initially identified in Japan where it was characterized by dysfunction patterns of left ventricular. The condition was named Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, after a fishing pot containing wide base and narrow neck, utilized to trap octopus (Eitel et al., 2011). Stress cardiomyopathy condition is currently known by many other phrases that include broken-hearts syndrome, apical ballooning, stress cardiomyopathy, or ampulla cardiomyopathy. The condition can occur following different emotional stressors that include surprise, grief, extreme anger, and fear. The condition can also be triggered by a number of physical stressors that include acute asthma, seizure or stroke. The syndrome is normally characterized by chest pain, with most patients containing similar clinical presentation like that of acute coronary syndrome (Eitel et al., 2011).
The cases of stress cardiomyopathy have been unknown until the last two decades. Based on the retrospective review, peoples suffering from this condition represented only 2% of all individuals experiencing acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Moreover, 90% of these individuals were women in their postmenopausal period. Reports show that most of thestress cardiomyopathy patients are aged 68-years, though, even young adults and children might beaffected (Komamura et al., 2014). Other reports showed that most stress cardiomyopathy men patients are in in-patients. This demonstrates thatthis condition is mostly initiated by physical stress among men. A research conducted to compare Japan and the United States stress cardiomyopathy patients’ shows that, only few patients from Japan had overt coronary disease (CAD). Nevertheless, there was no important variation in the rate of recurrence and long-term prognosis of stress cardiomyopathy,between Japanese and the United States patients. Stress cardiomyopathy condition is quite expensive to manage, especially on aspects related to tests needed to confirm the diagnosis. Moreover, patients may require assistance on daily life management, until they fully recover (Komamura et al., 2014).


The clinical studies evidence supports the theorization of excess catecholamine concentration as stress cardiomyopathy trigger.There is temporal association between a stressful psychological situation and the rapid onset of clinical symptoms of stress cardiomyopathy(Akashi, Nef& Lyon, 2015). The biopsy ofstress cardiomyopathy follow-up and acute cases has demonstrated typical morphological changes, which are similar to the catecholamines induced cardiotoxic effect. Myocardium electron microscopy demonstrates destructionto contractile proteins, with various different vacuoles sized vacuoles, different contents and enlarged myocytes diameter. Other observations include specified cytoplasma area and mitochondria clusters, with abnormal shape and size (Akashi, Nef& Lyon, 2015). Contraction bands with overload of cytoplasmic calcium and fixed cross-bridging myofilament have also been sporadically found. Nuclei of cardiomyocyte are also found to appear abnormal with changed location and size, characteristically, at the border of the cell. Swelling of cell is also observed and it is related with the basal lamina damage, but without signs of oncotic and necrosis death of cell related with ischaemic injury. The changes induced by acute catecholamine in myocardial appearance as well as the composition, contractile and cytoskeletal proteins arrangement are restored to normal after recovery. Characteristically, structural modifications resulting from overload of catecholamine include mild neutrophilic infiltration and reversible arrangements of intracellulars. The myofibroblasts presence is one of the early signsof stress cardiomyopathy and it might play a defensive role by reducing myocardial disarray (Akashi, Nef& Lyon, 2015).

Natural History of Stress Cardiomyopathy

Stress Cardiomyopathy was initially discovered in Japan in 1990 where it was reported by cardiovascular specialist in the country. This heart disease has since been accepted in the society across the world, with its unique independent disease entity. This is a significant entity which is different from other acute infarction of myocardial. Stress cardiomyopathy patients normally have a good prognosis, and nearly perfect recovery is recorded in about 96% of the cases. This means that the condition which is normally regarded as temporal has a small mortality rate, with each hospital recording a small number of mortality, mostly varying between one and two percent (Rivera, Bailen& Aguilar, 2011).Generally, the world mortality rate of the disease varies between 0 and 12%. The research has demonstrated high mortality rate among whites compared to Asians, with the older age having a high chance of death compared to other individuals. High rate of mortality is also recoded among people with other coronary diseases. Most deaths happen during the follow-up case. The research also shows that about 5% of the stress cardiomyopathy patients suffer cardiac arrest (Rivera, Bailen& Aguilar, 2011). Although their rate of long-term survival is the same compared to that of healthy people, stress cardiomyopathy patients contain a higher death risk at the onset. Generally, the mortality and morbidity rate are lower in stress cardiomyopathy patients compared to ACS, and the function of left ventricular could define the prognosis. The stress cardiomyopathy recurrence is considerably rare, though it has been reported in a number of occasions (Rivera, Bailen& Aguilar, 2011). The condition main complainant is chest pain and the symptoms recurrence rate is about 11 percent. This mostly happens during the follow-up period (Komamura et al., 2014). The recurrence time ranges from 3 months to 13years, where these incidences do not go beyond 13 years. There is currently reasonable doubt regarding the complete stress cardiomyopathy reversibility (Rivera, Bailen& Aguilar, 2011).

Stress cardiomyopathycan result to complications though in rare cases. Some of the complicated cases include broken heart syndrome which can be very fatal. Nevertheless, majority may experience quick recovery from the broken heart syndrome, and its health effects may as well diminish with time. Other possible complication include pulmonary edema, where the lungs gets back-up fluid, hypotension or low blood pressure, heartbeat disruptions, and heart failure (, 2017). The condition is highly reported among the elderly people who are above 68 years, though it can as well occur among the younger population. Based on its low death rate and low rate of recurrence, stress cardiomyopathy patients are highly probable to live for long. This means that, this is not a permanent condition and once treated one can live longer. The condition only turns to be worse among individuals with other heart conditions. Stress cardiomyopathy is believed to be initiated by stress and physical conditions. In this regard, the patient may need therapeutic measures to reduce the rate of recurrence. The condition also may jeopardize individual physical ability and thus, one may need assistance, especially when in acute stage of the condition (, 2017). The condition also creates stress in the family, especially since it is highly associated with chronic heart diseases that kill. In case a family does not have proper knowledge regarding the condition, it is highly likely to get anxious. It may also be distress for having an extra role of helping the patient in various chores.

Subjective Data: Clinical Presentation

Normally the patients are presented to the doctor complaining of chest pain. The doctor is then required to conduct an assessment to collect subjective data. This includespatient personal details such as age, gender, health history, especially on cardiovascular related illness. The doctor should also source information regarding past surgery, or lungs problem. Patient’s stress condition or psychological wellbeing is also evaluated (, 2017). The doctor will then perform physical analysis of the patient, which will include taking the heart rates, temperature, weight, breathing rate, and all other necessary details. Extra assessments based on the patient symptoms will include heart x-ray, blood tests, ultrasound analysis, and blood vessels analysis.

Objective Data: Clinical Presentation

Symptoms of stress cardiomyopathy which include dyspnea and chest pain are very similar to those of ACS. In addition, the ECG changes and the raised cardiac biomarkers are also recorded in ACS. In this regard, a doctor must focus on differentiating the two by making the right diagnosis. This is done by conduction more specific tests that can easily create a difference between the two (Rivera, Bailen& Aguilar, 2011). This includetests that show pictures of the heart, for instance echocardiogram test that gives visual detail of the heart functionality, and the blood test that determine the enzyme content that increases in the blood when a patient has stress cardiomyopathy. Clear diagnosis will then be made based on this information.

Assessment and Diagnosis

In case a doctor suspects that a patient is suffering from stress cardiomyopathy, the doctor subjects the patient to a number of tests and assessments to make diagnosis. The first assessment will involve gathering the patient medical history information and the performing normal physical examination. The doctor will want to know more about the patient medical history, particularly on heart diseases in the past. Normally, individuals with stress cardiomyopathy normally do not have any history of heart related diseases symptoms prior to their diagnosis with stress cardiomyopathy. The assessment will also focus on determining whether the patient have had any recent stressful experience that include death of the loved one, or any other loss that would cause grief (Mayo Clinic, 2017). The other diagnosis test is done using electrocardiogram (ECG). Technician in this noninvasive test will put wires on the chest of the patient, which documents the electrical impulses that make the patient heartbeat. The ECG keeps records of the electrical signals that the doctor can use to determine heart structure or rhythms irregularities. The doctor may also demand for an echocardiogram to determine whether there is heart enlargement, if there is stress cardiomyopathy sign, or if the heart has its normal shape. This test which is noninvasive comprises of chest ultrasound showing detailed pictures of function and structure of the heart.

The waves of ultrasound are transmitted, where by, their echoes are documented with transducer, which is a device located outside the patient’s body. The transducer information is then passed into a computer where moving images are developed on a video screen. Blood tests are also used in the diagnoses of stress cardiomyopathy. The blood of majority of people suffering from stress cardiomyopathy contains an increased level of particular enzymes (Rivera, Bailen& Aguilar, 2011). Thus, blood test may be done to check on the content of these enzymes to assist in making elimination. A chest X-ray is another test that is highly likely to be ordered. The X-ray focuses on determining whether the heart has enlarged or contains the shape of stress cardiomyopathy. It also determines if there is any issue in the lungs that could be contributing to stress cardiomyopathy like symptoms. Another test that the doctor may consider ordering is the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) where the patient is subjected into magnetic field via a long tube like machine (Mayo Clinic, 2017). A detailed picture is produced by the magnetic field to assist the doctors to examine the heart. Another possible test that can add to the diagnosis of stress cardiomyopathy is coronary angiogram. In a coronary angiogram, the blood vessels are injected with form of dye visible via x-ray machine. Then, series of images are rapidly taken by the X-ray machine, which provides the doctor with a detailed image at the inner parts of the blood vessels. Since stress cardiomyopathy frequently mimics the heart attack symptoms and signs, it would be helpful to perform coronary angiogram swiftly to assist in ruling out heart attack(Mayo Clinic, 2017).

Plan for Management of Stress Cardiomyopathy

Stress cardiomyopathy management mainly contains symptomatic and supportive treatment. At the beginning, the patient is managed like a myocardinal infarction, which includes provision of urgent coronary angiography with basic coronary intervention view. The treatment of all patients suffering from coronary artery disease begins with aspirin, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and low molecular weight heparins; diuretics and β-blockers can be started if necessary. More supportive care should be provided for patients with congestive heart failure with vasodilators and diuretics. It is important to note that stress cardiomyopathy treatment mainly remains empirical. With initial effective medical support, individuals suffering from stress cardiomyopathy demonstrate good echocardiographic and clinical improvement, as well as great prognosis.

Stress cardiomyopathy patients should as well be monitored for development of mechanical, heart failure and arrhythmias complications. Patients with severe haemodynamic require intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation and vasopressor agents. Apical thrombus can develop,making temporary anticoagulation necessary. Based on the patient condition, the patient may fit in the inpatient care, where he or she will be taken care of by the nurses and other medical professionals (Ramaraj, 2007). In case the patient is in the follow-up group, the patient will fit in outpatient services, where she or he will be visiting for progress assessment. This will include ensuring cardiomyopathy resolution, normally with serial echocardiograms. The doctor will thus advise for yearly follow-up clinic due to the known natural history and long-term effect of the disease, to assist the patient in attaining the treatment goals.

Engaging Patient with Stress Cardiomyopathy

The main barrier to stress cardiomyopathy management is diagnosis. Stress cardiomyopathy condition resembles ACS and thus, it is considerably hard to make the right diagnosis. The situation worsens when the hospital where the patient is rushed does not have the right facilities to make advance tests that assist in making a clear cut between the two. The disease management may therefore be impossible when the wrong treatment is given. Another major barrier is the root cause of the problem. Stress cardiomyopathy is normally caused by stressful events among other factors (Ramaraj, 2007). It may therefore be considerably hard to handle the situation in case the patient stressful condition persists. The patient has to be free of the situation that initiated the condition. Stress events have also been cited as the major cause of recurrence. In this regard, patients may need extra psychological assistance for effective recovery. The main facilitator is that stress cardiomyopathy is a temporal condition and once diagnosed, the patient can effectively managed using medication, with slim chances of death and recurrence. Though gradual, proper case management, including follow-ups can easily result to complete healing (Ramaraj, 2007).

Patient activation should happen during the interpretation of the patient assessment result. During this time the doctor should clearly explain the condition to the patient and make the patient understand what may need to be done to ensure proper treatment. This includes briefing on the patient contribution in the treatment process. The main thing in stress cardiomyopathy treatment is overcoming the stressful situation with strong mind and taking the provided medication as required. The patient should also know the disease impact in the short- and long-run and what may need to be known about it (Dahlviken, Fridlund&Mathisen, 2015). This gives the patient the courage to fight the condition. Knowing that complete treatment of the condition is possible gives patient the strength and vigor needed to enhance quick recovery. Empowerment involves providing the patient with the mechanism of overcoming the condition and winning. This includes providing proper medical care and counseling, social support, group support and effective follow-up. This makes the patient hopeful and thus, trying to gather inner strength to rejuvenate personal strength to be able to continue with the fight (Dahlviken, Fridlund&Mathisen, 2015).

The five evidence based strategies to promote patient activation and empowerment include holistic nursing, which involves seeing the patient as whole. This is an approach that is based on the perspective of patient, and acknowledging subjective experience of an individual regarding values, health beliefs, and health. The concept refers to interconnected environment, body, context, mind, emotion, relationships, spirit, and socio-culture. This assists highly in treating the underlying cause of the stress cardiomyopathy (Dahlviken, Fridlund&Mathisen, 2015). Awareness and disease education is another evidence based strategy that can be used to enhance patient activation and empowerment. Patient demonstrates fear and anxiety every time they have a condition that seems serious, but do not have enough knowledge or information about it. This may even be worse in a situation such as stress cardiomyopathy that is motivated by stress. It is therefore important for doctors to give all possible information to ensure that patients are aware of the situation and that they understand every treatment procedure and they are fully involved (Dahlviken, Fridlund&Mathisen, 2015).

Counseling is another strategy that has been proven to be effective in activating and empowering stress cardiomyopathy patients. The counseling helps in relieving the patients from any stressful condition that could have initiated the situation or in overcoming mental distress emanating from the new development. This makes them get peaceful mind and inner power to fight the condition (Dahlviken, Fridlund&Mathisen, 2015). Stress cardiomyopathy has a possibility to recur and especially in the presence of the first trigger. Clinical follow-up of up to 13 years is regarded as the best way to reassure patients that they are fine. The follow-up may also assure patients that there are people who are ready to take care of them in case of any problem. This eliminates fear and anxiety; aspects that can as well trigger recurrences. Family and social support is another strategy that is proven to have a great impact in activating the patient and empowering them (Rivera, Bailen& Aguilar, 2011). Family members should be there to support them and to encourage them to recover completely. Social support especially among those who have had previous experience with the disease and have overcome, gives patient hope of concurring in the end. Thus, they play a great part in empowering the patients and activating them. Social support can also be very educative (Rivera, Bailen& Aguilar, 2011).

Evidence-based Chronic Disease Analysis Paper Instructions

The purpose of this exercise is to further develop skills in writing a scholarly paper, to expand skills in conducting scholarly research, and to expand knowledge about chronic disease management.

For this assignment, the student will analyze the chronic disease process and create a comprehensive management plan including disease prevention and health promotion as well as discuss patient engagement in chronic disease management

All elements in the grading rubric must be addressed in the paper and discussion should be based on current best practices supported by citations from current literature such as systematic reviews, meta-analyses, research-based clinical practice guidelines and randomized controlled trials.

The use of evidence-based practice should be evident throughout the paper by using at least 2 references for each discussion topic. The reference list should only include those references cited in the paper. A minimum of 3 current peer-reviewed references (research articles or systematic reviews) less than 5 years old must be used to demonstrate the content reflects the most current research. Textbooks and websites (Up-to-Date, MedScape, et al) can be used but should not constitute more than 25% of resources in the reference list.

Part 1:  Analysis of the chronic disease (65 points) is a detailed study of the chronic disease.

  1. Define the disease and include discussion on epidemiology, risk factors, incidence, prevalence, and the cost of care.
  2. Pathophysiology discussion should compare normal anatomy and physiology to the pathophysiologic changes of the chronic disease.
  3. Discuss the natural history of the chronic disease   including mortality, morbidity, complications, and life expectancy as well as the physical and psychological demands the chronic disease places on patients and their family/caregivers.
  4. Subjective Data:  Clinical Presentation  should include discussion on how the patient with the chronic disease typically presents to the healthcare provider.  Include history of present illness, pertinent past medical / surgical history, family medical history, and social history.  A review of each body system should address positive subjective findings (symptoms) the patient may share with the practitioner during the interview.
  5. Objective Data:  Clinical Presentationshould include discussion on the comprehensive physical examination findings.  Identify the pertinent positive findings that support the diagnosis as well as the pertinent negative findings (signs) that support the diagnosis.
  6. Assessment and Diagnosisshould focus on identifying a minimum of five differential diagnoses with similar clinical presentation and provide discussion on how each differential diagnoses will be ruled out.  Discuss diagnostic tests important to the diagnosis of the chronic disease including rationale for why they would be ordered and what findings support the diagnosis of the chronic disease.
  7. Plan for Management of the Chronic Diseaseshould include discussion on the goals of treatment for the chronic disease as well as all pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments.  Discuss the rationale for each treatment.  Identify and explain key concepts that the practitioner needs to share with the patient in order to achieve disease management goals.  Identify other disciplines who may need to be consulted and explain each members role in the care of the patient.

Part 2: Engaging Patients with Chronic Disease(20 points) is a scholarly discussion on how the nurse practitioner engages the patient in their treatment plan which includes empowering patients to make decisions about their care.

  1. Identify facilitators and barriers to chronic diseasemanagement and describe strategies to overcome the barriers
  2. Define patient activation and patient empowerment and describe the role both concepts play in self-managementof chronic disease
  3. Discuss five evidence-based strategies to promote patient activation and empowerment in chronic disease management


OSHA Alliances Benefits to Employers and Workers in General Industry

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has put in place several programs to allow it to work collaboratively with the public in the promotion of safe and healthy workplaces, as well as to enhance the voice of the workforce in the workplace. Parties that are approved to participate include businesses, unions, trade or professional organizations, consulates, faith and community-based organizations, and educational institutions (Root, 2005, p. 56). By participating in OSHA alliances,employers and workers in general industry enjoy a wide range of benefits; they comprise increased access to workplace safety, leverage of resources for maximization of safety, and theestablishment of progressive dialogues with the agency with regard to worker safety and health.

For workers, participation in OSHA alliances provides an avenue for easily accessing effective workplace safety, health tools, and information concerning worker rights. This aids to counter various challenges that arise in the workplace due to the employer’s failure to maintain high safety standards. Active participation gives workers the ability to effortlessly reach and impact the communication networks between OSHA and employers, which further ensures that their grievances are heard.

When employers participate in OSHA alliances, they discover new ways of leveraging resources to take full advantage and enhance their worker safety and health protection programs(Toole et al., 2006, p.8-11). For instance, in the OSHA Challenge program gives employers position to enjoy training, mentoring, and learning programs that are geared toward preventing injuries, fatalities, and illnesses in the workplace.

Lastly, OSHA alliances play an instrumental role when it comes to the creation of progressive dialogues with the agency itself. Through dialogues, alliances help to ease any tensions between employers, their employees, and OSHA. Thus, this establishes the conducive conditions necessary for the creation of trusting and cooperative relationships with the agency. Besides, participants gain recognition as practical leaders in safety and health.

Effectiveness of the Current American Prison System

The current American prison system is ineffective form of punishment because of the way prisons are run. In the US, the solitary reason of imprisonment appears to be punishment. Punishment is essential for intentions of justice since exclusive of that offenders would run amok with no responsibility for their deeds. Punishment, on the other hand, has to be evenhanded with rehabilitation, and there is an inconceivable inadequacy of it in these American prison systems. That is why San Quentin gets stated as unique since other prisons have an incredible lack of these programs. Also, the notion of restorative justice, a practice of reconciliation amid the victim and wrongdoer, is not included in the corrections in the American prisons. So, wrongdoers obtain the corporal and psychological beat-down from detain to the court of law to prison with nothing positive to attend to how they got there and how they can modify their conduct and identify the worth they have and how they may perhaps make a distinction in society. They do not have the restorative fairness model to sympathize with the wounded, ask for forgiveness to them, and partake in the healing of the wounded as well as, wrongdoer. Therefore, individuals get out of prison still annoyed, if not angrier, undervalued, amateurish, and distressed, and draw back into the same actions that got them in prison.

Incarceration for many of the crimes people are being incarcerated for gets not justified. However, this is because most of individuals are in prison for crimes of infatuation, and would really not repeat- offend. Take for example, a low-income individual who steal a packet of flour because he requires feed his family. Prison does not assist improve the structural insufficiencies that direct that individual to commit the crime, for instance poverty, and after prisoners’ period is complete, they are taken back to the same place, with the similar performers and pressure, such as gangs that compel him to commit crime; and lastly, most criminals really age out of offense (Luckey, & Potts, 2011). Studies have revealed that the most possible wrongdoers are aged sixteen and twenty five and after that age, the rates of crime reduce considerably.

To limit or reduce the size of the prison population various ways can get employed for instance Community Orders. Community Orders are on-custodial punishments for instance, the curfew supervised by electronic labeling, or unpaid work and they are pleasing substitute punishments to petite terms of incarceration. Moreover, they are more cost-effective, a structure of restorative fairness, and rehabilitations more probable (DeFina, & Hannon, 2013). They are as well disciplinary and give a degree of fortification to the community from anti-social conduct. Additionally, reducing the duration of time a prisoner stays in the prison is in fact a much more dependable and competent way of reducing the prison population than other ways. However, this does not mean that the other ways should get dropped, but the American prison should at least try both.

It is clear that American prison requires a new system that will make it an effective form of punishment. Moreover, most individuals imprisoned in those prisons require rehabilitation to change their conduct. Changing the system, however, will result to reduction of size of population in prison. After all, the population size of the prison depends not only on the span of time they stay, but also the number of individual who are sent there.

3D Printing History, Discovery and Development

Executive Summary

This report investigates the history, discovery and development of 3D technology and examines the forecasted future advancements of 3D printing. A brief history of the 3D printing and its operation is initially outlined. The discussion then focuses on the discovery and development of the 3D printing. The performance of these 3Dprinting is examined in relation to three main criteria: feature size, accuracy, and suitability for mass. It is concluded that further technological advances in these three areas as well as the deployment of digital light processing stereolithography (DLP-SLA) technology will continue to improve the quality of 3D printing. It is also suggested that specialized 3D printing will increasingly be incorporated into other types of technology.


The purpose of this report is to survey the current state of 3D printing technology and to briefly discuss its history, discovery, and development in the field. By probing a range of lately published journal articles, magazine articles and internet sites on the topic of 3D printing this report describes the history, discovery and development of 3D printing in use today and examines their performance in relation to three criteria: feature size, accuracy, and suitability for mass. The report then considers the effect of further technological advances in these three areas, as well as the deployment of digital light processing stereolithography (DLP-SLA) technology on the future development of 3D printing.

An early improvement on the 3D printing can be traced back in 1986. The development of small, big, accurate, and suitable for mass 3D printing followed the Rapid Prototyping (RP) as domestic users and commercial users increased due to increase in number of computer users and advance in computer technology.

History, discovery and development of 3D printing

In the late 1980’s the earliest 3D printing technologies initially became visible and at this time they were referred to as Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies. However, this is because the processes were initially imagined as a fast and more cost-effectual technique for making prototypes for product advance in industry, (Easton, 2008). Interestingly, the very initial copyright application for RP technology got filed in Japan by Dr Kodama, in May 1980. Unluckily, for Dr Kodama, the complete copyright requirement was afterward not filed prior to the one year time limit subsequent to the application, which is mainly devastating bearing in mind that he was a copyright lawyer. As a result, the genesis of 3D printing can get traced back to 1986, when the initial copyright got issued for stereolithography apparatus (SLA). However, this copyright was owned by Charles Hull who invested his SLA machine first in 1983. Hull continued co-found 3D Systems Corporation which is one of the biggest and most creative institutes in use of the 3D printing segment today.

The SLA-1 which is the first 3D Systems ‘commercial RP system, was established in 1987 and subsequent thorough testing the first of these system got vended in 1988. As is reasonably distinctive with new technology, whilst SLA can allege to be the primary past the preliminary post, it was not the just RP technology in growth at this time. However, this I because in 1987, Carl Deckard, filled a copyright in the United states for the Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) RP process. The copyright got issued in 1989 and SLS was afterward approved to DTM Inc, which was afterward obtained by 3D Systems. 1989 Scott Crump, a co-founder of Stratasys Inc. filed a copyright for Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) the proprietary technology that until today get held by the company, but is also the procedure utilized by many of the entry-level machines, on the basis of the open source RepRap model, that are productive today, (Kostakis & Papachristou, 2014). In 1992, the FDM copyright got issued to Stratasys. In Europe, 1989 Founded the EOS GmbH in Germany. After a dalliance with EOS’, SL processes, and R&D, spotlight got placed greatly on the laser sintering (LS) process, which has nonstop gone from effectiveness to effectiveness. Today, the EOS systems get renowned around the world for their excellence output for production and business prototyping applications of 3D printing. In 1990, EOS sold its first ‘Stereos’ system. The direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process for the company resulted from a first project with a dissection of Electrolux Finland, which was afterward obtained by EOS.

Other 3D printing processes and technologies were also rising in these years, specifically Ballistic Particle Manufacturing (BPM), Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM), Solid Ground Curing (SGC) and ‘three dimensional printing’ (3DP), (Wright, 2001). And so near the beginningof nineties observed a growing number of challenging companies in the market of RP although only three of the inventive continue today Stratasys, EOS and 3D Systems.
During the 1990’s and early 2000’s a host of novel technologies carried on to get brought in, still paying attention entirely on industrial applications. However, while they were still mostly processes for prototyping applications, R&D got also being conducted by the more superior technology givers for precise casting, tooling, and direct manufacturing applications, (Zolfagharian, at al., 2016). Nonetheless, this saw the appearance of novel terminology, specifically Rapid Casting, Rapid Tooling (RT), and Rapid Manufacturing (RM) in that order.
But it was not until January 2009 that the initial commercially obtainable 3D printer got offered for sale. Since 2009, a mass of similar deposition printers have materialized with minor exceptional selling points and they keep on doing so.


a result of the market discrepancy, noteworthy progresses at the industrial level with capabilities and applications, 3D printing has since 1986 continuously to advance. However, what cannot get denied is the blow that 3D printing is having on the industrial sector and the enormous prospective that 3D printing is representing for the prospect of consumers. What shape that prospective will take is still making known ahead of us.

Affirmative Action

Affirmative action program refers to a designed management tool to enhance equal employment chances. A core evidence essential to affirmative action is that a contractor’s workforce, absent discrimination, and overtime with in general reflect ethnic, racial, and gender labor pools profile from which the contractor selects and recruits. However, there is a misconception that affirmative involves hiring people that are less qualified compared to other applicants in order to balance on gender, or race. This is not true, before a consideration of race and gender is employed, an applicant must be qualified. Other misconception is equating affirmative action with diversity and civil rights. There is also a misconception that a company can get a person of color of different gender from a pool of unemployed individuals if their finalist pool does not satisfy the diversity requirement of the federal government. This is just a myth since these individuals are not supposed to be favored, they must be competitive. Discrimination only occurs when the aspects of disqualification are based on discriminative aspects such as gender or race (Messerli, 2010).

The affirmative action has been used to offer a higher preference to the minority groups such that in a pool of qualified applicant, a minority is given a higher privilege over others, especially if the organization has not meet the federal government diversity requirement. The program also offers scholarship to the minority groups as a way of uplifting their academic level of qualification to make them more competitive in the job market. Affirmative action also dictates on how university should enroll its students, with much emphasis being provided on increasing the enrollment of students from minority groups which include female and non-whites racial. This meant to increase their level of competitiveness in the job market in the future (, n.d.).

Affirmative action may not directly benefit those who used to experience discrimination, however, plays a great role in ensuring diversity and inclusion in an organization. In this regard, every employee in the organization can benefit by sharing new ideas, knowledge. Diversity is related with high level of organization creativity and innovation and thus, it can indirectly help them to grow professionally.

Group Counseling ACA Code of Conduct Overview

The ACA code of conduct is an ethical guideline provided to counselors to ensure that they behave in a manner that can enhance the life quality of the society through promoting the professional counselors development, counseling profession advancement, and employment of the counseling practice and profession to encourage diversity and human dignity. The ACA does not have a special document for group counseling; however, it has special sections that address group counseling. This means that a group counselor must satisfy all ACA code of ethics requirements given to guide all counselors, and specifically considerations given for group counseling.

According to ACA (2014), the code sections that are relevant to group counseling include Section A.9. Section A.9.a guides that a counselor on group screening where is required to screen the anticipated participants of group counseling to the highest level possible, and choose individuals whose goals and needs are compatible with group goals. The counselor should ensure that the selected members cannot hinder the process of the group. In addition, the counselor should ensure that the wellbeing of members will not be endangered by the experience of the group. Section A.9.b is also specifically given for the group counselors. In this section, counselors are required to take sensible precautions to safeguard clients from psychological, emotional or physical trauma. This section ensures that the counselor prioritizes on the wellbeing of the clients or participants. Another group counseling relevant sections is section B.4 regarding groups and families. According to section B.4.a, a counselor handling group therapy need to explain clearly the parameters and importance of confidentiality for the particular group. This enhances the protection of the client’s information to ensure that this information is not misused or used to harm the client outside the group therapy.

Psychological Considerations and Sociological Effects of 3D Printing

Topic: Psychological considerations and sociological effects of 3D Printing

The primary focus of the team is to research and assess the issues associated with a specific emerging technology. The team will produce a formal research paper in APA format, with each team member contributing 10 pages of text. The paper will provide the basis for a 20-minute Team Presentation.

All written sections will be compiled into one, cohesive team paper. All students should review the paper to ensure that the transitions are smooth, that the sections fit together, and that the bibliographies are compiled correctly.

The paper should conclude with recommendations for further research or possible solutions that could be evaluated. A complete list of references, in APA format, should follow along with any Appendices.

  • Title Page (not included in page count)
  • Table of Contents – indicating student sections (not included in page count)
  • Abstract – 200-word summary of the entire paper; it is not a restatement of the introduction (not included in page count)
  • Report

o    Introduction that provides background information, establishes the context and significance of the issues and the technology (your thesis statement) and generally orients your reader to the entire project. It should outline the scope of the investigation, and comment on any challenges the team faced with respect to research sources.


o    Report sections, organized using at least level-1 and level-2 headings.

o    Proper documentation throughout the report using APA style.  (Each member is responsible for documenting properly, and undocumented or poorly cited material will count as plagiarism—a failing grade for the paper.)

o    Appropriate visuals/graphic aids in the document that are discussed in the body of the report and support the thesis (e.g., a table, graph, chart, illustration, photograph, diagram, map, etc.); mathematical or statistical data is appropriately used to support conclusions. All visuals/graphic aids also need to be properly documented.

o    Conclusion that effectively synthesizes the sections of the report. It should summarize key issues. Included in this section should be Recommendations for Further Research, following up on any questions that were uncovered during your research or suggestions for groups/events to follow.

  • Bibliography and appendix (not included in the page count but significant in showing you “found” relevant stuff that would not fit into the body of the text—brochures, charts, handouts, samples of materials or products, or team process reports, etc.). Wise groups begin the bibliography early and start gathering related materials for the Appendix.

Technological Tools Used in a Learning Environment


The world has in the recent past experienced drastic change in the Information Technology. Since then different organizations and institutions have been trying to integrate this technology in their daily operations to enhance efficiency. This includes learning institution especially in the institutions of higher learning. Most institutions have replaced their old class environment that include chalks, blackboard, and physical interaction between teachers and students into a more modernized learning environment that include virtual class, or an integrated class with both virtual and traditional aspects. More and more modern technological tools are being integrated in leaning. This paper evaluates the technological tools used in a learning environment and identifiespossible ethical, intellectual property and legal issues that can arise during their use.

Technological Tools Used in Learning and in Career

Unlike in the past the modern learning environment has embraced the use modern technological tools to enhance teaching and learning. Some of the technological tools that are being used in learning and teaching today include laptops or computers, smart-board or interactive whiteboard, internet, software, and email.

Interactive Whiteboard

Interactive whiteboard refers to an electronic devise that creates an interface with a computer for imageries to be displayed on the board and they are used interactively. In this interactive use, one can add notes, highlight point of interest, and manipulate program like one is using a big touch pad. It also allows one to print the resulting drawing or notes among other from the computer or one can save the work to be used in the future. Interactive board is also used to view website as a group, showing presentation, and creating digital lessons among other things. It helps in promoting active and collaborative learning through discussions, reading, analysis, writing, and evaluation, as well as bringing the class together (Smart Technologies, 2006).


Computer is another effective and powerful learningtool. Computers were introduced to school to enhance effective learning and they normally work with specific software designed to enhance learning. They are also used to create notes and presentations to enhance teaching. When used with projection video, computers assist the teachers to project notes in a more visible and engaging way compared to traditional classroom. They are also used in assignment preparation, conducting research, sharing information among other things. In sciences, computers are being used to develop simulation that would enhance students understanding of a particular subject, especially when 3D graphics are employed. Computers are also being used widely in different careers to make work easier and to enhance effectiveness. They are being used to analyses data in a class environment and also in statistical field. Actually, a computer can be used indifferent ways as long as one has the right software tools to help in achieving this.


Internet is another very powerful technological tool in learning. While integrated with computer and other modern tools such as smartphones, internet is playing a great role in enhancing virtual learning. With internet virtual students can easily interact with their tutors via the blackboard and through portals. They can easily access class notes and assignment and also submit assignments. Internet has also enhanced learning by promoting information sharing through digital academic and professional databases. It is currently ease for student conducting research to access digital journals, textbooks, position papers, and articles. People can also add to their knowledge through digitalized discussion forums. Internet has made the globe a village and education to more resourceful though instant information access (Thieman, 2008). Moreover, it has made teaching and learning to much easier and cheap compared to the traditional classrooms. Internet has made it easy to include all students in class discussion despite their nature. It has highly benefited students who lack confidence to raise their questions or give their ideas to the class.

Ethical and Legal Issues Associated with the Technological Tools

The difference created in the use of modern technological tools in learning and teaching has also presented new challenges to learning and in career. Normally, the operation of all the above discussed tools is based on the use of specific software which give one a platform to operate on. The software are created by specific companies who hold their intellectual right and sold to the public. However, these software are sometimes pirated or cracked to able to use them without paying the required fee, or longer than intended by the producer. This can create legal issues on the user. Another ethical and legal issue that can easily arise is plagiarism, the modern tools make it easy for students and teachers to access peoples work, including scholars and other students. This can tempt students to extract others work and present it as theirs which would result to violation of intellectual property of the original writer or publisher and also initiate educational crime. People can also be tempted to access personal information from government database and use it for personal interest or to violate rights of others (Akca, 2008). In addition, one is very likely to experience security issues that include hacking, losing information by stealing password, losing data due to computer virus or spyware among other issues. To safeguard from other students and employees one should employ strong passwords that cannot be easily hacked especially in public computers.

BOS 3525 – Legal Aspects of Safety and Health – Discussion Questions

 If OSHA  determines that an employer’s response to a non-formal complaint is adequate, what options does the employee filing the non-formal complaint have?

In case OSHA determines that an employer’s response to an employee’s non-formal complaint is adequate, the employee has two options. First, on receiving a copy of the employer’s response, the person can request for an on-site inspection if they are not satisfied(Repa & Guerin, 2014, p.196). Second, they can choose to file formal complaint in writing because OSHA is likely to perform an on-site inspection on receiving any formal complaint. Because a formal complaint normally involves reporting claims of serious physical harm or imminent danger situations, the complainant is supposed to cite the specific issue with preciseness in order to elicit a favorable response.


If the OSHA compliance officer requests documents that are not related to a formal complaint, what options do you believe the employer has?

If the OSHA compliance officer asks for documents that are not related to a formal complaint, the employer can refer back to the OSHA standards in order to know what action to take.It is important to note that OSHA standards describe a formal complaint as a grievance that is made by one or more of the current employees or their representatives (Tai, 2000, p. 8). A formal complaint must also meet the following requirements: (1) it must be written or submitted in the form of an OSHA-7 from, (2) it must be signed by at least one of current employees or their representatives, and (3) must communicate of an imminent danger, violation of OSHA standards, or a violation of the act that exposes employees to one or more hazards at their place of work.

Therefore, if a compliance officer asks for documents that are not related to a formal complaint, I believe that the employer has the right to deny that request. They can call the nearest OSHA department to notify them of the request or askfor an informal conference to discuss the matter. Asking for documents that are not related to the formal complaint could mean that the officer is spying on the company or overstepping their jurisdiction.


Under what conditions can an employee be denied access to the opening conference, walk-around, and closing conference?

OSHA has many procedures it uses to inspect company premises and spaces. The inspection in such cases mostly involves the employees and in some parts the employer. The opening conference is when the compliance officer upon entry into the company premises decides to hold a quick meeting with the employees and then the management. An employee may be denied access if the employer requests so. An employee can further be denied entry into the various inspection areas the meetings if he is not part of the area being inspected. In such a case, he cannot provide the information needed by the inspected, and as such, he should not be around. It is only when the inspector carries out a full inspection and requires the participation of the entire workforce as consented by the company can such an employee attend. In the closing conference, the employee can be disallowed from participating if he or she is not part of a certain workstation that was being inspected (Bailey, 2015). In other cases where representatives are in place, the employee cannot be allowed to join the inspection. Furthermore, an employer can decide that such an employee should not be near the walk around or at the closing conference when the compliance officer is conducting the various checks at the facility.

Another instance will involve an uncooperative employee who does not obey the demands made by the compliance officer. Other conditions can include an employee who is sick and cannot be provided with the needed information (Roughton & Crutchfield, 2015). It is, therefore, important to note that most of the conditions that will affect the entry of the employ in an inspection area and the opening and closing conferences will result from the employer’s request, the workstation of an employee.


Can an employee request that an attorney or union representative attend a private conference with the compliance officer? If the union demands to have a representative present, does the employee have to comply?

OSHA guidelines help in determining the representation of an employee with the coordination of the employer and employee whenever possible. Employers should not allow union representatives into the private conference room unless there is an urgency requiring them to be there. Employees have the right to have representatives or other relevant persons to attend the interview like union representatives or legal. Counsel (Moran, 2011). If the compliance officer objects to that then the employee can refuse a private interview with the compliance officer.  For the union representative the employee decide whether they should be present or not. He or she has a decision to choose their representative.  An employee has a right to have a person of their choosing in the room. In this case, the person can be an attorney which compliance often object to most of the time. The employer can allow an attorney into the conference room whenever there is need. An attorney can be allowed in the conference room though OSHA officers object to such representation of the employee and the employer as it may raise a conflict of interest.

The legal counsel helps to shield the employer form certain questions, which should not be asked, and thus be on the lookout against any incriminating information. In such cases the employees will undergo training to ensure there rights especially where they are no supposed to do interviews absent their own consent (Schneid, 2011). The lawyer will provided legal counsel concerning the compliance process and further inform the employees to be ready should they be asked certain questions. An employee in having legal counsel will be able to deal with situations from the foresight and direction of the legal counsel and therefore in case of any accident that he or she was involved in at the workplace the lawyer will direct the interview with regard to protecting the client from self-incrimination.

Describe the role that Challenge Administrators play in the OSHA Challenge voluntary cooperative program

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) offers various cooperative programs under which, businesses, labor, groups and other organizations can work cooperatively with the agency to help prevent injuries, fatalities, and illnesses in the workplace. One of them is the OSHA Challenge Voluntary Cooperative Program which aims to provide the participants with an avenue to work with their assigned challenge administrators.

Essentially, the key role of the challenge administrators is to develop and improve the safety and health management programs of the challenge participants through training, progress-tracking and mentoring(Bennett & Deitch, 2010, p. 404). They are obligated to follow the program’s three-stage process which includes assessing, learning, and developing (Stage 1), implementing, tracking, and controlling(Stage 2), and reassessing, monitoring, and improving (Stage 3) the participant’s safety programs.

During the first stage, challenge administrators are responsible for educating the participants about elements that are necessary for the development and implementation of effective safety and health management programs. They then proceed to challenge participants to successfully complete and implement the developed policies in the second stage. Participants are expected to improve their programs as guided and begin to integrate policies for special trade contractor safety management program requirements. Lastly, the challenge administrators challenge them to continue reassessing, monitoring and improving their programs(Bennett&Deitch, 2007). After the completion of each stage, OSHA provides the challenge participants with letters of recognition.

Disparate Impact

What is “Disparate Impact”?

Laws against discrimination not only covers intentional acts by a particular party but also actions that are not premediated to discriminate but have the effect of doing so.When an employer’s action results in a discriminatory effect, this is referred to as a disparate impact. It can also be described as the rejection of a higher percentage of a protected class of placement, employment, and promotion. Disparate impact is characterized by practices that adversely affect a select group within the population. In order to prove that an adverse effect exists, individuals are required to establish certainly that specific selection procedures have resulted in an adverse or disparate impact on a particular protected class.


Company Y hires employees to collect tickets at sporting events. Company Y’s offer of employment is contingent on a successful background check. An employee with a prior criminal conviction is not allowed to begin employment. Discuss the potential disparate impact this could have on employees, and provide recommendations on what, if anything, the employer should do differently.

In the case of company Y, the refusal to hire or recruit potential employees who have had a prior criminal conviction could result in a discriminatory effect in that, members of certain groups that exhibit higher percentages of convictions might be unintentionally disallowed. According to (BUCKLEY, 2016, 3-24), past courts have found that broad recruitment exclusions based on conviction or arrest records often results tounlawful disparate impact to minority groups, particularly Hispanic and African American applicants. Therefore, company Y should reduce its broad criteria of selection to include narrow preferences. Alternatively, the company’s managerial team should prove without reasonable doubt that the applicant’s criminal history is defensible by the business’ necessity. BUCKLEY (2016) notes that past court rulings have upheld the use of conviction records where they were proven to be job related, especially in cases of safety-related positions. Since company Y’s business is safety-sensitive, it is recommended for the managementto establish a justification for its use of successful background checks.

Reflection on Personal Writing Process

Writing is an essential medium of communication that depicts one’s emotion and language through symbols and signs. Through writing, one is in a position to express ideas and make them known to others. The process of writing a given piece of work could differ from that of putting across another work based on various factors. Nonetheless, there are some basics steps when it comes to writing. They include prewriting, drafting, revising and editing and sometimes publishing (DeLyser & Hawkins, 2014). This piece of work will give a reflection of my writing process and various aspects associated with it.

In most of my writing practices, I do some prewriting. This is before drafting the document.  It entails thinking, brainstorming, taking notes and gathering information on the same. Drafting involves putting ideas about the topic into sentences and paragraphs. The next step is revision and it involves thinking about the needs and expectations of the audience or readers. The organization is checked for effectiveness, the prose refined, sentences made accurate and concise and ideas connected in an explicit manner. Editing is then done to check on grammar, spelling and mechanics.

I approach different academic writing assignments differently. This is more so since it depends on what the assignment requires and the seriousness involved. While some may require a lot in terms of pre-writing, others may not and hence the difference in approaches. Writing is a good and enjoyable practice. It is interesting putting across ideas for others to have an understanding of the concepts therein.  Before I came to learn about the writing process and what it entails, I did not find it interesting but rather as a burden. I find all writing enjoyable but I get to be more serious in writings that will be graded as there is some form of motivation and consequences involved (a pass or fail).

In most cases, I prefer gathering thoughts and available information on a topic before putting them on paper. The same process is always followed in my writings but there could be some variations depending on the time available and seriousness involved. For instance, some may require thorough pre-writing and data collection than others. Some protocol could also be needed for writing for work and for academics and this could bring about some differences.For an essay, I consider the best outline to be; an Introduction, the main body and conclusion.

The materials in Unit II with regard to the process of writing have been quite helpful since they have enhanced both theoretical and practical understanding and knowledge of the process. In addition, the notion of invention as a canon of rhetoric was interesting. This is more so since it helps in coming up with the idea, evaluating different options and finding ways to persuade.

The process for writing this reflection has been exciting. It started by thinking what writing is all about and all the aspects involved. It was a simple task that did not require much research based on the fact that it is just a reflection. Nonetheless, it is worth noting that all writings should be given the weight they deserve. For this case, I thought of writing and what we have learnt in class, and then drafted the reflection. Revision and editing were also done to enhance organization and coherence.

United States Of America Vs Ronald Eric Boyd – Recently Published Court Case

Assignment Instructions

Find a recently published court case that involved the crime of battery, assault, or mayhem. Essay of 500 words in which you:

  • Provide a brief summary of the case.
  • Assess the elements of the crime and the applicable statute, and discuss whether you think the punishment given was appropriate based on the confines of the statute and the facts involved in the case.
  • Discuss whether you would want to make changes to the statute considering the facts of the case involved.


Sample Solution –  United States Of America V. Ronald Eric Boyd

United States of America V. Ronald Eric Boyd was decided on April 20, 2017, before three circuit judges, where Ronald Boyd sought a certificate of appeal ability (COA) in order to challenge  a denial of his 28 U.S.C. § 2255. The judges denied his request and dismissed his appeal. This paper seeks to analyze the facts, arguments, and fairness of the ruling, as well as examine the usage of the applicable statutes and their precision. The author finds thatthere is a need to revise the Okla. Stat. tit. 21, § 645 in order to better define the elements of “assault” and “battery.”

In the initial District court case, which was decided in 2005, MrBoyd, the appellant, pled guilty to possession of a firearmbya felon in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 922 (g) and another count of firearm possession in connection with a drug trafficking crime, in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 924(c) (1) (A). The court decided that he was subject to the provisions of the Armed Career Criminal Act (ACCA), based on two previous drug convictions and one conviction for battery and assault with a dangerous weapon underOkla. Stat. tit. 21, § 645. However, Mr Boyd was unsatisfied by the ruling and proceeded to take his motion to the Supreme Court in a bid to challenge the severity of his sentence, based on the sentence enhancement under § 924(e). The latest case, which this paper explores, is Mr Boyd’s last attempt to seek the COA in order to challenge the denial of his motion.

First, the jury provided that a prisoner may not appeal a denial of relief under § 2255 without having a COA unless the applicant makes a substantial demonstration of the denial of a constitutional right. Second, the court clarified the provisions of Okla. Stat. tit. 21 § 645 (1999)whereby the jury maintained that § contains a set of detachable elements. They comprise battery, assault, and the resulting interconnections. The § 645 criminalizes battery, assault, or assault and battery with any sharp or dangerous weapon. It also criminalizes shooting at another. Notably, the first alternative involves the sub-alternatives of “battery,” “assault,” or “battery and assault.” Under Oklahoma law, simple battery and simple assault require even the slightest element of force or touch. Further, the jury concluded that the additional element of a “dangerous weapon,” indeed qualifies as a crime of violence.

It is important to note that the initial case involved Mr Boyd possessing a sawed-off shotgun during drug trafficking.Due to the given conclusions in United States v. Treto-Martinez, 421 F.3d 1156, and his previous drug convictions, Mr Boyd, had intentionally caused physical contact with a person in aninsulting, angry, and rude manner. Thus, his crime fits the criteria of Okla. Stat. tit. 21, § 645 to be referred to as a crime of violence. His sentence was therefore deserved. However, based on the details presented in the case, there is a need to reduce the ambiguity in the provisions of the § 645. There are many past cases where similar confusion was noted (Diamond et al., 1996, pp. 56-57)(Moore, 2011, p.1585) (Plante,1967, p. 639). In light of this, thestatute should be revised to allow for a distinct definition of the elements of battery and assault. In doing this, those responsible for the change should think of a scenario where a subject is involved in arms possession but with unproven intent to hurt.

Personality Assessment


Personality psychology investigates on the difference across people and how the personal differences mold society structures and people lives. Personality is simply a multifaceted system which can be theorized at various different analysis levels. Personality according to Weiner and Greene (2011) is simplified by splitting it into four related but conceptually unique categories. Differences between most people can specifically be considered to found in the domains of narratives, abilities, motives, and traits. Abilities regards what individuals can or cannot do, traits shows what individuals characteristically do, feel, and think, motive include what individuals desire or want, while narratives show the unique people’s lives stories. Personality traits are regarded as the comparatively enduring behaviors, feelings, and thoughts that differentiate people from each other and are stimulated in trait giving situations. This paper focuses on evaluating personality assessment, by effectively analyzing various kinds of personality assessments, evaluating their reliability, validity, and ethics.

Use of Assessment of Personality in the Psychology Field

As a scientific endeavor, personality assessment seeks to evaluate those traits which constitute significant individual variations in personality to create correct measures of attributes of these kinds, and to fully explore the significant meaning of these attributes and measured traits (Weiner& Greene, 2011). Personality assessment can be regarded as a set of processes employed by individuals or an individual for developing image and impressions, checking hypothesis ad making decisions regarding another individual’s characteristics pattern which evaluate her or his behavior in contact with the environment. Personality assessment is a expertisein professional psychology that entails the interpretation, scoring, and administration of empirically supported personality styles and traits measures so as to refine clinical diagnoses, increase behavioral prediction accuracy in various settings and contexts for instance educational, clinical, organization, and forensic, and in order to inform and structure psychological interventions. The personality assessments are used to evaluate individual personality and how they influence their behaviors in different situation. Personality assessment is also used in psychology to assist in determining personality disorders, and how these disorders may influence individual behaviors in different situations. Although there is no standard way of defining personality, psychologists have tried to define how a normal person should behave in various situations, or the kind of personality people who have had different experiences in life should possess. This is used to create a standard on measuring personality disorders. Thus, the main purpose of personality assessment in psychology is to detect psychological disorder and to determine what need to be corrected to control the behavior of different people with different psychological disorders (Weiner& Greene, 2011).

Examples or Case Studies of Personality Assessment

There are various personality assessment tools that can be in different settings. Some of these tools include Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, and Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory,

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

MMPI is a personality assessment measure that was established in the 1940s to determine mental health issues in medical and psychiatric settings, and it swiftly turned to a standard instrument for personality measurement. The true-false personality inventory popularity was greatly due to its easy to use format and also due the fact that the scales contain validity that is well-established in evaluating clinical syndromes and symptoms. The tool went through various revisions in 1980s creating two tests that included the adult and adolescent test forms. The adult version MMPI-2 contains attitudes, beliefs, and symptoms in individuals aged over 18, while the adolescence version contain MMPI-A assessing individuals aged from 14 to 18. The adult version an inventory with 567-item, while the adolescence contains 478-item. There has been development of various scales to determine clinical issues. There are three forms of scale which handle issues in various ways. This includes MMPI-2 content scales, profile codes, and traditional clinical scales, as well as the supplemental and specific problems scales.  In this case, a scale refers to a group of items from the item pool of MMPI-2 which has been demonstrated to measure specific personality traits and symptom patterns. Every item scale or cluster is normed on a normal individuals’ population.  The normative group works as the point of reference to which all profiles are associated (Butcher & William, 2009).

The clinical scales of MMPI-2 were created by empirically determining the items which separated normal of non-patients sample with clinical patients that contain clear diagnoses.  It include Ma scale for mania, Hs scale for hypochondriasis, Sc scale for schizophrenia, D scale for depression, Pt scale for psychopathic deviation, Pd scale for psychopathic deviation, Hy scale for hysteria, pt scale psychasthenia and  Pa scale for paranoid thinking. Two extra scales were as well integrated on the clinical profile to handle sex role identification issues; Mf scale and SI scale for social extroversion and introversion. Content based scales refer to homogenous clusters of item that evaluate unitary themes and stand for clear communication regarding practitioner issues. It contains 15 scales content measuring various symptom problems and areas including family issues, bizarre mentation, and antisocial practices. Special scales on the other hard was created to handle unique issues that include possibility of developing substance abuse issues, and whether a person recognizeshaving alcohol of drug dependence issues (Butcher, 2010). Currently there are many different MMPI-2 applications for evaluating people across extensive settings. Modern use of MMPI-2 include assessing clients being admitted to psychiatric inpatient facility, understanding issues and probable treatment resistance for individuals undergoing psychotherapy, giving therapist personality information to employ in providing client response in psychotherapy, and evaluating behavior symptoms and problem in neuropsychological assessment of clients contain severe head injury, among other job related applications (Butcher et al., 2015).

Reliability, Validity, and Ethical Issues

One of the main ethical issue regarding personality assessment is exaggeration, especially when people reporting on personality in various work or institutional set ups. MPPI-2 assists in eliminating any deceptive information regarding individual personality. Various MMPI-2 scales assist clinicians in evaluating whether client’s responses item give main personality information or are rather simply showing deceptive motivational or response sets patterns which disguise the true motivations and feelings of a client (Butcher, 2010). Various validity scales have been created to assess a client’s test approach. Some of these scales include L Scale, which handles the willingness of a client to acknowledge problems and faults, K Scale to appraise defensiveness test or the some people’s tendency to minimize issues, F Scale to evaluate some people tendency to exaggerate their issues or to false the test by responding excessively to extreme items, and VRIN and TRIN scales that measures response inconsistency. The above scales ensure that the assessment validity is maintained. The instrument has a reliability of 0.50 to .80 with hypochondriasis being the most reliable measure (Butcher et al., 2015).

Research Areas where the tests are being Applied

The MMPI test is applied in various research areas, especially in the clinical field while investigating the personality disorders including schizophrenia, mania, hypochondriasis, depression, psychopathic deviation, psychopathic deviation, hysteria, psychastheniaand paranoid thinking. It is also used in different workplace including airports, in forensic department and student enrollment.

Ethic, Linguistic, Cultural and other Demographics Issues being applied by Studies

In the evaluated case, MMPI-2 was being used to determine the variation in self-reported psychiatric symptomatology based on adult status of attachment interview among first time mothers originating from high-risk poverty. In this case, the assessment involved 110 women from different cultural background which included Asian, black, and white, and with different level of education. This implies the measure can handle people from different cultural ground ad has linguistic aspect such that it can be structured using different languages. It has also been divided for adults; MMPI-2 and for adolescence MMPI-A (Butcher et al., 2015).

Statistical Issues with Measurement in these Cases

MMPI measurement did not demonstrate any sense of statistical issues in this case.

Measurements Information Provision to Assist in Answering Questions

The measurements gave more information regarding the mental condition of the participants. The tool helped in determining the variation between self-reported psychiatric problems compared to the actual problem based on the tool scales. It helped in revealing the aspect of biasness in the self-reported psychiatric issues.

Future of the Measurement

MMPI was established in 1940s and it is still being used today to assess people’s personality in different sectors. It has been useful for over 70 years and it is still being useful and great measures to ensure valid and reliable data has been collected. In this regard, MMPI has a high possibility of being highly utilized even in the future.

Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI)

This is a personality assessment tool that is normal employed in clinical practice and extensively used in research practices. MCMI contains 22 clinical scales which were structured to be syndrome operational measure derived from psychopathology and personality theory. The initial 10scales are employed to measure basic personality styles maladaptive, the following 6 scales are structured to tap the clinical symptoms syndromes that are less severe, and the other three are created to evaluate disorders with more severe symptoms. These scales are ordered to show groups that are presumed to be interlinked in a manner that each might serve as a modification, extension, and precursor of another. In this regard, the profiles and scales of the MCMI evaluate theory-derived variables quantifiably and directly (Craig, 2013). Since the variables are fastened to an extensive-based theory, they propose unique clinical dynamics and patient diagnoses, together with testable hypotheses regarding current behavior and patient history. There are four forms of MCMI which include MCMI-III, MCMI-IV, MCMI-I, and MCMI-II. Their development process involves three validation stages. Both MCMI-II and MCMI-I utilizes base-rate scores that entails the raw scores transformation in a manner that the patients proportion who score more than cutoff point of every scale corresponds to the true scale-rated prevalence disorders in an illustrative  patients national population. The instrument measures personality scales that include schizoid, antisocial, narcissistic, histrionic, dependent, avoidant, paranoid personality, borderline personality, schizotypal personality, self-defeating personality, passive-aggressive personality, compulsive, and aggressive. The measure is administered as a questionnaire that involves answering of true and false questions (Craig, 2013).

Validity, Reliability and Ethical Issues

Scale development and item selection in MCMI progressed via a three validation steps sequence. These steps include external-criterion, internal-structural, and theoretical-substantive. By employing various strategies of validation, the MCMI seek to uphold the test developers’ commitment standards to different validation and construction method. The instrument has also gone through various revisions to develop MCMI-IV which is more refined, with a high level of reliability and validity. Despite the extensive range of translation into different languages, the four versions of MCMI have maintained their high level of validity and reliability in measuring various personality disorders. The tool does not present a lot of ethical issues, especially based on the fact that the tool has employed measures to ensure that no exaggerated or deceptive responses are used to scale a client (Craig, 2013).

Test Application

This test is only employed in clinical set-up. It is basically used to enhance diagnoses of personality disorders in clinical settings, including the most severe personality disorders. It is also used in the clinical and psychological research field to further analyze and explore personality disorders, their symptoms and the best form of approach to treat or manage them. The scales organization was confirmed by correlations and factors analysis performed with tests from third party which further affirmed the scales validity. Alpha coefficient and internal consistency for the test and test-retest reliability were also confirmed to be excellent.

Ethic, Linguistic, Cultural and other Demographics Issues being applied by Studies

MCMI is a multicultural personality assessment tool that has been adapted in various countries with different cultural aspects. It has been translated into several languages to be applied widely. The tool has also been modified to fit a multicultural set-up in the United States with all minority tribes being considered. It has been translated into Spanish, Danish, Dutch-language translation, Korean language, and Chinese among Others. The instrument is mostly applied among adults of all genders, nationality, race, and all other demographic factors. The tool is specifically designed for adults, and most of developmental experiments and studies were conducted using adults. It also has younger kids and adolescents version which are regarded as the Millon Pre-Adolescent Clinical Inventory (M-PACI) and Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI).  However, the adult is more widely employed compared to the other two tools (Rossi &Derksen, 2015). This tool can unethically be interpreted, especially because there are no scales to determine exaggerated responses from the client.

Statistical Issues with Measurement in these Cases

MCMI has been used extensively across the globe with its validity and reliability being measured with a different sample size in each region. However, despite of the sample size, the outcome in terms of score range, validity and reliability has been consistent. This means that the test does not have statistical issues.

Measurements Information Provision to Assist in Answering Questions

The measurement contains various scales that used to measure the presence of various disorders in people and their level of development. This means, the instrument is used in one way or another to answer the assessor’s speculations. The answers provided in most cases either proves or disapproves the assessors or the psychiatrists speculation regarding a client. The extensive scale also provided psychologist to define another possible on the client’s condition.

Future of the Measurement

The measurement was developed long time ago; from 1960s onwards. This means the tool have been used for long, with various modifications being made to fit different scenarios and anticipations. The tool has been improved such that it currently aligns with DSM assessment requirements. It has also been widely employed in different cultural grounds and in different linguistics. Its high level of viability and reliability as well as extensive application, and revisions to refine it demonstrates that this tool is here to stay. Any changes in the psychological field can easily be accommodated by a revision for the tool to remain viable in the future.

Abandoned Heart Homicide and Involuntary Manslaughter Essay

Definitions – Abandoned Heart Homicide and Involuntary Manslaughter

Abandoned heart homicide also known as depraved heart murder refers to murder that happens as a result of a dangerous action and with proof that the perpetrator contains a depraved mind and has no respect for human life. It refers to a killing which results from a high level of negligence (Allen, 2004). For instance, when one is practicing shooting using live bullets in a place where people walk around or live and happens to shoot and kill a person accidentally. Abandoned heart homicide is regarded as a third or second degree murder. A second degree murder refers to murder conducted with no premeditation though with some intent, or under other situations not covered by the statute of the first-degree murder. Third degree murder refers to a murder conducted in a felony perpetration and not listed in the first degree murder.

Involuntary manslaughter on the other hand refers to an unintentional killing which results from criminal or reckless negligence, or from illegal act which is violation or low-level crime such as driving under the influence of alcohol. Involuntary man slaughter is satisfied by three elements. The first element is that a personwas killed due to defendant’s action; the second element is that the action was either done with careless human life disregard or integrally dangerous to others, while the third element is that the defendant should have known that her or his conduct was a threat to the life of others (Mitchhell& Mackay, 2011).

Differences Between Abandoned Heart Homicide and Involuntary Manslaughter.

The main difference between involuntary manslaughter and abandoned heart murder is that in involuntary manslaughter the killing happens because the person involved was not in control of the situation. It mostly involve situation where one breaks light laws like many people do such as driving under the influence of alcohol, but in this unique case, the things the law was meant to prevent happen. Though illegal, the person involved did not plan to cause damages through the act. The killing was 100% accidental (Mitchhell & Mackay, 2011). However, in abandoned heart murder the offender was acting in a manner he or she was sure was dangerous and could possibly harm those in the surrounding, however, the person does not care but continue doing so. In this case, the person involved has the control of the situation but prefer otherwise or taking risk. Though the killing is accidental just like in involuntary man slaughter, the offender in this case had computed about the possibility of the accident and decided to take risk. There is an aspect of criminal negligence in abandoned heart murder which is not there in the involuntary manslaughter. In most cases, offenders in involuntary manslaughter do not have intentions, and thus, the murder is believed not to be pre-computed. However, in abandoned heart murder, the offender is more likely to be using weapons and dealing to use it for adventure without caring of the consequences. The murder may as well lack concrete motive, but in most cases the offender is well aware that the misuse of the weapon or the move would easily cause death. Thus it has a high sense or recklessness (Allen, 2004).

Factors that a prosecutor would consider to determine whether to charge someone with abandoned heart homicide or involuntary manslaughter.

The factors to consider to classify an offence as involuntary murder presence of death that was directly caused by the suspect, lack of intention to kill, lack of pre-preparation or pre-computation before the act, presence of out of control situation, in case of accident related killing, suspect need to be under the influence of alcohol or drug while driving, and knowledge that the act is against the law and had a chance of creating damage and continue doing it (Stafford, 2002). The factors to consider in abandonment heart murder case include a murdered person ad enough evidence to link the suspect with the murder, proof that the suspect was being involved in dangerous action that could cause murder during the time of murder, sense of recklessness, proof the suspect does not have respect for life, and proof that the murder could have been avoided if the suspected wanted to (Allen, 2004).

Forensic Testing

Forensic testing deals with the use of technology in analysis samples collected from the crime scenes to identify people and get evidence to be used in court. It is predominantly concerned with the testing for identity (Butler, 2005). Forensic testing is thus the DNA testing that is done for solving criminal cases. Forensic testing should be used in instances that involve a dead end where investigators cannot continue with proper investigations unless the samples at the scenes are sent to the lab for DNA testing. It provides law enforcers with the ability to use scientifically identified tests carried in the lab to determine possible suspects and thus enhances the process of solving crimes (TIlstone et al., 2006). Regarding ethical concerns, the samples at the scenes may not possibly be those of the suspects and when the information from the tests is mishandled innocent people suffer may suffer. Evidence can be planted in the field making the tests complex and even lead to wrong conclusions. Omissions or errors can result in false convictions since offensive evidence is greatly esteemed in court. The tests are usually carried out in the lab using equipment for testing DNA and are typically done in civil or criminal cases. Civil cases may involve the identity of a father or mother while in criminal investigations it is done to Help in coming up with results regarding people that can be helpful in concluding cases.

Best practice in forensic testing requires that the evidenced personnel be honest and report their examinations accurately to prevent any unlawful arrests of innocent people when evidence is used in a court of law Joelle, Alex & Franco, 2014) . Therefore, information should be given to conclusively analyzing it to get better information on it. In pathological forensics, anything related to the autopsy regarding information about the autopsy and the various tests were done should be carefully recorded.

Object-Oriented Models That Represent The Operations Of The Taxi Service Company

You are to produce a set of object-oriented models that represent the operations of the taxi service company described below in Problem Scenario. The graphical models are to be produced using a software drawing package such as Microsoft Visio or Microsoft PowerPoint and follow the UML Version 2.0 convention. Also describe the graphical models in plain English so that an independent reader will have a clear understanding of your models.
The specific models you are to produce are:

  • Use case description and diagrams for a dispatch call from the dispatcher.
  • The activity diagram for the processing of a fare payment by the passenger.
  • The sequence diagram for security camera operations.
  • The state machine diagram for security camera operations.
  • The class diagram for all described elements of the information systems.

You will notice that not all elements of a Functional Requirements Specification have been required in this assignment. That is because the complexity involved in a full specification requires more time than you reasonably would have available to do the work.

Problem Scenario

The Empire Taxi Company is a service company that provides facilities and services to owners of taxi cabs who affiliate with Empire. The information services provided are passenger call logging and dispatch, GPS location tracking, security camera and audio logging and electronic fare payments and logging. Empire also leases to the cab owners the metering, GPS, telecommunications and call handling and response equipment in the cars.
The computerised call dispatch system is operated by a dispatcher in the Empire head office. When a passenger calls for a taxi the call handlers get a passenger name, pick up address, pick up time and destination. When the information is provided the call handler will also enter a vehicle type code and fare concession code if applicable. The default vehicle type code is standard car but options exist for station wagon, mini-bus and wheelchair taxi. Concession code applies to pensioners who receive a subsidised fare.

This information is transmitted by the dispatcher to all available taxis within a 5km radius of the pick-up address. The dispatch system identifies the taxis to receive the dispatch information from their transmitted GPS location. If no taxis are within the 5km zone then the dispatch system provides the identities of the 3 nearest taxis to the pick-up address. The first driver to send an accept message is given the dispatch information via a wireless link to a processor and touch screen in their taxi.

The fare metre in the taxi is linked to the electronic payment system (EFTPOS). If the passenger pays by credit card the fare is automatically loaded into the EFTPOS system. The payment details from the EFTPOS system are transmitted via the wireless link to Empire’s communications processor which opens a connection to the bank’s payment system. The transmissions from the bank system are retransmitted to the taxi over the wireless link. The communications processor logs the auditing details of each transaction, these being the date, time, bank BSB, card type, card number, taxi terminal identifier, operator identifier, transaction value and transaction completion status (either paid or declined). When a fare is paid in cash the driver can enter the payment amount and a cash payment code.
The in-car security system consists of a camera and an alarm button. The camera records a 5 second video and audio stream of the taxi interior to an in-car 1 TB solid state drive (SSD) every minute. This stream is compressed and tagged with the date, time, GPS location, alarm status and vehicle identifier. If the vehicle alarm is activated the video and audio commence and the instantaneous video and audio streams, with the tagging information, are transmitted to Empire until the alarm is de-activated by the driver. These streams can be switched to play on a monitor in the security office and are simultaneously recorded to disc at Empire’s head office.
The in-car GPS location system operates continuously and provides location information every 10 seconds to the in-car security system and, by radio transmission, to the central dispatch system. The dispatch system holds the GPS location information in order to find the taxis for dispatching.
Every day at 11:55pm the fare management system at Empire reports the last 24 hours fare payments for each taxi cab and sub-totals them by payment type by driver. It also provides a time-stamped log of every transaction.

Personal vs Professional Ethics in Information Security

Assignment Instructions

Write a paper of approximately 750 words on Information security addressing both personal and professional ethical issues. Include the following in your paper:

  • Ethical issues evident in the topic chosen
  • Effects on one’s personal and professional ethics
  • Evident resolution strategies that address the ethical dilemma(s)
  • Recommendations on changes that you would propose in order to minimize the identified ethical dilemmas

Include a minimum of 2–3 sources within your paper.


Sample Solution – Personal vs. Professional Ethics in Information Security

As a field of computer science, Information Security is concerned with the implementation and application of security features to provide protection against authorized manipulation, deletion, or disclosure of information or against denial of service to computer systems. Information security professionals attempt to attain this protection through various ways, many of which raise various ethical issues. This paper seeks to outline the effects of these issues on one’s professional ethics, evident resolution strategies that are used to address ethical dilemmas, as well as personal recommendations to minimize the pinpointed dilemmas. The author finds that many ethical issues in the field of Information Security are related to the aspects of access rights and privacy of information. He also finds that ignorance, accident, and intent are the leading causes of deterring unethical and illegal behavior.

Information Security (IS) professionals have a collective moral responsibility as part of their profession to protect information. Specific responsibilities are often outlined in the various codes of ethics that are used by different organizations. However, some of these codes rarely go into detail on the moral responsibilities of IS professionals. For instance, Information Systems Security Association (ISSA) code of ethics vaguely states that members should “perform all professional activities and duties in accordance with all applicable laws and the highest ethical principles”(Brey, 2007). As a result, many experts in such an organization and as well asthose in the IS field have to counter innumerable ethical issues and dilemmas regularly.

The first evident ethical issue is the use of data for morally “right” reasons but for ramifications that are legally “wrong.”The case of abduction is a common illustration. When a subject has been abducted, there is often a growing grassroots movement to attempt to publicize the event in order to intensify the efforts of finding the victim. A member of the organization at the IS company, probably from the board, may, in turn, send a request to a data handler asking them to publicize the information to every contact in the in-house CRM system. The message that should be publicized contains pictures and information that requests the receivers to contact the law enforcement department if they know the whereabouts of the victim. In this case, it might be a good action to send the message as instructed, however, the list of available contacts has not consented to receive such a message. Data protection laws may also prove the act to be illegal.

The second case involves disruption or removal of a valid right to protest. An electronic protest does not disrupt any information processing facilities in an organization. Moreover, employees have a free right to protest the perceived lack of accountability in any of the organization’s operations. Leaders may, however, attempt to request or command an IS professional to try and limit the exposure of such a protest in order to avoid the involvement of the press. This poses an ethical dilemma for the IS professional and a common ethical issue in many companies.

The last ethical issue in IS involves the infringement of people’s expected freedoms and privacy. There are many demonstrations of this ethical concern. Cases in point include being asked to check an email, web, or system activity for a specific user, being asked to implement a content filter to prevent certain activities, or being requested to limit theavailability of particular resources in order to prevent individual activities. These examples point to the fair usage of documents, employment contracts, and quality management systems, and might pose various ethical dilemmas for S professionals.

Some of the evident resolution strategies that are employed to tackle such ethical dilemmas involve the definition and application of the fundamental principles of the professional code of ethics as specified by organizations. A distinguished mark of IS profession is to act in accordance with the public interest to achieve universal objectives of the firm, organization, and the community in general. This includes all employees of the organization counting members of the managerial team. Since deterring unethical and illegal behavior is mainly caused by ignorance, accident, and intent(Warren et al., 2005), there are three major recommendations that this paper defends. First, IS organizations or departments should endorse reminders, awareness, and training programs on a regular basis to retain policy compliance. Second, careful planning and control arenecessary for the prevention of accidental modifications of data and systems. Lastly, the use of technical controls coupled with vigorous litigation are the best ways of tackling the problem of intent to cause harm.

Myer-Briggs Type Indicator And Big Five – Personality Test Assessment Tools

Assignment Instructions

Compare and contrast two test assessment instruments designed to measure personality. The following provides an outline of a test review:

  • Description of each Test including what the test attempts to measure,
  • who the test is intended to be used with, basic principles and/or theories upon which the test is based,
  • demographic characteristics,
  • overall types of scores reported when using this instrument,
  • and whether it is projective or objective.
  • What are the 3 major differences between each assessment and why is that important. When would one be preferred over the other one?

Sample Solution – Personality Test Assessment Instruments

Psychological assessment is most useful when evaluating the personality of study participants. It is necessary for psychologists to ensure that assessments are carried out based on valid theories of psychology, correct procedures, proper analysis, and truthful reporting techniques. It is equally important to match the test with what it intends to measure. All these requirements are determined by the nature of the test instruments upon which the assessment is based upon. This paper aims to compare and contrast two tests assessment instruments that are designed to measure personality. The author shall describe the structure, the principles, and other characteristics related to each test, and proceed toestablish a relationship between them. The first one is a Myer-Briggs Type Indicator test. It intends to assess personality types in high school and college populationsfor purposes of personality-occupation matching assessments. The second one is based on the Big Five Personality test model and allows the assessor to judge an individual’s personality type based on the Big Five traits of personality.

The Myer-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality test is composed of seventy multiple choice questions. Each question contains two answers that represent two choices which the participants are supposed to choose from. The nature of the questions demonstrates the use of a structured approach where the responses are considered “closed” and inferred according to the theory in use. This is contrary to the “projective” approach, where the test designers and psychodynamic theorists employ the use of images, words, and situations that are ambiguously picked. The test instrument is designed to take 15 minutes, and the test takers are instructed to take the test without looking at the scoring sheet. They are also advised to answer each question based on their own personality in a truthful manner in order to maintain validity and avoid bias. The scoring involves filling in a table that is configured in columns to allow the assessors to establish frequencies and assess the participant’s personality.

The designers of the test intend to measure a person’s MBIT Personality type. This type assumes that every human being prefers some ways of behaving to others and that there are only four major choices in this regard(Bayne, 1995).Theyare established between Judging (J) and Perceiving (P), Thinking (T) and feeling (F), Sensing (S) and intuition (N), and Extroversion (E) and introversion (I).The scores indicate a provisional type from each of these pairs, for instance,ENFJ and ISFJ. Thus, the assessor expects to observe 16 possible combinations or personality types. The central concept ispreference, which means “feeling most natural and comfortable with.”  As seen, the aim of the test is to apply the theory of psychological types as described by C. G. Jung in making psychological assessments(de Charon, 2003). The underlying philosophy of this theory is that the much superficially random variation of behavior is consistent and orderly because ofthe basic differences in whichindividuals prefer to use their judgement and perception.Since the test well resonates with “leadership and Personality types,” those taking the tests are more likely to be employees who wish to be recruited,high school, or college students.

The Big Five Personality test includes a set of 50 contrasting statements. For example, the first statement (labeled 1) reads “Am the life of the party” whereas the 30thstatement reads “do not have a good imagination.” The participants are required to respond to the statements using an agreement scale: 1- disagree, 2 – slightly disagree, 3 – neutral, 4 – slightly agree and 5 – agree. The scoring is determined by the use of five letters to represent the big five personality traits. As such, different responses fall on different descriptions that are further consistent with the Big Five personality traits. The five letters are E, A, C, N and O. They represent Extroversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience respectively. Thus, the test is objective in nature because it aims to assess various aspects of personality independent of the rater’s bias and the examiner’s beliefs.

The Big Five personality test and its use in the evaluated psychological basement above attempts to apply the Big Five factor theory to judge an individual’s personality. First, openness demonstrates that the test participant enjoys to learn and do new things, as well as revel in new experiences. It includes traits like being imaginative, being insightful, and having a wide variety of interests(Ravi, 2015, p. 36). Second, a high degree of conscientiousness represents reliability and promptness. Traits of consciousnessinclude being methodic, organized, and thorough. Third, extroversion tries to show how an individual interacts with others(Ravi, 2015, p. 36). Introverts get their energy from within themselves while extroverts gain it from their interactions with others. Fourth, agreeableness shows the degree of an individual’s friendliness, cooperation, and compassion. People with high agreeableness tend to be kind, sympathetic and affectionate. In contrast, those with low agreeableness are more distant. Lastly, Neuroticism or emotional stability relates to one’s sense of emotional stability as well as how one responds to negative emotions(Ravi, 2015, p. 36). Participants who score highly in neuroticism are more likely to experience negative emotions and emotional instability. Therefore, such individuals are prone to mood and anxiety disorders.

The Big Five test can be applied when placing employees in specific duties in a company. This is because it uses the five personality dimensions that Human Resources professionals are interested in when assessing an employee’s disposition. These traits are abiological account of a person’s personality in which experience and learning do not play a role in influencing the five traits. Additionally, the Big Five traits present a useful model of organizing’s people’s perceptions of one’s personality. In other words, they are a model of reality-based person perception and thus useful for Human Resource Professionals.

While closely examining the two tests, one spots three major differences. Firstly, the questions are structured differently. While the MBTI uses closed questions, each with two choices, the Big Five test uses various statements to which the participant is required to agree or disagree. The difference is helpful in creating an efficient scoring method, as well as a valid calculation and assessment of the results. Secondly, the two tests are based on two different theories of psychology. The MBTI uses psychological types described by Jung (1921/1971) whereas the Big Five test utilizes the Big Five factor theory of personality. This is helpful in testing specific temperaments. Lastly, the two tests are evidently dissimilar when it comes to scoring methods. This is associated with the elements that each test intends to measure. Thus, the MBTI test is suitable when matching participants with their occupations whereas the Big Five test is suitable when determining the personality of college students and employees in order to make appropriate placements.

Checklists and Rating Scales – Methods Of Measuring Personality

Checklist and rating scale are two assessment tools that can be used to assess individual personality. Checklist provides a sheet with various personality descriptions where the client marks the phrase that describes them best. Rating scale on the other hard gives an individual a chance to rate their personality based on described aspect. Each aspect is given a scale from the list to the highest in five levels where the client is required to rate him or herself on that scale. The rating scale can as well be used to rate another person; the professional can use it to rate a client. The two forms of assessment are very reliable since they have been professionally developed to assess personality. They are also valid in measuring personality. However, rating scale can be used to overrate a person and when this is done the level of consistency may go down (Aiken, 1996).

The main strength of the two is that they are easy to administer and analyze the data. In addition, there are various methods of scale rating and checklists that can be used to asses personality. In most cases, psychologists are able to employ the methods that can best address the customers need for assessment. The main weakness of scale rating is that it can easily initiate biasness in personal assessment. The method does not present ethical issues, unless in a situation where rating is done by another person. The two methods can be used together, however, to avoid biasness, checklist would be more preferred. The two tools are used when specific aspects of personality need to be known (Reynolds& Livingston, 2013).

Observation and Interview – Methods Of Measuring Personality

Interview and observation are two main methods used to assess psychological clients in different setups. Interview involves face to face interaction between a psychologist and the client. It gives the psychologist a chance to understand the client’s problem from their own point of view. Interview main strength is that it is possible to dig deep and hence, giving the psychiatrist an opportunity to get the root cause of the problem. The counselor can also manage to get more information through facial expression as he or she dig deeper tactfully. The main weakness of interview is that it is considerably hard to mine information from the client, especially when the client has trust issues. It is also possible to get false information from the client and hence, the data may not be very reliable and neither is it reliable. Moreover, the obtained answers or information highly depend on the interviewer and how skilled one is in gathering data via interview. Interview is considered to be ethical since the client’s consent is considered. Interview can be done in a clinical set up where the counselor wishes to obtain more information from the client (Sarason&Holzman, 1999).

Observation on the other hand involves watching the client at a distance. Observation is mostly done secretly; without the client’s knowledge. This is basically meant to ensure that the client behaves in a natural way and hence, it assist in getting the most accurate information regarding client’s behavior. Thus, the data collected via observation is more reliable compared to that collected via interview, and highly valid. The main weakness is, one does not get an explanation regarding why they behaved in that manner. Observation is mostly done secretly and thus, it may present ethical issues since it is like spying; client’s consent is not given. Observation can be done in a natural in a natural environment with intention of getting the true behavior of a person (Sarason&Holzman, 1999).