Browse Month: December 2018

Major Information Security Threats that a Specific Organization Faces Today

Assignment Instructions

Write a 1500-word paper on at least three major information security threats that a specific organization you choose faces today.

  • Describe potential risks to the information and the related vulnerabilities within the organization. Identify the forces that drive each threat and the related vulnerabilities.
  • Discuss how the values for threat and vulnerability combine to indicate the overall risk the organization faces.
  • Describe how an organization can properly manage its information security efforts using proper risk management techniques and cost-benefit analyses for these information security efforts.
  • Explain the legal, ethical, and regulatory requirements for protecting data.

Note: The word requirement above identifies a range to assist students in determining the level of effort that is appropriate for the assignment.

Leadership Style: How Are Leaders Leading in the 21st Century?

Choose the CEO of one of the following organizations for this assignment: Google’s CEO Larry Page , Zappos, Southwest Airlines, Hewlett Packard, Xerox, W.L. Gore, DuPont, or Procter & Gamble. Use the Internet to investigate the leadership style and effectiveness of the selected CEO.

Write a six to eight (6-8) page paper in which you:

  1. Provide a brief (one [1] paragraph) background of the CEO.
  2. Analyze the CEO’s leadership style and philosophy, and how the CEO’s leadership style aligns with the culture.
  3. Examine the CEO’s personal and organizational values.
  4. Evaluate how the values of the CEO are likely to influence ethical behavior within the organization.
  5. Determine the CEO’s three (3) greatest strengths and three (3) greatest weaknesses.
  6. Select the quality that you believe contributes most to this leader’s success. Support your reasoning.
  7. Assess how communication and collaboration, and power and politics influence group (i.e., the organization’s) dynamics.
  8. Use at least six (6) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Analyze the formation and dynamics of group behavior and work teams, including the application of power in groups.
  • Outline various individual and group decision-making processes and key factors affecting these processes, including ethical considerations.
  • Examine the communication process, the primary conflict levels, and the process for negotiating resolutions within organizations.
  • Examine how power and influence empower and affect office politics, political interpretations, and political behavior.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in organizational behavior.
  • Write clearly and concisely about organizational behavior using proper writing mechanics.

Minimizing Tax Exposure – New Corp Case Study

You and five (5) of your friends are considering forming your own business. Collectively, you have $4.6 million to get your venture off the ground and a year before you open your doors. As the tax research and planning expert in the group, it is your task to ensure your company is set up to minimize your tax exposure. You business will be registered in the city and state in which you live.

Write a 5-7 page paper in which you:

  • Briefly describe your new business (name and what it does).
  • Discuss how you will form your corporation and how you will comply with specific regulations in your state (note the need for research here).
  • Determine the most appropriate capital structure for minimal tax exposure.
  • Discuss the tax planning considerations you must take into account after the first year (when you are actually open for business).
  • Determine how non-liquidating distributions will be addressed.
  • Cite at least two (2) tax research sources.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Analyze tax issues regarding corporate formations, capital structures, income tax, non-liquidating distributions, other corporate levies, liquidating distributions, acquisitions, and reorganizations.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in organizational tax research and planning.
  • Write clearly and concisely about organizational tax research and planning using proper writing mechanics.

Corruption in Los Angeles Police Department – Ethics and Morality in Criminal Justice System

Introduction

Criminal justice system is one of the most important governmental systems in the country. It is involved in the reinforcement of the law in the country, and hence determining the general harmony in the operation of other governmental agencies, public and private institutions, and all citizens in a country. Police officers are the primary actors in the enforcement of the law. Their efficiency in doing this is highly determined by a number of factors, with individual morality and institutional ethical values playing the main role in determining their behavior and conduct.Morals and ethics associate to what can be considered to be wrong or right conduct. The two phrases are mostly applied interchangeably, though they are different. Morality denotes individual’s personal principles about what is wrong and what is right.  Ethics on the other hand denotes rules given by an exterior source for instance religious principles, or workplace code of conduct (Caplan, 1983). This paper evaluates an ethical event that takes place among some police officers and how it is influenced by various factors that include culture, history, politics and Moral courage.

Selected Event

The selected event in this case is corruption in a police department featuring Los Angeles police department. Los Angeles police department has maintained corruption legacy for a considerable time period. This has been undermining the officers’ ability to enforce law effectively (Caplan, 1983). By being corrupt, police officers become the law breakers rather than the protector of the law. They undermine the honor of their colleagues and of the region they are supposed to protect. Corruption normally happens when officers receives money gift or any other form of incentives to allow criminals to continue with their activities without being arrested.

The gifts and incentives are taken as criminal protection fees. This arrangement happens mostly with drugs traffickers and gangs criminal operations (Winton, 2016). Other cases of corruption are seen in the traffic where motorists give money to avoid arrest or issuing of traffic ticket. The police in return act by directing them on the routes they can use to pass without being stopped. They therefore manage to continue with their operations comfortably under the protection of the law enforcement officers that are required to stop them. This goes against the police duty and against their moral duty of upholding the law, and being devoted in the protection of the citizens and their country. It also goes against individual morality.

Drug use affects life of youths and other users negatively. Promoting drug trafficking for personal gains is immoral. Anyone who embraces morality should not support such acts. The act of supporting crimes for the sakes of personal gain is against the police code of conduct.  Normally in such cases, the involved police officers tend to be strict on the drug users, while they collaborate with the drugs traffickers. The frequently arrested individuals include young males and females from minority groups who are most likely to be involved in drug use. These drug users are mostly poor people living in the streets or with low life; school dropouts, unemployed, and young children experiencing family problems.

Conclusion Based on the Research

Unethical behaviors are very costly to the justice system. They are highly responsible of the broken trust between the public and the law enforcement agency. The public lose faith in the law enforcement agency and start seeing them as criminal and more dangerous to them. They stop running to them for protection and instead, they tend to avoid them for they are not reliable. Unethical practices in criminal justice system also reduce the system efficiency (Chappell, &Piquero, 2004). In this case, the police department will not ever manage to fight drug trafficking, drug use, and gang activities due to internal sabotage.

The problem of police corruption especially in Los Angeles has been there for a long time; in the early to mid-90s. It was initially associated with top officials in the system especially chief police officers and mayors of the city, before it progressed down to the general police officers.  One of the most commonly used theories to explain police corruption situation poor police payment, poor work condition, or the presence of some kind of unethical people who are bound to be involved in criminal behaviors (Domanick, 1998). The latter can be explained by the theory of rotten eggs where corruption is said to be the work of some immoral, dishonest police officers. The involvement of police officers in corruption especially in the US is also explained by the application of criminal law to enhance morality. Inability to enforce laws controlling moral standards enhances corruption since they provide unlawful organizations with a financial attentiveness in undermining the enforcement of the law.

Mayor Richard J. Riordan acknowledged there being corruption in the Los Angeles police department and called for the right measures in fight it. He specifically recognized that this act has cast a dark shadow over the city police department. This happened during graduation ceremony at a police Academy in 1999.  His courage played a great part in initiating reforms in Los Angeles police department (The New York Times, 1999). Nevertheless, the matter was not that easy. The corruption network in the department included senior individuals who tried to use their influence to undermine the process of the reforms. Many involved persons tried to use their power to acquire immunity, and this made it hard to discipline police officers in the low lane.

Real Ethical Concern or Event Related to Criminal Justice – Assignment Instructions

This assignment will define and compare ethics and morality. Research, select, and describe an incident involving a real ethical concern or event related to criminal justice (e.g., corruption in a police department, judicial bribery, smuggling contraband into prisons by correctional officers, etc.). Students must utilize the Library Subject Guide for Criminal Justice (See Content) to conduct independent and unique research.

Organization:

  • Part One: An opening paragraph describing your topic and ultimate conclusion
  • Part Two: Brief description of the selected event and the ethical issues involved you choose to write about
  • Part Three: Conclusions based on your research and class readings as to the consequences of unethical behavior to the system, the society, and the individual. The following issues must be covered within the report:
    • Cultural issues, (may include all areas of diversity including race, gender, sexual orientation and occupational culture)
    • Historical context, include your theories on why the situation occurred
    • Moral courage, (For example, – was there a particularly courageous individual involved?)
    • Politics (Note, in this context “politics” referrers to the personal and/or group dynamics within a particular organization, community or similar setting. It does NOT relate to political parties or affiliation with any political party.)

Format Requirements

The paper should be 750 to 1,000 words, double spaced, 12 pt. font, 1” margins. Use APA narrative and reference page citations for all sources and include reference page using American Psychological Association (APA) format guidelines (not included in word count)

View a sample answer to this assignment based on Corruption in Los Angeles Police Department or order a unique answer written by our professional writers at an affordable price.

Concept of Progressive Discipline and Importance of Effective Termination Procedure

Progressive discipline is a concept that implies that disciplinary penalties are structured to correct unacceptable conduct where possible. The concept simply means that disciplines starts with mild first offense punishment, and gradual increase of the punishment for similar or different misconduct until termination is considered the most suitable punishment. The progressive discipline application varies extensively. For instance a warning, reprimands or suspensions may be used for the first serious misconduct or offence in an organization, based on the seriousness of the offense and the possible danger it impose on others in the organization. The disciplinary action to the first offense is advised to be mild, and increase the counseling aspect (Purchase, 2015). A lot of communication is needed to understand why the employee behaved like that and to enable employee to understand why what was done was an offense that deserve punishment. A problem solving approach should be adopted to resolve the issue, especially if the offence is performance or operational based. A repetition of the offence or committing of another offense should impose a more severe punishment than the first one. In case of poor performance, lack of improvement even after solving the identified problems in the right manner should also attract a higher punishment. If the situation gets worse, a termination may be given, especially when the employee shows no sign for improvement (Purchase, 2015).

Progressive discipline provides a clear framework of workers termination. It involves filing of the workers disciplinary progress based on the committed offenses. It include filing the case including how the case was handled, the investigation process, finding, and defined punishment in stages. All offenses encounters are filed until the last termination if it happens. This is very important for the company in filing a defense for any kind of legal dispute between the company and the terminated employee. Effective termination procedure clearly shows what transpired before a termination was made. This protects the company from unnecessary penalties for illegal termination, or furnishing of the company’s reputation for improper treatment of the workers. It also prevents litigation cost and time wastage (Purchase, 2015).

Importance of Effective Screening of Potential Employees by an Organization

Candidate is one of the most important parts of the recruitment process. Screening is a process that involves sorting out resumes based on certain recruitment aspects that defines the qualification of the needed employees. Screening involves having a quick look at the resumes to eliminate those that do not match up the defined criteria. The main aim of screening is to shortlist applicants that seem to be more suitable for the advertised position. Screening is an essential skill to human resource managers, since it determines the kind of workers to define the institution. Thus the resumes in this process should be strictly reviewed as per the defined criteria. Every applicant may be given a numerical rating based on the selection criteria to permit for a comparison between candidates (Pande&Basak, 2015).

Screening is very important in a recruitment process. It plays a great role in the process of candidate selection. It highly determines who should appear for the interview and who should be eliminated based on qualification disparity.  It assists the recruitment team in selecting the best candidate among the applicant, or redefining their job advert to be able to capture the exact kind of applicant needed by an organization. Screening process plays a great role in determining the kind of workers an organization should have (Pande&Basak, 2015). This is very important especially in healthcare organizations where specific academic qualification and accreditation is needed for a professional to be entrusted to a certain task. Screening ensures that the selected person qualifies for a certain task in all ways. This include evaluating even the level of field experience, effort to enhance personal and professional growth in the field, and ability to handle complex tasks in the area of operation based on the previous exposure. It is therefore very important in defining the kind of output an organization is likely to make in the future, based on the alignment between individual qualification and the job requirements (Jetter, 2016).

Health Care Professionals Found in a Typical Acute-care Hospital

Some of the professionals found in a typical ICU include physician, nurses, respiratory therapist, and pharmacist.

Physician

The specialized physicians working in the ICU are referred as intensivists. These are medical doctors that have received extra training to handle critically ill patients. To be intensivists, one needs to be qualified medical personnel and later do specialization in intensive care. To be admitted to Medical Intensivists to obtain critical Care Certification, one requires accredited fellowship training for a period of 2 years in internal medicine subspecialty that include patient care in ICU. However, three years training is demanded for those specializing in gastroenterology and cardiovascular disease. In this case, one obtains American Board of Internal Medicine certification in the subspecialty and a year clinical fellowship training accreditation in critical care medicine in medical department (Pastores et al., 2014).

Nurses

ICU has cot nurses who get special training to work in ICU. They are all registered nurses (RNs) who have completed normal nursing training and taken a specialty in caring for patients that are critically ill. The basic primary nursing technique promotes care coordination and continuity by paying attention to the spiritual, physical, emotional, and psychological needs that normally accompany prolonged hospitalization and serious illness. ICU nurses must go through nursing school to get nursing license. They also need to advance their education by pursuing master‘s decree specializing in critical care, which implies that one must participate in MSN to RN program. One also has to work at least one year in traditional nursing setup before specializing in ICU nursing. One is also required to continue taking short courses to advance their knowledge in the unit. This includes licensure or certificate in Advanced Cardiac Life Support, Pediatric Advanced Life Support, and NCLEX-RN. Personal skills that include critical thinking, empathy, decision-making, and interpersonal communication are also needed. Other key skills include technical skills to be able to operate ICU equipment and computer skills to be able to retrieve medical information from a computer (Social Community for Nurses Worldwide, 2017).

Respiratory Therapist

ICU respiratory therapists work in collaboration with nurses and physicians to deliver oxygen, offering airway management, breathing medication administration, and assist in ventilators management. Respiratory therapist in this unit must complete college respiratory therapy education. To practice as a respiratory therapist, professionals need RT license to enroll in respiratory care degree program in a recognized institution which is accredited from the commission on Accreditation for Respiratory Care (CoARC).  To be accredited, one must have at least an associate degree in respiratory care. The standard qualification required to operate in ICU is a National certification via the National Board for Respiratory Care, Inc (Respiratory Therapist License, 2017).

ICU Pharmacist

Critical care pharmacists contain advanced expertise and knowledge to quickly evaluate clinical data and to offer direct patient care to patients that are critically injured and ill, who may need specialized technological or pharmacologic intervention to uphold nutrition, respiration, blood pressure, as well as other homeostatic function above the primary condition of the patient. To be a Board of Pharmacy Specialties (BPS) certified pharmacist in critical care, a pharmacist need to be pharmacy program graduate that is credited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE). One should also be able to uphold active, current license to take part in the US pharmacy. The pharmacist also need to complete post-licensure practice for at least four years, dedicating about 50% of this time to critical care pharmacy. Residency two years post graduate program of Critical Care Pharmacy that is credited by American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) will also need to be completed. A pharmacist will also need to attain a passing score on Critical Care Pharmacy Examination offered by BPS (Board of Pharmacy Specialties, 2017).

Relevant Information To Conduct A Strategic Potential And Appropriate Tools To Deliver the Information

The strategic positioning of your chosen organisation is a central issue for its senior managers. As you know from your readings, strategic positioning has two important themes: strategic potential and organisational ambitions .You are asked by the management to do an analysis of that organisation’s current strategic potential. But before you can undertake that task, you are required to write a paper that provides some background for such an analysis.
Hence for assignment 1, you are required to:

Identify the sort of information you believe to be essential and relevant to the analysis and then critically discuss what you think are the appropriate tools of analysis that would deliver the information fundamental to such an analysis.

The following are some notes to assist with interpreting the requirements of this assignment:

  • You can use essay format to respond to this requirement.
  • Most major organisations have a deal of information and news items about them on the Web so you should be able to construct sufficient context for your case study organisation. It is advisable that you don’t select a small organisation where such an analysis may not be appropriate.
  • In order to provide some context for your answer, you can put the basic description of your case in the appendix. The appendix does not count in the word count.
  • You must make clear what strategic potential is in relation to your organisation.
  • The subject of strategic management describes many tools of analysis to provide information for specific purposes. You will be demonstrating your understanding of those purposes in your critical discussion of them.
  • Critical discussion relates to your analysis and critique of the various tools – the ‘what’ and the ‘why’ aspects in particular. Don’t forget the identification of the essential information also requires some rationale for your selection. It is easy to make a statement such as ‘I would use SWOT analysis’ but in a critical discussion it is the ‘why’ or rationale for your selection that is more important to demonstrating your understanding of strategic potential. Your understanding can also be demonstrated by pointing out why some tools of analysis are not appropriate.
  • Please note, you are not required to do the actual analysis.
  • Use the discussion forum on the study desk for this course assignment to raise questions and make comment about these requirements.
  • Make sure you study the marking criteria for this assignment very carefully because this is the template for assessing and grading your submitted assignment. The marking criteria sheet is provided below.
  • You are required to have a minimum of 10 references to support your critical discussion.

Are Mandatory Arrest Laws in Cases of Domestic Violence Helpful or Harmful?

Mandatory arrest policy was a law enforcement measure which was created as a response to the intimate partner violence (IPV) or domestic violence cases. The main aim for the development of this law was to protect the victim of domestic violence. This process starts after the victim, neighbors or any other person report of domestic violence taking place in a certain place. The police take the detail of the place and prioritize on the incident by suspending other duties to handle the situation. Upon arrive at the scene; the police tend to ascertain that domestic violence took place by looking at the presence of injuries in the involved parties (Novisky& Peralta, 2015). An arrest of abuser then takes place. This happens even without a warrant, as long as the officer can ascertain there was domestic violence in the house. The arrest is based on the injuries on the victim, and when both have or lack injuries, they are both arrested. Any weapon used in the violence is also seized. The victim is assisted with medical attention, and informed more on her rights. Protective order is also provided to the victim to minimize chances of future attacks, where necessary (Novisky& Peralta, 2015).The police may consider opening trial for the abuser. Based on the situation, the victim and the children may be taken in a shelter where the victims and children psychological needs may be attended to as a way of making them heal from the trauma.

The above procedure is guided by the mandatory arrest police for all domestic violence cases. Since its formation there has been very little review on the effectiveness of this policy on curbing domestic violence or protecting its victims. According to a research results reported by Science Daily (2015), the policy discourages many domestic violence victims from reporting to the relevant authority. This mostly happens among victims who are not in support of the policy. Others fail to report these crimes due to the fear of abuser retaliation, which according to them may be worsen by the compulsory arrest situation. Most women also fear that the police officers might mistakenly arrest them as the aggressor, especially in cases where the abuser also has injuries inflicted by the defender while trying to defend him- or herself.  This denies the victims a chance to get the assistance they need to recover from abuse and to have a more dignified life.

Although most of victims who report benefits from the implementation of the policy, those who fear to report for  the fear inflicted due to how the policy is implemented experience a high level of suffering. According to Novisky and Peralta (2015), the urge to report domestic violence is also influenced by individual social class, race, sexuality, and ethnicity background. Variation in attitudes and experiences toward police offices based on the above facts also determines the victim’s reaction. In addition, victims find the cost of reporting to be considerably high especially due to the involvement of law enforcement. This clearly demonstrates that the policy does not achieve much in what it intended to do. The policy negative outcomes outweigh positive income and hence it can be regarded to be harmful.

Based on the analysis it is evident that something needs to be done to ensure that the policy benefits all domestic violence victims without having a group that shy away. The main appealing thing is being forced to take legal action against the partner. Although most women are victim of domestic violence, most of them would wish of an improved situation rather than a break up (Adams&Campbell, 2012). This means, most would consider settling for a workable agreement for the sake of their future as a couple and for the sake of their children. In this regard, the policy should be modified to provide of mediation, which can include counseling rather than an arrest. To calm the situation, maybe the violent person can be locked in a room alone or the victim can be taken in a shelter until the situation cools down to provide for mediation.

How do Effective Human Resources Management (HRM) Practices and Policies Assist in Enhancement of a Health Care Organization’s Competitive Advantage

Effective human resources management results to the development of effective workers management policies, which control workers behavior in an organization. These policiesdictate on workers behaviors, with consequences for each kind of act. For instance, they define rewards for those who maintain good conduct and punishment that include suspension, warning or termination foremployees who go against the organization policies. This instills operation discipline and promotes work commitment and motivation through different forms of rewards.Effective HRM also provides competitive compensation plan, effective recruitment process that acknowledges individual proficiency in the area of operation, good operational relationship, and plans for individual professional growth. It also enhances adoption of a good organization culture that promotes safety and quality of care, open communication, collaboration as well as adoption transformational culture in a healthcare organization. These play a great role in ensuring that the organization is able to attract the best talents in the industry and that it is able to maintain these talents (Cogin, Ng, & lee, 2016).  Good compensation plan and favorable work environment increase workers morale and level of creativity and innovativeness. This will generally translate to a high level of competitiveness in an organization compared to its competitors.

HR Practices that can be Utilized by Healthcare Organization to Improve organizational and Employee Performance

The performance of any healthcare organization is highly determined by the general operation of its workers. It is therefore important for human resources management department to develop management strategies that will enhance efficient and effective HRM practices to attain the desired objectives and goals. One way to achieve this is through the employment of strategic human resource management. Strategic HRM refers to a process which entails the utilization of overarching techniques to the HR strategies development that are horizontally integrated with each other and vertically integrated with the business strategies. These strategies describe plans and intentions associated to the general organizational considerations that include organizational efficiency, and to more explicit people management aspects, that include employee relations, resourcing, reward, as well as development and learning (Cania, 2014).

Another way to ensure good organizational and individual work performance is by working to enhance high level of job satisfaction in a health care organization. This touches on the recruitment process, work supervision, workers interaction, appraisal, and compensation. In this case, individuals should be employed in the right work position where the job description fits their academic and professional qualifications. Workers should be provided social and technical support to fit well in their role. HRM should ensure respect and social harmony in the work place, regular appraisal should be conducted where individuals are promoted based on their performance.In addition, a good and competitive compensation plan should be adopted. Wok scheduling should be reasonable and with a high level of balancing (Bharnagar&Srivastava, 2012). This willpromote a high level of health care workers job satisfaction and hence, promoting workers morale and dedication to their work, which translate to good individual and general organization general performance.

Pros and Cons of Using Surveillance Drones In The Police Department

Introduction

Security agencies have a tough role of protecting people and their properties in their regions of operations. This has not been easy, especially with high urban population and the growing rate of crimes and crime tactics. The need for security even in challenging situation has force security agencies to adapt different strategies and technologies to enhance their work efficiency. Surveillance drone is one of the technologies employed to enhance this practice. Drone refers to Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) or Unmanned Aircraft System that is flown with no human pilot on-board. Drone main function is to conduct surveillance at a particular region, sending the corrected data to a police center at real time (McKnight, 2015). The form of operation highly depends on the type of drones used. In the spirit of enhancing police work efficiency, the Mayor of city wishes to purchase and deploy surveillance drones to be used by Virtual City Police Department.However, this idea is being objected by some members of city councils, citing a number of disadvantages related to drones over sworn personnel. This research paper focuses on conducting gathering information regarding the pros and cons of using surveillance drones in the department.

Pros of Surveillance Drones

Drone is a unique technology that enhances a high level of surveillance using unmanned aircraft. The technology is being adopted mostly by security forces to enhance the collection of security related data especially in dangerous, dull or dirty places where police need to conduct undercover investigation. This ensures that the police gather the required security data without risking the life of any personnel. It safeguards human pilots from a number of environmental hazards and fatigue (Finn & Wright, 2012). It therefore makes these processes to be much easier and effectively done. UAVs play also enhances surveillance in vulnerable and remote location. UAVs also assist in creating situational awareness. The technology conduct aerial surveillance and they cover a designated region, collecting data at real-time. The collected data is mostly sent or received at real-time in the crime intelligence unit in the police department. This makes it easy for crime investigator to learn of new criminal practices that could have not been discovered without this technology, especially due to its high level of persistence.

Another major advantage of this technology is that it can be used on demand, and hence it can only be used when need be. The system contains tasking flexibility and hence it can be assist to assess the situation during disastrous situation such as natural calamities, or they can be used for surveillance. Drones contain plug and play abilities for their payload. This makes it possible to use tailored systems. In addition, drones can back high-resolution sensors or imager, even in remote areas (Finn & Wright, 2012).

One of the main advantages of using drone is that unlike other manned surveillance aircraft, drone can remain in position for more than 20 hours. This means that UAVs can play a great role in collecting more significant data and late hours or at critical times and hence ensuring a lengthy period of surveillance and a higher chance of obtaining crucial information, necessary for enhancement of security in the applied region. This high level of persistence makes UAVs more reliable and effective in collecting crime data in the designated region. UAVs can thus be used to discoverunauthorized access on top of aliens apprehension support (Haddal&Gertler, 2010).

Drone is a very useful tool in criminal investigation process. The device is set to ensure that when security anomalies are detected such as window breaking, it should fly above the identified area where it should correct and relay all unfolding event to the connected center until the problem is solved. This is easily managed by the technicians on the ground. This feature makes it easy for security personnel to identify crimes taking place across the covered region and work with urgency to resolve them. Drone therefore plays a great role in facilitating maintenance of peace and order in the covered, protection of citizen’s property, and in arresting and prosecuting offenders. It also assists in learning offenders’ behaviors and some of the tactics they used to succeed in their mission. Drones play a great role in resolving serious security mysteries such as serial murders, mass shooting, and homicide among other dangerous crimes especially when it is focused to collect data at a specific region at night. The aerial view makes it easy to see every small detail of what is happening in a city or jurisdiction (Boucher, 2015).

Cons of Surveillance Drone

Surveillance drone is a new technology that is still evolving. This means that the technology is still being improved to address various hitches that have been identified in its operational process. Drone is based on immature technology that is still in the process of being developed to promote its functionality and to eliminate all possible loopholes in its general operation. This means that the technology is not 100% reliable since, there could be some unnoticed system bugs or there could be some noticed by unresolved bugs that can affect its operation or limits its operations especially in challenging times (Coliandris&Coliandris, 2015). One of the main issues encountered with this technology is high rate of accidents compared to manned aircraft. According to ColiandrisandColiandris(2015), the UAV technology lacks enough redundancy in its operating system, and hence high rate of anticipated accidents. Moreover, a small system failure occurrence in UAV, there is no human pilot to try to control the situation. This means that the ground controller of UAV would be at experiencing great challenges to manage the aircraft and in some cases where whether condition is part of the, the connection is lost and hence making it hard to avoid accidents. Another main disadvantage is that the UAV surveillance operation can be influenced by the weather condition. Severe weather condition can interrupt the surveillance capability of UAV, particularly when the drone is only equipped with Forward Looking Infrared Radar (FLIR) and EO camera. This is due to the fact that high humidity and cloudy weather situation can distort the FLIR and EO produced imagery. This implies that the technology may not be efficiency all the time, and that it can only be used in a good weather day (Coliandris&Coliandris, 2015).

Another mainly cited disadvantage of UAV surveillance technology is cost. The UAV operational costs are over twice the operational cost of a manned aircraft. AUVs need a substantial level of maintenance training, specialized operator, and logistical support. Operating a single UAV is said to involve about 20 support personnel crew for effective operations. More, the UAVs use has resulted to reduced alien anxieties per hour of flight compared to manned aircraft. UAVs are considerably cheap to procure compared to manned aircraft, nevertheless their operational cost is considerably high (Haddal&Gertler, 2010). In this regard the UAVs cost life cycle is considerably high compared to that of manned aircraft. Nevertheless, this operation cost might be somewhat offset by UAV reasonably lower unit costs, compared to the manned Aircraft whose unit costs which is significantly high. Although UAVs is said to produce effective results, this view is contradicted at different levels. UAVs is applauded as an important and safe tool which has played a great role in illegal immigration apprehension and seizing drugs, some argues that its effectiveness can only be applied in military departments and not efficient or economical in enforcement of civilian law applications. According to Finn and Wright(2012), there are other kinds of technologies that can offer a higher level of practicality in terms of the involved cost.

Another cited disadvantage of UAVs is the compromising privacy of the people. Drone provides surveillance at all the times, creating the possibility that everything done on the ground is recorded and it can be used against any member of the public. This means drones surveillance can affect the civil liberties of the people in the region. Application of surveillance technologies might undermine people’s freedom of expression or freedom of assembly, as a result of a chilling effect which discourages people from taking part in public dissention activities or social movements (Finn & Wright, 2012)

Conclusion

The analysis clearly shows the different advantages and disadvantages of using drone technology for surveillance purposes. Based on this analysis, it is clear that drone present a number of benefits to the security agencies especially with regard to collection of security data in dangerous and remote areas. It also enhances easy surveillance with prolonged period of surveillance. These among others make this technology highly admirable in security forces. Nevertheless, drone also present a number of challenges which cut across various aspects of life that include the economic aspect due to cost, safety aspect, and social aspect as it is said to interfere with civil liberty. The presentation provides the mayor will advance information which will make him and his council to weigh the benefits over disadvantages and make an informed decision regarding this mater.

Pesticide Treadmill and Why it is a Concern to Farmers and Consumers

Consider what you have learned about natural selection and mutation concerning health issues like TB and head lice, and apply it to pesticide use and farming. Explain what is meant by a “pesticide treadmill” and why it is a concern to farmers and consumers.

Many diseases persist in human populations because of a balance between mutation, genetic drift, and natural selection. For example, Tuberculosis has existed for many years despite the development of powerful antibiotic therapy and various scientific breakthroughs in history owing to its ability to develop resistance to antibiotics by way of random mutations and natural selections. While mutation works by altering gene frequencies by introducing new alleles, natural selection is the differential survival based on phenotype. Like disease pathogens, pests have also developed resistance to various chemical formulations through mutation and natural selection. Therefore, farmers must either retain regular pesticide application routines or continually pay for more potent and expensive agricultural chemicals or pesticide-resistant crops, a process known as pesticide treadmill.

In essence, a pesticide treadmill indicates a situation in which farmers are compelled to continue applying pesticides frequently since they have become an indispensable part of the agricultural cycle9Sherman, 2007, p. 238). This often occurs when planters and ranchers use pesticides on crops and animals such that other natural remedies no longer work effectively. Usually, pests become resistant to weaker remedies because of genetic mutations that allow them to transform into drug-resistant pests. A severe aspect of a positive treadmill occurs when the cycle escalates. The elimination of one insect pest can lead to the flourishing of other types of pests, therefore necessitating the farmer to use other forms of pesticides.

Bill ‘Bojangles’ Robinson Biography – The History of Musical Theatre

Bill “Bojangles” Robinson was most legendary of all Black American tap dancers that lived in the 20th century. Bill was also an actor who was known best for his film roles and Broadway performances. Bill dancing style that involved dancing upright, while extracting and swinging his light footwork, took tap from the previous flat-footed shuffling style and developed tap dancing art to a delicate perfection, pushing performers to their toes. Bill ‘Bojangles’ Robinson was born on 25th of May 1878 in Richmond, Virginia. He was a son of Maxwell who served in a machine shop and Maria who was a singer in a choir. Bill was named as Luther Robinson after birth. However, he later exchanged his name Luther with his brother’s Bill at an early age, when he started professional performances. He claimed to have applied physical force to achieve that. Robinson lost his parents in 1885, at the age of seven, a situation that forced him to be brought up by Bedilia, his grandmother, who served as slave in her early life. He later got “Bojangles” nickname as a young man due to his prickly tendencies (Biography.com, 2017).

Robinson started dancing at the age of six. He dropped out of school at the age of seven and started taking part in professional dances a year after. He performed in various resident beer gardens for a living. He joined touring troupe named MaymeRemingtons in 1886 and shifted to a travelling company in 1891. Heperformed later as a vaudeville actor. Robinson attained great success as musical-comedian and nightclub performer. At early stage of his career, Robinson almost exclusively performed in black theaters, which only hosted black audiences, with his performances including movies and musical stage. Robinson performed locally for a while by 1900, he had managed to travel to New York, and grew rapidly to be among the most loved American music comedy and nightclub performers. In 1908, Bill met Marty Forkins in Chicago who ended up being his lifetime manager. He started working on a solo act under Forkinsmanagement mostly in nightclubs, increasing his popularity and earnings (Biography.com, 2017).

Robinson introduced the stair dance in 1918, which later became his signature bit. Irrespective of his success, his chances were still restricted to black American venues, due to racism. However, in 1928, Robinson managed to get chance to face white audiences for the first time where he starred on Broadways, which included his popular stair dance. As a star, Robinson performance immediately managed to captivate White audiences. In the following decade, Robinson performed 14 motion pictured for Paramount, 20th Century Fox, and RKO. He played opposite Shurley Temple in his most repeated role of an old Antebellum in a number of films that include Just Around the Corner published in 1938, The Little Colonel in 1935, Rebecca of Sunnybrook Far in 1938, and The Little Rebel in 1935. Irrespective of his fame, Bill was unable to transcend the slim range of black actor stereotypical role at the time. By taking these roles, Robinson managed to maintain his professional position even at his old age. At the age of 61, Robinson starred in The Hot Mikado, a Sullivan and Gilbert’s operetta jazz-inspired interpretation. He publicly celebrated his 61stbirthday by dancing down 61 Broadway blocks (Blackpast.org, 2007).

Robinson became famous for taking part in stage dances, and movie starring among others. However, these are not the only things that he did in his lifetime. Robinson took performance break to serve in the World War I as a rifleman. Together with trenches fighting, Robison was in addition a drum major that headed the disciplined band up Fifth Avenue after the return of regiment from Europe. Robinson was as well engaged in baseball where 1936 he cofounded Harlem baseball team, named as New York Blank Yankees. New York Blank Yankees remained in Negro National League up to the time when the first racial integration of the Major League Baseball took place in 1948. The team was all along financed by James Semler.  Bill also had an involving personal life. He marriedthree times, with his first marriage taking place in 1907 and divorce following in 1922, the second marriage took place in 1922 and ended in 1943, while the third marriage took place in 1944, and lasted until his death.(Atdf.org, 2002).

Robinson hardly had any education.  He was described to be quarrelsome, confrontational, nasty demeanor, and heavy gambler and drunkard. However, he had extraordinary dancing, particularly his scenes of Tap dance with little Shirley Temple, that were said to be legendary and endearing. He performed for the best part of his life from the age of six to a few months to his death. Robinson died in 1949 of heart attack, which impacted his breathing, walking and initiated talking sleeping. This made his doctor to advise against taking part in more dancing. Despite having earned over two million dollars in his lifetime, Bill died a poor man. He died at the age of 71 (Black-face.com, n.d.).

Can Volcanic Activities Become Beneficial to Humans?

Volcanism refers to magma and related gases movement from the interior into the earth surface and the crust. Volcanism can be beneficial and hazardous to human being.  Volcanic eruption results to the emission of greenhouse gases that include CO2 from fossil fuels burning.  This makes a contribution to the atmospheric pollution and increase in global warming scale. Volcanoash can also be destructive to the infrastructure, especially when it cover roads, railways satellites, and airports runways. It can result to destruction of towns, communities, and people’s properties, while in very abrupt and severe cases, it can result to lose of life and severe injuries. People displacement and destruction of towns result to destruction of commerce in the area. Volcano ash is also likely to interfere with respiratory health of the people in the surrounding area and their visibility. Toxic silica can also be part of volcanic particulates (Self, 2006).

Volcanic ash is said to contain a number of soil nutrients that are very essential in providing minerals to the plants. It can therefore be very important in the agricultural sector.  Volcanic also creates mineral deposits which make great contribution to the economy of a country as raw material for manufacturing important product for local and international use. Volcanic has also resulted to the creation of beautiful landscape that includes land, island, and mountain among other unique features. These features play a great role in attracting tourists in the county. It also offers habitation to pioneer species, after destroying the existing or the old crops and habitants. The high heat level and activities in the earth near a volcano can offer chances for geothermal energy generation in the country (Marshak, 2016).

Road to Serfdom – Book Review

Introduction

The “Road to Serfdom” is authored by Friedrich Hayek who was born in Austria (Hayek, 2015). It mostly focuses on socialism and its resulting adverse effects on a country’s economic path and life of the people. Through the various chapters, covered economic aspects are dealt with regard to socialist tendencies. Socialism is thought in the book to be the foreseen root of the future evils like Nazism and fascism. The book focuses on organization especially in a conscious way that direct all society’s step.  The book focuses on various countries and the socialist stances they have taken while ignorant of the anticipated evil results. Nazism and fascism are brought out as some of the evils of socialism and which lead to an end in the independence of individuals and the centralization of power to few individuals. In dealing with the great utopia, most people are of the view that socialism and democracy can be practiced together, which is not possible. Socialism has its roots in the French revolution and regards people as numbers democracy is the total opposite where freedom is sought through equality.

Totalitarianism and collectivism are some of the negative results from socialism. Totalitarianism mostly leads to a society directly controlled by the leader in place.  Collectivism is brought forth as the freedom of many, which is propagated by leaders who decide how the economy runs on behalf of their people. Totalitarianism inhibits freedom of the people. Hayek pursues another important aspect of the economy especially regarding the basics of people in satisfying their needs. Hayek is of the opinion that the society can advance greatly if liberty is assured to the people. Learning from the past and how organized activities by states has led to various evils like Nazism will help the government make better decisions and create a free society for every individual to exercise their freedom without infringing on the rights of others. The writer notes that serfdom comes in when there are controlled activities by the government and therefore lack of freedom for the people in question.

Critical Analysis

The author has lived in countries that were affected negatively because of having socialist thought for some time. Countries that have held or hold socialist thinking and further seen the evils or experienced them. As such, the author is in a better position of showing the state of society, which embraces socialist thought. The constant thoughts of planning and organizes may seem attractive at first but may provide a platform of destruction in the end. Freedom is an important aspect that Hayek handles in the book especially about political and economic freedom. A society rises and falls with the direction of its leaders especially those who think that everything in society should be centralized. Having lived in such countries and experienced such brutal forms of leadership, it becomes paramount that his arguments are valid when considering the aftermath of socialism. Hayek provides a greater understanding of how socialist thinking prepares leaders to undertake destructive tendencies and gives relevant instances of leaders like Mussolini and Hitler. Such incidences did not happen by chance, but the social processing of the society by the leaders further led them to such evils. Leaders in such cases did not anticipate such adverse consequences, but through their thinking of organizing and planning everything set a stage. Though the socialist approach is subtle, it is important to know the consequences of engaging in such thought and the author provides a better explanation of government control on various aspects of the society. Hayek bases his reasoning on his experiences especially in Austria and does not borrow much from other countries that have fared on well as socialists.

Hayek brings out the argument of socialism being a contributor to evils such as Nazism and fascism. In holding such views, he insinuates that Germany should not have been blamed on the Nazism that resulted but the focus should be on the social approach that was gaining ground in Germany before Hitler took place. Such an approach gave him the platform to carry out his leadership tendencies that led to brutal actions carried out on various sections of people in the society by his governance. Hayek further focuses on the individuals and their freedom, which is clearly a part of the thinking in Christianity. His thoughts on individualism are connected with humanism especially in the western European thought. Hayek dwells on various freedoms that are to be associated with the economy and the individual himself particularly relating the humanistic way of thinking. He is the view that liberalism is removed from society by leadership that embraces socialism. Therefore, though he is of the opinion that liberalism is highly beneficial to society especially its governance and economy there are various setback that can cause conflicting interests between liberalists.

Liberalism according to Hayek slacked at the start, and people did not put much consideration to it. Hayek notes that planning and organizing guided the thoughts of many philosophers like Hegel and Karl Marx who did not like such talk about the consequences that would arise if such controlling attitudes were taken by the leadership in place (MacGregor, 2014). Hayek further shows that socialism can be undertaken by honoring the freedom that people should have. Hayek further delivers into various systems in society like communism and fascism have the same means but different goals especially in leading to unintended consequences. Hayek further focuses on individualism and notes that governments or the leadership in place cannot meet all the needs of every individual in an instant. A planning to meet all needs would be quite cumbersome and complex since it will have to factor in all individuals. Hayek in is arguments disputes any notion that socialists can be democrats.

In dealing with economics and politics, Hayek suggests that the government should intervene where necessary and not have immense control over the business environment. He differs with Keynes on how government can intervene in a dire economic situation since he holds the view that government intervention should be minimal (Cate, 2012). Planned systems have both powers to regulate and to control the economy. The controlling of the economy stifles independences of the business to carry out their activities with freedom. Hayek in his thoughts on economy control and regulation by parliament does not give a definite answer to which systems of leadership especially liberalism or democracy can protect the freedoms of people in doing their daily economic activities. Totalitarianism clearly shows the ways in which economic progress is stifled. Hayek notes on the demerit of economic control and thus notes that it cannot assist a society to progress. In such economic control, people are restricted to the choices made for them through economic control, which Hayek totally disagrees with. Hayek is of the view that a controlled economy as predetermined actions as opposed to a free market economy. For securities of the people to be met, there is need for there to be the consideration of freedom to be considered. The provision of security should not counter the freedoms of the people.

Philosophical relevance

Hayek points out important issues that are part of any economic society. At present as governments, seek a more controlling stake, their respective economies it becomes significant to consider the resultant consequences. Governments should, therefore, learn to create a political and economic environment where they are not controlling. As such, they should not concentrate on centralizing powers particularly on how they can control the economic activities. The relationship of the government with people can benefit greatly if the government focuses on other aspects of the country such as legislation and playing a regulatory role in fostering the economy.  Socialism, in this case, should be avoided at all coasts since it cannot be intermingled with democracy.

Many leaders today hold socialist thoughts present in the modern day society, especially in America. Some of the features include too much stress on planning, the rising veneration in the country among others. Socialist forces were the precedence of Nazism in Germany, and even though the policies may seem good, they inevitably lead to evil consequences. Such tendencies as coming up with an economic system that is consciously directed as opposed to that which is competitive stems from socialist thoughts, which eventually lead to dire consequences in the end. In the most developed countries, the need for organization of the society is greatly stressed and some of the people hold socialist views without knowing the resulting consequences. Therefore, philosophically Hayek brings about a way of thinking that abhors socialist thinking and instead promotes aspects that support freedom and the government being more of a regulatory player in the economic stage.

Conclusion

Friedrich focuses on the freedoms that people have and how governments control can take away such freedoms. As such, most countries are adopting more control while some are taking partial control of the economy. At present democracy is emphasized and countries which stifle their economies by having much control will according to Hayek have destructive results. It is further important to note that at present more governments are taking on free trade areas between their borders and thereby encouraging more trade between countries and not only within the specific countries. Therefore societies should be watchful on how they use various policies at can be socialist and lead to bad leadership.

Chromium – Shortages of Strategic Minerals and solution

The selected strategic mineral is Chromium.The country was anticipated to use approximately 5% of the globe chromite ore in different forms that include refractories, chemicals, and metals. Chromium is among the country’s most essential critical and strategic material. Its utilization in nonferrous, steel, and iron alloys facilitates resistance and hardenability to oxidation and corrosion. The utilization of Chromium to develop nonferrous and stainless steel alloys is among a number of its more essential applications. Chromium is also used in refractories, alloy steel, surface treatments, metals planting, catalysts, pigments, and leather processing.  It therefore makes a significant contribution to the economy of the country (Minerals.usgs.gov, 2017).

The United States does not have any locally sourced Chromium. It highly depends on importation and recycling of the mineral. In 2016, about 42% of chromium consumed in the country was recycled from stainless steel scrap. The rest was imported from different parts of the world with the major source being South Africa. Other import sources include Russia, Canada, Kazakhstan, and Mexico. Chromium can be imported as chromite mineral, chromium primary metal, or chromium-containing scraps. Chromium contains no substitute in superalloys, leading end use, or stainless steel. In this regard, it is a mineral that must be used in a number of applications. Thus its shortage would be very costly to a number of companies that depend on it, which may as well impact the economy of the country.  To handle the shortage, the country must focus more on recycling steel scrap metal exhaustively to reduce the reliance on importation even further. It should also make long-lasting contracts with various Chromium suppliers, especially countries such as South Africa, Kazakhstan, and India who have high rate of production and more in their reserves (Minerals.usgs.gov, 2017).

Haemophilia Gene Inheritance

What are the chances that a hemophiliac male and an unaffected, non-carrier female could have a baby that is a hemophiliac male?

It is very rare because the father contributes the Y chromosome to the child, which makes him a boy. Even if the father is hemophiliac when he has a wife who is a non-carrier, it is almost impossible for the (Cutter, 2011). If the child were a girl, it would have been different. In this case, since the male parent give half of the chromosomes, which determine whether it is a girl or a boy. Girls, in this case, would get the X chromosome from the man either with or without the gene. The girls, in this case, will not have hemophilia but will be carriers of the hemophiliac gene with their mother who does not have them donating a dominant gene to the child. The gene can only be carried on the X chromosome gene, and boys usually obtain the X chromosome from their mothers.

Fathers, in this case, have the X and Y chromosome while the mothers have X and X chromosomes. The chances of women carriers transferring their hemophilia to their children especially boys, in this case, is fifty percent (Starr & McMillan, 2014). On the other hand, the mother, in this case, does not have hemophilia and is not a carrier. Therefore, the mother, who is a noncarrier, gives the X chromosome, which does not have the hemophilia gene hence the boy will not suffer from hemophilia. As seen from above, even though the father is hemophilia he gives the Y chromosome to the boy, which lacks the hemophilia gene. Therefore the boy has zero chances of getting hemophilia from a father with hemophilia and a mother who does not have hemophilia and is a non-carrier.

Manganese – Shortages of Strategic Minerals and Solution

Manganese is a strategic mineral that is quite important to the United States economy especially in the production of weapon systems for the safeguarding of security among many other important applications especially as alloys in different metals like iron to strengthen them. Manganese is used in most defense materials, and the domestic supplies are not enough to meet the demand in the various industries. At present, no metals have been found that can substitute manganese. Manganese has been found to be a substitute for other metals especially in making of different alloys the United States has a shortage of the material and has to depend on outside countries especially through imports (Fischman, 2015). The United States imports manganese from Brazil, Gabon, France and South Africa. In times of war, it can be difficult to get the required amount of manganese.

Therefore, to deal with the shortage and ensure a constant supply the United States needs to enter into contracts with suppliers. To further help in meeting the increasing demand of manganese there is need to come to recycle manganese from used tin cans alloyed with manganese and from scrap metal. The manganese can further be obtained from batteries. Recycling of scrap metal as mentioned above should be a priority especially the alloys that have manganese in them especially those made of steel or iron. Since substitutes for manganese have not yet been found, it is important to carry out experiments using other metals to find out alternatives that can help in ensuring that in a shortage the country is not put in a desperate situation. The United States should further look at its demand and come up with enough stockpiles that can help keep the economy running without the interference of shortages. It is therefore important for the country to come up with efficient supply chains that ensure a continuous supply of manganese.

Overview of HEDIS and ORYX Measures

Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS) created by the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) has for several years been the most popularly utilized battery for evaluating performance of health plan by use of clinical records and administrative data. HEIDS is an instrument utilized by over 90% of health plans in America for performance measure on essential dimensions of service and care.  HEDIS contains 81 measures across five care domains. HEDIS increases the possibility to compare the health plans performance on basis of apples-to-apples, since HEDIS data are gathered by so many plans and measures are defined specifically. To develop measures the healthcare organization will need to identify the clinical section to be assessed, perform a wide literature review, use suitable MAP to develop measures among other panels, this should be followed by vetting the developed measure with different stakeholders, and conducting a field-test which determines validity, reliability, and feasibility. The acute health care organization thus needs to determine the best clinical areas that may need to be evaluated and follow this procedure to evaluate them. The main aim would be to determine their actual level of performance with intention defining causes of poor performance and hence the best strategies to improve it to the right or desired level.

ORYX is regarded as an entity with processes for analyzing and colleting measure data from a number of organization and distributing the analysis results to its client base. It contains an automated database which can be utilized to enhance improvement of performance in health care organizations. ORYX contains the aptitude to generate internal comparisons of performance of every participating organization over time and conducting external performance comparison among the involved organizations. It also has the aptitude to transmit data for a particular period of time. Joint Commission accredited hospitals are needed to gather and report performance data for some or all of core measure sets(The Joint Commission, 2014). In acute care setup, the hospital may be needed to gather and report data on performance of all its operational sections. These include data on patient outcomes and satisfaction, rate of admission, readmission, medical errors, death rates in different medical condition, data on patients’ drug interactions, drug efficiency in handling a certain health issue, and the rate of preventable deaths. To improve performance, the hospital will need to collect the above stated data and compare it with the past year performance to determine the trend for internal assessment. This will show whether there is need to employ new operation methods to better the performance. The data can also be compared with other nearby similar organizations to determine if the hospital is doing its best to get the best possible performance (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, n.d.). In case the organization is showing poor performance than other, it should consider defining it sources of failures and use others as their example to make improvements.

Rocks of Alabama Mountains in California

Alabama Hills are an array of rock and hills formation located close to the Lone Pine in the west and Sierra Naveda eastern slope in Owens Valley, in California, Inyo County. Alabama hills resulted from cataclysmic earth crust uplifting that took place about 100 million years ago. This was followed by millennia of wind-blown sand, snow, and wind have molded the uncommon rounded formations that currently exist in Alabama Hills. The hills appear like rounded contours and it acts as the tip of an escarpment that is very steep which might have been generated by several earthquakes similar to Lone Pine earthquake that took place in 1872 causing 15-20 feet vertical displacement in a single event (Pakiser, Kane & Jackson, n.d.).

Alabama Hills contains to forms of rock. The oldest rock on the hills is drab orange weathered which is 150 -200 million years. This rock was formed through volcanic method and it is classified as metamorphosed volcanic rock, after going through a number of weathering following exposure to different weather condition since its formation. The second type of rock in Alabama Hills is biotite monzagranite. This is an igneous rock that is grouped as plutonic rock belonging to biotite granite rocks, which are regarded as the last magma fractionation product. It can be black, white, orange, pink or grey. These rocks have been on Alabama Hills for about 82 to 85 million years old after the exposure of biotite monzogranite that weathers to create big potato-shaped rocks. Most of these rocks stand on the end as a result of spheroidal weathering that acts on several joints that are nearly vertical on these rocks (Pakiser, Kane& Jackson, n.d.).

A Personal Experience In Research

Assignment Instructions

You are now engaged in a research project! This can be a very exciting and intimidating process, but you have a great support network to help you. Take just a moment to think about something you have researched in the past, and describe what that experience was like. What did you research? What were your reasons for researching it? What did you find out about the topic and about yourself? Did you find yourself seeking out primary or secondary sources? What kinds of sources did you use? How did you choose your topic, and what was the result of your research?

Feel free to choose any experience. You do not have to limit yourself to an academic research topic. You might reflect upon research that you did for your job, or you might want to reflect upon a time that you researched a large purchase, such as a new computer or a car.

 

Sample Solution

I was involved in a research to determine impact of globalization in the development of Chinese economy. The main idea was to determine how globalization has affected growth and development of developing nations in the world and hence the students were supposed to base their research topic on that aspect. I decided to select China based on the fact that China is growing very fast and its growth started after open of globalization in the country.  I thought it would be exciting to learn how globalization influenced this growth. I also wanted to know whether the growth of Chinese economy was based on multinational companies or local companies. I also wanted to know what specific aspect of globalization boosted Chinese economic growth, making it among the major exporters that have not been realized in other developing nations.

After conducting the research, I realized that China offered a favorable environment for development of multinational companies in the world. This included cheap labor and land cost. The country has in the recent past also embraced education and hence there was also a high number of educated or professional workers in the country. Chinese population was also considerably high, an aspect that attracted most multinational companies due to ready market. The increase in the number of multinational companies increased the government revenue through taxation among other licensure charges. They also created employment and contributed to the society development through social responsibility programs. Increase in the export from these companies also added to the government revenue. Locals’ exposure to industrialization made it possible for them to grow and establish their own companies increasing the rate of economic growth. I used both primary and secondary data. I reviewed old news in different local economic news to determine changes that took place in the past after globalization became popular. I also held a phone interview with the retired minister of economy in the country who provided very essential information regarding the topic. I realized that it is possible to know anything one is interested in as long as one focuses on getting it. The research made me learn that globalization initiated international trade, and regionalization of trade to reduce tariffs.It also enhanced growth of international companies in a country, knowledge sharing, employment, diversity and inclusion, and eventually general growth of economy of a country.

 

Fountains of Optimism for Life Way Out There – Article Summary

Fountains of Optimism for Life Way Out There

In “Fountains of Optimism for Life Way Out There” Gugliotta (2011) gives an insight of the solar system, the possibility of other plants that may be able to support life. According to him, for a planet to be able to support life, it needs to have liquid water and carbon. The article reflects on the work of scientists for the last 20 years regarding the study of the solar system with intention of identifying other planets that can manage to support life. The core to the ability to support life in the solar system according to scientists lies on the presence of liquid water. There is no place other than earth that appeared to have the required physical attributes for the existence of liquid water other than maybe Europa that perhaps covered a subterranean ocean and ice-covered moon in Jupiter. These physical attributes may include gravity, antifreeze chemicals, geology, and radioactivity.

Presence of water has been demonstrated to be likely and even possible on Titan and Enceladus Saturn’s moon, on Venus and Mars, and even on two asteroids outer-belt. However, the life proof can only be established when the drops of this water is examined under a microscope to determine its content. Water has been commonly found in the solar system in form of ice. However, most planets lack elements to sun heated particles together, and they easily sublimate. The lack of balance between pressure and temperature in the solar system is the major reason for lack liquid water.

NASA has been trying to study tidal forces and other features in the solar system. An Enceladus was established in 2005 which contained a diameter of about 300 miles. The discovered Enceladus was discharging grains of water ice from South Polar Region cracks. These grains were regarded as Saturn’s E-ring dust which was suspected to originate from subsurface source of liquid water. A lot has been discovered including methane lakes and hydrocarbon sand dunes in Titan. More research has been done to determine interaction between various elements in different products discovered in the solar system. However, despite of over 20 years of research, there is only speculation that some planets have higher ability to support life than others. But there is no certainty that they can support life for sure.

High-Reliability Organizations and Patient Safety

Introduction

Despite widespread and serious effort to enhance healthcare quality, a number of patients still suffer from preventable conditions each day. Hospitals find it hard to sustain improvement and they mostly suffer from project fatigue due to a number of issues that need their attention. According to Chassin and Loeb (2013), no health system or hospitals have attained consistent excellence in their entire institution. The science of high-reliability is the organizations study in industries such as nuclear power and commercial aviation that work under hazardous condition while upholding safety levels which are far better compared to those of healthcare. Applying and adapting the high-reliability concept to health care provides the promise of allowing hospitals to attain levels of safety and quality which are comparable to the above mentioned organization. This paper focuses on discussing measures that can be employed to make health care organization highly reliable.

Concept of High-Reliability Organizations and how they can Transform Health Care

High-reliability organizations (HROs) refer to those organizations which exist in in hazardous settings where errors consequences are high, but errors occurrence is extremely low. Some of these organizations include wildland firefighting, electric power grid, and aircraft carrier. These companies have the ability for disastrous failure though they are involved in almost error-free performance. HROs pledge to safety at the greatest level and employ a special technique to its pursuit (Chrustuanson et al., 2011). High reliability science is receiving great attention in health care organization, especially in high-risk environments that include intensive care unit. To achieve this, health care organizations should set principles which permit them organizations to center their attention on developing issues and to set up the right set of resources to handle the identified issues.

Similar to other High-Reliability Organization, health care organizations should take failures positively and perceive them as a chance to improve the system for better outcome. Health care organizations should stop focusing on one aspect of the problem or work, but consider on improving the entire system as a whole. They should also look forward to experience unexpected events and create measures to manage them. This can be effectively achieved by employing experts to define a comprehensive problem solving mechanism that consider all aspects of system operation (Chrustuanson et al., 2011). Most high-reliability organizations have tried to automate their system to enhance efficiency. Although this cannot be wholly achieved in healthcare organization, automation should be maximized to the highest level possible to minimize errors. Teamwork is another aspect that is likely to increase healthcare organizations reliability. Team members normally have different attitudes, skills and knowledge. This means working in collaboration to attain the organization goals will highly promote efficiency, minimization of errors and safety promotion in health care organization (Sutcliffe, 2011).

The Reason for Little Progress in Healthcare toward Becoming an HRO

There has been application of wide range of health care quality improvement efforts in the past. Some of these efforts include care system reengineering, improving physician peer review practice, applying progressive quality enhancement, restructuring professional education, and punishing poor performance among others. In some cases, the healthcare organizations have been successful in their attempts to vexing safety and quality issues. However, these victories have been short lived. Thus the past employed measures have not been successful in solving deeply rooted, persistent and complex safety and quality issues (Chassin& Loeb, 2011). Some of the challenges that have contributed to unsuccessful long term measures or changes in healthcare organizations include the changing sources of problems.

Basically, healthcare organizations handle a wide range of problems which keep on changing in their intensity and volume. There are always new diseases which demand new safety measures based on their severity. These condition may be very new such that there are no medics with comprehensive knowledge on how to handle them. When such condition erupt, the erroneous procedures are inevitable in any healthcare organization. Beside this, there could be outbreak of known condition, creating pressure to the available healthcare organizations resources which include human resource. In such situation, it is considerably hard to maintain high quality services at the required urgency (Chassin& Loeb, 2011). Healthcare organizations also deal with disease pathogens which keep on mutating to build resistance such that, previously employed measure may not be viable to handle a pathogen after its mutations. This means, changes need to be made frequently as the situation change to maintain high quality of care. The changes normally create a need to going back to the drawing board to find a new solution or strategy. Moreover, new things regarding the known issues are always discovered in medical research. This implies that the find lacks comprehensive knowledge on issues facing it. Thus, it is definitely hard to define a comprehensive solution to these problems. Medical issues are very many and diverse, and each issue may need a new technique to handle it. This in most cases becomes uneconomical and complex to develop a high-reliable organization in terms of quality of care and safety (May, 2013).

Improvement that can be made by Health Care Organization to Become High-Reliability Organization

There are a number of measures that can be employed by the healthcare organizations to strive to become High-Reliability Organizations. Some of these measures include adopting transformational culture which initiates the desire to improve the situation at all the time. Transformational culture will assist an organization to always work toward improving its current state to better its performance. Leaders in this case will have the major role in influencing followers to be innovative, independent and determined to meet new personal and organizational development goals. Improving the organization level of collaboration and teamwork can also play a great deal in improving the situation (May, 2013). Teamwork promote sharing of knowledge and ideas, and working in coordination among all personnel in the organization to achieve better results. An organization should also try to improve its operation model by improving on supervision, accountability and effectiveness in offering services and using resources (Sparnon&Marella,2012).  Patients should be requested to provide feedback on services received, while the organization management uses the provided feedback to streamline the operations in the organization. The organization management should try to provide all the resources needed to enhance efficiency, quality and safety in a healthcare organization. Personnel development through training on new issues and personal growth through knowledge advancement should be embraced and encouraged in a healthcare organization. Rewarding system which focuses on performance recognition should also be adopted to motivate workers towards fulfilling the organization mission and vision, especially with regard to quality of care, safety and efficiency.

Potential Interest of the Payer in an HRO

Payer focuses on reducing cost and maximizing on the utilization of the available resources. The potential payer will therefore be interest in the organization ability to reduce or completely eliminate preventable risks that can increase payer’s cost.  High-reliability organizations operate at a very high risk which is controlled by the organization. The level of control always determines the cost of the risk. When the risk is effectively harnessed, the payer cost goes down since the instances of fatal incidences that may require compensations reduces (Chassin& Loeb, 2013). Nevertheless, in a situation where the organization is unable to arrest a situation, there is a high chance that the risk incurred will be very costly to any insurance firm. In this regard, it is very important for the payer to know the measure employed to mitigate the obvious risks and how effective these measures are in preventing avoidable harm.