Month: January 2019

Harley Davidson Memorandum on Issues Relevant to the Public Relations Planning Process

From: Harley-Davidson Motor Company. PR Team- C. Martinez, F. Odom, and G. Chan

RE: Reflections on PR plan

This memo contains our presentation of observations on our PR plan to be developed for our hypothetical client, the Harley-Davidson Motor Company

Interesting Facts and Information Discovered

Over the past century, Harley-Davidson Motor Company has proven its worth as a resilient enterprise and gone on to become one of the most popular motorcycle brands around the globe. Nonetheless, it increasingly became fundamental to our public relations (PR) team to gain a better comprehension of its standing in contemporary society. It is for this reason that we embarked on a fact-finding mission that led us to various periodicals instrumental in enabling us learn more about nascent issues cropping up by the day.  Moreover, this process would further aid us in demystifying real issues facing the firm in a business environment that is often plagued by a plethora of challenging forces. Motorcycle aficionados now have to contend with the possibility of not being able to swing their legs over Harley Davidson bicycles in future owing to the prevailing status quo of a decrease in sales all across the United States. The public relations (PR) team is emphatic in its proposition that a global expansion of its footprint coupled with a simultaneous diversification campaign will ultimately help the brand regain its lost glory.

Harley-Davidson has experienced a decrease in sales in the United States and begun to expand internationally in an attempt to diversify their public.

Most Challenging Key Public

            We firmly contend that the most challenging key public force facing this lifestyle brand has been an aging demographic. It is for this reason that we are of the opinion that they will soon come a day when these motorcycle owners will be unable to ride their bikes, a situation that would prove catastrophic. Early signs of this impending disaster are already being witnessed in low numbers of new customers and a drop in annual sales. Economists and other related pundits have recently underscored the importance of reversing this trend since it could very well end up being its Waterloo. Young adults are a prospective target market and the reason why Harley Davidson has to painstakingly focus on creating a cult following among these individuals while developing personal relationships.

Easiest Plan Objective to Accomplish

            The easiest and most viable objective at this particular stage would be to develop marketing campaigns mostly targeting young adults. It is worth acknowledging that a large number of those owning products from this particular brand are aging individuals and the main reason why the clientele may be dying off slowly. Seeking out new customers would be one of the surest strategies of ensuring that the brand survives, especially if the focus is on the aforementioned demographic group.

An increase in the number of awareness campaigns is a technique that would ultimately result in cumulative benefits for the company. One of the surest ways of ensuring that this dream becomes reality is by creating a brand experience. The end situation will be that a majority of young adults will now develop a strong relationship with the brand, establishing a connection and ultimately increase overall sales. We, therefore, intend to forge a lasting long-term relationship with persons from this particular stratum of the society, creating a new breed of enthusiasts.

Hardest Plan Objective to Accomplish

            We believe that the most difficult objective would be to be to overshadow commercials and campaigns from foreign competitors such as Honda, Suzuki, and Kawasaki, which often provide cheaper options to our target consumer. It is for this reason that we note that these brands serve as tangible threats that may seek to influence the same target market as the Harley-Davidson Motor Company. Moreover, the recession also presents an additional set of challenging circumstances since the purchasing power of the target population would be adversely affected. Individuals would, therefore, find it difficult to purchase Harley-Davidson motorcycles due to a scarcity of disposable income to be spent on a luxury item.

Most recently, a movement of individuals seeking to reduce their carbon footprint has lashed out against the continued use of fossil fuels. If embraced by the masses, this ideology would be detrimental to the Harley-Davidson Motor Company since these individuals may, altogether, cease to use the motorcycle as a form of transportation. Additional, an increase in the price of fuel has proved a limiting factor that has made the Harley-Davidson less efficient and unnecessary. The result would be a loss of loyal customers, reducing the amount of revenue earned by the firm.

“To Be or Not To Be” in Oliver’s Hamlet Film (1948)

William Shakespeare is arguably one of the best playwrights to ever grace literary circles and is still remembered for his life-long contribution in literature. This was a breath of fresh air in a niche genre that had, for a long time, not produced masterpieces akin to Greek Classics. The turn of the 17th century, therefore, saw him delve deep into the art of crafting tragedies, which he soon made his forte. By 1602, he had produced Hamlet, a tragedy set in Denmark with a member of the royal family as the protagonist. This iconic masterpiece enthralled many, focusing on Prince Hamlet’s confrontation with an apparition of his dead father subsequently murdered by his usurper brother, Claudius.  The powerful nature of this particular play was the reason why there have been numerous adaptations, with different actors and production houses seeking to present their unique take on the subject matter (Shakespeare and Hibbard 60). One of the most moving productions features Laurence Oliver’s version produced in 1948. Here, he single-handedly stars as a titular character, playing the protagonist’s role with exceptional prowess. In this essay, I will provide an in-depth analysis of Oliver’s 1948 version of the “To be or not to be” soliloquy, the question being asked and whether this question is answered ultimately.

In crafting this particular soliloquy, Shakespeare wanted to present the conflict that was raging inside Prince Hamlet conscience. He is in an apparent quandary on whether or not he should follow through with his plans to commit suicide owing to his emotional pain. It’s clear that the events surrounding his father’s death and his uncle subsequently ascending to the throne have left him disillusioned, not knowing who to trust. Moreover, he feels utterly betrayed by his mother who went to marry his uncle Claudius, who was thought to be the main culprit in the brutal murder of the King. All this became clear to the young prince when his father’s ghost appeared to him, revealing all that transpired and how he was utterly betrayed by his brother. Hamlet opines that suicide might be his only option in escaping the troubles of the world and the pain that has now become the bane of his existence (MacDonell). Nonetheless, he is still unsure of what lies in store for him, should he commit suicide which further exacerbates his agony. Will he find peace and serenity in death or will he linger in oblivion, suffering a fate similar to that of his father? Oliver’s depiction of Hamlet paints a clear picture of a young prince concerned with the future that awaits him, coupled with being unsure about his mortality while grappling with the information provided by his father’s ghost.

In performing this particular soliloquy, Oliver does a superb job at expressing the pain that his character feels while facing insurmountable odds. All this is expressed in his manner of delivery though out the soliloquy which is fitting of the pain that he might be experiencing through his speech. A performance of this caliber expresses his woes to those he is communicating the message to, allowing them to sympathize with this tragic figure and the precarious position that he finds himself in  (“Olivier’s Hamlet film (1948): To Be Or Not To Be soliloquy”). Furthermore, his causal nature while handling the knife is a depiction of his state of mind at this penultimate moment. He seems to be threatening no other but himself, a clear indication of the internal struggle that he might be going through at this particular moment in time. All this is then abruptly interrupted when he begins to think about what will happen to him after death. Oliver’s adaptation, therefore, has a psychological disposition to it; a man overcome by grief and emotion.  The question in this particular instance centered on whether or not Hamlet should commit suicide. However, by the end of the soliloquy he chooses life over suicide as opposed to choosing death to an “undiscovered country”.

Greater Adoption of Green Practices in Hospitality


Human society has, in the past three centuries, gone through drastic changes in a brief period. The world we currently live in is a direct result of civilization resulting from the Industrial Revolution that changed the manner in which economic affairs were carried out. Enterprising persons in society ceased this opportunity by focusing on mass production to widen their margin of profit in true capitalistic fashion. While outliers with tools for mass production made their gains, it was soon apparent that all this came with a hidden cost that many had been oblivious to for the longest to time. Continued human activity was having a detrimental effect on the environment with the main culprit being industrial endeavors. Even worse, these environmental changes were irreversible and a direct threat to the existence of the human species. It was at this particular point that major players in various industries took an immediate interest in being precarious about the issue while avoiding exacerbating it further. These environmental concerns led to a nascent sustainability approach that espoused exploiting the environment while still protecting it for future generations (Hall, 2015, p. 12).  In using this approach, the harmful effects that industries had on the environment could therefore be considerably slowed down, avoiding an inevitable catastrophic end. Caught up in this whirlwind of change was the tourism and hospitality industry that has, over the past five decade; been known for its intensive use of resources that generate a lot of waste. Scientific evidence on the phenomenon revealed that the use of water and energy in this particular manner had adverse effects on the environment. Moreover, the resultant ripple effect would impact these establishments in a negative way, which is why it was in the hospitality industry’s best interest to embrace this new mode of operation. The purpose of this research paper is to provide an analytical look into the evolution of this trend, its impact and ramifications to the industry.

An Analysis of the Evolution of Green Practices in Hospitality

The term “green practices” is now in vogue in the hospitality industry and invoked by a large majority of its key players. There is no doubt that the originators of this term had the environment on their minds and, specifically, ensuring that it retained its pristine nature. It also refers to the cultural heritage of these areas and acts that are carried out to ensure that they are preserved. Sustainable tourism was the first approach applied to this effect that was aimed at transforming the attitudes of those at the center of such activities with long term objectives taking precedence. The hospitality industry, therefore, embarked on a bold campaign that was aimed at ensuring that holiday experiences are conducted in a manner that was friendly to the environment, preserving it at moment. It was quite evident that the industry relied heavily on the environment with its destruction being directly linked to substantial losses that would be made in the industry. Top players in the industry were acutely aware of this fact and the primary reason why they saw it fit to embrace this paradigm shift. The benefits that would accrue from embracing these changes were viewed in positive light, especially considering that it would be responsible for lengthening an establishment’s shelf life. It is also vital to acknowledge that the practice initially focused on hospitality establishments alone before embracing changes that now involved tourists and local communities living around the said localities. Expanding this scope was meant to ensure that there was active participation in all those who were touched in one way or the other by activities related to hospitality. Creating a collective consciousness in those playing major roles in the industry became the industry’s objective that would ensure that everyone would be directly involved. It is this sense of ownership by all stakeholders that eventually led to the morphing of green practices in the hospitality industry as we presently know them.

Green tourism is best known among practices employed in this industry and was also the first to emerge. Experts in this field wanted to focus their energies on low-impact tourism while simultaneously preserving the environment.   Although first viewed as a bizarre and overzealous approach, the idea has gained traction worldwide and for obvious reasons. The world population has been increasing at an exponential rate and with it the number of tourists. An increase in the number of tourists is a reality that first came to the world’s attention in the 1980’s, at a period when it was quite apparent that the environment was having a tough time. An overflow of tourists in such areas meant that the natural landscape would soon be transformed in ways that initially seemed farfetched and unlikely to indigenous peoples of the land. A sudden disruption in the manner in which affairs were conducted in these areas was soon evident in the stress that the environment had to contend with. A feasible option to this debacle would be a total ban on such activities, efforts that would yield fruits almost immediately. These areas would be protected from any form of encroachment that was aimed at changing this as they were prior to such establishments being entrants. Nevertheless, these communities living in and around these areas were beneficiaries of this industry in addition to it supporting the local economy. It was for this reasons that adopting green practices was embraced to ostensibly get the better of two worlds. Tourists on holiday were increasingly being encouraged to learn more about the flora and fauna in areas that they had visited together with ensuing that the cultural heritage of the native people was preserved and protected at all cost. The institution of these practices came in the form of ecologically sound programs whose aim was to save energy and water through a reduction in consumption levels. Technical and organizational practices were therefore put on the spotlight since some of them were directly responsible owing to activities that were considered a danger to the environment. A steady move towards Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has recently become a pillar of green practices, minimizing pollution while systematically renewing natural resources.

Impacts and Ramifications of Green Practices

One of the immediate consequences of the implementation green practices was the sparing use of raw materials. From the onset, it had been abundantly clear to all those involved in these efforts that the waste generated after using water and energy was a major cause of environmental degradation. The hotel industry has been known to use a considerable amount of electricity in addition to using large amounts of fossil fuel which impacts the environment negatively (In Parsa, 2015). One of the impacts of green practices is that players in the hospitality industry have managed to reduce their energy consumption by using energy sources that are more efficient. The replacement of light bulbs with others that are more efficient is a popular move that aims at conserving energy in these establishments. A resultant effect of this change is policy is an immediate reduction in the amount of money spent on energy. Most hotels choose to invest this money into other projects that improve their standing with locals around such areas. It is this exchange that results in cooperation between the two parties where they both commit to working together to improve the state of the environment. Furthermore, this money is also used in conservation efforts around the establishment’s locality. The flora and fauna in the area can be logged by experts who would use it to further their conservation efforts. Tourists have also played an active role in these efforts by progressively learning about the intricacies of such practices and improving their awareness. The hospitality industry has also been on the frontline in reducing dependence on fossil fuels, settling on other sustainable options. The oil crisis in the early 1970’s upset global prices of this scare commodity wand was responsible for the dependence that soon followed. It is for this reason that the hospitality industry strives to make a difference by reducing its carbon footprint and, in effect, preserve the environment. Embracing green practices has therefore led to energy sustainability which is a major step, considering the significance it would have on global climate issues.

Greener practices have also been responsible for the prevention of pollution in the environment. Over the years, experts in environmental studies have made it their life’s work to point out areas that may be directly responsible for the deterioration of natural resources. An increase in the number of tourists and their permeation into unchartered territories has disturbed the natural balance that existed resulting in cases of environmental pollution. Emissions from the activities in these areas have been linked with green house gases that results in an increase in carbon in the atmosphere (Pyo, 2012). These gases are known for being a primary causative agent of global warming. Even though climate change deniers are skeptical of these changes, their effects are already evident across the globe. The melting of glaciers and polar icecaps is enough evidence to prove that it is a reality that we now have to contend with. The planet is now blanketed by a layer of carbon that has also been responsible for a rise in global temperatures. It is this steady rise that has resulted in the thawing experienced in the arctic region which also results in a rise in sea level. The hospitality industry is well aware of this reality and has made concerted efforts to help change this course and prevent further degradation of the environment. A rise in global temperatures may have a negative impact on the hospitality industry, especially since 39 % of these establishments at located in low lying coastal regions (Quoquab, Thurasamy, & Mohammad, 2018). Areas such as a Florida, Miami would be worst hit by these changes in sea level since most resorts are located in areas that are at risk of destruction.  It is for this reason that resorts in the hospitality industry have resorted to management practices that would help curb the snowball effect that global warming would have. The use of renewable energy sources such as wind, run off and solar power have often been viewed as a step in the right direction. These innovative changes in the provision of energy for hotels are further bolstered by using control systems that are automated (computerized) as an assurance that their purpose is to preserve the environment by all means necessary.

A ramification of green practices in the hospitality industry has been a move towards biodiversity and improving the lives of indigenous people living in these areas. It goes without saying that most native societies have learnt to live in harmony with the environment. They have a deep reverence for it, making continued efforts to preserve it by any means possible. Native Americans, for instance, viewed the earth as their “Grandmother” who also provided for them. Tribes living in the North West prairies such as the Teton and Oglala Sioux believed that the environment provided all they required and viewed their country as perfect for them. Rivers flowed undefiled, providing them with water while the bison provided them with the food they required to lead a sustainable life (Reddy & Wilkes, 2015). It is this type of biodiversity and harmonious existence that the hospitality industry seeks to pursue in order to make its dream of sustainable eco-tourism. Eco-centric management has been linked with such changes especially considering that those at the helm of leadership are responsible for all activities taking place under their watch. The natural and social environments, therefore, become a major determining factor in making certain that the environment also retain its fidelity. Similarly, tourism uses a lot of resources to make the whole experience fulfilling for visitors during their continued stay. In past decade, concerns have been raised over the logging of forests, overfishing and the wanton exploitation of natural resources. The hospitality industry has been the main culprit in almost all cases, using these resources for the own benefits. Massive takings have been made from this type of exploitation, which is why they are also obligated to share a chunk of their profits with communities that border these areas (Webster, 2014). Building schools has proven a milestone for some of these communities, considering most of them had no access to formal education.  They are therefore empowered to agitate for their rights while also coming up with innovative ways to promote biodiversity.  Major hospitality chains have also been known to aid in the building of healthcare facilities that become useful assets to the communities living in these areas. They ultimately appreciate the much needed amenities that they receive from these establishments, which is often a motivational factor leading to cooperation.


In finality, green practices in the hospitality industry are a growing trend aimed at making certain that the environment is utilized in a sustainable manner. The singleness of purpose in this initiative was the fact that the environment was responsible for the gains they made, hence the need to protect it. Using the available resources wisely, reducing emissions and giving back to the community are all impacts of this approach, with all parties involved seeking to benefit from the interaction.

Global Warming, Its Causes, Effects And Feasible Intervention Strategies


The 21st century has seen its fair share of controversial issues but none as divisive as global warming. While scientists strive to provide us with unequivocal empirical evidence of the fact that irreversible changes have been taking place, climate change deniers believe that this is nothing more than an elaborate hoax aimed at duping the masses. Supporters of the later school of thought even include influential world leaders such as President Donald J. Trump of the United States who has stated severally that the evidence is not convincing. Even in the face of such outrageous claims, one thing is certain; climatic conditions are not as they were a few hundred years ago. The advent of the industrial revolution and the rise of capitalist societies have often been blamed for this state of global affairs (Morris). In their quest to widen their profit margins, the wealthy bourgeoisie have been put on the spotlight for accelerating climate change. Pundits on matters climate change are however voicing concern on the nonchalance adopted by world leaders in dealing with this particular issue, viewing it as an impending disaster. Pursuant to these concerns, this essay seeks to explore global warming, causes, and effects in addition to providing feasible intervention strategies that can aid in curbing its permeation.

Evidence and Causes

Climate change is a reality that humanity has had to contend with over the years. The cycles of intermittent glacial advance and retreat prove that it had been happening long before scientists coined a name for the phenomenon. Nonetheless, all this came to a grinding halt during the last ice age which has often been viewed as a period that heralded the modern climate era. A common misconception amongst laypeople is that climate change follows the cause of nature and scientists are essentially blowing the issue out of proportion. However, nothing could be further from the truth. In essence, scientists understand that variations in global climatic conditions are a reality but are against the accelerated rate at which it is occurring. A telling sign of climate change is the sudden rise in global temperatures. The average temperature has risen by 1.1 degrees Celsius, a state of affairs that has been directly linked to an increase in the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere (Haugen et al.).  Oceans have also been victims of this rise in temperature since these large bodies of water readily absorb the heat. At the northern and southern tips, the mass of ice sheets has been decreasing at shocking speeds. Evidence of this reality is seen in the flow of water which is then drained into the oceans. Moreover, from the Andes, Himalayas and to the American Rockies, there is no doubt that glaciers are retreating at a worrying rate. Extreme events and the rise in sea levels have also plagued the planet owing to the rise in global temperature, a situation that is likely to worsen in the next decade.

Effects of Global Warming

An immediate effect of global warming is what scientists popularly refer to as the greenhouse effect. In this particular instance, the atmosphere traps radiated heat, and the resultant effect is a scenario where certain gases are trapped and create a blanket above the atmosphere.  As a result of this rise in temperatures, climate change is now accelerated leading to more evaporation and an alteration in the level of precipitation often experienced in different regions across the planet. Additionally, the melting of polar caps and glaciers will result in a global rise in sea level, a threat to human lives and property. Low lying areas such as Florida, Miami are at risk of being submerged under water if the current rate of global warming is not put under control. Furthermore, even worse are the losses that will be made by those who had invested heavily in Florida’s real estate (Morris 67). Entrepreneurs will be counting their losses when the property is abandoned owing to extremities caused by climate change. Global warming also increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide. The result is the growth of certain species of weeds that would make farming a difficult task. Money that would have been better spent developing the farm would now be used to control these nascent crop varieties. Natural disasters will also be on the rise, resulting in a steep increase in human calamities. As mentioned earlier, an increase in global temperate will result in a high rate of evaporation, which would ultimately lead to more substantial precipitation. Flooding will now become all too common scenarios, wildfires ravaging the steppes and hurricanes increasing in intensity. Melting of the polar caps will also result in the release of bacteria that had been trapped in the permafrost for thousands of years. Humanity will now be in danger of being decimated by plagues from different epochs, presenting a precarious state of affairs.


The reality that we now have to contend with is that climate change is occurring and at a very surprising speed. Intervention in curbing this state of affairs begins with raising the public’s awareness of this reality. By acknowledging that climate change is indeed taking place, individuals will be better poised to implement the policies that might have been passed to combat global warming. All this begins in the schools where curriculums can be developed and tailor-made to ensure that children understand their role in conserving the environment and preventing this impending catastrophe.  Being energy efficient has been viewed by experts as a vital strategy in combating global warming. A people conscious of the effects this state of affairs has on the planet will go above and beyond in implementing policies that will prevent the situation from worsening. Renewable energy and its use across the globe is a push towards creating an environment that is cleaner for humanity. Opting for power from wind farms other than one which is non-renewable goes a long way in managing global warming (Oxlade, 2012). Policymakers also have to play their part in ensuring that legislation is passed to punish all those who might break the rules aimed at preventing global warming.


The ongoing debate on global warming is an indication of the seriousness of the issue and the adverse effect it will possibly have on humanity. Some are already being felt with the rise in global temperature and the melting of ice sheets. Nevertheless, world leaders and the masses have to come together and resolve to put policies in place that would assure the human species of their survival.      If these policies are not implemented fully, then humanity will be staring into an uncertain future that is already doomed.

State and Federal Government Funding of Non-Profits with a Religious Mission

In the United States, the phrase “church-state” separation is related to the Free Exercise Clause and the subsequent Establishment Clause which provided for non-interference and autonomy in the function of these two entities. It is, therefore, no wonder that President George W. Bush became the center of controversy when he commissioned a federally-funded liaison between faith-based bodies and the government. The general idea behind this initiative was to provide these organizations with funds that would enable them to expand their scope of action in providing social services to deprived local communities. The controversy herein lay in the fact that it was taxpayer’s dollars that were being used to bankroll religious organization, which did not go down well with a section of Constitutionalists in the United States. It is for this reason that I also seek to provide a succinct discussion on the degree to which the state and the federal government should provide financial assistance to religious organizations or non-profits with a mission statement that espouses a similar rhetoric.

It is vital to acknowledge that the implementation of the aforementioned initiative is a subject of heated debates since it walks a fine line in relation to the constitution. Although this is the case, the initiative is still achievable if clear policies are put in place to mark a clear demarcation. The state should not be seen as a benefactor expecting favors in return for providing this financial incentive while religious organizations need to ensure that they steer off matters politics. State and federal governments are at liberty to provide these organizations with the funding they require, but it is also vital to specify how this money is to be spent (Winer & Crimm, 2016, p. 56). One ingenious way of curbing misuse of these funds begins by limiting activities where the money can be spent. These grants should only be limited to social services and should not, in any way, be used to fund any religious activities directly.  Moreover, these organizations should also be vetted periodically to keep track of the money and how it is being spent. By so doing, the government lowers chances that the funds provided may be misappropriated, therefore ensuring that accountability becomes a leading factor when funding them.

State and federal governments should provide funding only to those organizations that have been registered and vetted. The degree to which funding is to be provided will depend on the manner in which money was utilized in the previous financial year and headway made in their initiatives. Furthermore, assessing the conduct of these organizations goes a long way in ensuring that they receive funding on a regular basis.  Non-governmental organizations with a religious mission statement have to make certain that their activities are separate from those that would be funded by the state. In addition to this, they should not provide preferential treatment to a particular group but treat all those in need as equals. Bias should be avoided at all cost, and bodies found culpable should be blacklisted without any possibility of ever receiving grants in future. Funding should also be provided to organizations that have proven beyond any reasonable doubt they practice fair employment practices. They should have a reputable background that involves hiring LGBT persons and practice inclusivity in terms of racial composition.

Falls Among Elderly Patients Over 70 Years Old – Critical Incident for Bow-Tie Analysis

 Critical Incident: Falls Among Elderly Patients over 70 years old

The health care system has, most recently, grappled with a sudden soaring in the number of falls amongst hospitalized patients. Even more worrying is the fact that elderly persons 70 years constitute the largest number in all recorded cases. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), these incidences pose a major health concern, with the United States leading in the number of per capita falls (World Health Organization, 2017). Two out of every five adverse events occurring at a hospital involve falls by patients, a frequency that has been on steady rise in the past five years. A major basis of concern is the event’s ability to exacerbate any prevailing condition that a senior citizen might have been hospitalized for. Any pre-existing health condition is severely aggravated, resulting in trauma that can result in a patient’s demise. Moreover, they may also result in fractures and clinical worsening which would ultimately be responsible for lengthening the recovery period while incurring additional cost for their continued hospitalization. The United States, for instance, records 19 million dollars as the amount of money spent annually by elderly persons pursuant to their fall treatment (Tideiksaar, 2010, p. 65). Emotional changes are also likely to take place in such in persons since their quality of life is greatly affected by such events. Some may begin to view themselves as a burden to their families and caregivers, slipping into a state of perpetual depression. Furthermore, their functional capacity is greatly reduced making it increasingly difficult for them to perform their day to day activities with ease. Identifying risk factors and other causative agents is therefore vital for healthcare professionals since risk factors can be pointed out succinctly, allowing the elderly to receive treatment without existential worries. A bow-tie analysis of this incident, therefore, aids in the generation of qualitative and quantitative approaches to curb its prevalence.

Bow-Tie Analysis of Falls Among Elderly Patients over 70 years old

Bow-Tie Analysis of Falls Among Elderly Patients over 70 years old
Bow-Tie Analysis of Falls Among Elderly Patients over 70 years old


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Among Women – Final Pilot Study Report


This final pilot study report provides details on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women by formulating a survey pilot study to analyze its prevalence and the effects that it has had on these particular individuals. Included herein are measuring tools that had been documented in relevant pieces of literature, questionnaire used in the survey, data analysis procedures, expected outcomes and possible implications.

Keywords: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, pilot survey study.


Over past two decades, psychologists, therapists and researchers have made it their life’s work to explore Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and all its convolutions. It was generally assumed that the condition mainly affected persons that had lived through shocking events that often included violent robberies, war scenarios and gruesome accidents.  An individual experiencing this condition re-lives past occurrences that appear frequently eliciting fear while looking out non-existent danger. Nonetheless, it is surprising that numerous studies had failed to make women the center of the research program, especially considering that this condition is universal and may affect both sides of the divide. The common axiom was that Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) only affected and manifested itself in male subjects who had been through traumatic experiences but nothing could be further from the truth. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) also affects women in the same way it does men and has been reported to have adverse effects on their mental stability. Women are increasingly becoming victims of rape; violent altercations and domestic violence, with most of them having undergone a sheltered upbringing that had not prepare them for such eventuality. Flashbacks of these events stream in torrents, affecting their day to day activities while disrupting their usual sleep pattern. The crippling effects of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) serve as justification for researchers and medical practitioners across the world to explore it and better lives in the process.  Those living under the yoke of this condition lead wretched lives, with it being their bane while also making numerous attempts to seek any possible remedy. Understanding the intricacies of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and its effects on women therefore becomes a noble cause whose sole intention is to ensure focus shifts to this grim reality. A pilot survey, therefore, serves an important role in evaluating possible gaps that still exist in addressing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in women. It is, however, vital to acknowledge that a holistic approach was utilized in this study since its main purpose was to provide results that would aid medical practitioners in providing remedy to both men and women. The purpose of this final report is to provide a general overview of this pilot survey study and all other elements encapsulated in it, including the steps that were taken when conducting it.

Literature Review

A review of available literature is an important step that needs to be underscored when conducting a pilot study.  This is because vital information on a particular subject matter serves as an important stepping stone to understanding what other authors had documented about the topic together with varied opinions. It is also during this stage that one can assess the expanse of the message available on the aforementioned area of study and whether there are gaps that need to be explored. In this case, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a common psychological disorder that has, over time, attracted a litany of academics seeking to fully comprehend it. All this began when researchers decided to explore the effects that the war theatre had on soldiers returning back home from battle. Evidence of psychological disturbance was evident when they would constantly re-live their experience, which was often detrimental to their mental health. Acclimatizing to civilian life was challenging for these individuals since these stressful experiences were always hanging over their heads. It was only lately when doctors extended these manifestations to women who have had firsthand experience with violence meted out by persons closest to them. All symptoms recorded in women were consistent with those exhibited by men who had previously served as the most suitable test subjects. In comparison, there was no difference in the demeanor of men who had been clinically diagnosed as suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and women who had experienced traumatic incidences in the course of their lives. Sexual assault and violence imposed by partners are common causes of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and have been explored by scholars seeking to gain an in-depth perspective into its causative agents. It is through such literature that a pilot survey finds its footing, which enables it to delve into the subject matter mentioned.

The first step taken in this particular study was to review measuring tools that had been used in previous peer reviewed articles.  By so doing, it was possible to assess the methods that had already been used before suggesting a test item that would be appropriate when carrying out the study.  A research study integral to this pilot survey was ‘Symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Battered Women in Lebanon’ that sought to explore an issue that was ubiquitous in Lebanese culture.  The main objective was to put this issue into perspective in a culture that remained mum on the issue. Men were the aggressors with women being on the receiving end of this state of affairs  (Khadra, Wehbe, Fiola, Skaff, & Nehmé, 2014). In unique fashion, this study explored how widespread this state of affairs was, possible dependence on socio-demographic variables and risk factors responsible for its existence. Questionnaires were, therefore, the best option as a measuring tool since they would enable the researchers conduct interviews on the phenomenon’s prevalence. It is also vital to acknowledge that a bodily abuse scale came in handy in the identification of women who might have suffered from the effects of physical abuse. Moreover, it was this particular approach that acted as a motivational factor in deciding to settle on a questionnaire as a measuring tool since it would be integral in meeting the objectives stated. All ethical considerations were put into account to ensure that all participants were well aware of what they were getting into, in addition to providing a certain level of confidentiality. In dealing with matters as sensitive as abuse, questionnaires play a special role since they enable the subjects to provide researchers with the much needed information devoid of any difficulties.

Additionally, the pilot survey also sought guidance from Sexual Assault and Identity Disruption: A Sociological Approach to Posttraumatic Stress’ in a bid to better understand Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in women.  Unequivocal evidence from this peer reviewed article indicated that there is a direct link between sexual assault and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). It is, however, interesting that this particular study made use of online surveys specifically targeting female and tans-gender members of the student body. Protecting the institution’s identity was vital to ensure that information about the participants was not leaked, making certain that they were comfortable sharing information about the ordeals. The researchers chose the Sexual Experiences Survey tool which was an excellent selection considering the study sought to establish evidence of coercion and bodily force. An evaluation of this measuring tool reveals that it was most preferred due to its malleability, low cost of execution while being able to engage the audience appropriately. Furthermore, an evaluation of all available research tools in evaluating Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was important before ultimately making a decision. Liu, Jiang, & Wu (2017), for instance, sought to analyze this particular issue by observing ovarian cancer patients undergoing treatment in Chinese health facilities. Multiple mediation models are put to use here after incorporating convenience sampling ensuring that those selected fit the requirements spelled out by the researchers. Beyond Blue (2017) also sought to investigate Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) from the context of trauma, the subject’s culture, cases of suicide and issues of transition. The main objective of this particular study was to improve people’s understanding of this disorder, especially within the context of incarcerated persons. To obtain dependable  results, the study made use of Qualitative interviews, clinical diagnostic interviews in addition to a Paper-based Structured Questionairre.

Out of all the tools mentioned, a questionairre would be most suitable since it will reveal more truths about Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD) as experienced by women. The general idea here is to choose a tool that will reeduce the subject’s chances of feeling vulnerable, and in the process allowing them to share their most intimate experiences. Checking the items choosen againts the study’s objectives is vital in ensuring that all set goals are achieved within the shortest span possibe. Moreover, considering the subjects susceptiblies was an imporant step in ensrusing that they were not offended in any way during the course of the pilot survey.  The use of gender sensitive language plays a major role in making certain that the environment created is enabling and allows the subjects to provide all information necessary to make the study a success. Simplifying the language used  also goes a long way in ensuring that subjects are able to fully comprehend the question being asked. By so doing they will succeed in proving  information that is accurate while answering the questions being asked in the best way possible. The provision of a criteria for women who fit the description of individuals suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is also vital in ensuring that only the right people are selected to participate in the study. Obtaining this type of information would go a long way in making sure that information recorded is accurate and from persons who have borne the brunt of this disorder. It is always necessary to make certain that a pilot survey study has the right individuals taking part to ensure that no objections are made later on by persons who in advertently poke holes on the vality of the information recorded.  Accuracy is key since Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (POST) is a serious condition  that needs to be treated with the importance it deserves, aiding such individuals receive aid in the long haul.

Questionnaire for Pilot Study

As mentioned earlier, the use of a questionnaire in this study will aid in ensuring that the fidelity of the end result is assured. It has already been established that a large majority of the women experiencing symptoms associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were victims of either sexual or physical abuse. Emotional scars inflicted during these horrendous ordeals cut deep and there is a high likelihood that an interview setting would trigger emotional breakdowns. If this happens to be the case, it would mean that the pilot study would cease to be ethical while exhibiting blatant disregard for what these consideration espouse. It is therefore tantamount that the dignity of test subjects be safeguarded while obtaining crucial information. It is also important to acknowledge that there are a plethora of aspects that constitute Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). All these elements need to stand out boldly in those women taking part to ensure that the minimum threshold is met. By so doing, the questionnaires will provide succinct information that can be evaluated before making an inference. Pilot studies are often used as a stepping stone to further research, which is why margins of error cannot be tolerated. Evaluation of all possible symptoms would mark the beginning of this rigorous assessment to separate the wheat from the chaff. Those who qualify would also have to undergo thorough Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) screening to ascertain whether or they suffer from this malady from a clinical perspective. It would also be prudent to keep take it’s prevalence into account and the exact number of individuals who have been documented and positively identified as patient. Possible treatment options should always be on the table to figure out the exact number of individuals who have benefited from those and those who are yet to receive any form of assistance.  Most importantly, its recurrence should never be ruled out since a relapse of the subconscious is a reality that many have had to grapple. Women requiring continual care and assistance are therefore a common sight even when treatment options are made available.

A test item that central to this study is the screening process necessary in ensuring that the individual being screened is indeed suffering from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The possibility that individuals who do not meet a certain criteria might participate in any study is usually a possibility.  Responsibility lies squarely in the researcher’s hands to ensure that all loopholes are sealed to ensure that those participating qualify to volunteer information. In this case the questionnaire formulated sought to determine whether those claiming to suffer from bouts of trauma exhibit glaring symptoms. These symptoms will only be brought to light using a line of questioning that focusing on personal experience. Here, objective questions are most preferred to provide answers that are precise without giving room for any ambiguity when attempting to translate the results. More important than the selection process is measuring the effects that these occurrences have had on those being interviewed. Common features of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are the symptoms that occur frequently during the course of the said individual’s life. Persons who have had been through traumatic experiences often report having distressing flashbacks that leave them stressed and in shock. Inquiring about the existence and frequency of these occurrences serves an important purpose since they are important pointers in the direction that is to be chartered by the pilot study. A combination of open and close-ended questions serves an essential purpose in the eliciting of information that ultimately determines whether or not a particular individual fits the bill. Women represent a unique segment of the population since the response to traumatic experiences dramatically differs from that of men. Women have been known to experience a certain level of dejection and detachment from reality. Closed questions come in handy in this situation since question asked will not dig into the very details that subjects intend to avoid by all means possible. The burden that individuals exhibiting Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) have to bear serves as an additional test item. In truth, these women’s lives are disrupted making it difficult for them to lead life in the same manner as before. Explanations in such a case are a necessity to ensure that details on how their lives changed are discussed.

Throughout the course of this pilot survey, the adverse impacts of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were put into account when assessing the best technique to employ when providing the questionnaires to select individuals. All those participating were periodically briefed on what the study will involve to ensure that they were fully aware of what they were getting themselves into. Ethical stipulations clearly spell out that all those participating need to be made aware of the study’s purpose to avoiding situations where they would take offence when approached using a particular line of questioning. The main purpose of conducting a background check on the topic used to formulate questions to be used during in the questionnaire stage is to find out sensitive subjects that may elicit sharp reaction from subjects. It is therefore fundamental that special attention is paid to ensuring that all those taking part are there on their own volition and were not coerced into taking part. Ignoring this tenet is equivalent to flouting key stipulations provided when carrying out successful questionnaire sessions. In addition to this, the privacy of all those taking part has to be assured before divulging any information meant to benefit the pilot study meet its goal. As mentioned earlier, women exhibiting symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) have gone through a great deal of emotional pain and would, in most cases, want to keep this information confidential. Betraying their trust by making details that had been provided in secret public goes a long way in denting the trust that these individuals had put on a researcher. Questionnaires are a central element when carrying out any pilot survey since the data collected is important in deducing issues plaguing a certain group of individuals. Assuring test subjects of a study’s virtuous nature and commitment towards assuring them of their privacy is an important step in getting them to cooperate fully.

Film History – The Birth of a Nation (1915) and Citizen Kane (1941)

An in-depth study of film history is fast proving a necessary requirement for students seeking a better perspective on the development of the discipline. Instead of fiddling with equipment, seeking internships, toying with various methods of editing or auditioning for scenes, history provides a better comprehension of the field for any curious individual. Looking back in time discloses a period when film production was nascent together with the hopes, dreams, and aspirations of ambitious directors. Episodes and scenes produced during this epoch in history were cut in a particular way to enable the directors to tell their stories in a meticulous manner (Gibbs). Film aesthetics were built on experimentation that allowed the said individuals to introduce a wide array of novel concepts that had hitherto never been explored. These artistic experiments later became the reason why photogenic and agreeable candidates were at the center of film production leading to the production of some of arguably the most moving pieces of art. Among the most acclaimed films of all time are The Birth of a Nation (1915) and Citizen Kane (1941). The Birth of a Nation (1915) depicts the post-Civil War United States in the first 12-reel film to ever premiere in the country. The plot is built around the relationship between two families that had emerged out of the Reconstruction Era while having to contend with the realities of this period. On the other hand,  Citizen Kane (1941) presents a mysterious drama centered on Charles Foster Kane and the search for the enigmatic “Rosebud” that was mentioned before his tragic death. The purpose of this research paper is thus to discuss these two films with a specific focus on their similarities and difference together with why a particular approach was favored during their production.

A similarity that stands out between the two films is that they are both feature films. The 20th century was punctuated by the production of short films that were often thought to be more economical and easy to produce. Directors were fond of this technique as they viewed the film production as a risky venture where there was a high likelihood of making substantive losses in the event that it fails. Only a handful of directors were brave enough to take this giant leap of faith and enter the unique world of feature film production. These were motion pictures that were considerably lengthened to produce works with a running time that was long enough to fill a program requirement. Both the British and American Film Institute unanimously are in unanimous agreement that a feature film should run for about 80 minutes or more. The directors, therefore, had plenty of time and angles to implement the mise-en-scene principle. They were at liberty to use shots from a variety of movements, composition or even lighting. Firstly, The Birth of a Nation ( 1915) is filled with scenes that exhibiting spaces and the overall effect that this technique has on the film’s quality.  The camera placement, in particular, came in handy in this case since the cinematic space enabled the filmmaker to determine the mood that would feature (Gibbs 67). Significant elements are, therefore, positioned together before the camera setting a definite design for each shot. A typical example in the film is that of shots representing unique framing of subjects such as Abraham Lincoln and John Wilkes. Putting the two within one shot creates a visual relationship common in mise-en-scene. Citizen Kane (1941) also uses this technique, common when Orson Welles fiddles with the lighting to produce strong shadows and dynamic gradients. Every single scene represents a level of manipulation representative of a particular character or setting. A dark room becomes apparent in the “news on the march” scene, with light coming from the small windows, reporters remaining in the shadow, with the audience now being able to focus solely on the protagonist.

A stark difference that stands out between the two films is the representation technique employed by the two directors in depicting their subject matter. There are a plethora of strategies that a director can employ for a particular effect, The primary focus of the application of these techniques has often been to be better placed to communicate with the audience members. A film that is easily comprehended by the common audience member becomes a hit since they vital pieces of information communicated. This, hence, increases their engrossment and the focus they pay to the film, creating a sense of sheer focus on the theme being explored, at any particular instance. D.W. Griffin excels at his direct narration technique that seeks to place the characters at the center of each scene, affording them the ability to relate to what exactly takes place in real-time. The stories of the Camerons of Piedmont and Stonemans of Pennsylvania is at the center of each scene. Their cordial relationship is presented through the cordial interaction that takes place between the patriarchs and their spawn (Lang 89). Conversely, Citizen Kane (1941), uses a different approach with the director preferring to the use of storytelling as an appropriate strategy for his film. In truth, he nearly presents it as a biopic that seeks to provide realistic accounts of its characters while they age towards the end of the film. Moreover, the director chooses to use a unique approach where he avoids using a chronological or linear method of telling the story, but rather preferring the use of overlapping segments to present the story in a flashback. The end result of this technique is that the characters are accorded a particular perspective that now uses their memories to tell their stories (Mcgilligan). It is this particular technique that enables the feature to depict Charles Foster Kane as an enigma of some sort and leaves the audience with more questions than answers.

The similarities mentioned above were a reality simply because this period in time had given space for new and innovative filming techniques that were worth the trouble. A feature-length film provided the filmmaker with an exclusive opportunity to tell their story to the best of their ability. An increase in the time that would normally stipulated a serial, newsreel or even animated comics would now allow filmmakers to expand the time for each reel. The Birth of a Nation (1915) and Citizen Kane (1941) run for 3 hours 13 minutes and 1 hour 59 minutes respectively to allow the directors to incorporate some of the best shots into the films. In contrast, the differences that exist in both films are purely circumstantial. The narrative technique applied in The Birth of a Nation (1915) was ideal for a story that was historically correct while Citizen Kane (1941) required a storytelling one.

In conclusion,  The Birth of a Nation (1915) and Citizen Kane (1941) both represent a special era in history. It was during this period that momentous changes were made in the film industry, particularly seen in the production of feature-length films that used unusual angles. Nevertheless, differences were also present in the mode of presentation that points to the director’s quest to portray their characters in the best manner possible.

Employees And Sexual Harassment – A Case Study of Suzy

Suzy, a 35-year-old Caucasian woman, is a fairly new employee at a downtown office building in Texas. Most of Suzy’s fellow employees are males between the ages of 18 and 40. Suzy is determined to fit in with her new colleagues and allows some sexually explicit jokes, which are on the borderline of being offensive, to be told during her first few months of work without registering an objection. Now she is finding her colleagues to be increasingly rude and inappropriate, and the jokes have become more explicit and have crossed the line into being offensive and even threatening.

Based on what you learned in this chapter, write a short response that defines sexual harassment and lists strategies that might help Suzy deal with her situation. Make sure that your response addresses three or more of the following issues:

  • Identify whether or not Suzy has a legitimate case of sexual harassment.
  • List options for Suzy to take and their likely outcome.
  • Outline the procedure Suzy would follow to file a complaint of sexual harassment.
  • Explain the most responsible course of action for Suzy’s employer to take.
  • Explain how Suzy can prove sexual harassment in this situation.

Accuracy and Weaknesses of Human Senses as they Pertain to Thinking

Sensory Perceptions Assignment Instructions

Can you really trust your senses and the interpretation of sensory data to give you an accurate view of the world? Describe and discuss the accuracy and the weaknesses of the human senses as they pertain to thinking in general and to your own thinking in particular.

Write a two to three (2-3) page paper in which you:

  1. Provide at least three (3) reasons for believing in the accuracy or inaccuracy of sensory information.
  2. Identify and describe at least three (3) factors contributing to the accuracy of sensory data.
  3. Discuss the role of memory with regard to the interpretation and evaluation of sensory data.
  4. Use at least two (2) quality resources in this assignment. Your textbook may count as one (1) source. At least one (1) of your sources must be obtained from the collection of databases accessible from the Learning Resources Center Web page.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Develop skills for overcoming barriers which limit objective and productive critical thinking.
  • Create written work utilizing the concepts of critical thinking.
  • Demonstrate adherence to academic integrity policy and APA Style guidelines for academic citations.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in critical thinking skills and informal logic.
  • Write clearly and concisely about issues in critical thinking using proper writing mechanics.

Customer Loyalty Improvement Plan – Durable Medical Equipment and Medical Supply Company

Assignment Instructions

You have been hired as an outside consultant for a large durable medical equipment and medical supply company. The company specializes in a wide range of medical supplies and equipment. Some of its most profitable offerings include hospital bed rental to private residents, wheelchairs, walkers, scooters, and other mobility equipment. However, the company has come to realize that competition is increasing and its market share is shrinking. The company noted that most of its customers are new customers, and very few are repeat customers. The company is concerned with customer loyalty. The medical supply company owner has asked you to develop a plan to improve customer loyalty.

Complete the following:

  • Create a report that describes and critically analyzes at least 5 contemporary best practices to improve customer loyalty in a health care organization.
  • Be sure to discuss the (multiple) benefits that loyal, repeat customers offer to health care organizations.
  • Develop and defend at least 4 recommendations for the medical supply company based on your research on how to improve customer loyalty. Include a brief overview of how each recommendation would be implemented at the company.


Sample Answer – Customer Loyalty Improvement Plan

Modern Best Practices to Improve Customer Loyalty in a Health Care Organization

There are various modern strategies that the organization can employ to win customer loyalty. One of these strategies is building their brand. Healthcare organizations should focus on developing quality products which are well known for unmatched quality in the market. This will convince the customers to remain with the company even when its prices are slightly high. Building the company brand is one strategy to ensure that any customer who uses the company’s product comes back for more due to oneor more unmatched feature in the market. The provided sales services should also be of high quality to increase customers’ level of satisfaction. Strong brand increases customers’ satisfaction, making them to come back. It also earns the company new customers through referral from other loyal customers (Nasrabad, 2017).

Another strategy that healthcare organization employs to increase customers’ loyalty is by developing a patient-centered organization. In this case, the organization focuses more on addressing the need of the patient by providing services that best fits the patient’s needs. Health care organization in this case shouldfocus on providing services that surpass the patient expectations. Aspects that include ensuring patient safety should be highly considered by reducing medical errors, and increasing patient satisfaction. This provision of good services increases customers’satisfaction and trust on the organization services and hence making them to come back in the future (Nasrabad, 2017).

Another strategy being employed to build customer loyalty is improving the experience of the customer in health care organizations. Healthcare organizations are currently taking key initiatives that include responding to the customers’ feedback on various issues including quality of products and services. Other measures include acting as a unified organization to guarantee consistency, ensuring availability by being operational at all times, personalizing healthcare experiences and services, altering healthcare organization behavior and attitudes by hiring right individuals and offering them with the right training to ensure that customers are served with high standard of professionalism (Purcarea, Ratiu & Purcarea, 2008).

Another strategy that healthcare organizations are employing to enhance customer loyalty is by offering more information to the patients or customers. Transparency and information can enhance patient interaction in the healthcare organization. Patients tend to be distrustful when they realize that some information is being withheld. This may make them feel confused and doubtful of what they have been told; a situation that makes them to feel neglected and judges the healthcare organization harshly. Thus effective communication, information sharing and transparency can enhance building of trust and eventually customer loyalty.

Another strategy that can be employed is the use of loyalty programs. This can include membership program, frequent buyer program, bundle goods, discount over time, and issue gift card. The healthcare organizations may consider offering discounted price to patients with certain conditions that makes them need regular checkups and clinics, or use certain medication for a long time period. In most cases, customers are given a card that they use to be identified in the future returns. This easy the implementation of loyalty programs in health care organizations (Singh & Khan, 2012).

Benefits of Loyalty

Customer loyalty assures an organization of returning customers after the first sale. This ensures the organization of repeated business and hence giving a constant amount of revenue that the company can make per year without incurring marketing cost. Reliable and good relation with the customers gives the organization a chance to sell more as loyal customers do not fear making huge and more purchases. Their trust in the organization varieties and quality provides a better chance to the organization in making large quantity sales. Customer loyalty also reduces the organization competition impact (Singh& Khan, 2012). More products are sold to loyal customers who are not impacted by the aggressiveness of the market competition. The company thus becomes immune to this competition. Repeated customers also reduce the cost of customers’ acquisition. Obtaining new customers ‘needs more marketing effort which requires time and money. Customer loyalty ensures high level of customers retention which is highly manageable than acquiring new customers (Kandampully& Suhartanto, 2000).


The organization offers medical equipment and medical supplies, which seems to face high competition in the market. The company is facing competition since it does not focus on being exceptional in the market. Customers seem to get away after trying the company’s product for the first time. This can be interpreted that the company offers goods of the same quality as others at equal or high price, or goods of lower quality compared to other. I would therefore recommend the organization to consider building the quality of their products. This will push new customers into coming back and eventually in developing trust to the company’s product. The company should also try to improve its customer services. Customer loyalty is highly associated high customers satisfaction. In this case, the company should consider improving its customer services. The organization should ensure that it has the right employee for the tasks and that the employees are well training on effective provision of services. This includes quick services, and giving customers the attention they deserve.

The company should also consider improving customers experience by providing them with a platform to offer their feedback and acting on the feedback to improve the quality of its products and services. Developing a social media platform where they can post details of their products and expect customers commend will highly enhance the customers trust to the company’s products, as the company will be found to be more interested with satisfying customers’ needs. I would also recommend the company to implement one of the best loyalty programs to entice their customers. The use of loyalty card where one can earn points after purchase and get a discount after the points reach a certain level would encourage customers to come back and to make huge purchases from the company.

Climatic Change Management – A Global Issue Where Shared Responsibility for Common Good is not Being Realized

Assignment Instructions – Global Issues where Shared Responsibility for Common Good is not being realized

Briefly critiques a global issue where shared responsibility for the common good is not being realised. And then, propose ways to address this challenge. Demonstrate a good understanding, especially of principles of CST including the Common Good and human dignity, and explain how advocacy and community engagement contribute to your solution.


To demonstrate your ability to apply your knowledge and understanding of principles of human dignity, advocacy, and community engagement to potential ways to address the challenge of realizing the common good in a global context.


Sample Answer – Climatic Change Management

Identified Problem

Climatic change management is one of the global issues where shared responsibility for common good is not being realized. The degree of the problem that climate change poses to all living things can never be exaggerated. Climatic change is radically influencing lives of people, particularly the lives of the vulnerable and poor, intimidating the progress made in fighting poverty. If not effectively addressed, climate change is likely to cause grace effects on the global economy, environment, human rights, and the society. The global nation is thus required to take equal and measured social responsibility to handle aspects that are contributing to climatic changes. However, the manner in which people across the globe are living today is resulting to ecosystem destruction, large-scale air, water and land pollution, and environmental degradation, contributing more to factors aggravating the problem (Kersten at al., 2012, p. 5).

There has been an acknowledgement of the relation between environmental economic and social challenges and the requirement to articulate reaction to these challenges. Based on this discovery, there is no any government that can manage to eradicate poverty and grow in a progressive manner without acknowledging the link between nature and people, and the significant role that nature plays in allowing people to develop. Similarly, it is not possible to handle climate changes without handling the political, economic and social factors which drive the current development route, subjecting people at odds with the planet stability that we rely on. Although different governments have tried employing different measures to curb emission of greenhouse gases which is the major contributing factor in climatic change, no government demonstrates addressing social and economic issues, especially the social and economic gap between the rich and the poor as a way of handling the climatic change (Forman et al., 2016, p. 22).

Climatic change is a serious problem affecting both the rich and the poor. Although the consequences of the climatic changes are felt by everyone, they seems to hit the poor and disadvantages much more than the rich, especially when perceived with regard to food security issue. It is also clear that most of the climatic changes activities are contributed by the rich in the industrial sectors among other activities that include transportation. The changes made do not show much in terms of resolving the situation. Although there are measures employed to handle greenhouse gas emission, some of these measures especially carbon tax do not really curb emission, they only increase the cost of emission. This implies that the rich can actually emit more if they can afford it, but at the expense of all, with the poor suffering more (CIDSE, 2017, p.9).

Proposed Solution

The global common good links policy practice and ethical obligation. It challenges leaders to translate their sincere principles into practical action. It as well challenges governments to work with partners across the world with the strong brief that the shared humanity offers foundation for common answers to the biggest threats facing the globe today (Steenland et al., 2007, p. 6). Climatic change is an issue that require that every human take equal responsibility. We all need to reconsider our action and think of how they are contributing to the climate changes and the challenges that come with it. This includes taking personal responsibilities in ensuring the right measures are taken. This include planting extra trees in the compound, trying irrigation measures and planting drought resistance crops when they can grow among other personal efforts. People should also stop activities that can cause climatic changes like deforestation, pollution, and other human activities that contribute to these changes. One of the ways the government can assist in managing climatic change is by setting climate goals and measures that the citizens should follow to attain them. Laws can be imposed to ensure that everyone work towards achieving the set goals and through the defined strategies.

The governments should also fight to safeguarding and investing in the global natural systems and habitats restoration. The creation ensured ecological balance which human have highly interfered with through deforestation, high level of emission, land and water deposition, cultivation, mining and other human activities. To fight climate changes impact, social and religious organization as well as the government should focus on encouraging people to try to recreate the ecological balance that has been highly disrupted. To ensure effective changes, the government and other involved organizations should consider including everyone in taking the right measures. Changing the social and economic life people living in poverty should also be considered. Climatic changes have highly affected the poor, affecting even the availability of their food. The governments should consider generating green, decent jobs in the new economy and ensure that climate action assist in correcting power imbalances in the world (CIDSE, 2017, p. 12).

Expansion for the common good is also regarded to be more than making our current development mode green to lower its harms to the environment. Growth for the common good regards prioritising on the poorest people’s need and eliminating the huge consumption disparities, power imbalances, wealth inequality and ensuring that practices and policies are coherent with these priorities. This will ensure respect to human dignity, especially to the poor who have been suffering a great deal for the action of the rich. Catholic social teachings advocates for respect of human dignity and rights by ensuring social responsibility to bring common goods. The change of these aspects brought about by climatic changes will eliminate the suffering of the poor ensuring common good to all people in the society.

Black Death Plague Impacts on the Economic and Cultural Life of Medieval Europe

Assignment Instructions

Characterize the significance of the Black Death’s impacts on the economic and cultural life of medieval Europe. Then, illustrate your point with specific examples. How does your knowledge of other epidemics in history provide additional insight into the impact of the Black Death? Be sure to consider the following points in your essay:

  • The introduction should engage the reader and clearly present the essay’s thesis and a summary of the main points that clarify the writer’s point of view.
  • Organization should clearly present points arranged logically to support the thesis.
  • Writing should be clear and concise with no spelling, grammatical, or punctuation errors.
  • The number of sources should meet or exceed any expressed assignment requirements and should be peer-reviewed or academic in nature.
  • APA formatting guidelines should be used for reference entries and in-text citations.


Sample Solution – Black Death Plague


The Black Death was among the most devastating plagues in human history, climaxing in Europe from 1347 to 1352, killing over 20 million individuals in Europe, which was about one-third of the population of Europe. The plague started in Asia and on trading ships to Europe. The cause of the plague was not known during that time. However, it was years later established to have been caused by bacteria from fleas and black rats. Rats were infected by the fleas and passed it on to the people after they jumped into the ships and navigated to Messina, Venice and Genoe among other parts of Europe. It then spread fiercely to other parts of the continent. This paper focuses on determining the significant impact of Black Death on cultural and Economic life of medieval Europe.

The Black Death impacted the economy a great deal.

There was a decline in the population of workers due to massive death, resulting to increase of labor wages, especially in the agricultural sector. A considerable number of animals also died as their caretaker died. However, the availability of more cultivating land and tools after the death of people played a great part in increasing production, making it easier to pay higher wages. The decline in the number of laborer increased laborers bargaining power, forcing lords to provide higher salaries and improved working condition. Workers living standards became better as their wages increased. High wages also pushed most lords into rearing sheep abandoning grains farming. Sheep farming was growing due to increase in wool and meat demand, and need for fewer workers,increasing the level of diversification of agribusiness economy(Benedictow, 2004).

Black Death followed a great economy revival period that was associated with industrialization. This means that there was high level of production due to mechanization but less population to absorb the developed products in all sectors. Consequently, there was an imbalance between supply and demand in the market. There was therefore economic depression in the region due to reduced cost of goods and lack of market. The market also suffered due to the loss of skilled workers and intelligent individuals who engineered and facilitated industrial development. Although the economics of loss of intellectuals was not done, the region also suffered from lost human capital that could have swayed the economy of the region in a different way (Malanima, n.d.).

Black Death Impacts on the Cultural Life of Medieval Europe

The Black Death also influenced the culture of Medieval Europe a great deal. Some of the cultural changes were seen in the art done during and after the plague. The sense of hopelessness could be seen among individuals who had lost enough that they did not fear loss anymore. Black Death and its impact were also presented in poetry, literature, and art with high level of creativity demonstrated in European culture. Painting was done to demonstrate the changes that the Black Death had caused. More paintings representing death which include dance of death were done where human skeleton was presented in various ways. More plays were based on thematic role of the plague. The plague also influenced the perspective of more writers. There was change in religious believes as people felt doubtful of the ability of their gods in saving them. The church could not do much to save the life of people from the plague. There was great loss of power among clergies.

The knowledge of other plagues in the world improves my understanding on how the plague was spread and how it could have affected the life of the people. Based on the history, most plagues that took place during this time caused massive deaths, especially due to poor medical development. They mostly caused unimaginable losses of people, and their intellectual ability facilitating economic, social and cultural growth in the affected region. This made me to anticipate losses in the Black Death plague (Benedictow, 2004).

BUS 644 Operations Management Course – All Module’s Case Studies With Sample Answers

BUS 644 Week 5 Case Study – Alliance Supermarket

Read the “Alliance Supermarket” case study in Chapter 10 of your text. In a two- to- four page paper, answer questions 1 & 2 in accordance with APA guidelines as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Alliance Supermarkets

Alliance Supermarkets has been using a point-of-sale (POS) system for some time to track its inventory. The system uses a laser scanner to read the universal product code (UPC) on each item at the checkout container. The UPC is a number that uniquely identifies the product on which it appears. Currently, Alliance is using the UPC information to update inventory records for each item. Although the system has greatly improved the company’s ability to replenish inventory promptly, the company still has some problems. For example, sudden changes in demand for a particular item can catch the company by surprise as it bases inventory replenishment on historical demand patterns. Further, demand patterns and preferences may vary from one store to another depending on the customers served by each, but the inventory system groups all demand information together and treat each store equally. Finally, the manufacturers that make the products stocked by Alliance Supermarkets are always pressuring Alliance to help them target appropriate customers for special promotions and sales.

The chief information officer (CIO) of Alliance realizes that much more could probably be done with the data collected from its POS system. For example, the company could analyze the relationship between each product’s sales and weather patterns. It is even possible to analyze an individual customer’s buying habits and identify instances when a customer may be persuaded to try a different brand of a certain product.

Suppose you have been asked to study this situation and suggest possible new and innovative uses for the information generated by the POS system. Ideally, these ideas should help Alliance better serve its customers by ensuring that adequate quantities of each item are available, that costs are kept low, and that customers are made aware of new products that may interest them.


  1. What information may help Alliance reduce costs while providing better service?
  2. If purchase information can be obtained on individual customers, what new approach could be used by Alliance?

Your paper should be in paragraph form (avoid the use of bullet points), and supported with the concepts outlined in your text. Do not include the original questions of the assignment in the paper.

Violence and Drugs in Centervale – Defending Abby – Sample Answer

Over the period, the United States of America has been at war. Not a physical battle, but a fight with drug abuse and various forms of domestic violence. Authorities have put their efforts on bringing the culprits to justice. Those who are typically found culpable for either of the crimes have been sentenced to some periods in prison as a way of rectifying their illegal actions (Int’L, 2015). That is why; looking at the case involving Abby and Bobby there is a clear basis in the law that can be applied in bringing them to books.

In law, there is an aspect that states ‘a person arrested remains as a suspect until proven guilty.’ Proving of a case depends on the shreds of evidence that get presented in court by the prosecutor. Therefore, in proving a case against a suspected criminal, a prosecutor will majorly have to rely on the pieces of evidence that are gathered at the scene of the crime. Having this information, as a police officer, the evidence which I witnessed at the couple’s house must be protected so that the same can get applied during the trial process the said couple. In safeguarding the evidence, it will be instrumental for me to undertake two critical actions. First, I will need to inform both Christiana and David who were to remain at the scene of the crime about the illegal things which I saw in the house so that they become aware of the same as they continue to code off the house. Secondly, it will be of importance if I equally take photos of these illegal products in the house which in any case, can be used in backing up the case against

the two. Besides, in case of any further discovery of evidence either from their house or in their possession, an almost similar procedure can equally apply. The only distinction will be the need to take the said evidence and keep them under my jurisdiction or take them directly to the prosecutor who might decide to keep them as per the court’s acts on procedures of storing evidence.

Based on the utterances which were made by Abby in our presence, there is enough ground upon which she can get arrested. Take for instance, while her husband was being taken away, Abby shouted that she would sell the remaining stock of “goods” and raise the money which he would use to bail out Bobby. At the time of her utterance, other police officers were not aware of the kind of goods she was referring to except me. Since I had already noticed a baggie of marijuana, it was clear that apart from being consumers of marijuana as a drug, these couples were also trading on this illegal product upon which they were raising money for their other expenses. Her association with Bobby was also a platform upon which she can get arrested. She knew how violent and armed Bobby was but she did not bother to report him to the nearest police station yet there were clear signs that her life was continuously being placed at risk.

All of the illegal activities which both couples were engaging in would be more visible if their house was to be searched in totality. Based on the laws, searching an offender’s home can just be carried by police officers upon having a warrant for conducting the same from the court. In securing a search warrant, the police officer concerned with the search activity must swear an affidavit which contains reasons for the need of undertaking a search activity in the house of an offender. Just as the case of this couple, in an affidavit for securing a search warrant, I would include the marijuana and presence of a gun in the couple’s house which I saw as part of reasons for obtaining such a permit. The presence of the said two illegal products serves as evidence that some of the similar kinds of products might be available in the hidden corners of the couple’s house.

As a method of preventing interference with the evidence which already I had seen inside the house of this couple, and any other form of evidence that might be available, the best way both Christina and David would protect such evidence is by coding off the entire area and its locality from any form of penetration. The best material used in such cases is a ribbon with writings of crime scenes around it as such would bar the public away from the locality of the house (Rahtz, 2012). The officers, also, need to stay attentive and alert all around until that time when the entire evidence might have been collected.

Search warrant always has various reasons as to why it might be carried out on a person’s house. For instance, a search might be carried out with the aim of protecting the officers and the public from any other possible attacks, preventing the offender from possible escape or making a discovery and subsequent seizing of the elements of crimes from the offender (Shahidullah, 2008). Therefore, based on this case, the reason for the need of the search warrant is to look for the available illegal products (marijuana, guns and any other) that were at the premises of Abby and Bobby. Once these illegal products are identified and taken away, they can be used for justifying the case concerning these two people.

Upon Arrival at the precinct of Abby and Booby, undertaking a personal search on them would be only possible upon approval by the court. This is because forcefully searching get considered as a trespass by law since it goes against the rights of the accused. Though if there can be an agreement with them, examining them would be made accessible and more legal. At the crime scene even without taking any measure of searching, there will be the presence of blood samples which will have dropped as a result of a small fracture that both of them might have suffered as result of their fighting. Because of the battle that is evidential from this couple in addition to signs of abuse of drugs, there might be significant need of proving this as part of the case. Because it is not legal to forcefully search person’s body without his or her consent or approval by the court, based on this kind of scenario, it would be appropriate to seek for permission from the courts to undertake this step. It is more of evidence that because the body parts of each of them had some fractures, both might be hibernating some form of crude weapon on them. Additionally, since their behavior seems to be more of influenced by subsistence abuses which evidently is inside their house, there is some possibility that they might have some in their pocket. For such a reason, searching their pockets, for example, would be most appropriate since it would assist in proving the case against the two beyond any other reasonable doubts.

CJA 315 Criminal Procedure – All Assignments With Sample Answers

CJA 315 Assignment 1: LASA 2: Violence and Drugs in Centervale – Defending Abby

Having successfully completed law school, you are now a second-year defense attorney with the state. You have been entrusted with the task of defending Abby, who has been charged with illegal farming of marijuana with intent to sell and illegal possession of firearms. Abby has never been charged with a crime before. The firearms possession charge is a misdemeanor in your state, and the marijuana charge is a felony. During the course of review of the case, you have been provided with the following information:

  • The police report filed by Officer Edward, which contains all the information regarding the events leading up to the arrest of your client. The report also includes the observations of Edward’s former partner (who has since been promoted to detective).
  • A search warrant for the home and subsequent documentation mentioning that drug paraphernalia and marijuana were found in the front room of the house. The documentation also mentions that a shotgun was found, bearing your client’s and her boyfriend’s fingerprints, under the couch in the same room.
  • A copy of a statement by your client but not signed by her, which appears to be a confession that she made in the car on the way to the police station. In the statement, she claimed that she just needed to sell a little more marijuana to raise an additional $1,500 so she would have $10,000 to bail her boyfriend, Bobby, out of jail.

In addition, twenty marijuana plants were found in the basement of the house, along with $8,500 in cash and a receipt book filled with Abby’s handwriting.

When you interview your client, she states that she barely recalls that evening, because she was completely drunk at the time the police showed up. She tells you that she doesn’t even remember being in the police car and has no idea that she was told her rights, because she didn’t sober up until the following morning.

She denies any knowledge of the marijuana plants in the basement of the house but states that the other marijuana on the table was just there for a party she and Bobby were going to have later that night. She also tells you that she is about four months pregnant with Bobby’s child. You have Abby’s trial starting the next morning.

Utilizing APA guidelines, citing your sources in text, and creating a corresponding reference page, cite relevant case law and specific information from external sources, present a 6- to 8-page research paper to illustrate how you would defend your client. Please address the following issues specifically in your paper:

  • Can any of the evidence found in your client’s home be suppressed? If so, why and on what grounds?
  • Can any of the statements uttered by your client at the crime scene or in the patrol car be used against her? Can any of them be suppressed? Why?
  • Can the state meet its burden of proof in this case? If not, why not? What can you argue to defend your client on the basis of the evidence listed in the case?
  • Can your client’s best interest be served by engaging in trial? Or would it be better for her in the long run to make a plea. If so, what might your request be to the prosecuting attorney for a plea deal?
  • Assuming your client is found guilty on felony charges stemming from the marijuana possession, what argument might you make to the judge and the jury regarding sentencing? What constitutional amendment supports your theory and why?

View Violence and Drugs in Centervale – Defending Abby , a sample answer to this assignment or order a unique answer written by our professional writers at an affordable price.

California Gold Rush Environmental Impact

Over the past three centuries, humanity has proven that it is capable of taking giant leaps of faith to ensure that it thrives. It was at this particular moment that the natural world was viewed as the perfect place to begin this quest that would later involve massive environmental exploitation. The discovery of gold in the American West led to what is popularly referred to as the California Gold Rush which was, essentially, a period of great excitement and prosperity. Individuals travelled long distances to this remote corner of the Northern Hemisphere with the hope that they too would make their “American Dream” a reality. Nonetheless, after reading Starr’s text and essays that were contained in the Merchant’s book, it was soon apparent that the mining of gold in this region between 1848 and 1855 had adverse environmental implications. The Sierra Foothills, for instance, were permanently damaged by the miners who pummeled through them with water cannons to expose the gold (Vogel, 2018, p. 34). Initially, panning was the method of choice for most of the miners since it was cost effective and the pristine water ways exposing the gold nuggets. The rush sparked the need to mine this gold at an industrial scale, which introduced giant dredgers in the area. California residents have learnt the hard way since the legacy of this historical moment still affects them to date. Toxic materials remained embedded in the environment and, more specifically, in the water that they still have to consume. Mercury was used in the extraction of gold from stone and quartz, a substance that is still in high levels in the water and aquatic life.  Nevertheless, a Christian response to this state of affairs may entail raising awareness on the issue. Christians are aware of the fact that they are stewards of their environment, which is why they are poised to start campaigns that will see the environment being preserved.

Response and Critique: Euripides Medea – ENG 2030 Critical Essay

Out of all renowned Greek classics, Euripides’s Medea (431BC) remains one of the most controversial plays in history. Much of this controversy stems from the playwright’s rhetoric and use of realism to put certain points across in a manner that still shocks contemporaries. A rough assessment of the text reveals that Euripides rarely used euphemism to hide societal blemishes that were rife at the time. He embraced this precise epoch for what it was and openly expressed his point of view from a correct angle. In particular, the play focuses on the reasonable expectations that women grappled with in Greek society. During this period, status was valued more than everything, with the women having to derive it from the kinship that they forged with the male members of the society(Stuttard and Euripides 78). They played second fiddle to their male counterparts with their primary purpose being to produce an heir for the household where they were married. In this respect, their role was reduced to that of childbearing and mothering, which now served as the only thing that brought purpose to their seemingly wretched lives. Even with this reality, Euripides manages to craft a play that inadvertently explores the elicitations of women’s rights painted through Medea’s decision to perform infanticide. One side of the divide often opines that her actions were wholly blameless while distractors view them as erroneous and utterly immoral. Overwhelmed by anger, frustration, and devastation caused by Jason’s act of deciding to marry another woman, she took revenge on her erstwhile lover using a drastic measure. She intended to cause him extreme pain and sorrow to the degree that surpassed her own. Without compromise, killing her unborn child became her weapon of choice since she was also aware of Creon and the princess’s death(Seneca, et al.). The purpose of this essay is, therefore, to critically evaluate P.E Easterling’s assessment of the play in her article dubbed “The Infanticide in Euripides’ Medea” and to provide the appropriate response to the main arguments made.


In “The Infanticide in Euripides’ Medea” Easterling explores the so-called “problematic” themes that litter this literary landscape. The overarching leitmotif in the article is Medea’s choice to use infanticide to punish Jason since she felt aggrieved. Easterling firmly believes that the play represents a direct presentation of events in a logical sequence that is easily understood by the reader regardless of their cadre. Nevertheless, she does not forget to point out the shocking honesty with the playwright provides the account. The integrity that permeates the text is the primary reason why she does not believe that it is problematic but preferably one with a somewhat unique flare. She understands the enormity of the subject matter which is why the general expectation was that Euripides would express it in a manner fitting a critical catastrophe. In her overall evaluation, Easterling believes that the language used is not vast enough to reveal all that there was in the tale(Clauss and Johnston). It is, however, important to note that she acknowledges the richness found in the text and its ability to pierce through the reader’s soul. The play is predicated on the fact that Medea consciously decided to perform infanticide even while being fully aware of the enormity of this singular act. In Easterling’s opinion, such a brazen act ought to have been vividly described though powerful linguistic devices that would define the painful situation that Jason and Medea were in. A major point that permeates her appraisal of the text is the manner in which Medea was demonized for her actions. Though scorned, it was clear that she also feared for her unborn child’s safety and only wanted to what was right at the time. In light of this illustration, Easterling sees it as the next best option available. After Creon and the princess’s death, she was well aware of the danger that her spawn was in and thus saw it fit to end its life by her hand rather than that of another. The author, therefore, offers a critical analysis of the play’s faults, its frame of reference and obdurate features that place the murder of infants at the play’s epicenter.

Response and Critique 

Easterling’s thought-provoking arguments enhanced my understanding of the text and all other illustrations that were previously unclear. Her assessment elucidated the subject matter of the play while also introducing new angles that I was previously unaware of during initial readings. For instance, it was through the author that I finally realized that a celestial frame of reference had been missing all along throughout the play. The entire play was lacking in nous of divine motivation that would provide a sense of control as the plot progressed. This blatant omission was present although Medea was ostensibly the Sun’s grand-daughter. In this respect, the play had failed to provide the theological significance needed to portray its subject, therefore, presenting a literary inadequacy. Euripides failed to file Medea’s heroic identity, which would eventually deal a blow to the narrative that was being presented. By so doing, she exposed to the play to contemporary critics such as Easterling who now questions the tales literary credibility. In essence, it is now possible to regard it as just another case of a guileless melodrama without much credibility. Each argument presented by Easterling was quite convincing because she always backed his claims with substantial evidence. At one point, she even compared the text’s insufficiencies to Bacchaeor Hippolytus which expressed the literary expansiveness which she expected initially. Chief among her expectations were that Medea would be presented prominently to enable the reader to develop recurring mental images of the theme, which was sadly not the case. However, Easterling seems to have a clear idea of his target audience. Irrefutable indications suggest that, in writing this article, her main intention was to reach out to contemporary readers of Greek classics in a bid to challenge them to question the works of other playwrights. By so doing, they would develop a critical mind capable of making accurate assessments of the shortcomings that need to be addressed.

In general, the article was easy to read since the author expressed a firm understanding and usage of language. Short and straightforward sentences ended up communicating more of what the author intended to illustrate. Truncated sentences were a common feature throughout the article which meant that her sense of urgency in conveying the message was always apparent. In addition to this, connections were ever made between the sentences, which further improved the whole reading experience. Nevertheless, Easterling’s explanation of Medea so-called “sense of helplessness” argument was confusing and did not strike a chord with me. From the text, it is clear that she was experiencing a series of emotions, but this was not enough for her to act on her conflicting emotions. In this sense, the author suggests that Medea had no other option that carrying out her act of revenge especially against Creusa. In my opinion, these were spontaneous knee-jerk reactions that provided a tempting illusion. On the other hand; it was impressive how the author avoided mundane psychological explanations since she was fully aware that the emotional confusion was as a result of inconsistencies. Her opinion regarding this whole debacle was that Medea was caught up in the whirlwind which was the tide of events that offered her little to no choice (Clauss and Johnston). The author uses an unbiased tone to provide a socio-psychological analysis of why Medea murdered her children and the sense of urgency involved. All quotations provided were accurate and pointed to the author’s thorough research when seeking to present her perspective. Reading beyond the play has proven fundamental since new aspects of Medea’s characters were cross-examined which added to the existing body of language.


In finality, Euripides’s Medea has always elicited controversy owing to the critical themes that it presents.  P.E Easterling provides a contemporary critique in her 1977 article christened “The Infanticide in Euripides’ Medea” to explore the missing links visible to expert scholars. The material thus allows the readers to make sense of this modern take and the implications that such an assessment would have on the future of classic literature.

DSM-5 Category Summaries Introductions

Over the past two decades, professionals in the field of Psychology have underscored the importance of making accurate diagnoses of mental disorders during practice. The general consensus hails precise identification of a mental health disorder for ultimately leading to correct treatment options on offer thus bolstering chances of effective case management. Pursuant to this premise, the American Psychological Association (APA) went on to produce its handbook containing criteria necessary for diagnosis, popularly referred to as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Now in its fifth edition, DSM-5 is an updated version of the manual penned by a committee of experts to be used as an analytical and taxonomic tool when making psychiatric diagnoses. The purpose of this research paper is, therefore, to provide introductions to DSM-5 category summaries of schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders, bipolar and related disorders, trauma and stressor-related disorders, dissociative disorder, and paraphilic disorders.

Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders

The medical term “schizophrenia” was introduced by the Swiss psychiatrist E. Bleur to refer to an apparent splitting of the mind and personality. It was noted that the subjects exhibited a break up in their psychic functioning that went on to impact their perceptions of reality. Today, DSM-5 uses a gradient when making diagnoses of persons with psychotic indicators(Association &American Psychiatric, 2013, p.87). It holds the idea that this condition occurs as a component of a continuum of other related mental conditions with similar predisposing factors. The characterization of schizophrenia is done using two categories: negative and positive. Negative symptoms manifest in the form of delusions, a disorganized manner of thinking, unsystematic behavior and hallucinations.  In other instances, patients may, at times, experience anomalous thoughts, discernments and behavior that may be unusual but positive. The condition’s sub-types include schizotypal personality disorder, delusional disorder, brief psychotic disorder, schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia.  According to In Luhrmann & In Marrow (2016), an estimated 0.3-07 % of the American population is afflicted by schizophrenia and its adverse effects (43). Men and women are affected by the disorder in equal measure, with long-term infirmity beginning during childhood and persisting through to adulthood.

Bipolar and Related Disorders

Changes in mood are part normal human life. Nevertheless, if one happens to suffer from bipolar and other related disorders mood changes may occur more frequently and for extended periods. A bipolar episode is punctuated by two contrasting mood states where individual in question periodically slips from mania to depression. Manic episodes are charged by a sudden burst of energy attributed to the euphoria that one may be experiencing. In this state, patients typically spend most of their time awake with racing thoughts and accelerated speech. A feeling of invincibility pervades them, which also explains why those with this disorder may feel overly confident. Conversely, depressive episodes are characterized by long periods of low energy where the individual is quite pessimistic. As a result, their sleep pattern changes and may alternate between excessive sleeping and sleeplessness(Kring & Kring, 2014). Unexplained emotional outbursts are common, with the sufferer opting to withdraw completely from active social life. DSM-5 applies anxious distress, rapid cycling, melancholic features, mood reactivity, catatonia, and psychotic features as specifiers during the classification process(Association &American Psychiatric, 2013, p.124).  Episodes may last anywhere from a week to several months. For this reason, it can remain undetected throughout a person’s life only to be diagnosed at a later stage.

Trauma and Stress-Related Disorders

Trauma and stress-related disorders represent a host of grave psychological reactions that afflicts select individuals after exposure to traumatic or high-stress situations. These events may range from combat, torture, accidents, natural calamities, sexual assault or even childhood neglect. Evidence of this spectrum of conditions was first recorded in 1648 by Swiss Military doctors during routine check-ups at the frontlines. Subjects exhibited nostalgia, melancholy, stupor, weakness and an incessant bout of anxiety. Nearly 300 years later horrors of conflict linked to The Great War (1914-18) and The Second World War (1939-45) led researchers to the thorough investigation of psychological reactions that result from trauma. It is from this premise that the most recent edition of DSM-5 groups all shock-related conditions in a single group: trauma and stress-related disorders. The main disorders in this category are post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), adjustment disorders, reactive attachment disorder, and stressor-related disorders(Association &American Psychiatric, 2013, p.266).Characteristics include intrusion symptoms, hyper-arousal, deleterious alterations in cognition and avoidance. Nevertheless, it is important to note that determining the prevalence of disorders in this category presents a challenge since they only occur after contact with a specific stressful event.

Dissociative Disorders

The mental health conditions grouped in this category all involve glitches with memory, perception and the subject’s sense of self. Typically, symptoms are often so adverse that they practically interfere with all aspects of the subject’s cognitive function. Sufferers may experience a sense of detachment from reality and even claim to have out-of-body experiences. The three most common types of dissociative disorders are amnesia, dissociative identity disorder, and depersonalization disorder. Those with these conditions admit to experiencing an intermittent lack of continuity in thoughts, environment, and actions. It is for this very reason that patients would seek to escape reality in unhealthy and unconventional ways that may ultimately exacerbate their present condition. Essentially, the development of dissociative disorders is a response to trauma and, therefore, meant to keep troubling recollections at bay. In classifying these conditions, DSM-5 has made notable changes including the inclusion of de-realization

(Association &American Psychiatric, 2013, p.292).Formerly referred to as depersonalization disorder, both the name and structure have been tweaked to be in tandem with the variations effected in the field. Formerly known as dissociative fugue, dissociative amnesia has now been designated as a specifier and is no longer a detached diagnosis. Persons who have experienced emotional and sexual abuse are more likely to develop dissociative disorders owing to trauma than their counterparts who have led what is considered a normal life.

Paraphilic Disorders

The psychiatric conditions grouped in this category are characterized by intense sexual urges and fantasies that may cause severe distress to the individual in question. These recurrent behaviors may involve children, inert objects or the humiliation of non-consenting adults with the aim of causing them considerable harm. These atypical and pathological demeanors may be termed as paraphilic when they are persistent or cause significant impairment on their normal day to day functioning. The pattern of disturbance leading to these disorders begins with early emotional trauma, a realignment of the pattern of arousal and the inclusion of conditioning elements. DSM-5 lists pedophilia, transvestic disorder, voyeurism and exhibitionism as the common forms of paraphilia that medical practitioners are likely to encounter (Association &American Psychiatric, 2013, p.699). Some forms of paraphilia such as pedophilia are criminal in nature and those found to have committed them being subjected to imprisonment in correctional facilities. In addition to this, they may also be registered in the sex offender’s list for the safety of those who might be around them. Most recently psychologists have suggested the use of behavior therapy and psychoanalysis as practical treatment options to alter the conditions. Others have suggested the use of medication, even though it is vital to acknowledge the level of sex drive is not always related to a paraphiliac’s actual behavior.

“Don’t Talk to the Police” by Professor James Duane

A contemporary axiom made popular in recent times is that benefits often accrue from creating a rapport with law enforcement officers and communicating with them in the event that they require information to aid in investigations. Nonetheless, Professor James Duane begs to differ. In his lecture at Virginia’s Regent Law School, the professor is emphatic in his belief that individuals should never talk to the police (Don’t Talk to the Police, 2012). His radical viewpoint is based on the premise that numerous risks present themselves by simply talking to a police officer. Professor Duane opines that providing police officers with any information during an interrogation setting can possibly lead one to provide a faulty account, officers misremembering the events previously related and resulting in false confessions. The precarious nature of his perspective stems from a high likelihood of police officers combining the sketchy information provided with a faulty eyewitness account. Innocent persons could, therefore, end up being convicted of a serious crime and subjected to maxim penalties for the purported offence.  The Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution is explicitly mentioned throughout the video as a legal calling card. This concept offers protection to individuals from being forced to provide incriminating evidence during a criminal proceeding (Brezina, 2011, p. 78). On the other hand, the Rule of Evidences (801 d 2 a) is also relevant in this case. Law enforcement officers have an obligation to use any information provided by suspects against them in court. Moreover, Professor Duane cautions viewers against talking to the police as it may ultimately lead to an unimpeachable witness. In such an instance, the witness will be viewed as credible and can, thus, give testimony before a tribunal.

Development of the Combat Identification Server (CDT-S) by General Dynamics

The United Kingdom’s Ministry of Defense (MoD) has a succinct directive of ensuring that its mandate is executed to the letter to guarantee that it thrives. This drive and singleness of purpose has mainly to do with the fact that the lives and well-being of all military personnel rank high in the ministry’s list of priorities. These individuals dedicate their lives to protecting their country, ensuring that any internal or external threat is dealt with promptly to assure the citizenry of their safety. It is therefore fitting that the least the government and its proxy agencies could do is make certain that cutting edge and state-of-the-art technology is utilized in bring this mission to mind. The development of the, now infamous, Combat Identification Server (CDT-S) was one such initiative aimed at raising the tactical situational awareness of coalition troops posted in volatile regions such as Iraq and Afghanistan. Pursuant to this objective, General Dynamics received a £3m tender from the Ministry of Defense (MoD) which chose the Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) framework (“CIDS development,” 2015). It is highly likely that this decision was arrived at due to the possible benefits that would accrue from utilizing this agile modus operandi.  Moreover, it is a popular software development technique and has, over the years, proven a vital technique in solving complex tasks. Implementation of a project’s structure aids the framework by ensuring that it functions well within the framework’s principles, is simple and also extendible. By so doing, a solution to the problem would be provided within the shortest time possible improving its production capabilities.

The major business problem that the project team had to contend with in this particular case was the time allotted for the task. Work was expected to commence from February 2009 and was to be completed by June 2010. In reality, 16 months was a short timeline since there were various operational complexities that existed in a project of such magnitude. There are a plethora of interconnected intricacies that have to be put in place in software development if the project is to make any headway. Linking tactical networks, for instance, involves the active involvement of all project members in the development of a working structure for the whole plan (Holcombe, 2013, p. 67). In this case, General Dynamics was tasked with ensuring that the project was delivered within this short duration possible while also ensuring that it fit the quality requirement. The Ministry of Defense (MoD) acknowledged the enormity of this request, but still put General Dynamics to task. Delivering this project in time was therefore vital to both parties due to its fundamental nature. On one hand, the Ministry of Defense (MoD) had to make certain that any officer operating in war zones was protected at all costs, assuring them of their safety during precarious missions. Similarly, General Dynamics also knew that the delivery of this project was grave to its standing as a business conglomerate. The fact that it was the sole company awarded the £3m tender meant that it had to prove its mettle and deliver the product within the specified timeframe. Application of time boxing, application of MoSCoW rules and prototyping were therefore applied in line with Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) framework.

It is vital to note that General Dynamics that the enormity of the task at hand required the company to implement strategies that would assure it of success. Timeboxing, MoSCoW rules and prototyping were therefore the best bet that the company had in achieving this particular milestone. The pre-project planning phase has been known for its usefulness in developing a chart that is fully functional (Moran, 2015, p. 60). At this point, brainstorming is invaluable owing to the vitality of the information that is often provided during this stage. The exchange of ideas aids the project team in coming up with practical options on how the project can be carried out within the shortest time possible while sticking to the quality requirements. Furthermore, the best notions are then used during the feasibility and business studies to provide a rough assessment of the practicality of the selected approaches. I opine that such a strategy is central in increasing the chances that the project would succeed since all facts regarding the project are presented for interrogation. At this point, all those involved have a unique opportunity to provide any dissenting opinions or corrections that need to be made to assure successful completion of the task at hand.  Through these approaches a functional model of iteration is then developed to make certain that all plans would be achieved within the allotted time frame. The design and build of the software are central to its success since any other parameter that would be set in motion would depend on it as an appropriate prop. Implementation would therefore be swift, in addition to any post-project assessment program that would be required.

The project teams at General Dynamics were quick to master the Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) framework in an attempt to comprehend its agile methodology that would serve their needs in completing the project in time. The project’s quality was also a matter of great concern for all those involved since any flaws in the system would be detrimental to the lives of thousands of service men and women. Furthermore, General Dynamic’s reputation was also on the line, which is why dealing with any known business problem was a standing priority. Managing the time that was available to them at this particular moment was a major determining factor in producing the end product. An assessment of the product’s complexity played a major role in making sure that a thorough evaluation of each stage was made and in line with all other requirements.  In addition to this, MoSCoW rules made certain that the project’s leaders and all other members were heavily involved during each step made in the development process. Progress can only be made when all members have a deep understanding of the project’s technicalities since they would be essential in determining advances (Stapleton, 2017). Adhering to these rules also makes it mandatory for project leaders to make any changes by being aware of any nascent technical possibilities coupled with any alteration in the user’s environment. This agile approach was bound to bring more business benefits to the project as opposed in comparison to using any other known traditional project management approach. All features required for the end product are promptly classified and are all incorporated into the final product. Chances of technical failure are therefore greatly reduced, benefitting both the establishment and their esteemed clients. Additionally, reassigning occurs in this particular process to ensure that multipart processes that may prove an impediment to the entire project are dealt with at a later date to avoid consuming time meant for simpler initiatives.

It is safe to say that the success of a project has a lot to do with the role played by the agile coach. Any decision that is to be implemented has to pass through the agile coach first for screening. The purpose of this evaluation is to ensure that all its tenets are in tandem with the project’s overall objectives thus increasing chances of success. An agile coach also looks out for any errors in design while ensuring that they are corrected to increase chances of overall accomplishment. As a figurehead, leading by example motivates all those working on such a project to focus all their energies on it with its completion being their ultimate goal. Through this rare brand of loyalty to the “cause”, many of those taking part will take personal responsibility in ensuring that everything takes place according to the plans that had been made. The Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) framework will also be mastered fully and its philosophy accepted by all members before commencing with the work.  An able agile coach is critical in its acceptance since they are the conduit that connects every member with the specifics in the project (Stapleton & DSDM Consortium, 2012). Any decision or change that is to be made will therefore pass through the development team that is directly under the leadership of the agile coach, making the team’s stability a priority.  A commercial relationship is supportive is created by with its ultimate goal being incremental delivery and the development of ground breaking technology. A shrewd agile coach represents commitment of the senior management which will, in the long haul, result in considerable end-user involvement.

Data Analysis and the Creation of a Statistical Test

Test Scores: 95, 92, 90, 90, 83, 83, 83, 74, 60 and 50.


The mean for the test scores listed above is 80. This figure wasarrived at by first establishing the number of data points in thesample (often denoted as ”N”), before proceeding to find the sum total in the setprovided. Dividing the sum by “N” (95+92+90+90+83+83+83 +74+60+ 50/ 10) therefore equaled 80 as the mean for the test scores.
The median for the test scores provided above is 83. This is because “median”, in any grouped data, refers to the figure separating the first half of the samplefrom the second (Rubin, 2012). It is computed by arranging the data set in ascendingorder before choosing the number(s) that fall in the middle of theset.  It is, however, worth noting that this only applies to situations where anodd number falls in the middle of the data set. Whenever even numbersappear at the center, their average then becomes the median. In thisparticular case, it happened to be 83 +83 which would then be dividedby 2 to give 83 as the median.
The mode in any data set refers to a number that appears morefrequently. This happens to be 83 since it appears thrice.
The range in this data set is 45. It is computed by finding thedifference between the highest and lowest numbers listed. In thiscase, the sample size is 10, with the highest figure being 95 and thelowest 50. Subtracting the lowest figure from the highest (95-50) therefore resulted in 45 as the range.
The variance in this data set is 214.7. It is calculated by findingthe averaged square differences of the mean. Beginning with the simpleaverage in the data set for each individual number, it would then besubtracted from the mean before finally being squared (50²+60²+74²+83²+83²+83²+90²+90²+92²+95² =65,932 – 8002). The last stepentails establishing the average from the squared differences. Dividing 1,932 by 9 would give the variance; 214.7
The Standard Deviation for the data set provided above is 14.65. It iscalculated by finding the square root of the established variance.This is done by first finding the sum total in the data set, which is800. It is then squared resulting in 640,000.The next step would beto divide this figure by 10, which is the total number of figures inthe sample, resulting in 64,000. The next step is finding the squaresof all individual numbers in the data set, before adding them all up:50²+60²+74²+83²+83²+83²+90²+90²+92²+95² = 65,932. The next step wouldbe to subtract 64,000 from this figure, which would result in 1,932 asa final figure. Then, one would have to subtract 1 from the totalnumber of samples in the data set (10) to ultimately end up with9.Dividing 1,932 by 9 would give the variance, which is 214.7. Thestandard deviation hence hails from the square root of this figure; 14.65.

It would be fitting to conduct a One-Sample T-Test since it would givethe differences between the mean score and the various continuitylevels after normal distribution of data. Moreover, this test willalso provide an accurate comparison of the mean from one sample.
When inter-relating results from a population with a mean of 70 and asignificance of 0.05,the goal was to establish whether the driverswould drive at the same speed as they would at 70 mph since it is theknown mean for the population. The sample population drivers are 60, 60,55, 50, 45, 45, 55, 80, 80, 70, 70, 70, 75, 75, 65 and 60. From the test, theT-Value happened to be -2.28 while 0.037 represented the P-Value whichI then rounded up to 0.04. The significant level of the data was setat 0.05 which was greater than “p”. Thus, it would be appropriate toreject the null hypothesis as there is evidence of considerablediscrepancies between the sample mean and that of 70. Such data isvital during occasions when a researcher would want to find out whether or not a sample population differs from the general population
in a significant way.

Daily Life Applications of Memory Strategies

Until recently, superb memory was thought to be the confines of persons otherwise thought to be geniuses.  The general assumption was that individuals were bequeathed with this ability at birth and hence highly adored by interested admirers. Developments in modern science and a better understanding of brain functionality, however, would later dispel these axioms with the consensus being that strategies could be developed to improve memory. It is commonplace for one to enter a room and completely forget why they went there in the first place. Such is an indication of poor memory that may warrant the application of memory strategies. These techniques would require the subject to follow a set of instructions on how to develop a higher capacity for retaining knowledge and ultimately improving their memory (Brown, Roediger, & McDaniel, 2014). Memory is crucial to our being since there are numerous daily challenges that can be managed promptly using information that had already been stored. The purpose of this research paper is thus to explore cognitive mapping and mnemonics as and their positive effects in an individual’s life.

Cognitive Mapping

Just like any other animal species on the planet, human beings have evolved to a point where they are able to master their environment in a bid to maximize potential. This level of mastery has largely been made available by cognitive mapping. An individual is able to develop a sketch of an area that they are familiar with so as to have an easier time maneuvering in the near future. In reality, this was a change that took place in the evolutionary plane as a result of challenges that early man was going through on a day to day basis.  Danger was always lurking in the corner, which was why it was extremely necessary that a cognitive map is developed to avoid falling into an old trap. It was this primitive mammalian response that was responsible for the permeation of species across the globe since it had been strengthened to a specialized level, allowing for the formation of a stronger power of retention (Coon, 2010, p. 67). Moreover, successive amplification of this particular segment meant that human beings had a rough layout of the expanse surrounding them and could make a better choice. The survival and success of the species solely depended on these cognitive maps since they essentially served as a blueprint of whatever it was that surrounding them.

Numerous benefits have, over the years, accrued from using cognitive mapping as a memory strategy. These benefits often take the dimension of everyday capabilities that the average individual is able to achieve. Firstly, the said individual develops an acute sense of their present-day environment, understanding the landscape and all elements that are in it. A cognitive map that has been well developed is the reason why numerous individuals are able to travel from one point to the next without any trouble. For instance, cities represent complex mazes where a person could easily get lost, yet this rarely happens to inhabitants. Cognitive maps often function as a compass, constantly reminding that of which routes to take, areas to avoid and the direction of their destination. Secondly, human beings are able to make rough estimates of the distance that they would have to travel at any given point courtesy of their cognitive maps. Orientation problems are solved since that hippocampus is especially suited for this function making it quite easy to go about one’s business. The absence of this cognitive map would mean that the body would have to undergo an immense level of stress since a rough estimate of distances that were to be traveled could not be actually be made.


Mnemonics are some of the most common memory devices, often due to its ease of execution and subsequent effectiveness. Nevertheless, the general idea behind this technique is to ensure that individuals develop better retention and retrieval capacity. The encoding used is elaborate in its description to make certain that the subject is able to follow retrieval cues when required to comprehend its meaning.  Mnemonics have been hailed as an artificial method that has allowed individuals to improve their memory retention capacity even in cases where it initially deteriorated. They usually take different forms, with music, name, expression, model, ode, note organization, image, connection and spelling mnemonics being most common (Goswami, 2011). The overall idea is to develop a witty technique that makes it quite easy for an individual to remember a particular set of information. The human brain usually has the capacity of recalling all vital information that an individual acquires, but a lack of willpower usually means that persons are unable to recall any of it. Information that had been acquired a while back is now easily accessible since the neural pathways are strengthened through this particular technique. These patterns are distinct and soon embedded in the subject’s memory making it easier to remember a particular set of information.

The use of mnemonics in the contemporary world has been hailed as a novel discovery that has benefitted a large section of society. Some of those lucky enough to have experienced its effectiveness are patients that suffer from bouts of memory deficit. It is vital to note that memory is susceptible to changes in the conditioning of the human brain and may end up failing in the event of an ailment. Epilepsy, strokes and head injuries are conditions that have previously been found to have an adverse neurological effect on an individual and their memory. The use of mnemonics in such a scenario has proven helpful, with significant improvements being noted in such patients (Mahy, 2018, p. 43). Additionally, young children have a higher chance of developing an advanced vocabulary in contextual learning when using mnemonics. This is because their brains are usually malleable enough to allow such impressions to be made. Educators have been at the front-line with regard to its application in schools as a resource that is capable of providing an instructional sequence with maximum effectiveness. Long term memory can therefore be influenced positively since the medial temporal lobe stores more data from episodic memory.

Cross-Cultural Issues and Environmental Sensitivity in Management


During the turn of the 20th century, numerous innovations and novel techniques of conducting business were already in play, signifying the leaps and bounds that were about to be made. The society at this particular period was transforming at record speeds across cultures, a primary reason why changes were necessary to avoid becoming obsolete. Across nations, the workforce was now organized into clear systems that were meant to boost productivity while ensuring that all the employees remained satisfied throughout their sessions. The idea behind this systematic arrangement was firmly rooted in the science of management that was becoming popular at this particular epoch. Management was therefore seen as a contemporary development that would ultimately catapult these organizations to the greatest highs in the sectors that they were in. Nonetheless, it was soon apparent that management issues were not clear cut, especially due to the many complexities that existed in having a workforce. Motivation for coming to work differed from one individual to the next, which proved a challenge since the general expectation was that organizations were supposed to work like as a single unit. Moreover, this particular issue was compounded by the fact that most organizations at the time were adopting franchise models that would see them cross borders with a multi-cultural workforce. Thus cross-cultural psychology literature was born in a bid to enable top executives understand how to deal with such a phenomenon, harness it while ensuring that the organization benefitted from it fully. Most recently, environmental sensitivity has emerged as an issue of grave concern to global organizations. It’s worth noting that opinions on climate change vary from one country to the next depending on the level of engagement and awareness of its citizenry. This research paper seeks to evaluate cross-cultural issues associated with environmental sensitivity can result in competitive advantage, its impact and global organizations adapting to an increase in the natural environment.

Putting Environmental Sensitivity into Perspective

Environmental sensitivity is a fairly new term that emerged in the second half of the 20th century among professionals observing the management of global organizations. After numerous studies into the issue, it soon emerged that individuals reacted differently to the introduction of certain environmental agents or ideas that were, at the same time, tolerated by others. This accidental discovery set researchers on a new course in terms of understanding how individuals functioned at the work place. If environmental sensitivity was by any chance related to an employee’s well-being, then it was safe for them tom conclude that it was a determining factor in the progress that would be made by any organization. Employees were the cogs that kept these global organizations running and anything that affected them directly was bound to set off a chain reaction in the system. Executives were well aware of this fact which often served as a primary reason why they would spend millions of dollars in hiring experts to make their own independent assessment of the issue. These fact finding missions were integral since they would form the basis of any change that would be made in the long haul. Top leadership and stakeholders in these organizations were hell-bent on ensuring that they acted on all recommendations provided. Inaction would be a fatal choice especially when they were well aware of the fact that most of their competitors were not taking such matters lightly and acting on every single bit of information fed to them. In reality, acknowledging environmental sensitivities among different members in the workforce was seen as a force for good since an enabling surrounding would be created for all those involved. Most of these organizations paid attention to the fact their employees were their greatest human resource that had to take precedence in all situations. Generally, this approach was adopted due to the cross-cultural nature of the issues being experienced from one locality to the next.

Climate change has in the past two decades proved an emotive issue across a section of the population globally. There are those who strongly believe that it’s occurring at records speeds and it won’t be long until its adverse effects are across the globe. These are individuals who are genuinely concerned with the well-being of the planet and acknowledge those human beings are actively contributing to this state of affairs. Activities such as illegal logging by enterprising individuals and the release of noxious gases into the atmosphere have been blamed for the thinning of the ozone layer. Visible changes are already apparent in thinning of polar caps, release of methane gas that had been trapped under ice, rise in sea levels, global temperatures and the melting of permafrost in the Eurasian steppes. All these are issues of great concern to those individuals who feel that they have an active role to play in as far as reversing the process is concerned. Their disposition stems from the fact that they often feel directly responsible for the well-being of the planet, all its species and those generations that will come in the near future. On the flipside, there are those who are skeptical of this particular view and often opine that climate change is all but an elaborate hoax. These are the same individuals who seek to poke holes at arguments provided by proponents of the view that climate change is occurring at a break-neck speed and often provide disparaging comments about such individuals. The truth of the matter is that cross-cultural interactions in organizations often present situations where persons with differing opinions often end up interacting with each other, presenting a host of complexities. Over the years, organizations that transcend national borders have become acutely aware of this fact and the impact it can have on their employees. It’s a fact that not all individuals might be aware of the environmental sensitivities held by different cultures, which may prove to be one of the most immediate concerns to a specific organization. Brushing off these nuances as typical occurrences is often thought to a grave miscalculation that needs to be addressed if noticeable changes are to be achieved. In other instances, however, it’s seen as a source of great competitive advantage that can be used as a primary source of competitive advantage.

Impact of Cross-Cultural Issues and Environmental Sensitivity in Management

There is no doubt that cross-cultural issues have a huge impact on organizations. It’s for this reason that budgetary allocation are provided for such initiatives due to its central role in determining the success or failure of any effort made by the organizations. Over the years, management has effectively morphed into an art requiring organizations to understand all components to achieve their objectives. A deeper comprehension of all cross-cultural issues experienced by all members of a particular organization is usually the starting point with regard to any progress that can be made. Management is based on the basic tenets of having a deeper understanding of one’s employees. It’s for this reason that hours upon hours are spent by leading behavioral analysts in observing and evaluating a company’s employees. The resultant effect would be the firm’s deeper understanding of issues that these individuals hold dear and work towards ensuring that an enabling environment is created for the said individuals. Organizations are on a daily quest to boost their employee’s productivity. Such a state can only be achieved when a state of equilibrium is presented in the manner in which individuals interact, even when they may hold divergent world views. It’s vital to always remember that we live in a diverse world where individuals may hold opinions that greatly differ from each other. A majority of organizations are predominantly aware of this little-known fact and often work towards ensuring that such a state can be used for its own benefit. Discord among staff members has always been blamed for the woes that seem to be rocking leading organizations time and again. These occurrences often take place in organizations with a noticeable diversity in the members of staff, a factor that can often lead to conflict in the event persons decide to express their opinions on thorny issues.

Concerns for the natural environment present an added cost for any organization. Global organizations often function based on the premise that all preferences required by individuals from a particular culture are met to ensure that employees feel valued. The reason behind such a premise is in ensuring that there are no impediments that might hinder them from being productivity. Executives in these organizations are well aware of the fact that their profit margin is the ultimate goal in making any move. Staff members working in capacity as their employees are therefore their prized possession which is why they would attempt to do all that was within their power to ensure that they thrive in all they choose to pursue. Moreover, these same organizations are acutely aware of the fact that some of these individuals from across different cultures often have specific issues and opinions that they greatly value. These issues are central to every single individual and are the reason why companies would spend considerable amounts of money to ensure that they are not demoralized in any way. In reality, making such a thing possible requires tremendous amounts of effort and money meant to assure these said individuals of the organization’s commitment in ensuring that their specific environmental sensitivities are addressed. Climate change has proven a divisive issue in the recent past. This mainly has to do with the different schools of thought that exist on the matter. Organizations would often spend more money in raising the awareness on the matter, especially in countries known for their strong opinions on matters climate. Countries such as Germany and Mongolia have over the years been bringing the climate change to the world arena in an attempt to rally individuals to make considerable efforts that would slow its advance. In such a scenario, organizations would have to play an active role in ensuring that everyone is made aware of these specific sensitivities, spending massive amounts of resources in the process. Even with all the resources spent on such initiatives, the individuals involved would acknowledge that all these are actions geared towards ensuring that environmental sensitivities are acknowledged and efforts made to confront the issues head on.

Another impact in understanding all the nitty-gritty’s of a specific cross-cultural issue is the impact it would subsequently have on the employees. As earlier mentioned, it’s vital that all members of any given organization work as a strong unit to achieve the goals that have been set in stone. Most global organizations are aware of the fact that their proceeds are as a result of the hard work that they put into their duties. The art of management also becomes easily established when managers are dealing with a work force that is united and acting in congruence with each other. Although organizations are usually made up of individuals from different walks of life, an organizational culture brings these them together under a single cause and will to institute changes that would be deemed vital for the institution. Part of understanding any particular cross-cultural issue lies in the awareness that has to be raised in the organization. It’s thought that such an approach would allow every single individual in this particular situation to gain a better understanding on the issue being discussed. A compression of any issue that is of concern to most of the individuals who find themselves in such position has the ability to diffuse tension that may be inherent in an organization. Climate change, for instance, is an issue that is not quite understood by many of its deniers. Most of these persons do not actually believe that man’s activities could be responsible for these pernicious effects that are even able to transform life as we currently know it. Environmental sensitivity therefore creates an avenue where workplace colleagues can have a candid conversation on a particular issue and come up with solutions that may end up solving these problems in the long run. It’s quite likely that issues that are of great concern and divisive are in their current form due to the fact that no mechanism exists to help those who do not understand it have a finer of the facts surrounding such a phenomenon.

A Case Of The Decriminalization of Psilocybin Mushrooms – Critical Thinking Paper

On November 6, 2018, Californian citizens may have the option to vote to decriminalize psilocybin mushrooms, commonly referred to as magic mushrooms or “shrooms.” Colorado and Oregon have drafted similar initiatives to decriminalize the use, possession, cultivation, sale, and transportation of psilocybin for persons 21 years of age or older. When consumed by humans, these mushrooms produce hallucinogenic effects like those of LSD or mescaline. According to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), “as of 2018, psilocybin is considered a Schedule I drug under the federal Controlled Substances Act and the state Controlled Substances Act,” which means it has no acceptable use in the medical field as well as a high potential for abuse (Madden et al.). In recent years, however, scientific studies have found that ingesting psilocybin can be especially beneficial for those struggling with anxiety or depression. There are no reported cases of death by this hallucinogen; however, people have died from eating misidentified mushrooms. I believe that an adult over the age of 21 is capable of making informed decisions about what they put in their body. Possession of a naturally occurring fungus should not be a felony, especially when research shows that psilocybin is not addictive and can help in treating stubborn conditions including post-traumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder.

Before addressing current state issues regarding psilocybin, I would like to go over it’s documented use in the past. Many historians believe that magic mushrooms were first used 4,000-7,000 years BCE due to a style of cave art found in the mountain ranges of Tassili, Algeria. This style often depicted figures with large mushroom-shaped heads that sometimes lacked appendages or seemed to float in space. Aztec and Mayan ruins also portrayed similar art styles and even worshipped mushroom deities. When Spanish conquistadors arrived on the Mexican peninsula in the 15th century, they wrote about hallucinogenic mushrooms used in religious ceremonies. They considered this cultural practice to be primitive and impious, so they forbade its use. Opponents of this theory claim that people choose what they wish to see in simplistic ancient art.

Psilocybin had a resurgence in popularity within the 1960’s counterculture movement, and in 1970, psilocybin mushrooms were classified as a schedule I drug. This prevented further research on the substance and effectively demonized its use. Today, most countries have laws that regulate the possession of psilocybin by the UN’s Convention on Psychotropic Substances. A group called Colorado for Psilocybin has been campaigning to vote to decriminalize shrooms for their 2020 election ballot. In a 2014 study by the University of Zurich, researchers concluded: “even a moderate dose of psilocybin weakens the processing of negative stimuli by modifying amygdala activity in the limbic system as well as in other associated brain regions.” Although research supports the therapeutic use of Psilocybe mushrooms in a controlled environment, it is important to remember it’s not a miracle drug. Users can also experience paranoia, anxiety, and intense fear.

I was hospitalized and diagnosed with major depressive disorder when I was a freshman in high school. Since then, I have tried treating myself with prescribed antidepressants such as fluoxetine, citalopram, escitalopram, and bupropion, a treatment option that has had little positive effects on me. On the flipside, psilocybin could be used in the place of these synthetic drugs and has, over the years, proved an important asset in combating anxiety and cases of depression in cancer patient. It does this by inhibiting the process that leads to the processing of negative emotions in the amygdala ensuring that the subject’s emotional equilibrium is always maintained (Schiffman). Moreover, most mental health patients often describe the adverse effects of the synthetic medication that they are usually put on. These drugs often end up doing more harm than good, especially with addiction being a reality for them. Attempts to wean themselves off the drug are an uphill task, with adverse withdrawal symptoms commonplace. It is vital to acknowledge that this state of affairs only worsens for these patients, trapping them in a never-ending cycle of addiction to antidepressants. Psilocybin presents a viable option that would ultimately benefit thousands of patients suffering in silence and desperate need of feasible option (Studerus et al.). As mentioned earlier, these mushrooms are, essentially, naturally occurring fungi with no residual effects on users. Using it for medical purposes will, therefore, go a long way in ensuring that patients receive medication that effectively deals with their specific condition in addition to avoiding any cases of addiction.

Criminalization of the psilocybin mushroom creates more of a drug problem as opposed to solving it. Whenever the Federal Government embarks on a crusade aimed at clamping down on “illegal” drugs, more harm than good is done. The so-called War on Drugs meant that any individual found in possession of a Schedule I one drug qualifies for a mandatory minimum sentence in state-run prisons. The result of this policy is that thousands of individuals, from mostly poor marginalized communities, are imprisoned for lengthy prison sentences, dealing a blow to those from such a group. Additionally, the illegality of these drugs makes recidivism rates a bleak reality, worsening the state of families in these communities. Young children now have to grapple with growing up in a single parent household, and in most cases, without a father figure to guide them through life. Banning the use, possession, cultivation, sale, and transportation of psilocybin mushrooms benefits drug dealer since they now have a unique opportunity to deal in a scarce commodity that is in high demand. Such was the case during the Prohibition Era, which also leads to the mushrooming of violent criminal gangs fighting over turf to sell their illegal commodities.

In finality, decriminalizing the use, possession, cultivation, sale, and transportation of psilocybin for persons 21 years of age or older would serve as a progressive move with various benefits accruing from this milestone. These “drugs” are, in essence, naturally occurring fungi found in nature which makes it rather appalling that there a section of individuals would decide to criminalize. Scientists have proven, beyond any reasonable doubt, that ingesting psilocybin has no known negative effects on individuals. On the contrary, it has the ability to aid those struggling with mental health ailments while ensuring that they avoid using prescription drugs. Decriminalizing this ancient mushroom would also mean that it would be easy access and regulate, keeping everyone on both divides contented. Lobby groups such as the California Psilocybin Mushroom Decriminalization Initiative have taken it upon themselves to secure the future of this rare fungus by collecting signatures. It is my sincere hope that the state and Federal Governments will realize the benefits of this mushroom and fight for its protection.