Month: February 2019

Alzheimer-Related Disabilities Report – A Case Study Of Ellen, 64-year-old Chinese American

Assignment Instructions – A Case Study Of Ellen, 64-year-old Chinese American

This assignment will help you understand the disabilities that are caused due to Alzheimer’s disease. Ellen is a 64-year-old Chinese American, who has recently been diagnosed with dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. She has been working steadily as a secretary but recently due to the disease has found it harder to perform her duties. She has worked for 34 years. She has recently become widowed and has two adult kids who live in the same area as her. But they rarely agree on how to provide care for her. Ellen has asked her children to help her navigate her decision to retire. Based on the above scenario, create a 5- to 6-page report in a Microsoft Word document that describe the issues that Ellen and her children need to address regarding:

  • Ellen’s retirement
  • Ellen’s future health care plans
  • Ellen’s housing
  • Ellen’s financial situation
  • Ellen’s ability to perform her job effectively

The disease progression and its effect on her activities of daily living (ADL) Advanced directives Funeral plans Social supports available to Ellen Role her culture may play on her family’s decision Support your answers with appropriate research and reasoning.

 

Sample Solution – Alzheimer-Related Disabilities Report

Background

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a protracted neurodegenerative disease that gradually worsens in those afflicted. According to Alzheimer’s Disease International (ADI), close to 44 million individuals have been diagnosed with the illness and now grapple with a host of adverse effects(“Alzheimer’s Statistics,” n.d.). Usually, its onset is marked by distinct symptoms of memory loss, moods swings, disorientation and behavioral issues which usually worsen over time. Ellen, a 64-year-old Asian American of Chinese extraction, has been diagnosed with the disease which now affects her work as a secretary. As a widow with two adult children, she now acknowledges the need for care which is the main reason why she has decided to retire. The following are the primary matters that Ellen and her children need to explore for her to make a smooth transition into retirement.

Ellen’s Retirement

In most scenarios, Alzheimer’s reduces an individual’s workplace potential and forces them into early retirement. For the most part, family members are left with the emotional overload of having to help their loved ones make this enormous transition into retirement and cope with changes(Lock, 2013). Ellen and her children can kick start this process by proactively assessing the retirement income preparation process. Consulting a financial adviser is usually a good start since it would aid the family to understand the costs that will be incurred during care. The presence of Ellen’s two adult children is also beneficial to her overall retirement plans since they will be instrumental in aiding her in making prudent financial decisions. Additionally, it will be essential for Ellen to create a living will critical in estate planning concerning her finances and assets. Appointing sturdy powers of attorney (POA) will enable other capable individuals to make decisions on her behalf in case she is indisposed.

Ellen’s Future Health Care Plans

Advance care planning is critical for persons with Alzheimer’s disease. It enables them to schedule future health-care strategies critical for their well-being. At the crux of these plans is an honest discussion about the individual’s beliefs and the practicality of the options on offer.  Developing a clear blueprint, well in advance, will enable Ellen receive the care she deserves while avoiding any family distress.  Understanding the disease and its rapid decline will make sure that Ellen is aware of its progression and the type of care needed during each stage. Building a robust care team enables one to always have trusted individuals ready to help and support the patient during each phase, minimizing tension and general feelings of being overwhelmed. It is vital that Ellen, include her two adult children in her care team since they are better placed in helping her carry out basic tasks.

Ellen’s Housing

Housing is one of the most critical facets of support services for persons living with Alzheimer’s disease. Even so, it is always noteworthy to acknowledge that an individual’s needs change during illness and may require them to make some changes concerning housing. Ellen may be able to live at her current residence, albeit with a few modifications to aid her daily routine. Although she may start by being able to conduct her day to day activities at the house, rapid progression of the disease may soon require her to add other personal care assistants for her safety. Ellen’s adult children are ideal in providing informal support that will enable her to live safely in her current residence. They can, thus, help her pay her bills, cook, clean and ensure that she attends doctor’s appointments. Additionally, modifications in the living space will be of the utmost importance in helping reduce the risk of wandering or falls.

Ellen’s Financial Situation

Financial assessment and planning is a central issue for persons diagnosed with Alzheimer’s. These resources are integral in helping an individual to go through care devoid of any stress (Lu & Bludau, 2011, p. 67). Ellen and her family can begin by first making an inventory of her financial situation. All assets and debts that she is responsible for will be appraised in addition to identifying specific family members who will be included in these financial plans. The cost of care should also be designated to make sure that all those involved are cognizant of the costs that will be incurred in the present moment and soon after. Furthermore, Ellen can also review various government benefits that she may be eligible for to assist her shoulder the costs that will be incurred during treatment. In addition to this, Ellen also has a unique opportunity to review long-term care insurance policies that are on offer since they may aid her in covering care expenses.

Ellen’s Ability to Perform her Job Effectively

Alzheimer’s affects all areas of an individual’s life. In particular, workplace productivity is affected since cognitive abilities decline and may even change their decision-making process. It is also common for sufferers to make poor judgments since their capacity is diminished. As a secretary, Ellen is always expected to plan the day for senior executives. Her ability to perform effectively at her job before retirement first begins by revealing her status to her employee to help her meet company standards.  By so doing, she will receive necessary assistance that would prevent the possibility of botched tasks and her missing deadlines. Reasonable accommodations that are provided for in the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) would be invoked to help her cope in the work environment with a cognitive disability. In such a case, an employee can provide verbal instructions that are voice recorded or a checklist with relevant information. Ellen will, therefore, be able to discharge her duties effectively without the fear of making monumental mistakes that may cost the firm financially.

Disease Progression and its Effect on Her Activities of Daily Living (ADL)

Usually, there are fundamental skills that all persons require for them to manage their physical needs. They often range from continence, eating to personal grooming. In essence, these skills are often mastered by individuals from an early stage and preserved as part of their cognitive functioning throughout life (Zarit& Talley, 2012). The onset of Alzheimer’s disease usually means that these functions interrupted and make life increasingly difficult. During disease progression there is a high likelihood that Ellen’s functional independence will be disrupted, reducing her quality of life. As a result, she may incur additional care costs, and many eventually institutionalized. Furthermore, Ellen’s executive functioning may be disrupted, resulting in difficulty when undertaking organizing and sequencing activities. Memory problems are also bound to arise and may interfere with activities as simple as combing her hair.  In later stages, poor judgment may become a frequent occurrence since the overall decision-making skill may be disordered. Also, visual-spatial changes may arise, reducing the quality of life and increasing anxieties.

Advanced Directives

Anticipatory medical directives are contingency measures that will make sure that any future ineptitude is managed effectively.  It is a fundamental part of the treatment process since including competent individuals reduces the chances of adverse effects that would potentially affect a patient with Alzheimer’s disease. Advance directives aid the patient in decision making if they are permanently unconscious or unable to reason(Turkington& Mitchell, 2010).  Ellen’s condition is expected to deteriorate with time, which is why advanced directives are imperative. In the future, she may be unable to communicate any of her treatment wishes and hence essential to write them down. Any healthcare decision made by the primary caregiver will have to correspond with her initial intentions. These wishes should always take precedence when it becomes clear that their safety is an issue to avoid the possibility of any unforeseen circumstances affecting their well-being. Ellen also has the right to reject any medical care if it is proved that she is competent. Her right to make relevant decisions is always protected and retained until the end of life.

Funeral Plans

Death is an inescapable part of life. Patients who have Alzheimer’s disease know this all too well since its progression often ends in death. It is therefore paramount to have an honest discussion about death and funeral plans to ensure that the patient’s last wishes are honored. Discussing funeral plans may be a complicated process, but necessary for the patient, their family, and caregivers involved in their life. Ellen should explicitly express her wishes and last requests which she would like to see honored. Advance directives will make sure that all preferences are recorded and known to caregivers. For instance, Ellen may opt to provide exact details of the type of environment in which she wishes to spend her final moments. Choosing this a suitable facility will make sure that they have the peace of mind required at this stage. Moreover, Ellen may decide to refuse life-sustaining treatment to her impending death. Funeral plans will reduce uncertainty; allowing the family to be fully aware of the funeral location, burial or cremation.

Social Supports Available to Ellen

Social support is vital when seeking to manage Alzheimer’s disease and all related conditions. Patients often suffer severe cognitive impairments, a reduction in logical reasoning and the ability to carry out everyday tasks. Social support has recently emerged as innovative outpatient services coordinated by trusted professionals. Persons with Alzheimer’s disease benefit a great deal from these services through social interactions that help stimulate their brains(Mooney, 2008, p. 45). A rapid progression of Alzheimer’s disease is often characterized by sudden isolation and a general lack of motivation. It is for this very reason that social support groups were established to aid patients to cope through awkward moments. Ellen can either become part of a personal assistance group, night care, therapy session or palliative care. Night care social support provides home-based care services right after dusk; therapy prepares them for the possibility of death while palliate care is offered to patients to relieve their symptoms

The Role of Ellen’s Culture on her Family’s Decision

Early diagnosis plays a significant role in helping families come to terms with the reality of having to care for one of their suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. Chinese Americans are a high-risk group who delay seeking care and only do so when neuropsychiatric symptoms become too severe to bear(Lock, 2013). Ellen’s family is well aware of this fact, and the reason why they have acted swiftly to avoid any such eventuality. Even though there is an intense stigma associated with the disease within the Chinese American culture, Ellen and her two children seem brave enough to weather this storm by using biomedical data that would help them understand the condition.

Summary

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a debilitating condition that affects various facets of life in the individual concerned. Ellen, a 64-year-old Asian American of Chinese, seeks to understand the implications of this disease and the steps she should take to adjust to this life. The issues explored in this report will thus have to be appraised at a deep level in helping her navigate her decision to retire ultimately.

Security Authentication Process

Write a 1,400- to 2,100-word paper that describes the security authentication process. Discuss how this and other information security considerations will affect the design and development process for new information systems.

 Include a brief discussion of how to include preventative measures for securing data, such as (but not limited to) backups and remote or redundant storage. Note what role this will play in the other areas covered in the paper. Provide an overview of several systems and devices that can provide security services to meet the needs raised by the other areas covered in the paper.

How Government has Overstepped Biblical Principles in Form of Economic Policy – Licensing Law

Introduction

The U.S. local, state and federal governments play a great role in controlling business operations in the country. Most of these regulations are meant to bring balance in the market as a way of preventing a few to exploit majority in the market. Although business regulations have demonstrated to be very important to effective business operation in the market, some of these regulations have demonstrated negative effects, to those that they affect directly (Learn Liberty, 2018b). Sometimes the government oversteps biblical principles in some of the regulations they create, impacting people negatively and against what would be considered right based on the biblical teachings. This paper focuses on evaluating how the government has overstepped biblical principles in specific piece of legislation relating to business regulation or taxation.

How Government has Overstepped Biblical Principles in Form of Economic Policy – Licensing Law

The US government is involved in the formation of various regulations that influence business operations in the country. One of these regulations is licensing law. Licensing is mostly a state law which focuses on regulating business operations in the state by ensuring that only individuals that are certified based on the set standard operate certain forms of businesses. This is mostly done to ensure efficiency in business services provision or in quality of manufactured products, on in ensuring safety of customers. Licensing law has also be used to protect copyright of in art, music and literature work as a way of protecting the creator of original piece form being duplicated by others before the creator recover the production cost. This law thus plays a great role in protecting both consumers and producers of various goods and services locally or nationally (Learn Liberty, 2018a).

Read also Role of the Federal Reserve and how it Oversteps the Biblical Principles

Licensing law has also been imposed in various professionals especially those that affect life of people directly such as in healthcare provision. However, some states are currently over using the licensing law, people in skill based professionals such as interior design to acquire licensing before they are permitted to operate in the state. This licensing demand that one may have higher academic achievements and other certifications before one is licensed. This is despite the fact that, individual success in such professionals is purely based on customers’ satisfaction which is founded on individual skill and expertise that cannot be achieved by advancing but by practice, experience and sometimes talent (Harwood, 1991; Alexander et al., n.d.). Licensing is mostly applicable in professionals that cannot afford errors or imperfections since they can result to lose of life or complication of one’s life. This shows that the government oversteps its regulation law to affect people it should not be affecting. By imposing unnecessary licensing, the government limits the opportunities of young interior designers to earn a living and survive and hence promoting poverty and disparity (Learn Liberty, 2018a). The need to advance in their education to be licensed subject them to unnecessary study loans enslaving them to long-term loan repayment with high rates of interest at the age where they should be building their economic foundation. The government in this case plays the role of a master who enslaves the poor for personal gain a situation that is unethical and unbiblical according to Proverbs 22: 7.

Conclusion

Although professional licensing is meant to protect citizens by ensuring only qualified personnel offer services in certain industries, it is not necessary in all fields. Professionalism in some field is shaped by individual skills and expertise and how one use the academic knowledge to address customers taste and preferences for higher customer satisfaction in the field. Such fields do not thus need professional operation limiting through licensing. By demanding licensing the government would be overstepping its boundaries by limiting survival of these professionals which can impact their economic welfare among others aspects of life.

Liberal Vs Conservative Ideology in the United States Of America

Conservative and liberal are two existing predispositions of ideology that dominate in the United States. These ideologies are defined differently by different people with two main schools of thought being based on moral policy and political stance. One of the main differences between the two is that liberals believe in government intervention to attain equality of all and equal opportunity. According to Liberals the government has a duty to lessensocial ills and to safeguard human and individual rights and civil liberties. Liberals believes the government’s main role it to ensure that no one lacks anything. Government in liberal ideology is perceived as the solution to all socioeconomic problems in the society. On the contrary, conservatives believe in individualized responsibility, free market, limited government, strong national defense, and individual liberty. According to conservatives, the government role should be offering individuals with the freedom essential to pursue their personal goals. In this ideology, government is perceived as a source of people empowerment to solve personal issues (LPS, 2013).

Liberal and conservatives always have a diverse view regarding different moral policies. For instance, liberal fight against death policy stating that it is cruel and inhuman. On the contrary, death penalty is considered as a penalty proportional to the crime by conservatives thus not unusual or cruel. While liberals prefer government controlled economy, conservatives prefer free market system claiming it great more job opportunities and higher economic growth. Although conservatives want clean planet, water and air as all other individuals they do not support extreme policies of environment since according to them they destroy the economy and jobs. On the contrary, liberal related industrialization to more harm to the environment and hence supports extreme measures. The two ideologies have been conflicting in various policy issues, with liberals preserving the moral values and benefit for all in their proposition, while conservatives fighting to prevent denial of advantages to the few who benefit despite the level of harm exacted to the rest in the society (LPS, 2013).

Impact of Immigration on All Levels of Government In The USA

Immigration has been a serious problem to the U.S. government for a long time. This is due to the impact immigration creates to all forms of government in the country. Immigration affects the economy of the US at all levels based on the nature of immigrants in terms of level of education and their willingness to work at lower wages. Immigration is said to enlarge the GDP of the country. However, larger economy by itself is not an advantage to Native Americans. Immigrants create extra cost to the government by exacting more pressure on public services create for the locals. However, and the same time, they contribute to the governments revenue at all government levels through taxation. The difference between the costs and revenue is what determine whether their existence brings a positive or a negative effect to the budget of specific government, especially local and state government (Camarota, 2013). This variation is based on the kind of immigrants found in an area such that areas with lower-income, less educated immigrants are likely to experience net financial drain while higher-income, highly educated immigrants experiencing fiscal benefit. Immigrants also introduce job market competition where in most cases immigrants tend to offer their services at a cheaper price. This result to decline in the market prices of various jobs positions, resulting to decline in the government revenue collected from pay as you earn taxes at all levels of governments. Taking locals jobs also increases rate of poverty in a jurisdiction, especially since most employers prefer them to locals due to cheaper labor (Camarota, 2013).

Summary of Methods Used for State Constitutional Change In the USA

The U.S. constitution can be changed or amended using four different methods. The first method involve proposition of the amendment by states convention, followed by state conventions ratification. This method has never been used. The second method involves amendment proposition by state convention, followed by the state legislatures’ ratification. This method has also never been used. The third method involves amendment proposition by the congress, followed state conventions ratification. This method has only been used once. The fourth method is amendment proposition by the congress, followed by legislature’s ratification. This method has been used in all other cases. All 27 changes of the constitution have been approved after two-thirds of senate and house proposal ratification and send it for a vote to the senate. Then at lease the states’ three-fourth must uphold the proposed Amendment.

Direct Democracy Vs Representative Democracy

There are various differences between direct democracy and representative democracy. Direct democracy originated from Athens and it engages very person in making important legislative decisions. The laws in direct democracy are passed via people’s votes. Thus the government power originates from the people such that citizenry responsibilities are considerably higher in this kind of democracy. Representative democracy originated from Rome and it engages the individuals elected to represent the public. In this democracy, people have less power, and thus authority is less equal. Laws in representative democracy are enacted by government branches and power is separated through three executive branches. The main similarity between the two is that the foundation of the two forms of democracy is the constitution. Another similarity is that people rule in both, though with different magnitudes and they both require voting (Difference Between, 2018).

Should the United States Change to a Direct Democracy or remain a Representative Democracy?

The United States has for a long time been using representative democracy. This is a form of governance where citizens elect representatives who will be involved in the formation of the laws of the country on behalf of the citizens. In this case, citizens continue being the sovereign power though political power is directly exercised via elected representatives. This is quite different from direct democracy where citizens have active and direct participation in the government decision making. After studying the two forms of democracy, I strongly believe that the United States should continue exercising representative democracy. One of the main reasons is that the U.S. is a consolidation of 52 states each with a huge population such that the state’s own affairs are equivalent to a country in non-state consolidated environment. The U.S. population is around 325.7 million based on 2017 estimate. This means the country will need to use a huge amount of money every time there is a law to be passed to facilitate citizens’ full participation if the country was to adopt direct democracy. This could be unmanageable in terms of cost. Direct democracy is normally viable in small countries with manageable population. In addition in a country such as the U.S. the size of the population also suggest increase in social issues initiating needs for more laws. The number of laws that may need to be made might be considerably many for frequent population involvement. The management of the process and data analysis would be quite hectic for U.S. Thus, direct democracy cannot be appropriate in the country.

Live Action Organization – Organizations Impacting Culture

The selected organization is the Live Action organization. Live Action is the leading national human rights and pro-life organizations in America. The organization is committed to stopping abortion and stimulating culture that defends and respects life. The organization was established in 2008, by Lila Rose when she was only 15, as a non-profit, non-partisan organization. The organization started its mission immediately after it formation, by conducting the initial nationally public undercover abortion industry investigation.  Today, Live Action focuses on changing the public opinion on preborn children killing and guards the rights of the most susceptible among us. The organization is achieving this by compelling investigative reporting, human interest storytelling, investigative reporting and educational media. The organization also uses the above means to reveal the preborn humanity and exposing the industry of aborting which exploits women for personal benefits (Live Action, 2018).

The Live Action focuses on preserving the culture of respecting life by making people understand that life brings conception till natural death. The organization focuses on ensuring that the God’s plan in creation is fulfilled by fighting killing of unborn babies for whatever reasons. It also exposes how abortion is an abuse of women’s rights and how it also endangers life (Live Action, 2018). The organization thus focuses on preserving religious cultural value that focus on respecting life the time the conception takes place since according to religious teachings, that God is involved in the life of a person since conception. Abortion is also a new act that was realized after women revolution. The organization thus focuses on fighting the act, preserving the culture of respecting life as it was when women’s role was to nurture the family. The main strength of the organization is that it is based on religious values and hence its activities are highly supported by religious organizations, especially Catholic church that advocate for pro-life.

Facets of International Engagement – Groups Helping to Engage an International Audience

United States Agency for International Development (USAID)

The first international organization is the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). USAID refers to an independent United State Federal government agency that is basically liable for administering civilian development assistance and foreign aid. The organization leads international humanitarian efforts and development to save lives reinforces democratic governance, reduce poverty and assist individuals to progress past assistance. USAID executes the U.S. foreign policy by endorsing extensive-scale human progress and expands free, stable societies, generates trader partners and markets for the U.S., and nurtures good will abroad (USAID, 2018).

USAID is currently working in more than 100 nations across the globe where it promotes international health, supports international stability, empower girls and women, catalyze partnership and innovation, and offers humanitarian assistance. The organization executes its duties based on its operational policy referred to as the automated directives system (ADS) that manages the functions and organization of USAID, together with the procedures and policies which guide the operations and programs of the Agency. ADS has more than 200 chapters arranged in six functional series that include finance and budget, agency legal affairs and organization, management services, programming, human resources, as assistance and acquisition. All these programs focus on transformation. USAID transforms countries, communities, families to ensure that they prosper and thrive. This is done through various means that include reacting to a devastating earthquake, preventing the next international epidemic, or assisting farmers’ access business development tools.

To ensure this, the organization have established offices in all its operational countries where they correct data on various development issues facing the country and establish a strategy to address these issues. It also offers partnership with other international organizations that focus on disaster management and mitigation which is an area I am highly interested in. Natural disasters play a major role in distracting life of the people. They can cause loss of life, loss of properties, as well as mental and physical injuries. Immediate addressing of these issues thus plays a great impact to the future life of the victims. USAID plays a great role in ensuring those affected by disaster recover from shock and life their lives normally USAID, 2018).

Should a Government have the Right to Ban Religious Expression if the Majority of the Citizenry Supports it?

Normally, a ban should not just be executed because majority supports it, but because it brings a new value to the society and conforms to the laws of the province or a country. Religious symbols are regarded to be important to the minorities who value their religious beliefs and values. They are also protected by freedom of speech and freedom of religion laws in Quebec (CTVNews 1). Such bans undermine such laws. However, when these symbols are likely to be used to undermine the rights of majority, then they should be banned to create a unified society where religion becomes personal affairs. Although it is hard to permit freedom of speech and limit religious rights, it is sometimes necessary when matters of security are in question. Majority support would imply that their use is subjecting majority of people into danger and the public chooses safety or benefits attained by foregoing their diverse religious values. Thus majority support should be an indication that the society is ready for the change and hence, the government should consider the change

How is Technology Changing the Face of Business Today?

Technology has transformed the way firms do businesses by permitting small enterprises to operate in the same business level as large enterprises. Today small enterprises utilize a range of technologies to create competitive advantages in a competitive market. Technology is enhancing business operation by permitting automation of various business processes that include financial processes, decision making, communication, data sharing, and in some cases selling of goods and services. Effective communication, which include well integrated internal communication and distance video conferencing enhance effective sharing of information. This makes it possible for the organization management to make informed decisions even when the organization is operating internationally.Computer network technology has enhanced the process of data sharing, communication and online business operations, and the use of social media in business marketing.Technologies that include cloud computing and big data have made itpossible for small businessesto operate internationally by offering different alternatives of holding large data. This together with advancement of web technology has enhanced business operation through e-commerce (Jetter& Neus, 2009). This has made it easy for small companies to trade internationally, expanding their market and competing in the same field with large companies. Expansion of mobile technology has highly promoted the expansion of internet use among different people in the world including those that are marginalized. This has enhanced the expansion of online market even further. Mobile technology and the internet have also enhanced the growth of remote business operations where companies can easily outsource workers at a cheaper price across the globe, making it easier to acquire the right business expertise despite the business location. This has highly enhanced business efficiency and cost management, which eventually result to increase in business profitability (Cascio & Montealegre, 2016).

Most Critical Business Process that Utilize Information Systems in Walmart

The selected organization in this case is Walmart. Walmart uses information system in enhancing its e-commerce operations. The company has customer relation management (CRM) system which focuses compiling customers’ data especially those purchasing the company’s products online. CRM system records customer interaction over social media, phone, email and the company website providing the management with aptitude to track productivity and performance based on system logged information. The company also has Point of Sale (POS) system which is used to facilitate the exchange of goods for money. This system is used to collect financial data and inventory data enhancing financial management process as well as inventory management system. The company also has radio frequency identification devices system which is used to keep track of goods purchased online while being shipped to the customer. Others include inventory management system to keep track of inventories and ensure they are always within the authorized range, management system that enhance the management processes,, payroll system for controlling workers payment and integrated communication system for enhancing effective communication within the company.

How IT makes the Company’s Business Processes Faster, Cheaper, More Accurate and Customer-Savvy

Information technology enhances business operations in various ways. Automation of various business processes such as the ordering and order processing processes have made it possible for some companies to offer their services much faster compared to competitors. Other organization have considered making the purchasing process much easier by providing e-commerce website where buyers can view products in the market select what favors them and place an order. The online platform provide them with an easier way to view all products on sale, their description, pricing, and customers review, giving them a unique opportunity to select what suits them best. It also permits them to order easily and much faster by eliminating the traveling distance from their home to the stores. The process is completed within minutes after customers make payment and the product shipped to the provided address. This makes shopping much easier and faster. It also eliminates time wasting and cost involved in travelling to the store. IT also compiles volumes of files into a single database where items can easily be sorted or searched within a few seconds, using keyword or unique identification parameters (Ahmad, 2014). This makes it easy to search for needed business information faster and without delay. The ability to summarize huge business data into a simple report makes it easy to analyze business trends and to make business decisions. For instance, information on rate of sales per months can easily be summarized by total daily sales report for one month, information that can easily tell whether the company needs to improve its strategies to increase sales or not (Cascio& Montealegre, 2016).

Automation also makes business process more accurate, especially in section requiring computations. The cases of computational errors while making payments or during production process are completely eliminated, enhancing production of quality products and accurate figures. IT also makes products information readily available online, as well as customers review and information of related or similar products. This makes it easy for customers to make decision about different products in the market. IT technology enhances automation of different business process making the work easier and faster to process. This scales down the number of workers needed to carry out different tasks in an organization compared to organizations that work manually. This thus helps in cutting the operational cost of an organization, resulting to cheaper products or services (Ahmad, 2014).

Internal and External Conflict In Jhumpa Lahiri’s Story “Interpreter of Maladies”

The Interpreter of Maladies is a story that demonstrates conflicts in a family of Mr. and Mrs. Das. The first instance of external conflict is demonstrated in the beginning of the story where Mr. and Mrs. Das could not agree on who could take Tina, their daughter to the toilet during their tour. Mr. Das however won the argument after claiming to have bathed the child the previous day (Mays 446). Another instance of external conflict is notices when Mrs. Das demonstrated her dissatisfaction with the kind of car her husband hired for tour. To her the car was considerably old and she did not like it that the car lacked important facilities such as air conditioner just to save some coins (p.450). However, Mr. Das brushed this off wisely to eliminate any chance of aggravating the conflict. Another argument is identified after the second historic point stop where Mrs. Das refused to come of the vehicle to watch the site (p.456). The story also demonstrates instance of conflicting mind. One instance is when Mrs. Das confesses that his second son was not Raj’s son, secrete she had kept for the last eight years (p.457). Mrs. Dashas hold this conflicting thought for years wondering whether to tell anyone or to continue keeping secrete forever. Mr. Kapsa also had instances of conflicting thoughts while traveling to Konarak He was getting attracted to Mrs. Das but could not decide on how he could approach it.  He even imagined of how they would communicate after the family had finished its tour in India (p.453-456). It is not clear on how Mr. and Mrs. Das, coped after the tripe, however, the possibility of Mr. Kapsa being the source of their disagreements and conflicts in the future were killed when the paper with his address flew out of Mrs. Das bag, as they were saving Ronny from monkey attack. Mrs. Das confession also killed the desire Mr. Kapsa had developed over her.

Internal and External Conflict In James Baldwin’s Story “Sonny Blues”

There are instances of both internal and external conflict in Sonny Blues. One of the instances of external conflict is noted between Sunny and his brother regarding his career, education, and where he should stay after the death of their mother. Sunny wanted to be a musician, to join the army and to get out of the town, while his brother wanted him to move in with s and her family and complete his studies as he chose a more decent career (Mays 102-105). Although this was resolved it propagated more conflicts. Another major conflict was between Sunny and Isabel’s mother and the rest of the family. This happened after learning that on top of his weird behaviors he was not attending his classes. This resulted to serious fallout resulting to Sunny walking out of his guardian’s house (p.106). The other conflict was recorded between Sunny and his brother after he came back from army mission and meeting his brother in New York again after he left his Guardian’s home. This period depicted a number of external conflicts between the two, especially due to variation in lifestyle, life interest, and definition of decent living between the two. The major conflict and fallout is seen when the narrator argues with his brother regarding his lifestyle and Sunny push him outside the door declaring him dead to him (p.107). The external conflicts are resolved when Sunny speaks out and invites his brother to one of his performance at the end of the story.

Internal conflict can be denoted in the mind of the narrator regarding whether to get in touch with brother after arrest or not. His mind was in an internal conflict ever since he received the message of his arrest to the first time he considered writing to him (p.93-97). Internal conflict can also be noted after welcoming Sonny to New York following his release. The narrator holds a lot to himself in fear of Sunny’s reaction. The same case also seems to happen in Sunny’s mind where he is not able to resolve on what to say or not to say to his brother (p.99). Another instance of internal conflict is when Sunny brother cannot decide on whether to search Sunny’s room or not after staying with his family for two weeks (p.107). Sunny also seems to experience internal conflict on whether to share his drugs life experience with his brother or not, in their final intimate talk (p.110-112). The conflict is resolved when the two brothers sat and talked it out, Sunny narrating part of his life and suffering as his brother listened

Effect of Alcohol, Tobacco and Marijuana on the Human Body

Introduction

Marijuana, alcohol and tobacco are some of the most abused legal and illegal drugs. They are normally classified among the gateway drugs which are most commonly used by teens and adolescence as they introduce themselves to the world of drugs. The level of use of the three drugs is considerably high, despite constant warning of their negative effect in the body. The three are documented among the high causes of preventable deaths through accidents, and diseases that include cancer among others. The use of three drugs introduces new chemical substances in the body system interfering with natural functionality of the body in different ways. This may result to development of various medical conditions that weakens a person based on the rate of use. Some of these conditions worsen as the level of intake increases resulting to premature death of the user. This paper focuses on evaluating the impact of marijuana, alcohol and tobacco have on the human body. The paper evaluates both negative and positive effects that each of the three may have on human body

Effect of Alcohol on Human Body

Alcohol is one of the most highly abused legal drugs in the world. It is normally regard as a getaway drug tried by adolescence kids and teenagers. Alcohol contains some short-term and immediate physic impacts on the entire body that include sexual functions, the brain, sleep control, pancreas and guts, circulation and heart. However, the most immediate and obvious impacts of alcohol are on the brain. Alcohol blocks or slows down many functions of brain. The first effect may include inhabitation or tension reduction, making the alcohol user to feel more excited or relaxed. Nevertheless, as alcohol intake increases, these impacts are counterbalanced by reduced pleasant impacts that include vomiting and nausea, drowsiness, slowed thought process, loss of balance, slurred speech, poor coordination, slurred speech and slow reaction time (Australian Government 1). Alcohol acts as a depressant of the central nervous system. It results to respiratory arrest, depression, and death at high blood levels.

Heavy chronic use of alcohol can result to blood abnormalities resulting to low platelets and anaemia. Excessive use of alcohol in addition suppresses immunity, making it hard for the body to counter both bacterial and viral infections. This makes heavy alcohol users to be prone to various infections including pneumonia, tuberculosis, hepatitis C, and meningitis among others. A high alcohol level in the blood impairs muscles coordination and thought processes of the brain, resulting to walking difficulties and clumsiness. Moderate use of alcohol might safeguard against osteoporosis. Nevertheless, excessive use can interferes with bone formation and calcium absorption in the body resulting to osteoporosis. Heavy chronic use of alcohol is also related to muscles weakness and wasting, gout and a painful situation where bone tissues die. Chronic use of alcohol can cause liver damage, resulting to alcoholic liver disease. The disease can be minor such as fatty liver to serious ones that include cirrhosis or acute alcoholic hepatitis. Heavy alcohol use has also been associated to oropharynx cancer, breast cancer, esophagus cancer, rectum cancer and cancer of large intestines. Alcohol can also yield to diseases and malnutrition as a result of low levels of nutrients and vitamins in the gut (HPA 10-17).

Alcohol use also has some benefits to the body. Research has demonstrated that alcohol contains physiological impacts on coronary heart disease. Alcohol intake increases blood HDL cholesterol that is said to eliminate cholesterol from the walls of the arterial, enhancing the fluid movement back to the liver, thus safeguarding against atherosclerosis. Alcohol also lowers coronary heart disease risk via antithrombotic mechanism, which involves prevention of coagulation of the blood. Alcohol has been determined to reduce plasma fibrinogen concentration, lowering aggregability of platelet. Nevertheless, research has also established a relation between serum triglycerides and alcohol intake, where by alcohol is said to increase triglycerides level in the blood augmenting coronary heart diseases (Gronbaek 409).

Effect of Tobacco on Human Body

Tobacco is documented as the principal cause of avoidable cancers. WHO approximated that about 1.27 billion users of tobacco across the globe. Consumption of tobacco accounts for about 5.4 million deaths every year, and about one billion individual might die in the current century if international consumption of tobacco will not change (Mishra et al. 24). The harmful impact of tobacco smoking are well recorded for both smokers and individuals exposed to passive smoking. Tobacco exposes smokers to inhalation of more than 4000 chemicals that incorporates well known poisons that includes hydrogen cyanide, arsenic, and carbon monoxide, augments the risk of cancer, lung diseases and heart diseases. About half of all long-term smokers are likely to die prematurely as a result of a condition that is directly initiated by these toxicants (OSHA 1).

Tobacco smoking might harm various human body parts and cause a wide range of diseases, a number that can be very fatal. Smoking in addition can worsen a number of other illnesses. Compared to non-smokers, smokers have been found to have a great danger of experiencing respiratory diseases. Tobacco smoke can result to significant respiratory illnesses that include sinuses and nose. Tobacco smoke irreversibly and severely damages the tissues making lungs of smokers are susceptible to various infections. One of the most probable conditions initiated by smoking is chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) that causes constricting of the airways and sustained inflammation. Other possible conditions include emphysema which involves the formation of holes in the lung tissues. This result to chronic bronchitis that is mostly responsible of smoker’s cough. COPD frequently causes loss of fitness and breath shortage since the lungs are not able to supply enough oxygen to the body. At least about 85% of cases of COPD and emphysema are attributable to smoking. Smokers also experience more cases of lungs infections that include pneumonia and bronchitis (OSHA 2).

Tobacco contains a lot of nicotine which is a plant alkaloid that is commonly found in tobacco plant. Nicotine is the principle tobacco constituent accountable for its addictive traits. Nicotine contains dose-dependent pharmacological impacts, with both depressant and stimulant action. The nicotine effect on the central nervous system (CNS) as well as it peripheral stimulating impacts are arbitrated to the release of various neurotransmitters that include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), acetylcholine, serotonin, beta-endorphin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Distinguished nicotine stimulant activities effects include enhanced cognitive function and mental alertness, peripheral vasoconstriction, increased cardiac output, elevated blood pressure, and tachycardia. Nicotine depressant effects include anxiety reduction and muscle relaxation. Use of nicotine creates a feeling of relaxation and pleasure. In hooked on smokers, the desire to smoke cigarettes relates with a low level of blood nicotine. Cigarette nicotine is carried on tar particles that are inhaled to the lungs. Rapid absorption of nicotine into the pulmonary circulation is facilitated by large surface area of alveolar. This high absorption of nicotine plays a great role in initiating different health issues (Onor4).

Tobacco is also responsible for different types of cancer. Carcinogens from tobacco smoke bind to the DNA of a smoker resulting to genemutation and DNA damage. These genetic alterations result to uncontrolled growth of cell and constrain normal mechanism which restricts cell spread and growth yielding to cancer. Tobacco smoking has been related to lung, rectum, head, colon, neck, esophagus, liver, cervix, and bladder cancer (Onor 6). A casual association has also been established between tobacco intake and cardiovascular incidences. Tobacco smoking has been related to modified lipid metabolism, dysfunction of endothelial, inflammation, prothrombotic effects, increased myocardial blood and oxygen demand, decreased myocardial oxygen and blood supply, and resistance of insulin. Passive and direct tobacco smoking are said to be the main causes of peripheral arterial disease, coronary heart disease, aortic aneurysm, and stroke (Onor6). Tobacco intake has also been associated to various reproductive abnormalities. Carbon monoxide found in tobacco binds to hemoglobin, denying oxygen to fetus, yielding to low birth weight. Tobacco also contains a number of toxins that include lead, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, cadmium, and mercury which are said to result to infant death syndrome, reduced women fertility. Smoking is also related to ectopic pregnancies, orofacial and men erectile dysfunction (Onor 7).

Effect of Marijuana on Human Body

Marijuana is one of the most commonly abused substances in the United States. Marijuana is mostly used by people to get ‘high’ which is an experience of perception alteration, relaxation, and euphoria, and ordinary sensory experience intensification. The ‘high’ feeling might be characterized by talkativeness and infectious laughter. Among the most normally unpleasant cannabis effects include depressive feelings, pain reaction and anxiety.Marijuana has over 400 chemical compounds and among them,effects of Marijuana are basically credited to δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is the primary psychoactive cannabis plant ingredient. THC binds to receptors of cannabinoid that are omnipresent in the brain. As a result, THC exposure results to neural modifications impacting different cognitive processes. These alterations have been found to be long-lasting, proposing that neural changes as a result marijuana use might impact neural architecture (Filbey 16914).

The use of marijuana is related with a number of effects on the human body. According to Volkow et al(2220), marijuana use results to both long-term and short-term effects on human body. Marijuana results to weakened short-term memory, which makes it hard to retain information and to learn. It also results to impaired coordination of motor, altered judgment and when taken in high dosage it results to psychosis and paranoia. This demonstrates great impact of marijuana use in human brains especially in parts responsible of controlling motors, storing memory and reasoning. The THC in marijuana is said to mess with basal ganglia and cerebellum areas of brain that control reaction time, regulate balance, coordination, and posture. Heavy use of marijuana can result to addition, cognitive impairment, and change in brain development.

The use of marijuana is related to large airways inflammation, increased resistance of airway, and hyperinflation of lung, demonstrating that regular marijuana use is highly likely to result to chronic bronchitis. Smokers of marijuana also demonstrate the possibility of compromised respirator system immunologic competence. This is demonstrated by increased rates of pneumonia and respiratory infections among marijuana users. Use of marijuana has also been related to vascular conditions which augment the dangers of transient ischemic attacks, stroke, and myocardial infarction during intoxication of marijuana. The use of marijuana can result to acute cardiovascular effects including blood pressure and up to 50% increase in heart rate. The real mechanisms fundamental to marijuana effects on cerebrovascular and cardiovascular systems are multifaceted and not effectively understood. Nevertheless, the direct impacts of cannabinoids on different target receptors, for instance arterial blood vessels CB1 receptors, and the indirect impacts on vasoactive compounds might assist in explaining marijuana detrimental impacts on coronary microcirculation and vascular resistance (Volkow et al. 2222).Marijuana at a very high dosage can result to hypothermia, bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, drowsiness, miosis, hypotension and ataxia. In addition to this, marijuana has been found to reduce sperm motility, sperm count, and plasma testosterone. Men who use marijuana are noted to have alterations in characteristics of ejaculate semen, which could clarify the relation between marijuana use and infertility (Nkyi165).

Conclusion

Marijuana, alcohol and tobacco are among the three highly abused drugs by all in the society. Based on the analysis each of the three has both short-term and reversible effect on the body, as well as long-term irreversible or hard to treat conditions. Based on the analysis, marijuana and alcohol have high immediate effect on the brains, which result to general change of behaviors. Although this may be among what the user anticipated to achieve by the drugs intake, the three drugs are highly addictive and hence influencing users to increase their level of intake with time. This mostly results to the development of advanced health conditions that are not pleasing to the users and that accounts for high rate of preventable deaths as a results of health conditions directly related to the three drugs. Drugs such as alcohol and marijuana also have positive medical outcomes. However, the outcome is negligible compared to the damaged caused. Moreover, their addictive nature makes it hard to restrict their use within the profitable range. Thus, doing without them would be highly profitable to the society, compared to handling the negative effects they create on our bodies.

Mobile Computing and its Business Implications

Introduction

Mobile computing is a new technology that is highly facilitated by growth and development of mobility. Mobility has turned to be a very popular phrase and speedily increasing part in current area of computing. An implausible evolution has appeared in the mobile devices development that includes laptops, smartphone, GPS navigation and PDA with different security, networking and computing technologies. Moreover, with the wireless technology development that include WIFI, Ad Hoc Network and WiMax, user might be surfing the internet more easily without cables limitations as experienced earlier. Therefore, the level of mobile devices acceptance among people as their initial entertainment and working has been increasing in their day to day lives (Qi & Gani, n.d.). This paper focuses on discussing the mobile computing technology, with clear evaluation of how this technology is being applied in business environment to enhance efficiency, development, and profitability in business.

Mobile Computing

Mobile computing is defined as a kind of human-computer interaction by which a computer is anticipated to be transported in regular usage. Mobile computing can be perceived as an assembly of three main concepts that include communication, software and hardware. The hardware concept is reliant on mobile devices that include laptop and smartphone, or their mobile constituents. The second, software concept in mobile computing is the many mobile applications in specific hardware devices that include anti-virus software, games stored remotely on some different server, and mobile browsers. Third, the communication problems includes infrastructure of data delivery, protocols and mobile networks in their use, which have to be transparent to the terminal users (Sharma & Bohra, 2015). Mobile computing according to Fischer and Smolnik (2013) regards computer portability where by the computing services process shifts to mobile devices. Mobile computing is thus indivisibility linked to the technology miniaturization and the availability of storage facilities and cloud processing that extendsthe aptitudes of lightweight mobile devices. Advances of this kind have permitted computing to be location-independent, denoting a steady transition from mainframes, laptops and personal computer to true mobile devices which are ever present. Mobile computing allows the personalization and localization of content, continuously offering the right information to the user at the right time (Fischer & Smolnik, 2013).

Mobile Computing technology permits transmission of video, audio and data via a computer or other wireless permitted device without having to be linked to a fixed physical network. Tablets and smartphone are extensively utilized across all forms of enterprises. Most businesses are creating applications to support two or more mobile operating system. Mobile application can be created for all forms of mobile operating system. The two main mobile devices requirements are there for effective application execution which is processing memory and power of device. There are two main problems with mobile application which include limited storage capacity and data security. The development of mobile application today needs to be integrated with cloud computing for powerful and better performance. With the utilization of cloud-computing concept, it is easier to create mobile computation (Desai, 2016).

Technology of mobile computing permits the utilization of computing devices that normally interacts in some manner with a central information system while absent from fixed, normal workplace. Technology of mobile computing permits the mobile employees to communicate, create, store, access, and process information, without being limited at one place. The real mobile computing power turns to be apparent when mobile communication, software, and hardware are optimally configured and utilized to attain a certain mobile task. Although numerous diverse applications exist, applications of mobile computing can usually be classified into two groups that include vertical and horizontal applications. Horizontal application contain broad-based entreaty which include software which carry out functions that include presentation, email, messaging, web browsing, to-do lists, word processing, contract management, and scheduling. Horizontal applications are normally standardized whereby they are integrated with the system software. Vertical applications on the other hand are industrial-specific and just contain appeal in the unique industry, for which the application was designed. Vertical applications are normally utilized in industries that include public safety and law enforcement, retailing, medical, utilities, shipping, and warehousing. Vertical applications are frequently transactional based and usually interfaced with an organizational database.

Mobile computing permits enhancements in the organizations’ operational efficiency, which integrated the technology into their static information systems. It permits the power of computing and information found inthe static information system to be designed around the optimal mobile workers work flow, rather than changing the work flow of mobile workers to attain the optimal computing configuration. The mobile computer is used by mobile workers at their current location, instead of having to travel to the office or to where the organization’s computers are situated. Thus, mobile computing can be used to enhance business efficiency in various ways that include lowering unnecessary travel, saving time, reducing time used on customer complaint, reducing waste, improving accuracy, cutting cycle time, permitting process reengineering , and  lowering rework (Zimmerman, 1999).

Mobile Cloud Computing

The advancement of the current computing power and technology brought about the emergency of mobile cloud computing. This is a novel mobile application paradigm, in which most of the data storage and processing related with the application are shifted from the mobile device to centralized, powerful computing platform that is situated in the cloud. The centralized applications are then retrieved via the mobile internet, by use of either a web browser or thin native client on the device. Nevertheless, this mobile cloud computing model still does not totally leverage the powerful commercialization, context and communications abilities of the mobile network. On the contrary, mobile cloud computing shapes on cloud computing principles, creating attributes that include everything as a service, software on premise and on demand access to the mobile domain, including payment as a service and network as a service, to maximize on demand aptitudes and permitting application to full mobile networking leverage and billing, without the requirement of specialist application server. Since its introduction, the mobile cloud computing technology has been drawing the entrepreneurs’attention as a profitable option of business, which lowers the mobile application running and development cost. The technology also attracts mobile users as a novel technology to attain rich experience of different mobile services at a reduced price. Mobile cloud computing also attracts the researchers’ attention as a promising green core IT solution (Prasad, Gyani & Murti, 2012).

Mobile cloud computing is regarded as one of the future trends in mobile technology, since it sums the benefits of the integration of both cloud computing and mobile computing, providing mobile users with optimal services. The mobile cloud computing supports applications that include mobile healthcare, mobile learning, and mobile commerce among others. Mobile commerce refers to a business commerce model that use mobile devices. Generally, the applications of mobile commerce fulfill a number of tasks, which need mobility such as, mobile ticketing, mobile transactions, mobile messaging, and mobile payments. This application however experiences a number of challenges that include high mobile device configurations complexity, low network bandwidth, as well as security issues. Thus, most applications of mobile commerce are integrated in the environment of cloud computing to address these problems (Kim, 2006).

Mobile learning (m-learning) is structured founded on electronic mobility and learning. Nevertheless, traditional applications of m-learning contain limitations with regards to high cost of network and devices, low rate of network transmission, and limited educational materials. To solve these limitations, cloud founded m-learning applications are employed, such that, using a cloud with the powerful ability of processing and large capacity of storage, offers learners services that are richer in terms of longer battery life, faster processing speed and data size (Prasad, Gyani & Murti, 2012). Mobile healthcare refers to medical application which is used to reduce the traditional medical treatment limitations that include medical errors, minute physical storage as well as privacy and security. Mobile healthcare offers convenient assistance to mobile users to access resources such as patient health records, quickly and easily. It also provides healthcare organizations and hospitals with different clouds on-demand services instead of owning standalone local servers applications. Other mobile application technologies in the market include mobile game that permits gaming, and mobile banking that permit various banking services via mobile devices that include account transactions, balance checking, or making payments (Prasad, Gyani & Murti, 2012).

Conclusion

Computer technology has been advancing to create more powerful computer hardware characterized by reduction in the physical size, but increase in functionalities and capacity. This continuous advancement of technology resulted to the development of mobile devices which permit users to perform tasks previously performed by personal computer anywhere and at any time. This has resulted to great change in the manner that people conduct their daily business operation. Mobile computing provides important advantages to any organization that consider integrating this technology to its fixed information system. However, this is without limitation in terms of storage size, battery life and security among other things. To address these challenges, the technology has yet provided advanced techniques where the cloud technology has been integrated to mobile computing to create cloud mobile computing. This has made it possible for mobile computing to be used to handle more advanced business operations, enhancing efficiency, accuracy and timely business operations in healthcare, retail services, and banks among others.

Mobile Computing and Social Networking In Health Care Management  

Mobile computing has dramatically changed how information is accessed and shared. Wireless networking has been an enabler of mobile computing. One profession that mobile computing has had a big impact on is health care management. Patients are now able to monitor their vital signs such as blood pressure, glucose levels, etc. without having to periodically visit a doctor’s office or hospital. There are devices such as the Withings Blood Pressure Monitor that works with an iPhone, iPod Touch, or iPad to record, track, and graph a patient’s blood pressure. There are other devices that can measure blood glucose levels, oxygen levels, heart rate, etc. and use an iPhone to send the results to a clinical server. Doctors and caregivers are then able to access the data on the clinical server. According to the American College of Gastroenterology, social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube are used as powerful platforms to deliver and receive health care information. Patients and caregivers are increasingly going online to connect and share experiences with others with similar medical issues or concerns Patients are able to take advantage of social networks to do more than just share pictures and tweets. Write a four to five (4-5) page paper in which you:

  1. Compare and contrast monitoring of patient vital signs using mobile computing technology to in-patient visits to the doctor’s office or hospital.
  2. Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of using mobile computing technology to monitor patients.
  3. Assess the security concerns with regard to the transmission of personal medical information over wireless networks.
  4. Assess the use of social networking for group support for patients with similar medical concerns.
  5. Use at least three (3) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Describe the use of network management, Web, wireless, and mobility technologies.
  • Outline the strategic implications of information assurance and security in an information technology environment.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in information systems and technology.
  • Write clearly and concisely about topics related to information systems for decision making using proper writing mechanics and technical style conventions.

Online Dating and Relationships Case Study Analysis – Positive and Negative Data

Online Dating and relationships

Online dating is one of the social changes that have been brought about by expansion of the internet and smartphones. Based on the case study there are more people depending on online dating to get partners. Today about 11% of American adults are currently using online dating with 385 of individuals who are currently single and searching focus on mobile dating apps or online dating sited to get partners. Most internet users; 11% have confessed to have utilized the online dating. In addition, 7% of smartphone users have confessed to have utilized cell phone dating apps. The study also established that majority of online dating site users are American aged between 20 and 45 year old.  This form of dating is common among suburban and urban dweller and also among the college-educated persons (Smith & Duggan, 2013). This demonstrates how common online dating has turn to be. The extensive use of the online database has presented both positive and negative perception among individuals. This paper evaluates both positive and negatives concerns of online dating and relationship sites.

Positive Concerns of Dating and Relationship Sites

Online dating is currently perceived as a fruitful form of dating where by about 66% of online daters have managed to go on a real date with someone they met via a dating app or site. Other than this, online dating has managed to unit two love birds into a live time relationship where by about 23% of online daters claim they have partners who they have been in a long term relationship with or who have turn to be a spouse from the online site. This is resulting to the change of people’s attitude toward online dating. About 59% of users of the internet consider online dating as a virtuous way to meet people, while about 53% of the internet users support that online dating permits people to find themselves a better match. Online dating is regarded as one way to meet more people and to make a selection based on individual preference. The statistics clearly shows an improvement in the number of people perceiving the online dating positively compared to statistics collected in 2005. Internet is also used to get more information regarding a romantic partner (Smith & Duggan, 2013).

Negative Concerns of Dating and Relationship Sites

Despite the extensive growth of online dating, there is considerably large group of people with negative attitude towards it. Some people still believe that online dating is for desperate people. Based on the case study, 21% of internet users believe that those that use online dating are desperate. However, the recent statistics demonstrate a decline in the number of individuals who perceive online dating as desperation by 8% based on 2005 statistics. There is also a group that believes that online dating prevents people from settling down. Based on the case study about 32% of users of the internet agree that online daters always find someone to date and hence they do not strive to keep a relationship (Smith& Duggan, 2013).

Conclusion

Online dating and internet relationships have been growing in popularity with time. This has made it possible for people to continue change their attitude toward internet dating. Today more people perceive internet dating as a more productive form of dating where a relationship can result to marriage. Although s there are people who still perceive it negatively, online dating is currently demonstrating higher positive results than before.

Speeches Debating the Constitution from the New York Ratification Convention

This assignment consists of speeches from New York politicians in the process of debating whether or not to ratify the new Constitution in 1788. By reading the speeches of Melancton Smith, Alexander Hamilton, and Robert Livingston, we have a chance to see how both Federalists and Anti-Federalists tried to convince other politicians at the ratification convention that their perspective on the Constitution was best for New York. There were three main issues of debate between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists at the New York ratification convention: sources of corruption, representation in Congress, and the Constitution’s effect on the states.

Read the speeches of Melancton Smith, Alexander Hamilton, and Robert Livingston and summarize how the Federalists and Anti-Federalists differed on each issue.

  •  How did the Anti-Federalists envision the future of the nation if the Constitution were ratified?
  • What did the Anti-Federalists object to? How did the Federalists answer those objections?
  • Can you see any hidden bias or motives—perhaps related to social class differences between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists—in the language used by the speaker?

View  Melancton Smith, Alexander Hamilton, and Robert Livingston Speeches And The Ratification Of The New York Constitution a sample answer to this assignment or order a unique answer at an affordable price.

Melancton Smith, Alexander Hamilton, and Robert Livingston Speeches And The Ratification Of The New York Constitution

Introduction

The change of the Articles of Confederation to the Constitution of the United States was not smooth one, and addressing the issues in the articles of confederation needed a series of lengthy discussions. It was clear that something needed to be altered before the articles were accepted as constitution. The debate had two sides that included the Anti-Federalists who opposed constitution ratification and the Federalists who supported it. The three main issues of discussion included congress representation, sources of corruption, and the effect of constitution on the states. This paper is based on speeches of the three individuals; Alexander Hamilton, Melancton Smith and Robert Livingston, who played a great role in fueling this debate. During this time Alexander Hamilton and Robert Livingston sided with federalists and spoke in favor of ratification while Melancton Smith sided with anti-federalists and spoke against it.

Analysis of the Three Speeches

Effect of Constitution on State

The issue of effect of constitution on the state presented a number of arguments. According to the anti-federalists, the constitution had provided so much power to the central government and very little to the state, a situation that needed to be changed. According to Melancton, the articles provided so much power to the central government compared to the power given to the states. The stronger central government was perceived to threaten the states sovereignty. Smith highly insisted on the limited government power and increase in the representation. According to Smith, it was much better to give less power to the government than excess power.  In his speech smith argued that if the change is not employed to reduce the power of the central government, tome will fix some of the articles issues where by it will clearly demonstrates the lack of the need to have a simple state government and a powerful central government. He thought that as time moved, the federal government and states governments would be involved in a constant shuddering of interests and claims. He claimed that the new idea of congress having unlimited powers which included taxes would ultimately result to state governments abolition (Melancton 1).

To counter the argument of effect of constitution on states, Hamilton lectured the anti-federalists claiming that with mutual checks and free representation. He therefor faulted arguments on high central government power as imaginary and unjust. According to him, a perfect system must be characterized by provision of power. The true government principle focus on making the system structure complete, provide a perfect balance and proportion to its parts. When this is done, the power given to the government never impacts the security. He also claimed that the question of power division between the two governments was based on convenience since the general government objects are known by everyone to be many, important and extensive. He thus considered the argument that there is no government other than a despotism which can exist in an extra intensive nation as a melancholy deliberation. He equated human affection to solar heat where the heat intensity decline as one moves away from the center as a way of demonstrating the importance of the central government (American History Center 1). Livingston on the other hand claimed that Smith’s arguments were shallow and not based on experience. He also claimed that Smith was more focused on the future rather than focusing on solving the current problems. To him, the government was still young and everyone needed experience to be able to form perfect laws, and thus, no one could lecture others on the future since no one had enough experience on that (Livingston 1).

Representation in congress

With regard to representation in congress, Melancton Smith found the appointment rule unjust, where he argued that based in the third and fifth clause of article 1 section 2, there was no specific number below the house cannot be reduced. According to Smith, the constitution did not provide enough presentation of the states. One vote for every state was such a small presentation which did not necessary stand for the needs and wishes of the state. To him the ration was about 1 to 30000 which was considerably too little for the population. He proposed for the reduction of this ration to 1 to 20000. He also argued that the states were not equally divided and hence the representation should highly consider that aspect (Melancton, 1).

To address the representation issue, Livingston claimed that the decision on how much representation should be adequate in the future cannot be done today.  He also claimed that the representative government does not need to represent feeling but interests of the people. He faulted Smith’s perception of the great and rich as the only folks that are intemparate and vicious. Livingston argued that there is always space for natural artistoccracy (Livingston 1). To counter Smith’s representation argument, Hamilton defended the clause 3/5 as an essential compromise. Hamilton also claimed that the representatives number was seriously bad since based on his argument, it was safely computed upon a developing representation, based on population advance and the country circumstances. Hamilton argued that the individual trusting their opinions and interest will be the suitable scrutiny on a legislature insensitive to growing in representation. He also stated that pure democracy does not possess single good aspect of good government. According to him, people confidence will be gained easily by a good administration. He regarded this as the true benchmark where the interests of all sections of the community have to be represented. He considered warning of aristocracy among the poor as ridiculous claiming that the main issue was not representation but observing the factual republic principle that people need to elect a person who they would love to govern them. He also claimed that the representatives’ number will be augmented with population growth (American History Center 1).

Sources of Corruption

In his speech, Smith found the constitution to encourage corruption and inequality in the sharing and utilization of national resources.  Smith in particular felt that the constitution did not consider the life of middle class people by highly favored the wealthy people. To defend the corruption claim, Hamilton argued that the legislatures of the state will be standing bodies or agencies of observation, holding  people’s confidence, armed with all power to check the initial essays of treachery and envious of the federal encroachments. These bodies will establish regular forms of inquiry. This meant that the state legislature would keep congress on check to ensure they do not get involved in any deals that would result to corruption or oppression of some in the society, based on their class (American History Center 1).

How did the Anti-Federalists envision the future of the nation if the Constitution were ratified?

Anti-federalists used the articles of confederation to forecast on the future of the country, determining the impact ratification would cause to the country. Their forecast demonstrated possibility of a chaotic situation where the national government conflicted with the state government as the state governments try to execute its duties. They also thought that the central government may in the future use its excess power to abolish the state government. According to anti-federalists, the ratification of the constitution would initiate corruption within the government and misrepresentation of the people, particularly the middle class people. To them, this constitution would be more in favor of the rich and oppressive to the poor.

What did the Anti-Federalists object to? How did the Federalists answer those objections?

The anti-federalists main objective was to change various clauses that did not align with what they would have considered fair to all. They wanted the power of the central government to be changed to less power and that of the state to be increase. This was meant to reduce the dominance of the central government on the state government. Anti-federalist wanted the state government to be more powerful and independent to be able to cater for the needs of their citizens. They also wanted the congress representation of the state changed to reduce the population that a single congress member represented. The proposed representation seemed too big for a single person and hence, they felt that they may not be efficient in addressing the needs of these people. They also wanted to seal all loopholes related to corruption. They felt that the proposed constitution safeguarded the rich while neglecting the middle class people. This was especially perceived in the taxation clauses.

To counter this, federalist claimed that the articles have proposed a mechanism to keep the central government on check by the states legislatures and thus, there was no chance that the government would misuse its power. With regard to representation, federalist claimed that the ratio will be changed as the population of the state changes. They also faulted the federalist for basing most of their objections on future rather than the present situation. With regard to corruption, federalist claimed that there was already an existence of natural aristocracy that creates a gap between rich and poor. In this regard, there would never be any law that would bridge that. With the matter of government involvement with corruption, federalists claimed that the constant check of the national government by the states governments would not permit that to happen.

Can you see any hidden bias or motives—perhaps related to social class differences between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists—in the language used by the speaker?

Most federalists were part of the government. They therefore seemed to be protecting some personal interest gained by being in that position. Anti-federalists on the other hand focused more on the interest of the public, federalists seemed to protect the national government. Moreover, there was some sense of arrogance in federalists tone. They seemed to define a constitution to only cater for the current affairs and not the future. They accepted that changes may be needed in the future, especially on representation issuesbut seemed to consider the proposed system perfect for the present operations. This seemed hypocritical. They also seemed to define natural aristocracy meaning they were not out to work to reduce the gap between the poor and the rich since it was naturally defined.

Moses Striking the Rock – Art Appreciation

The National Gallery of Art Museum Virtual Tour

Title: David with the Head of Goliath

Artist: Andrea del Castagno

Date: 1450-1455

Medium: Tempera on leather on wood

Scale: 45 ½ x 30 1/8 in; 115.6 x 76.5 cm

Moses Striking the Rock - The National Gallery of Art Museum Virtual Tour
Moses Striking the Rock – The National Gallery of Art Museum Virtual Tour

Moses Striking the Rock is an art piece created during Baroque period. This artwork demonstrates Joachim Wtewael lifetime pledge to mannerism. As a mannerist, Joachim utilized alternating dark and light, pastel colors, contorted poses, and elongated figures creating extremely artificial, but elegant scenes. The painting is highly detailed depicting people and their belongings which include animals of different kinds, and their cookeries. They all surrounds the water trying to take as much as possible, where Moses is seen raising his stick to strike on the rock, with an assistance. Joachim was a Dutch painter who started demonstrating his skills at the age of 18. He became Saddlemakers’ guild member at the age of 25, where other painters were enrolled. He created paintings, stained glass windows, engravings and drawings. He was the last European artist painting using traditions of Mannerist. Although other artists adopted styles that were more naturalistic during his period, Joachim continued practicing an artificial style characterized by willfully distorted poses and acidic colors (Getty, n.d.).

Moses Striking the Rock is a piece of work is founded on the biblical event in the book of Exodus depicting a miraculous event in the wilderness when Moses was taking Israelites out of Egypt. After covering a long distance in the wilderness they all needed water but there was no clean water to drink. Israelites cried to Moses who cried to God and he was instructed to hit a rock with his rod and it produced water. The painting depict the moment after the stone started producing water. The struggles of Moses to lead Israelites from Egypt to Canaan contained special connotation to the Dutch that drew parallels between their own independence quest from Spanish rule and the Moses biblical story. The Dutch Revolt initial hero and leader, ‘the silent’ of Orange, Prince William turned to be identified, symbolically as Moses and similar to Moses he was killed before reaching the Promised Land. Joachim was House of Orange great supporter in its journey to lead all 17provinces of Netherland to independence, and hence paining this art may demonstrate his effort to revitalize the symbolic links between the House of Orange and Moses Dutch leaders (National Gallery of Art, 2017c).

David with the Head of Goliath – Art Appreciation

The National Gallery of Art Museum Virtual Tour

Title: David with the Head of Goliath

Artist: Andrea del Castagno

Date: 1450-1455

Medium: Tempera on leather on wood

Scale: 45 ½ x 30 1/8 in; 115.6 x 76.5 cm

 

David with the Head of Goliath - The National Gallery of Art Museum Virtual Tour
David with the Head of Goliath – The National Gallery of Art Museum Virtual Tour

David with the Head of Goliath refers to a unique art piece in the Renaissance period. It is a sporadic example of a painted shield which can be credited to a great master. The piece is based on anextract from the bible. This piece of art was done by Andrea del Castagno, an Italian painter that was highly influential during Renaissance. Castagno was well known for naturalistic figures treatment and emotional power. Some of his other known pieces include resurrection, entombment and the crucifixion, and the famous last supper that was said to demonstrate his greatest talent of creating balance between architecture and human figure. Castagno also learnt three-dimensional figures painting though with little emphasis on environment integration. He also worked as a cartoonist (National Gallery of Art, 2017a).

In this particular piece Castagno depicts a young athlete holding a stone tied in a piece of cloth and a head of a man at his feet rooted with a stone. The Renaissance art period is represented in this painting by use of shadow and light to define legs and arms muscles, and providing powerful activity to running pose of David and windblown clothes.David with the Head of Goliath is festooned with a narrative scene rather than a distinctive coat of arms. It is anticipated for ceremonial parades display instead of protection in battle. The art piece was particularly suitable for 15th century Florentine audience. As the tiniest chief political power on Peninsula, Italy, the city perceived itself as young David fighting against Powerful Goliaths who in this case was the Pope. The paining demonstrates the city victory where the head of the terrible goliath lies at the feet of David, with the stone rooted in its forehead, which act as a warning on to Florence enemies, predicting what will happen to them (National Gallery of Art, 2017b).

Impact of The Growth of Health Care Cost on The Government and Employers

The Growth and Impact of Healthcare Costs

The rate of healthcare costs growth in the United States has overtaken the gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate for several years. Similarly, the GDP share standing for healthcare spending augmented to 16% in 2005 from 12.2% in 1990 and from 4.5% in1940. Healthcare spending since 1990s has increased more rapidly compared to the GDP of the country, population and inflation. In the recent available data, total healthcare national spending increased to $5670 per person of to $1.67 trillion (Sood, Ghosh & Escarce, 2009). The growing increase of the healthcare cost and particularly the GDP share devoted to healthcare might damage the economy of the United States.  The rising rate of spending in healthcare is regarded to reduce the rate of GDP growth and general rate of employment, while increasing inflation. Private enterprises are in particular vulnerable to the growth of healthcare cost since approximately three-fifths of the American workforce has employer-sponsored health insurance. According to ASPE (2005), rapidly increasing health insurance premiums apply pressure on employers to increase total workers compensation, since workers cannot lower wages easily to offset premium increase completely. To some employers, clear contracts might prevent wage cuts or even demand increase of wages. Other workers might be prevented from lowering wages by inherent norms, workers competition with unionized companies, or a desire to prevent destroying working morale.

Essential Indicators of Economic Benefits per Unit on the Country’s GDP and Employment

There are various indicators of economic benefits per unit on employment and on the gross domestic product of a county. With employment, the essential indicators of economic benefits include per capita income which the individual average earnings. This determines individuals’ ability to cater for their households needs and to afford any luxuries. With regard to healthcare, this determines the individuals’ ability to cater for out-of-pocket healthcare cost which keeps on increasing as the cost of healthcare increases. Another indicator on the employment is the measure of workforce covered by group health cover provided by the employer and the percentage of individual contribution to the cover. Most employers provide group cover which increases workers bargaining power, reducing the insurance administration cost among other cost and hence increasing chances of getting health cover compared to those who approach the insurance firms as individuals. The rate of employment and unemployment also help in indicating the number of people who have the financial ability to pay for their healthcare cost or to top up their insurance cover and those who cannot (KFF, 2018).

The important economic indicators based on the GDP include personal healthcare consumption which indicates the level of healthcare demand in the country. Others include government purchases which can indicate the level of government contribution through various public health covers that include Medicare and Medicaid which are public cover funded by the government. Others include private inventories in healthcare which include the number of private facilities created to provide healthcare services or private healthcare cover.

Recommendations for Change or Improvement

The current increase in healthcare cost present a risk of low healthcare consumption in the country, despite high level of people who need this care. To balance the equation, the government and employers should consider increasing the number of people who secure health cover. This will assist in offsetting the healthcare cost and hence increasing its accessibility. The cost of healthcare has been going up for a while and if not controlled it may be costly to the country. To control this, the government should consider providing incentives to healthcare organizations that manage to offer quality services at a reduced cost, by enhancing operational efficiency.  This will make most healthcare organization to enhance efficiency as they look forward to securing high level of incentives. Increase in efficiency will result to reduction of the operational costs and hence the general healthcare cost.

Defining Pornography Without Inhibiting Freedom of Expression?

How should we define pornography without inhibiting freedom of expression?

The first amendment protects freedom of speech and expression of the people of the United State. This is said to protect pornography which can be termed as a form of speech or expression. However, when critically evaluated, pornography is obscene and indecent material that can be used against women or to violate women, and to corrupt the moral values of a society. Pornographic materials are highly available especially virtually, where they are easily available. It is therefore considerably hard to define pornography without obstructing freedom of speech, particularly in the current level of technology advancement. Pornography is a form of speech used to injure and harm others since it can also be addictive (Sunstein, 1986). Explicit sexual expression is protected by the first amendment unless it is real and obscene. However, it is hard to create boundary on what is obscene since it varies based on individual level of conservativeness, traditional or religious values, and culture. What is obscene to one person may not be considered to be obscene to others. This makes it hard to define pornography without inhibiting freedom of expression. However, the aspect of real makes it clear that anything obscene which is presented virtually cannot be classified as pornography.

How do we enforce such a definition without enforcing censorship?

Censorship takes place when people impose their view on others. Based on the law, pornography refers to anything that is obscene. However, this definition can be ambiguous due to the variation in personal measures of obscene. However, for material to be regarded as pornography it must be real, meaning the judgment of obscene can be based on American culture. It is therefore possible to define pornography without enforcing censorship, since what is obscene based on American culture can easily identifiable to all

Preventing Back Injuries – Lifting a Box from a Tabletop And Placing It On The Floor

Imagine that you are leading a training event to help prevent back injuries, and you are teaching students the proper way to lift. Describe, in detail, your recommended steps for lifting a box from a tabletop and placing the box on the floor in a way that would not create any pain or ergonomics issue(s).

Back injuries can easily be caused by use of poor lifting techniques. It is therefore important to us the right lifting and down placing procedure to protect your back. To ensure that a load is lifted from a table and placed on the ground without causing back injuries, one must follow the right steps. The first step is planning the lift where one need to ensure that the path is clear, the load is not beyond what one can carry, and the calculation on the need to stop for a rest based on the distance the load is to be carried. The second step will involve load sizing up where one ensure that the load is balanced and stable. The load weight should then be tested by lifting the corner to ensure that it is not too much (Osha, 2007). The next step is base establishment which can be done using the foot or the table edges. In this case, the load is on the table and hence no need bend the knees slightly, with the heels placed off the ground. One is required to bring the load closer to the body, getting a good grip using the palms, with enough hold before. The leg strength should then be used to lift in a controlled, smooth manner. The stomach muscles need to be tight and shoulders and head in up position. The feet should be made to turn and not the waist line. Then one should walk to where the load is to be placed. The position made when lifting should be made again and the load placed down using the hands and legs strength to place it down on the ground (Osha, 2007).