Month: April 2019

Measuring Effectiveness of Leadership in an Organization

Why is it so difficult to measure the effectiveness of leadership in an organization?

According to J.T. Wren (1995) there is no possible way to measure the effectiveness of leadership for the reason that an individual’s leadership style varies from person-to-person and is determined by the methodology in which he/she handles the situation.

Leadership is often measured by an individual’s ability to motivate and influence change within an organization or community. Consequently, leadership effectiveness is primarily predicated upon a leader’s ability to receive adequate results whether the leader is a positive influence or a negative influence on followers.

What criteria do you use to determine the effectiveness of leaders?

In determining a leader’s effectiveness I would assess whether he/she is a transformational or transactional leader. According to Bass (1990), “transformational leaders inspire employees to exceed the expected by embracing a vision and striving to achieve that vision. Transformational leaders demonstrate specific behaviors and actions: attributed charisma, inspirationalmotivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration (Conger, 1999). Attributed charisma occurs when leaders demonstrate behaviors that engender respect and trust. Leaders who display charisma demonstrate interest in the well-being of others, stay calm in crisis situations, formulate decisions that benefit the group as a whole, demonstrate competence, and earn followers’ respect” (Bass & Avolio, 1994).

English transcript of Osama bin Laden speech

English transcript of Osama bin Laden speech

The main reason why Osama claims to be involved in war is simply because he was unhappy that most people in their country lacked the freedom they should be enjoying. They wanted to restore freedom that their nation should be enjoying. In the speech he challenges bush why they should not be identifying the real cause behind the attacks that had taken place the US four years ago. Finding the root cause of a problem is the best way to ensure that such a problem does not occur again in society. Instead of identifying the actual causes of the attacks the government of bush was busy hiding from the reality on the actual ground (Lahoud, 2012).

In the speech Osama gave the real motive that was behind the attacks. He gave out the circumstances under which a decision was made to bomb the twin towers. The situation had become unbearable and they would no longer bear the oppression that was caused by the Bush administration. The people who were oppressed were mainly the ones in the Palestine. That was the basis on which the decision was based upon. In 1982, America allowed the Israelites to attack the Lebanon and Palestine. Many people were killed and others were injured during the attacks. That was the major reason that was behind the attacks (Lahoud, 2012).

Complaints against the Western Society

The major complaints that Bin Laden raised against the western society were intimidation and harassment of their people in various parts of the world. There were also attacks that were carried out on their people and in the process many of their people were injured while some were died. That made it very painful and they had to take revenge (Gauvain, 2011).

Plan for the Islamic State

Osama aimed at ensuring that Muslims fought those who supported Israel or any other Western military forces. The enemies were considered from civilians to the military in those particular areas. The main aim of engaging in war was to ensure that Western military were withdrawn from the Middle East (Randal, 2011).

The Collapse of the Soviet Union

Collapse of the Soviet Union

Before 1985 the Soviet Union was a territory that ignored the various activities that were taking place from the West. The culture, technological advancements, and manifestations were all ignored. Before 1985 the Soviet Union was surrounded by a wall which was made of stone. The wall was impossible to be broken down by any person.  The foundation of the wall was put in place by the communism people who lived in the country during that time. By the year 1985, the Soviet Union had a new leader in place. He was known as Gorbachev and he realized that something was wrong in the country immediately he took to power. The party decided to take a role of transforming society, economics and politics of the people in that particular country. With such findings he introduced a new political process that was termed as the perestroika. It was a special program that was meant to change the various ways through which political, economic and social issues were handled in society. Gorbachev strongly believed that the country required two important processes to become a truly democratic state. With such factors in pace citizens would be allowed to know the various events that are taking place in society. The period from 1985 to 1991 become the only single time through which the gigantic existed (Borjas, & Doran, 2012).

Gorbachev contributed immensely to the change in the Soviet Union. The Soviet forces that were in Afghanistan were withdrawn and the cold war came to an end. The turn of events that occurred in the new leadership left the Soviet people confused on how they were to carry out various roles in society. The people in the Soviet lacked contact with the West and now the there was contact. Some of the people enjoyed the cultural contact while others did not the contact that was created. The people an essence of competing with the west and that left them more confused. The various issues that were lost in the aspects of the people had no proper substitute. The resulting effect was clashes, strikes and increased crime rate. After 1985, the Soviet was completely unaware of the way that they would use in handling various issues in society. The people were unaware on how they would handle speech, choosing religion and the right to participate in strikes (Borjas, & Doran, 2012).

The leaders at the time wanted the Soviet Union to be integrated to be part of the world. The only way integration would be achieved is through introduction of democracy within the Union. Market economy and a liberal market are essential in ensuring that the market that is created is free. That would allow business to be carried out freely with any country in the world. Although the country was not ready of the various dramatic changes, the country finally made changed. The Soviet Union collapsed and democracy was introduced.       Gorbachev had a lot of hope that he never attained during his reign. The crisis that had began led to serious consequences by the year 1991. The liberals come up with propaganda that had even more modern changes as compared to those of Gorbachev (Borjas, & Doran, 2012).

Want To Know More About Affordable Care Act – Must Read Resources

Must Read

Medicaid.  (n.d.). Affordable Care Act. Retrieved from <https://www.medicaid.gov/affordable-care-act/index.html>

This sit gives an overview of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). It gives more information specific aspects addressed by the ACA policy including the kind of reforms it brings, and its influence in Medicaid and Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP). The site gives information on who are eligibility, who or how it is financed, benefits it bring to American peoples, and premium paid by those seeking individual coverage.

Rosenbaum, S. (2011). The patient protection and affordable care act: Implications for public health policy and practice. Public Health Rep, 126(1), 130-135. Retrieved from <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3001814/>

This journal article gives a review of the ACA amendment and anticipated changes when the policy would be implemented fully as from 2014. The article gives an overview of this act and its chief elements. It also gives detailed information on reforms made in the health insurance coverage and how the ACA has improved health-care quality, accountability and efficiency. The article also discusses the consequences the policy has on public health practice and policy.

Obama, B. (2016). United States health care reform progress to date and next steps. JAMA, 316(5), 525-532.

The article provides a brief history of what transpired from the time President Obama got into the office for the first time to kind of achievements that had been recorded by the time he was leaving the office as two-term president of the U.S. The article give progress experienced after full implementation of ACA in 2014 especially in terms of coverage and what policy makers may need to do in the future to enhance health care reforms.

Hansler, J. (2017, Sep 13). A short American history: from Medicare to Obamacare to …. Berniecare? CNN Politics. Retrieved from <https://edition.cnn.com/2017/09/13/politics/history-of-us-health-care/index.html>

This news report traces the history of Affordable Care Act from the day it was introduced in the American Congress in 1960s to the enactment of Obamacare and other changes or development that have taken place after its enactment. The article narrates the introduction of Medicare for all bill in early 1960, enactment of Social Security Amendments by President Lyndon in 1965, failed attempt to reform health care bill during President Bill Clinton’s time, the development noted during President George W. Bush time and changes attained during President Obama’s time.

Sanger-Katz, M. (2017, Feb 5). Grading Obamacare: Successes, failures and ‘incompletes.’ The New York Times. Retrieved from <https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/05/upshot/grading-obamacare-successes-failures-and-incompletes.html>

This article analyses Affordable Care Act commonly known as Obamacare, highlighting its success and failures and the future anticipations. The analysis is clearly based on changes that Obamacare have introduced in the healthcare sectors and in the social and economic life of special groups in the country and how it has affected others in the country.

Editorial Board. (2013, 13 Dec). Design flaws in the affordable care act. The Washington Post. Retrieved from <https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/design-flaws-in-the-affordable-care-act/2013/12/13/905571ce-636e-11e3-aa81-e1dab1360323_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.4025df587524>

This article cites Affordable Care Act design flaw. The flaw is said to be the cause of the gap between the anticipated level of enrollment and the current level of enrollment. This article will help in understand why the ACA is highly flawed by most of its critics

Supplement Readings

Cannan, J. (2013). A legislative history of the affordable care act: How legislative procedure shapes legislative history. Law Library Journal, 105(1), 131-173. Retrieved from <http://liblog.law.stanford.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/A-Legis-Hist-of-ACA-How-Legis-Proced-Shapes-Legis-Hist-Spring-2013.pdf>

This journal article gives detailed history of the Affordable Care Act during the Obama era. The article provide detailed information regarding how the bill was reintroduced in the congress, how it was treated in the two houses and how reconciliation was reached to be able to ensure the bill passed despite having been rejected in the past. The article also covers information on the court cases that have been experienced regarding this act since it was enacted in 2010 by President Obama.

National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius567 U.S. 519 (2012). Retrieved from <https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/567/519/>

This is a landmark case where the Supreme Court of the United States made a decision in which it upheld the power of Congress to enact the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act provision. The court on this case upheld personal mandate to purchase health insurance as a congress taxing power constitutional exercise.

The White House. (2016, March 02). Fact sheet: The affordable care act: Healthy communities six years later. Retrieved from <https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2016/03/02/fact-sheet-affordable-care-act-healthy-communities-six-years-later>

This article gives overview of what has been achieved or changes recorded since the enactment of Affordable Care Act by the president Barack Obama on 23rd March 2010 to 2nd March 2016. The article gives statistics of number of individuals enrolled to various ACA programs in the country.

Employee Surveillance – BUS670 Final Paper

Introduction

It is evident that social media sites such as Twitter and Facebook will remain an important part of communication for today’s generation. Most business transaction and social discussions are currently carried out through online platforms thus making social networking an essential link between people, especially employees and employers.  Employers, through employee cooperation, have ripped enormously from the usage of social networks in orientation, training, and product improvement.Regardlessof these gains, social networks and other information technology advancements such as GPS present serious challenges when used in screening and monitoring employees. This paper discusses employee monitoring in light of both legal and ethical perspectives and provides recommendations on how employers can find amicable solutions to the challenges presented by this undertaking (Mello, 2012).

Employee Monitoring

The increase in the internet usage, connection to the GPs devices, and the participation in the social mediahave elicited heated debate concerning employee monitoring and the right to privacy.  On the other hand, employers have been worried about the misuse of bandwidth and computer resources, cyber threat, legal liability, and associated low productivity associated with increased internet use by the employees.  Employers are concerned with the legal liabilities that they could be predisposed to from the employees’ internet usage and the security concerns stemming from the infringement of the company’s rights and secrets.

As such, investment in information technology by companies has tremendously increased purposefully with the aim of safeguarding company secrets and promoting employees productivity and ensuring customer satisfaction. As reported by Computer Economics Inc. (2012), in 2011, companies invested approximately $7,300 in information technology. Such investment was seen as an effective strategy of monitoring employee online activities thus protecting the companies against unlawful actions and decline in productivity. The legal and confidentiality concerns pertaining to employee monitoring in the US are determined by the United States General Accounting Office (GAO). GAO thus recognizes the legality of employee monitoring with the consideration of various state and federal decrees (US General Accounting Office, 2002).

The GAO does not outline the ethical issues pertaining to employer-based surveillance despite the legality of employee monitoring. Therefore, apart from considering the legal perspectives of employee monitoring, one must explore the ethical issues entailed.  This is in light of the fact that employers should be in a position to balance the benefits of employee surveillance and the downfall of invasion of the workers right of privacy. Conversely, advances in information technology have made improbable to keep this balance. As a result, both the government and companies are facing several privacy issues related to employee monitoring. For instance, most employees and citizens fear that their privacy is violated when either the government or companies access their emails and personal records from the internet.  Through computer monitoring such as application of GPS technologies, most companies are able to know about the whereabouts of their workers (Towns & Cobb, 2012).

In addition, computer matching allows employers to retrieve and synthesize information from different computers and other electronic sources with the aim of enhancing their advertising services thus gaining access to employee records and personal data. Another way of infringing the employee right of privacy is common among companies and states that unlawfully access workers personal details such as credit card numbers, email-addresses, and phone numbers with the view of developing workers profile.

Ethical Concerns in Employee Monitoring

Ethics govern the people’s behaviors and the reasons behind their action.  Ethics are important in addressing new situations or situations that have proven ungovernable by the existing laws such employee surveillance. Before delving into ethical theories explaining employee monitoring, it is vital to explore the ethical benefits and downside of employee monitoring. There are several ethical benefits of employee monitoring including facilitation of recruitment services, provision of vital information on employees, ensuring accuracy of employee data, establishing employee misconduct, marketing, and sharing of political opinions.

Most employers monitor their employees to prevent the misuse of the company resources, company time, and preserve their image (Reynolds, 2012).

According to the study by Yerby (2013), most employees engage in unproductive and unethical practices such watching pornography while at work.  The study points out that the word “sex” was the top rated search  item on most company computers followed by “nude”, “xxx”, and “playboy”, among others.   The study results revealed that about 70% web search for “sex” and “nudity” occur from Monday to Friday between 8 am and 5 pm. Yerby (2013) additionally indicate that about 60% of firms reported to have responded with strict disciplinary measures against  misbehaving employees, with over 30% of firms terminating workers for internet abuse.

The study mentions particular examples of firms that took measures to curb employees’ irresponsible internet use for searching explicit sexual contents. Dow Chemical Company fired 50 employees and suspended additional 200 employees for sharing and keeping sexually explicit contents and sadistic emails. More than 20 employees were suspended from the New York Times for forwarding emails with unsuitable and insulting content. Other companies, which have also taken drastic measures to curb employees’ unethical use of the internet, include AT&T, Apple Inc., and IBM, citing that their employees in their eight-hour working days spend more than 347 days compounded browsing pornographic sites (Yerby, 2013).

Ethical Benefits and Disadvantages of Employee Monitoring

As reported by Rosen (2010), nearly 75% of firms rely on the web and social network sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook in their employee recruitment and appointment services. Job seekers also rely on social networking sites and company websites as a repository for their academic and experiential data. As such, these sites serve the common good of connecting employers with the right and qualified prospective workers. Social networking sites are also an important avenue through which employers can monitor formal and non-formal behavior of employers in a bid to safeguard other workers and the company’s reputation. Cross-referencing of employee information from different online databases also helps employers in verifying accuracy of curriculum vitae (CV) and other vital information.

Employee monitoring also presents the ethical benefit of uncovering unethical behaviors that may be detrimental to the employees and company’s wellbeing. Employers are able to spot vices such as cyber bulling, sexual harassment, obscenity, gender based discrimination, access to pornography, and violation of copyrights, among others. As such, employers are responsible for taking the correct disciplinary action in handling such behaviors. If left unchecked, employees’ misconduct in online activities can lead to serious consequences such as hacking of the company’s website and lawsuits from other companies whose privacy rights have been violated (Yerby, 2013).

Other ethical benefits of employee monitoring occur in marketing and politics. Many firms such as the Amazon, Apple and Google Inc use online sites to market their goods and services.  They create online communities in sites such as Twitter and Facebook where their clients can post comments and enquire about their products.  Online social networking sites have also been used for political reasons, for instance, by employees and clients to air their grievances against poor products and unfair treatment by the company officials. They are also an essential platform against oppressive political forces; for instance, most citizens from Columbia resorted to online campaigns to fight against the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia (Yerby, 2013).

Apart from the aforementioned ethical benefits, employee monitoring creates a number of ethical drawbacks for both the company and employees alike. For instance, information gathered from social networking monitoring does not guarantee accuracy. This is due to lack of verification details in most websites and unclear context of several online discussions. The information gathered from social sites may also suffer from subjectivity and biasness.  In addition, employers may also face ethical concerns by relying on irrelevant information on employees’ bio-data such as gender, age, and race (Reynolds, 2012).

Ethical Theories

There are several ethical approaches for addressing the quandary of employee surveillance. Among the ethical theories, the rights approach and virtue ethics standout in their explanation of dilemma faced by employer and employees in surveillance.

The Rights Approach

The rights approach helps individuals to establish the ethicality of their behaviors or actions. This approach suggests that an ethical conduct is identified by its ability to safeguard the ethical rights of the affected individuals. According to the rights approach, employees have the right to choose, to know what is right, and not to have these rights violated. Employee monitoring is therefore immoral since it violates most of the rights covered under the rights approach. For instance, it infringes on employees’ right to choose what is important for them. Employees’ right of choice is violated when their emails and online participation are monitored and they are tracked by GPS tools. Even though companies are entitled to protecting their interests, it is unethical to force employees to conduct themselves in a particular manner through shadowing. As an alternative, employers should clearly outline employee code of conduct and allow them to make their own choices (Yerby, 2013).

Besides informing employees that they are constantly surveyed, employers should also inform employees of the degree surveillance conducted at workplace in both online and offline platforms. This includes clear explanation for the need to compile and assess employees’ emails via email monitoring software. If monitoring is to be effected, the employees have a right to be informed about the company’s policy on applying such software.

Employee monitoring also violates the right to free speech, an essentialand crucial right for all Americans. The conducts in the private sector in terms of freedom of speech are not addressed by the First Amendment allowing employers to put some restriction on employee communication.  Even though such act is not legal it is still immoral. Therefore, as required by the rights approach, employers should emphasize on boosting employee self-confidence and free speech rather than financial gains (Reynolds, 2012).

Virtue ethics

Virtue ethics is another moral principle focusing on the development of ethical behavior. According to this approach, morals are not dependent on regulations but rather by the conception of an individual’s character.It is therefore demanded that companies are supposed to be guided by empathy, equality, kindness, and sincerity, instead of rules and regulations on what individuals ought or ought not to do.  Individuals espousing virtue of ethic thus motivate others to make a better society. From the perspective of virtue ethics, employees ought to have the right to privacy.  Firms should be able take this fact into consideration by recognizing that workers are aware of their action and display exemplary characteristic traits. As a result, employee monitoring is uncalled for since employees manners and disposition are in line with the conducts of a “moral” individual. According to Reynolds (2012), virtue ethics focuses on decision-making that is dependent on community recognized customs and how a person’s choice are understood by the society.

Utilitarian Theory as a Chosen Rational Approach

According to Reynolds (2012), utilitarian ethics focus on what “has the best overall consequences for all people who are directly or indirectly affected” (p. 21). This theory explains that a moral action is one whose benefits outweigh the negative consequences. From this theory, most business would cite the benefits of monitoring to the stakeholders. Employers would cite the benefits of monitoring to safeguard the safety of the company, majority of employees affected by cyber-loafing, and clients at the expense of few employees whose rights are curtailed.

Several stakeholders should be involved in coming up with employee monitoring strategy. A significant stakeholder is the employee whose conduct is monitored.  The administration is another category of stakeholder responsible for monitoring employee activities and enforcing company rules and steering decision-making process. Other individuals such as the shareholders constitute the third category of stakeholders who are directly or indirectly affected by the company’s actions.  Finally, the general public forms an important category since companies have high regards for general public opinion (Yerby, 2013).

Even though utilitarian theory follows an egalitarian approach it is not devoid of criticisms. For instance, it has been criticized that the long-term effect of taking a utilitarian action cannot be ascertained.  Another criticism comes from the standard used in weigh the good and the evil associated with organizational behavior. This is evident in cases where there are majority of employees who are unaware of the peril of monitoring thus concur with the company that it is a common good. However, the fewer employees who stand by their rights are labeled as dissidents hence harshly treated by the majority (Yerby, 2013).

Utilitarian theory, however, presents the most rational framework as described by Reynolds (2012) since it considers the needs of all stakeholders. This view is echoed by Martin (2012) who expresses the teleological perspective by referring to it as “best understood by considering their goals” (p. 437). According to Martin (2012), utilitarian theory demands that workers should not abuse their offices or misuse company resources and predispose the company to lawsuits.  Utilitarian theory is comparable to Emanuel Kant’s deontological (or reason-based) approach that states that “ends justify the means.” As explained by Martin (2012), deontological theory is based on the notion that “reason demands consistency and rejects contradiction” (p. 435). Thus, ethical employee surveillance should suit utilitarian approach by considering the best result for many people and be consistent with Kant’s theory of ensuring equality in all circumstances.

Fairness Approach

Fairness theory explains that decision-making should focus on equal distribution of profits and “burdens” in an organization.  Common Good Approach is different from utilitarian theory since it asserts the need for fairness in handling employee-employer relationship.  As noted by Reynolds (2012), Common Good Approach requires that decision-making or conduct be considered in the context of “common set of values and goals” for the organization and everyone who relies on them (p. 21).

Legal Issues

Globally, employee surveillance continues to be a major legal and ethical concern. In the European Union, surveillance is only justifiable in extraordinary situations, for example, when an employer suspects an employee of engaging in an unlawful act. In the United States, issues pertaining to employee surveillance are handled by the National Work Rights Institute and the American Civil Liberties Union (Yerby, 2013).

The aftermath of 9/11 saw many firms intensifying the security of their workplace environments consequently affecting regulation governing workers’ privacy.  Under the USA Patriot Act, H.R. 3162, the Congress ratified laws which considerably widened the extent of federal electronic monitoring regulations by including abuse felonies, computer fraud, and terrorism offenses (Reynolds, 2012).

However, to prevent against the violation of privacy, workplace surveillance is restricted by the common laws and the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) (18 U.S.C. § 2511 et. seq.). As an extension to the earlier Wiretap Act, the ECPA now governs the surveillance of online communication like emails besides wired and oral communication. It should be noted that the ECPA bars the deliberate surveillance except in cases where the employer is able to prove that the company has justifiable reasons for surveillance. The Act also permits surveillance in situations where the employees have fully consented to the procedure. As evidenced in the Hewlett-Packard inquiry it was established that without the client’s warrant the only means for acquiring personal information was going through an individual’s trashcan (Yerby, 2013).

Another regulation breached by employee surveillance is the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.  This law was formulated as a rejoinder to several financials scams that had hit major conglomerates. For instance, in 1999, a worker from PairGain Technologies, Inc. was indicted for falsely reporting that the acquisition of PairGain was overrated. This had the possibility of directly breaching Sarbanes-Oxley Act which outlaws the inflation of the firm’s stock price.

In the process of addressing of a number of risks, employers should be cognizant of the legitimate checks and controls overriding the strategies of employee surveillance. Most employers tend to espouse the “what you don’t know don’t kill you” attitude towards workers’ misdemeanor; though, as explained by the principle of respondent superior, company management are still lawfully accountable  for workers’ misdeeds committed in the capacity of their service even if the management was oblivious of the offenses.  A surveillance plan alone is not a cover-up for prejudice or harassment accusations; nonetheless, it forms an important strategy of monitoring workers’ misdeeds. For this reason, it is vital for all concerned employees to be duly informed of the surveillance plan (Yerby, 2013).

Moreover, ECPA restrains the management’s legal responsibility for online communications, applying mainly only sharing of online communication but not storage. Thus, a distinction between online information under transmission and information that has been stored should be made. Failure of surveillance of stored online communication to amount to violation of the ECPA has been established in numerous court proceedings.

The standards outlined by the ECPA are not exhaustive on corporate surveillance; therefore, wider restrictions can be enforced by the individual states. According to the Minnesota, Statute § 626A.02, an individual is allowed to tape online or offline communication provided they are liable to the communication and the tapping is without any illegal objective

Minnesota, Statute § 626A.02 states:  It is legal for a person to record a wire, oral or electronic communication if that person is a party to the communication, or if one of the parties (A Practical Guide in 50 States and D.C., 2003).  Businesses and workers should be conversant with the implications of the regulations governed by the acts. Breeching of these acts attract a fine not exceeding $20,000 and a five-year jail term or both (A Practical Guide in 50 States and D.C., 2003).

The management has a duty to reasonable care when conducting recruitment. This implies that the management the management is obligated to conduct thorough scrutiny of the employees including their individual traits, employment history, and their verifiable experience. In addition, the employer has the same responsibility in overseeing employees’ conduct at work and curbing employee turnover. These duties may force the management to conduct web search with regards to employees’ personal information in a bid to curtail consequent legal responsibility in case the employee under scrutiny has been accused of malpractices or is unfit for a particular duty (Yerby, 2013).

Web search through social networking site such as LinkedIn and Facebook offers employers better chances of ascertaining employees’ character and skills than the reliance on information provided by the references. However, many human resource specialists and legal counsel have argued that it is improbable that an employer will gain accurate information about employees from the social network and that doing so presents serious risks to the organizations. This is supported by the fact the employers have conventional background verification plans for their recruitment and that web search for applicants’ qualifications should be document and the prospective employee be notified of the search in advance and the reasons for disqualification(Reynolds, 2012). 

Employment at Will   

The principle of employment-at-will is the basis for most employment rights and regulations. Generally, workers in the US are in employment at will, this implies that they can be dismissed from duty for whichever explanation or no explanation at all. As such, the employer may dismiss a prospective employee based on the information circulated in the online social networking sites or fire an existing employee for misconduct at work.

Nevertheless, the employment at will has three common law exemptions. An example is the public policy exemption which implies that the management should not resort to punitive measures against prospective workers or current workers for incidents that are in contravention to the known public policy. Employees are also exempted from unlawful dismissal based on the requirements agreed to in the implied or explicit contractual work.

Finally, in some states, the management is not allowed to terminate employees based on any act that contravenes the principle of fair-dealing and good faith. In general, the principles of good faith and fair dealing have been applied successfully in situations where the management allowed their workers benefits such personal-leave or sick-leave and dismissed or punished workers during their leave period. Among the aforementioned exception, the infringement of the public policy is the most common scenario where the management resorts to using information published in the net (Reynolds, 2012).

The exception provided by public policy entails a number of situations such as dedication to obedience to the law, upholding of the constitutional rights, executing the constitutional right, and whistle-blowing. This implies, for example, that a worker may be protected from the post he or she makes online about the management’s illicit dealings. As reported by Zehrt (2010), “[a]lmost all of the federal civil rights statutes enacted in the twentieth century contain specific provisions protecting employees from retaliation” (p.152). Examples of regulations that protect workers who inform the public about companies’ unlawful actions from retaliatory move my the employers include Sarbanes-Oxley Act (2002), Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) (1974), National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) (2006),  Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) (1993), and Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) (2006).

However, employee freedom of speech in exposing the company’s misdeeds does not entail unlawfully humiliating the employer.  As stated in the Restatement (Third) of Agency, employees are expected to be obedient to their employers. As explained by Lee et al. (2009) a worker could violate the duty of trustworthiness to their employer by engaging in “[h]armful speech, insubordination, neglect, disparagement, or disruption of employer-employee relations…,” otherwise disgracing  the  “name, product, reputation or operation” of the company (411Y12).

Discrimination

According to Decenzo and Robbins (2010), workers and prospective employees are protected from unfair treatment at workplace by several federal antidiscrimination acts such the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (1990), the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) (1967), and Title VII of the 1964 civil Rights Act (1964). Monitoring of online communication may reveal information that is not essential in employment and their use to judge employees surmounting to discrimination. This information includes details about employees’ faith, political connection, race, and marital status.

Other Statutes Addressing Corporate Surveillance

Several other regulations are applied in employee monitoring to address the rights of both the employers and the employees. An example is the Stored Communication Act (ScA) (2000) which forbids an individual from unauthorized access to online communication they are not party. A point in case is the Konop (pilot) v. Hawaiian Airlines (2001), in which the Hawaiian Airlines president was found guilty of unlawfully accessing Konop’s website through a shared login details.  In this case the employer was originally incapable of obtaining the login information by any means hence colluding with other members to obtain such details was unlawful. Another regulation is the Fair credit Reporting Act (FcRA) (1970) which allows the management to subcontract a third party to verify employees’ credibility on their behalf. This act requires the employer to notify the employee of such surveillance by third party (Riego, Abril, & Levin, 2012).

Recommendations

Employer-employee online and offline communications are influenced by many complex legal concerns. In the face of advances in information technology and the threat to security, reliance on traditional legislations and policies is insufficient in solving dispute that may arise from surveillance. Therefore, to prevent lawsuits, employers should social media policy that fairly addresses organizational communication and provides solution to any foreseeable consequences of employer or employee misconduct (Reynolds, 2012).

Though addressing different objectives, laws and ethics are intimately connected. Corporate adhere to employment laws to enhance public relations and boost productivity. On the other hand, ethics help in addressing challenges facing employer-employee relation or the image of the company where the law is unclear or insufficient.  In order to reduce liability exposure, utilitarian approach and Kant’s deontological theory are considered important rational moral theories that maximize the benefits of any action to the majority and emphasize on the right reason for doing so. A combination of these two theories ensures that it is not only what benefits the masses but also what is reasonable in a given circumstance (Yerby, 2013).

Therefore, surveillance is looked at in light of its benefits to the masses (employees) with all reasonable approaches to safeguard the interest of the employer. In terms of legality, National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) (2006) outlines several avenues for solving disputes that may arise between employers and employees in case of surveillance.   The management should also be conversant with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (2002) and Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) in order to address the challenges of online communications that were not covered by the traditional laws. Finally, in terms of keeping with the right business principle, the employer should explore the employment-at-will principle before resorting to other stringent regulations in addressing employee misconduct (Yerby, 2013).

Influence of Minorities on the Political Process and the Impact of Affirmative Action

Minorities have made a great contribution to the change of a number of legislations and policies as they fight for equal rights in the country. Their involvement in various political process that include demonstrations and lobbying, these groups have resulted to the enactment of antidiscrimination law, legalization of gay marriage, women and blacks voting among other changes in the country laws. These changes have made it possible for minorities to acquire equal social, political and economic position as whites in the country. The minority struggle in the country has also resulted to the development of affirmative action. The affirmative action has played a great role in improving educational and employment opportunities for minority group members. Today minority groups are in a better position when it comes to access to employment, acquiring government contracts, in obtaining social benefits, and in earning higher education institutions admission.

I have not had an impact of affirmative action directly in my life. However, I have witnessed some of my friends and relative enjoy the benefits of affirmative action. One of the incidences that I have witnessed is my friend being enrolled in the higher institution of learning on the basis of his race. Although my friend was qualified for the position, the institution was experiencing a challenge in deciding who they should admit and those it should turn down, especially among those who were at the margin. My friend was among the few considered in this group since he was of minority community and the university had to attain the required minority quota, which fortunately had not managed to attain from the selected group. This provided my friend an advantage of being among the few selected among those who were at the cut line. Although the act seemed discriminative to other applicant, it was a clear indication of the government effort in improving the life of minority group, and also a clear indication of political power exacted to the country’s law by the minority groups

The New Public Service Shortcomings and Benefits

The New Public Service was established at around 1980s with its main motivation being a belief in efficiency and efficacy in the market, government failure, a belief in rationality in the economy and a push away from centralized large governmental agencies toward privatization and devolution. In the new public service, public managers are encouraged to steer rather than rowing. Although it was created to eliminate shortcomings registered by the old public services, it also presented nits own shortcomings and benefits (Denhardt & Denhardt, 2015). This paper focuses on analyzing the new public service shortcomings and benefits.

New Public Service Shortcomings

The new public service is structured to eliminate the shortcomings of the old public services. However it also has its own shortcomings. Some of these shortcomings include that it is highly swayed by the private sectors with regard to values terms. This creates conflict between the imposed values and the state welfare where public values should be regarded. Private sectors influenced values are likely to focus on promoting capitalism and other aspects that would promote private growth, without considering how it affects the public. The New public service also fails to offer a clear cut of accountability concept and hence making it hard to implement the concept. It also allocates minimum duties to bureaucrats and offer more significance to managers. In addition new public service allocates greater responsibility to market in allocation of resources and it fails in offering the bureaucrats role in dominant market system (O’flynn, 2007).

The above identified shortcomings bring hitches to the new public service application. However, they do not make it unrealistic since it has so many benefits especially due to the fact that it was designed to resolve some serious shortcomings that were recorded in the old system. The new public service focus on the engagement of citizens in policy development to create high level of efficiency and efficacy and this has been found to pay off in various ways. Thus, a few shortcomings do not make it unrealistic, though it would perform much better if these shortcomings were to be addressed (Bryson, Crosby & Bloomberg, 2014).

The Benefits of New Public Service

The new public service also presents a number of benefits compared to the old. The new public service engages the public in policy formation which results in creation of more successful policies that focus on problems solving from all perspectives. However, this only happens when there is two-way form of communication such that, citizens get answers or responses to their concerns and the policy structuring considers citizens feedback. This two way communication assists in conflict resolution, informing and educating the public, and building public trust to the government administration (Denhardt & Denhardt, 2015). Another benefit is that the new public value engages other stakeholders resulting to the development of a model that caters for the needs of all in the market. It therefore gives value to all as the government ensures public values through extensive deliberation and inclusion of members of the public (Bryson, Crosby & Bloomberg, 2014). However, despite of all these advantages, new public service cannot be regarded as a general positive movement since its success is highly influenced by implementation efficiency. Poor implementation which can include the government officials inability to create two way communication, or lack of enough time to engage all may result to poor policy formation just like in the old system. In addition, lack of a balance in involving the stakeholders may result to development of policies that favors some such as the private sectors at the expense of the public (Rezende, 2008).

Financial Leverage

Financial leverage refers to the amount of liabilities or debt which a company has taken on for assets financing. As a matter of fact, any healthcare organization requires to expand its current operational level by expanding its facility and adding the needed resources. The facilities and resources expansion can be financed by use of debt or/and equity.  However, it is essential to gauge and analyze if the organization contains the aptitude to support and sustain the debt acquired for its growth and expansion. An organization needs to guarantee that the benefits for leverage taking offset the costs. An example of leverage in a healthcare organization is the money borrowed to finance healthcare expansion, or building new specialist unit for instance cardiovascular unit. The money must be repaid together with interest (Tracy, 2012).

Short-term Solvency

Solvency refers to the aptitude of a company to meet its financial responsibilities. Short-term solvency specifically refers to the company’s ability to meet its short-term financial responsibilities. Ratios of short-term solvency focus on determining the company’s ability to avoid short term financial distress. It focuses on availability of money to handle daily health care operations and any other operation that happens within a year. Short-term solvency is important for a company to remain in business since it asserts the ability of an organization to continue operating for the rest of the year, with all short-term debts or expenses being handled effectively. Some of short-term ratios include working capital asset ratio, quick ratio, current gearing ratio, cash ratio and liquidity ratio. These ratios measure the organization ability to cater for short-term expenses that last for less than one year. This in a healthcare environment includes medical supplies, workers payment for private organization and payment of other medical reagents and materials needed in daily operations (Cleverley &Cleverley, 2017).

Financial Ratios Importance on Health Care Organization

  • Current Ratio – Current ratio is a form of short-term solvency ratio that is obtained by dividing current assets with current liabilities. This ratio is important in health care organization since it will help in determining the organization ability to pay for its short-term liabilities. It shows the organization liquidity, such that when the ratio is one and above, the organization is sure that it has enough liquid cash to handle all its short term expenses and vice versa (Cleverley & Cleverley, 2017).
  • Total Asset Turnover– Total asset turnover is an activity ratio used to measure the organization operation efficiency. It measures the organization aptitude to create sales from its assets by contrasting net sales with mean total assets. This ratio can be used in a healthcare organization to evaluate its level of efficiency in utilizing the available assets to increase services sales or to increase number of patients attended (Tracy, 2012).
  • Debt Ratio – This is a form of leverage ratio which determines the leverage level of a company. Debt ratio is computed by dividing total organization liabilities by total organization assets. A lower ratio demonstrates minimal organization reliance on debts to finance its operations. Debt ratio can be used to determine the organization risk to bankruptcy, as higher reliance on debt puts the organization at risk of losing its assets to creditors in case of financial crisis (Gapenski, 2012).
  • Profit Margin – This is a profitability ratio that is used to measure the extent to which the organization earnings exceed its expenses. This ratio is determined by diving net income of an organization by its total revenue. Lower ratio value demonstrates the low organization ability to make profit. This ratio can be used to determine the profitability of healthcare organization operations (Tracy, 2012).

Wellness and What it Covers

Wellness can be regarded as an integrated technique of functioning that is concerned with maximizing the possibility in which a person is capable, in the environment he or she is operating in. It involves a positive approach to health and life that assists in maximizing the potential of a person. Wellness is based on two crucial concerns which include the recognition of the fullest ability of a person economically, psychically, spiritually, psychologically and socially, and the fulfillment of individual’s expectations role in the workplace, family, worship place, and community among other settings. Wellness can thus be measured using various dimensions that include physical, environmental, emotional/psychological, occupational, social, spiritual, and intellectual (Geog.uvic.ca, n.d.).Physical wellness focuses on physical activity, proactive and preventive action, self-care, and nutrition that focus on taking care of individual physical body. I have always tried to ensure my physical wellness by ensuring that I always take balanced diet meals, and enough water as recommended every day. This ensures that my body does not lack in terms of nutritional value. I also engage in 15 minutes of vigorous physical exercises and 25 minutes of light physical exercises every day. I always try to take good care of myself in all possible perspectives that include avoiding things that can make me ill such as untreated water and contaminated air. I always wear protective clothing when working in places prone to injuries to ensure that I am safe. However, I always struggle with my sleeping time. I always get to bed late and even when I get to bed early, I always catch some sleep past 1 pm. This makes it hard for me to maintain good physical health as I would have wished.

Budget Cutting in a Health Care Organization

Budget Cutting in a Health Care Organization

As a manager of health care organization focusing on reducing 5% of the organization spending, I will first focus on reducing the overhead costs and administrative costs. I will focus more on embedded overhead in departments where the number of administrative staffs are much higher than required, and mostly in areas where the revenue generated is not comparable to the cost for instance in radiology department (Kalman et al., 2015). This cost cut will focus on eliminating excessive staff to remain with enough to handle the unit operations effectively.  I will also focus on lowering shadow staffing overhead, which will involves workers performing similar administrative activities in a decentralized system. I will consider centralizing the organization’s administrative system to eliminate shadow staffing who creates redundancy.  Automation will be done in most of administrative activities to ensure that most of the administrative operationsthat include accounting and billing among other activities are efficiently and accurately handled by a few personnel.The main cost cutting activities will include centralizing the administrative, non-differentiating operations that include procurement, human resources management, finance and marketing.  Automation will also be done on the most tedious administrative functions, and outsourcing some of the needed services such as IT services to reduce on employment costs (Kalman et al., 2015). Overhead administrative costs are the best to be reduced since they always offer a more affordable alternative such as automation, centralization and outsourcing which cannot be achieved in patient care units. The operations can even be more effectively done with the slight change of system or structure, to adopt a more cost saving alternatives. Although administrative functions are important in enhancing patient’s well-being, their effective restructuring are less likely to impact healthcare operations negatively and hence they are manageable.

How The Budget Cuts will Impact Patient-Centered Care

The strategy to be employed to reduce administrative overhead cost such as automation is likely to improve the patient-centered care in a health care organization. Automation enhance effective storage of patient data that include medical history, diagnosis, prescription, patient progress, medical reactions, and billing among other things. This implies that it is easy for any medical professional handling the patient to access all this information by use of patient identification number and hence, making it easy to handle the case. With this information, a medical professional can easily define the best individualized care and treatment needed. Automation also increases the level of patient data accuracy and easiness obtaining patient information (Snyder et al., 2011). The main negative impact is that the adopted method of cost cutting is likely to bring a hug structural and system changes that may create certain level of confusion and denial among the remaining workers, especially medical professions who depend on the provided administrative services to enhance their work efficiency. Time will thus be needed to ensure that everybody is used to the new system and operation structure. This period may negatively affect the patient-centered care.

Aum Shinrikyo on the Transportation System in Japan – Terrorists Group Activity Analysis

Aum Shinrikyo on the Transportation System in Japan

Aum Shinrikyo attack on the Japan transportation system was considerably unique and different from other common terrorist attacks. Unlike others where bombing is the main form of attack, this particular attack which took place in 1995 used a deadly chemical known as Sarin in form of a liquid. The attack was carried out by five individuals who had a total of 11 plastic bags full of Sarin; a deadly nerve gas, which is considerably powerful and that had been previously declared by the United Nations as a weapon of mass destruction. The gas was released to the air causing temporal blindness to thousands of commuters, and managed to kill about 13 individuals. Although the attack was not very deadly in terms of damage caused, the specialists claimed that if the team had proper knowledge on the chemical use, or if the chemical was used properly, it could have caused dire results to the Japan population (Kyodo News, 2010).

Aum Shinrikyo on the Transportation System in Japan and how it relates to risk management perspectives of John Parachini on chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive (CBRNE) weapons of mass destruction (WMD)

According to Parachini (2000), the federal government has established a number of ways to fight terrorism some which are considerably expensive. However, in Parachini (2000) views, the country stand minimal chances of experiencing the kind of terrorism being carried out in other foreign countries like Syria and Afghanistan. In Parachini (2000) views, the risk management and preparedness team focusing on fighting terrorism in the country should stop taking the worst case view and instead consider planning for attacks of low consequences with multiple chemicals use and trails of non-contagious biological agents. This implies that the country should consider defining the best strategies and preparedness to handle chemical and biological attacks. Moreover, (), claimed it is much easier to experience a chemical attack than other forms of terrorist attacks since some of the most lethal chemicals are legal and locally available. Thus it is much easier for a terrorist to plan for an attack using such weapons without being suspected.

A similar situation where legal and locally available chemical are used for terrorism was demonstrated in Aum Shinrikyo attack. Sarin is a legal chemical created in 1930s in Germany to be used in the development of pesticide. The chemical is highly toxic odorless and colorless. This means the chemical can be used to kill masses, especially since it is hardly detected. The chemical is said to cause nerve system disruption where it muscles and glands are overstimulated resulting shutting down of respiratory system. A single drop of Sarin is considerably dangerous, although a large amount is required to cause mass destruction, since it is non-persistent. This case is a perfect situation of what Parachini (2000) is referring to. The availability of Sarin for industrial used made it easy for terrorists to access it for massive destruction. Development of strategies to handle such threat would have prevented the attacks maybe by controlling their purchases through limited authorization.

Parachini (2000) also advocated for the use of local and/or state resources for fighting terrorism in any region. This according to Parachini (2000) would make any region more prepared to mitigate any risk of terrorism than depending on federal resources that are shared in and outside the country to meet the country’s interest of fighting terrorism. The federal government exposure ton acts of terrorism outside the country makes it to always plan for the worst-case in the country which is highly unlikely as terrorist understands that their mission can be highly unsuccessful due to the security measures implemented in the country. This simply means, the applied measures may fail to detect conventional attacks that focus on creating small impacts without fail. Only proper local and state terrorism mitigation plans can thus address such acts which targets mass destructions in tens and not thousands, but which can be very lethal if not managed with time. This is similar to what was experienced in Japan where the attack was only realized after taking place, with no suspension and without proper measures to address such situations. Consequently, the two workers who decided to get rid of the chemicals died due to poor handling of the chemical. Local mitigation which includes education on how to identify the chemicals used, how to neutralize its effect, or to avoid its effect could have been of great use to the transportation subway workers and all passengers using the subway. This raining can only be done locally.

Parachini (2000) also advocates for reduced publicity on the country’s vulnerability to terrorism.According Parachini constant public discussion and analyzing the progress of terrorism investigation and attacks makes the country shift it concentration to the real attacks. In addition, this publicity somehow acts as an advertisement of the country vulnerability to various terrorist attacks in the country. Parachini (2000) thus advocate for acting silently and developing unknown mitigation where terrorists lack information about the country’s strategies to fight terrorism and thus, lack the chances to lay their plan since they do not know of the barriers they can meet.  In Parachini (2000) a comprehensive terrorism risk assessment should be done with conventional attacks in mind and workable mitigation process created to minimize chances of any terrorist attack and ensuring that resources are effectively used to fight terrorism. With such plans, Japanese government could have managed to handle the attack and safe the life of the victims.

Personal Narrative – An Event or Interactions with a Person that Affected your Outlook on Learning or Writing

I grew up in a middle class family where my two parents worked in a hospital. My mother was a nurse while my father was a clinical officer. They both had day and night shifts such that there are time one of them would be under the care of none parent during the night. I remember that we hardly got to have family fan when the two parents were around. The situation worsened when my dad considered taking a part-time job in a private clinic, such that he would even be out of the house in the first few hours of the night during his off night. This made my sisters and I to miss our parents and to depend on a nanny or family members when we needed someone to stand in our parents’ position. I always felt jealous of my neighbor’s kids whose parents used to work from the house. This made me investigate on their professionals and I realized that the two parents were computer programmers. The desire to have a similar family time as that of my neighbor made me to develop a great desire to learn computer programming as part of my careers. This paper gives a narration about my two weeks journey towards completing my first very important computer program project as a self-motivated learner depending on YouTube and friends to accomplish my dream.  The narrates on how the learning started, how I progressed to a level of taking the first project, and how I depended on my neighbors and friends to enhance my efficiency in computer applications development.

My desire to study computer programming was initiated by my desire to have great family time with my parents who were always preoccupied by their career. My neighbors on the contrary always had their parents at their disposal, with organized regular family time where they could all play at their backyard. This made me somehow jealous of them, and made me swear to have a similar professional as their parents to give my children the privilege my neighbors enjoyed while growing up.  However, the journey to accomplish my dream was not easy. I was not able to secure a position as a computer programmer upon application. I instead got a chance to study a different course which I could not turn down as my parents highly approved it. As I was sharing with some of my friends on my disappointment for lack of computer programming course enrollment, one of friends advised me to consider using YouTube to fulfill my desire. This sounded quite interesting and I decided to start tight away. However, I did not have enough background on what to watch and how to decide on the right material from what I never needed. While thinking about it, I thought of consulting my neighbor’s parent crossed my mind and I immediately walked out to talked to them. I narrated my desire to them and how I have failed in the enrollment and they agreed to guide me through my learning process. During this unplanned meeting, I got a brief but very informative lecture about computer programming, what it entails, what I need to make a decision in and how I should learn to acquire and perfect the programing language of my choice. When I left their house that afternoon, I felt so informed and ready to learn more in computer programming.

My neighbors gave me a book about object oriented programming with Java specification, claiming that that would be the easiest programming language to learn on my own. I spent good part of the night reading the book. I realized that it was not easy and a lot of determination was needed. However, I considered taking it just like learning any other new language and I decided to put all my effort into it until I understood what it was all about. I read the book for about three days, trying to grasp the object oriented programming and design concept. In the fourth day, I visited my neighbor with my laptop, ready to install the application platform needed for real thing. My neighbor provided me with the disc containing the application and guided me in installing it. When the installation was successful, he took me through the process of writing my first program. According to him, this was supposed to help me familiarize myself with the application. I thus entered into a new phase where I would try different written programs in my application platform as a way of familiarizing myself with the new application.

I took to YouTube to get more tips on how to do this. I viewed a presentation on how to create a new simple program like what my neighbor had done. Although it seemed simple, it was not simple to grasp all the language syntax to make it run. I took sometimes trying, before I eventually managed to see the anticipated results. This was so encouraging and exciting. It gave me extra desire to know more and read even further. As I continued in my programming journey, my neighbor acknowledged my determination and decided to adopt the role of a tutor. He set aside one hour, three days per week for our programming lesson. Unlike other lessons where one would go for lectures, he made it as an appointment to show my progress and for him to clear sections I had difficulties in or to guide me on sections where I was not hitting the point properly as anticipated. My neighbor or my new tutor also developed a habit of giving me practical assignment in every meeting, to be reviewed in the next meeting. The assignments kept advancing in complexity and requirement for about one month where I was given what we both considered as my first mega project.

The project involved creation of a form that would accept data input, do some computation and return the output. The project was like a module of a working sales system. This was not easy. It required me to consolidate all the acquired programming knowledge so far to come up with something concrete. I spent about three days trying to make it work, without making much reference from the book or the internet. Although I managed the best part of the program, I was experienced challenges in some of the programs execution parts, and I had to consult the internet. I eventually managed to have a working module. My tutor was quite pleased by my work and considered integrating me to his current project to ensure that I learn more and handle different levels of program complexity. This marked the beginning of my long side career in computer programming.

Learning new things can be exciting and challenging at the same time. Whatever dominates at the end of the day is determined by individual drive, the kind of the tutor that one has, and the commitment both the tutor and the learner have toward achieving the learning goal. While starting learning programing I was convinced that I would do it alone. However, I encountered problems that pushed me into asking for help. I experienced moments of anxiety and fear while approaching my neighbor for help, without knowing what his reaction would be. The positive outcome demonstrated the importance of facing fears in learning and taking the first step into fulfilling individual dreams despite of the situation. Today I am proud to say that my initial step toward learning programming has paid off and I anticipate being a great programmer in the future. Although I had a misconception on availability of personal time among programmers, I believe that just like my neighbor, I will manage to practice my self-found career and manage to create enough family time in the future.

A Student Studying Criminal Justice Could Recreate New Techniques on how to Reconstruct Crimes and Analyze Physical Evidence

Criminal justices students are engaged in studying how to investigate crimes by reconstructing the scene of crime and gathering all possible evidence at the scene of crime and also recording verbal statements from suspects and witnesses. They also work closely with forensic science specialists who are involved in investigating the collected evidence for fingerprints, and DNA patterns among other important analysis that can help in linking the suspect to the crime or the crime scene. Reconstruction of crime scene refers to the process of eliminating and determining the actions and events which took place at the crime scene via analysis of pattern of the crime scene, the position and location of the physical evidence, and the forensic or laboratory assessment of the physical evidence. Reconstruction of crime scene also entails systematic study of logical theory formulation and related information (Chisum & Turvey, 2011). This paper investigates between criminal justice/forensic science and crime scene reconstruction and analysis of physical evidence.

Effective criminal justice personnel should be able to study a crime scene and reconstruct it to come up with theory of what could have transpired in the crime scene. This always acts at the first step to the case investigation. Crime reconstruction needs the aptitude to put a puzzle together using unknown dimensions pieces with no guiding picture. Reconstruction of crime is the observational outcome of an action or act, which assist in the hypothesis of the results cause (Chisum & Turvey, 2011). Crime reconstruction can be done using scientific method. This is a method that is founded on the principles of hypothesis and experimental test to determine if the hypothesis explains the cause of the event. The definition of possible hypothesis depends mostly on individual experience, or creativity in crime solving. Thus one can test as many hypotheses as possible until a viable explanation of the event is acquired. To settle for any hypothesis, the criminal justice specialist must be able to provide supporting data, which in this case is the collected physical evidence. Only the theory that accounts for all collected physical evidences can be used as the true representation of what transpired during the crime (Fisher &Fisher, 2012). To be able to do this, the criminal justice investigating personnel must be a keen observer, be logical and critical thinker, must understand science, and be able to recognize evidence. Logic, critical thinking and clues are normally used by criminal justices investigator in crime reconstruction process. Normally, it is considerably hard to acquire all the needed information to fully reconstruct the crime by scene analysis. However, the scene should clearly tell what happens even with lost details of the sequence of events. The analysis requires both deductive and inductive logic in the crime analysis testing all formulated hypothesis, where most viable are kept for further analysis after more information on the crime is obtained, while the impossible are eliminated (Chisum&Turvey, 2011).

Collection and analysis of physical evidence play a great role in promoting accurate crime reconstruction. Basically, the crime scene is secured immediately after the arrival of the right personnel including criminal justice and forensic science officers.  Pictures of the crime scene are taken from different views that include the aerial view and on the ground. Sketches of the crime scene are also developed. The crime scene identification is mostly directed by physical evidence that may include breakage of the doors, scattered things, blood stains, dead body, clothes with blood stain, and murder weapon among other things, based on the specification of the crime. The data gathering should consider all aspects that can results to reconstruction of crime which include physical evidence condition, impressions and patterns, victim’s condition, position of the evidence based on the visible reference feature, and any other small detail that can explain the situation (Kumar & Goyal, 2017). A search should be conducted around then crime scene to determine if anything else could be find such as any lost item from the offender during the struggle with the victim or when running away, any item that can assist in identifying the victim, or any other physical thing that can aid in giving more clues.

Physical evidence according to Chisum andTurvey(2011) is simply one puzzle piece when investigators are attempting to solve a case. In some forms of crimes for instance sexual assault and homicide, physical evidence might be the most vital aspect in proving the connection between the victim and the suspect. Physical evidence might also be significant in proving that the same suspect is connected to series of crimes.  Some of the physical evidence likely to be found in the crime scene include drugs, semen, blood, saliva, fiber, fingerprints, glass, hair, organs, explosives paint, petroleum products, powder residue, minerals, soil, tool marks, vehicle parts, and plastic bags among others. One way to identifying all possible physical evidence is by being careful and searching keenly to anything unnatural in the crime scene, this include trails, broken pieces of trees, disturbed shrubs and the likes (Jblearing, n.d.). Criminal justice personnel should know that physical evidence found at the crime scene can be utilized to determine some of the events that happened during, immediately after, or before the crime. The evidence might be able to assist investigators to establish the order in which the incidences took place. The crime scene assessment is followed by physical evidence gathering and analysis. Analysis of collected physical evidence plays a great role in solving the puzzle. With this information, the investigator can conduct deductive and inductive reasoning, pattern, statistics, and probability analysis to evaluate the data offered by the physical evidence. More information from the eyewitness, photographs, sketches and reports writing can also help in reconstructing the crime (Jblearing, n.d.).

According to Fisher andFisher (2012), physical evidence recognition is an important step in the crime reconstruction. If possible physical evidence is not identified, properly collected, tested and preserved, the evidence forensic value might be reduced greatly or lost forever. Distortion of physical evidence may also result to punishing innocent people while the criminal remain free and boost about their success. Thus, it is important for criminal justice and forensic science personnel to the required integrity and knowledge be able to collect, preserve and analyze the available evidence effectively. This includes identifying and recording transient evidence which is temporal evidence that can be easily lost or changes (Parmar, 2015).  To ensure efficiency such kind of evidence which can include some physical and biological phenomenon such as drying blood, color, and temperature, recorded as soon as it is noticed. The investigator should also notice conditional evidence and record it to ensure that it is not lost since it is also temporal. This can include smoke, lighting, TV settings, position of the window, victim’s condition or condition of the victim’s body, or specific position or location of certain evidence in the room or crime scene. This kind of evidence speaks a lot about how the crime took place and if lost, it may become hard to reconstruct the crime. Pattern evidence should also be documented immediately. This can include depositions or fractures, imprints, striations or indentations. Some of possible patterns in the crime scene include blood stain of spatter pattern, article or clothing pattern, glass fracture, position of the furniture among others. This evidence can also be lost and hence need to be documented immediately (Fisher& Fisher, 2012).

Investigator should also consider transfer or trace evidence which is normally created by physical contact between objects, persons, or objects and persons. This evidence includes chemicals, blood, drugs, fingerprint, soil, hair, body fluid, and fiber. This kind of evidence normally requires forensic assessment and it can be used to link the victim to the offender or the crime to the offender. Another form of evidence is medical evidence which consist of injuries of witness, suspect, and victim, the injury degree and type, the wound condition and location, the size and number of the wounds, and individual medical history. Associative evidence refers to particular items positioned at a crime scene, which might be utilized as evidence to relate a suspect or victim with a specific scene. This evidence can be used to link the suspect to the victim. Some of these evidences include vehicle of the suspect, victim’s properties in possession with the suspect or suspect’s property left at the crime scene. Electronic evidence can also be found which include audio recording, video from mobile devices or from surveillance camera among other thing. According to Lee and Pagliaro (2013), any qualified criminal justice officer should be able to classify these forms of evidence and be able to prioritize on the most volatile evidence in the crime scene. These evidences can be easily gathered by taking photographs which preserves the appearance of the crime scene for future reference especially during analysis. However, a more effective investigation should use photographs, sketches and crime scene notes to ensure all details have been grasped and preserved for future analysis. Different types of evidence are anticipated to lead the investigation team to the suspect after understanding what transpired. The criminal justice officer should thus be able to integrate all the available evidence to bring out the events that took place to the crime and get bases to determine the involved suspects using this information (Parmar, 2015). Being systematic in gathering the evidence based on their level of volatility is the key secrete to acknowledging of all available evidence and preserving it to nub the suspects and to reinforce the case during trial.

It is important to note that each crime is unique even when committed by the same person. Each crime thus has its own features that may guide in the investigation process. However, an intelligent criminal justice officer can easily relate similar features of different crime to relate crimes done by a network of criminals. Nevertheless, one should not come with set mind on what to expect in a crime scene. The scene should work as the guide to crime reconstruction, after which, the investigator can conclude whether the crime was committed by a serial criminal, a master criminal or a novice. The scene should also give clue on where to start questioning investigation. In most cases, the questioning starts with the victim if alive or the family of the victim if dead and after the victim identification. High level of creativity, critical thinking and logical deduction is needed to be able to reconstruct the crime. Complete scene reconstruction is a major step in solving the crime misery (Fisher& Fisher, 2012).

Criminal investigation which includes analysis of the crime scene, identification of physical evidence, and reconstruction of the crime scene has for long been based on a systematic approach that employ scientific methods of investigation. This kind of investigation has been proved to be effective since it is the main referred method of crime investigation. However, it is important to note that the success of any criminal investigation resulting to crime scene reconstruction is highly determined by the level of knowledge, creativity and intelligence of the investigator and also on the investigator’s ability to use logic and critical thinking to solve problems. This implies that, even without changing the techniques, a qualified specialist can easily define workable theories to explain the crime and manage to nub the criminal and ensure their prosecution. One of the best technique that an intelligent criminal investigator should use include identifying and recording evidence on a priority basis by focusing first on the most volatile evidence to the least volatile. Another technique is working as a team. Normally,acrime scene can contains a number of volatile evidences that can be hard to be noted by a single person. Thus, working as a team to ensure each one record any seen volatile evidence immediately after arriving and the scene and also in volatile evidence can be quite fruitful. Collaborating even with forensic scientists in collecting and preserving samples and in making analysis is quite important since their findings play a major role in making the first leads to crime scene reconstruction. Thorough search of the crime scene surrounding after recoding everything visible can also play a great role in identifying some of the most important evidence to link the suspect to the crime. Thus, a criminal justice student can enhance the crime scene reconstruction and physical evidence analysis by employing intelligent procedure, and advance knowledge on what to prioritize over the other in evidence collection.

Ideas to Increase Revenue or Reimbursement in Healthcare Organization

One way to increase revenue is by enhancing performance. High patient outcome and satisfaction by improved and high quality care is likely to attract more patients to the healthcare organization. Satisfied patients are likely to come back in the future if in need of health care services. In addition, they are highly likely to refer their friends, relatives and colleagues to a healthcare organization that provide satisfactory services. This eventually results to increase in the level of patient flow in healthcare organization resulting higher revenue (Cosgrove et al., 2013). Another idea is by reducing penalties from Medicare and Medicaid services centers by reducing cases of readmission, hospitalized infection and other efficiency issues that attract penalties. Normally, healthcare organizations are penalized for recoding high level of readmission among other performance failure during Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement. It is therefore important to reduce such cases by enhancing proper follow-up after discharge, educating patients on proper self-care and enhancing high patient outcome during the initial treatment. High performance also attracts incentives from the government and other NGOs concerned with good healthcare operations. This is also likely to improve the organization revenue periodically, based on when an organization attracts performance incentive. Another idea is by conducting a strategized marketing which can be done by use of professional network where patients are referred by other professionals in the field to the organization. To manage this, an organization need to have specialized units and highly qualified professionals who are dedicated into providing quality of care and high level of patient satisfaction. This form of marketing can be considerably cheap and effective in increasing the patients-inflow. Another idea is by partnering with care organizations that do not fully focus on health care management to assist with such services. These include children’s home, elderly nursing homes, and asylum centers among other organizations. This ensures that the organization has steady extra income from such centers for providing needed healthcare services.

Increase in reimbursement assist in providing enough finances to run the health care organization. This ensures that there is enough funding to take care of short-term healthcare expenses and also long-term expenses. This implies that the care provision will not be undermined due to lack of resources. Increase in revenue also ensures good compensation of the healthcare professionals through incentives and increase in their benefits. This acts as a motivational factor that enhances personal professional growth and general improvement in performance. Increase in reimbursement and revenue also increase chances of healthcare expansion and provision of new healthcare facilities that will enhance care even more.

Cost- Cutting Strategies In A Healthcare Organization

One way to reduce healthcare operational cost is by reducing overheads in the administration department. This can be done by centralizing similar operations in the organization to reduce on redundancy, automating the healthcare system to improve on accuracy, speed of information processing and to enhance general efficiency. This can also assist in reducing excessive workers in the department. Outsourcing for administration services that do not require full-time operation can also be done to enhance efficiency (Culter, Wikler & Basch, 2012). Another strategy to reduce cost in healthcare organization is by focusing on preventive measures rather than focusing on effective treatment of preventable disease. The organization should focus on educating patients on preventive measures that include good diet, exercises, avoiding bad health behaviors,and regular checkup for the identified high risk group. Prevention cost is normally less than the treatment costs especially for disease that include cancer, heart diseases, diabetes and obesity among others (Fries et al., 1993). Another strategy that can be considered in this case is enhancing operational efficiency. This calls for effective utilization of the healthcare organization resources to reduce wastage. The healthcare personnel should be committed into proper utilization and care of available resource to avoid wastage and preventable breakage. This will reduce procurement and maintenance cost.

Another strategy to reduce cost includes promotion of safety, accountability and efficiency in treating and caring for patients.  Operational efficiency, safety and accountability will promote thorough treatment of a condition in the first visit to avoid readmission, and handling complex cases that could have been avoided, reducing medical errors which complicates a case, and avoiding hospitalized infections. This will generally reduce the cost of care not just to the patient receiving the care but also to the healthcare organization. As efficiency and accountability increases, the organization gest a chance to reduce wastage and extra resources to allocate elsewhere and hence reducing cost.  Another way to reduce cost is by enhancing care efficiency in terms of reducing waiting time and offering care in a different way that include promoting evidence based care where most patients respond to the provided treatment much faster than when evidence-practice is not promoted. This will reduce hospital stay and the number of resources needed to enhance general treatment and hence reducing the operational cost. Another strategy is by reducing excess workers in a healthcare organization, based on the patient proportion in the organization. This will reduce the employment cost and hence assist in cost reduction (Cosgrove et al., 2013).

Capital Budget and a Return on Investment Contribution to Sustainable Growth

Capital budgeting refers to a gradual process that is used by businesses to establish investment project merits. The decision on if to deny or accept an investment project as growth initiatives of a company entails establishing the rate of return of an investment of this kind can generate. Capital budgeting is essential since it generates measurability and accountability. The process of capital budgeting is a business assessment techniques to establish the long-term financial and economic profitability of any kind of investment project. Investment approved through capital budgeting must be able to demonstrates measurable investment return period and a reasonable period of making profit before it is written off . This demonstrates that, capital budgeting involves assessing the rate of return of an investment, and based on the outcome, one can decide whether the investment is profitable or not, and for how long the organization can depend on it as a source of income.

Based on the kind of the institution, capital budgeting ensures that the approved investments have the ability to generate a certain level of income per a certain period, within a specific lifetime of the investment. This is like a guaranteed earning when the facility is used as required. In this regard, the investment demonstrates a high level of income sustainability compared to other investments not based on capital budgeting. Moreover, budgeting ensures the amount invested does not exceed the amount to be earned, and that the investment must be able to return the investment cost within the shortest time period.  This ensures sustainable growth in that, the organization will only invest on projects that guarantee good return to the company. With every investment demonstrating positive return, the organization can easily be profitable enough to continue investing and expanding further (Meyer& KIyma, 2015).

Ethical Communication is an Essential Part of Business

Introduction

Ethics refers to science of people’s traits expressed as wrong or right action conduct. Ethics objective is to institute behavioural norms and moral standards. Ethics distillates on the moral standards as it apply to business behaviour, institutions and policies. It tries to use broad business activities moral principles so as to clarify or resolve the re problems that are characteristically arise in business. Ethical communication engages all relevant information with intention of combating evil and fostering goodness. This kind of communication is accurate and truthful and it evades exaggerative, discriminative and manipulative language. It thus promotes transparency in business and permit ethical operations in any business transaction. Ethical communication is said to be important, this paper evaluates the relevance of ethical communication business by focusing on ethical communication issues.

Ethical Communication as an Essential Part of Business

Business relations with the stakeholders are normally based on the information that the stakeholders have regarding the business operations and the business financial success. This is commonly experienced in the relation between a business and its investors or its customers. To foster a strong relationship, business is required to provide truthful information about its financial performance so as to enable investors to make informed decisions (Beckett, 2003, p.48). For instance, most investors would only consider investing in a company that demonstrates positive financial health and ability to perform even better in the future. They normally use the provided public company’s financial statements to make this decision. While doing so, they expect that the company financial statements which are a form of communication to the company stakeholders were done with high level of accuracy and truthfulness. They therefore assume that the company in question employed communication ethics of being truthful and accurate while making their financial statements. Ethical communication in business helps in creating business trust which makes it easy for a business to attract customers and investors.There is actual requirement for communication managers to generally critique organization ethics initiatives so as to guarantee that they boost trust and that they are actually not forcible regimes which hide essentially unethical procedures (Beckett, 2003, p.48). When the company financial statements are accurate, the company is likely to attract a high number of investors who give value to the company’s share. Any future realization that a company lied about its financial health is likely to draw investors out in huge number and abruptly, resulting to great financial disadvantage. This is also likely to destroy the company’s reputation, making it hard for it to regain its image in the market. Such acts of unethical communication are also regarded as fraud by the law, and hence, a company is likely to attract huge legal penalties or even withdrawal of its operational license.

Communication according to Beckett (2003, p.47) is a central management function. In essence, management is the communication act, where by management processes are connected to the information receipt and its valid interpretation that yields to effective making of decision. It is therefore importance for those working in communication management to have well-based foundation of ethical perception. For instance the communication management should not alter statistical data by decreasing or increasing or by omitting some details to obtain more favourable results for one reason or another. Such acts are likely to influence the decision making process whereby instead of defining solutions to the identified problems, or instead of focusing on determining the cause of the problem, the management will focus on celebrating their positive outcome and maybe plan for further advancement and other positive move when the company records positive outcome. This may eventually results to worsening of the situation, where the company can experience what management may consider as abrupt change of events, which are considerably hard to handle or very expensive to address in unexpected situation. For instance, misleading statistics showing increase in the company market shares as a result of marketing may influence the management to continue using unproductive marketing strategy, or planning for higher revenue which may create negative consequences.

Ethical communication according to Allison (1998, p.1025) ethical communication involves respect of the person receiving the information.  Respect is among the most essential value, and thus it should inform individual action toward others. In this regard ethical communication demands the messenger to check on the attitude created when passing the message. Ethical communication thus calls for avoiding language that exaggerates, discriminates, or/and manipulates others as a way of respecting others. This can highly be applied in human resources management department where the manner in which one communicate to them influence their attitude toward the organization and hence their performance. According to Allison (1998, p. 1026), managers should relate with employees not just as workers, but as full human beings. This applies when communicating to people indirectly and directly. For instance discriminative comments from supervisors and managers are disrespectful and are likely to demoralize and demotivate workers.  However, appreciative comments that demonstrate their value to the organization seem to motivate them, making it easy for them to be dedicated to the organization operations and good performance. A message in ethical communication should be framed in a manner that it does not invoke negative emotions. Even critiques and correction should be put in a manner that demonstrates respect to the recipient. This is the only way to employ ethical communication to promote positive change in an organization. Nevertheless, in case a manager use humiliating and discriminative messages to workers who show negative performance, they are likely to kill their moral and making their performance to deteriorate even further.

Ethical communication is in the above analysis used to demonstrate its effectiveness in business. However, this is not always the case. The aspect of being truthful in business can sometimes result to negative outcome or poor financial results eventually. For instance, media business attracts customers based on how catchy and interesting the message or the title is and not how true it is. Thus how interest the story is plays a major role in promoting sales and hence in determining the profitability of an organization. In this case, focusing on ethical communication f being accurate and truthful may highly impact the organization performance rather than putting it in a better operational position. Thus some exaggerated facts especially among the information that is not damaging can assist the company in attracting more customers. In this case, ethical communication does not hold any importance in the company’s success (TitiloyeOyeyinka, 2013, p.91).  It is also important to note that some truth are quite damaging, especially in this era of social media and other direct form of communication. Previously, the organization reputation was protected by establishing public relation office. This office helped in filtering information that can be damaging to an organization. However, today, anyone can publish information about an organization without much scrutiny.  This means some true but damaging information can easily be published to the public. In this case the communication ethics of being truthful can be quite destructive and thus, it is much better not to publish it.

Communication ethics on the other hand plays a major role in promoting positive growth in an organization. Based on the analysis, an organization that embraces communication ethics is likely to be founded on providing accurate and truthful vital information that influence its relation with its stakeholders. Publication of accurate and truthful information about an organization finances is likely to build a relationship of trust between the organization and its stakeholders, which can enhance growth and prevent future flops in case the covered truth is noticed eventually. Communication ethics also nurtures respect among people in communication. This is likely to promote healthy relationship especially between workers and their supervisors, and hence promoting their commitment to the organization. This is likely to influence the organization performance positively. Giving truthful and accurate information is likely to guide managers in making the right decision regarding different aspects in an organization (Christians & Traber, p.113). This makes it easy for the organization management to solve problems in the organization and to always focus on promoting the organization wellbeing. When an organization communication management is unethical, other management departments are likely to make decision based on misleading information, an aspect that is likely to cause future chaos in the organization operations.

Conclusion

The analysis discusses communication ethics issues and how they influence the business. Based on the analysis, the organization can highly benefit from communication ethics while in some instances; applying these ethics can highly limit the organizations chances of growth. Communication ethics are said to promote organization stakeholders trust and enhance good relationship between the organization and its stakeholders. This also plays a great role in protecting an organization from being involved in fraud and other illegal operations as it try to improve on its profitability. Ethical communication also promotes the relationship between workers and the management and also promote decision making. However, in other instance, communication ethics can easily expose damaging company information to the public or limit company’s growth. This implies that communication ethics can results to both positive and negative impact in an organization. However, the analysis demonstrates that the positive impacts of ethical communication outweigh negative impacts and hence it is important for any business organization to embrace communication ethics.

Changing Public Service System – Flyer

Flyer Instructions

As the associate director of staffing services for your state’s department of civil service, you must create a flyer regarding the changing public service system.

The flyer will be sent to the staffing departments throughout the state to inform the departments of the system’s history and potential challenges within the management of their workforce.

Create a flyer of a minimum of 750-words. In the flyer, address the following:

  • How has the public service system evolved over the last 100 years?
    What major events and decisions were important to the evolution Include a timeline of your examples.
  • What are some of the challenges of managing the public workforce in the 21st century?
  • Explain how these challenges came to be and how they may change in the future. Describe your vision for dealing with these issues.

Note. Please use graphics and images to help support your content.

Source of Wealth Disparity and What can be Done to Cover It – Annotated Bibliography

Introduction

The change of technology has highly influenced both governmental and private organization’s operation in the world. It has resulted to the development of digital technology which has brought change in the communication industry and enhanced the development of computers and internet. Different countries, especially those in the western have highly embraced this technology to facilitate their operations and to increase efficiency. However, other countries in the developing nations are lagging behind in embracing the new technology. This has made them to be left out in various global developments. This paper focuses no determining the best strategies that the countries lagging behind in digital technology embracement can cover for the gap. The world is also experiencing a huge gap between the rich and poor. This gap has been contributed by a number of factors in the United States. This paper will also review articles that explain the source of wealth disparity and what can be done to cover it.

 Thesis Statement

This paper focuses on determining measures that can be taken to overcome digital divide in the world and to determine the main cause of disparity between the rich and the poor in  the US and how this gap can be covered.

Annotated Bibliography

Shuva, N. Z., & Akter, R. (2011). Bridging digital divide through public, school and college libraries: A case study of Bangladesh. Journal of the Bangladesh Association of Young Researchers (JBAYR), 1(1), 49-77.

This is a case study research paper which focuses on determining measures that can be taken to eliminate digital divide in Bangladesh. The article identifies digital divide existence in Bangladesh, analyses the ICT situation in Bangladesh, government effort in reducing digital divide and to show that improvement off ICT status in public schools and colleges can work better than the current measures employed by the government. The paper structure include abstract, introduction, research objective, methodology, work scope, limitation, literature review, case study of use of ICT in Bangladesh, country initiatives to handle the gap and evaluation of possible result if school based approach is used to bridge the digital divide gap. The article uses extensive primary data as the evidence. Primary data is collected during the case study to demonstrate the level of digital divide in the country. The article also cites other credible sources which strengths its arguments.  The article answers the question on effective measures that can be employed to bridge the digital divide gap in any country, with Bangladesh as the reference country.

Ohemeng, F. L. K., & Ofosu-Adarkwa, K. (2014). Overcoming the digital divide in developing countries: An examination of Ghana’s strategies to promote universal access to information communication technologies (ICTs). Journal of Developing Societies, 30(3), 297-322.

This is article focuses on determining the measures the Ghanaian government has employed to fight digital divide in the country. According to the author, the use of ICT in various governmental operations can assist in enhancing the government functionality.However, its success depends on how it is applied by the government to overcome various challenges that can highly influence its operation. The paper provides an abstract, introduction to digital divide, analysis of digital divide including its description, characteristics, and significance, ICT and digital divide issues in Ghana, government effort to handle the digital divide issue, and challenges faced in addressing it. The article has an extensive range of credible references that include peer reviewed journals, and text books that it uses to justify its arguments. Other evidences include data, and governmental laws, which are used as evidence. Similar to other articles considered on covering digital divide topic, this paper points out how universal ICT access by the government has been employed in Ghana to eliminate digital divide in the country, which contributes to means that can be employed to eliminate digital divide.

Schlozman, K. L., Brady, H. E., & Verba, S. (2017). Growing economic inequality and its (partially) political roots. Religious, 8(97), 1-17.

The article points out on how technological, economic and political development in the country contributes to the wealth inequality in the U.S. According to the author, the politician of the country play the major role in defining policies that determine distribution of education and income based on how the government will benefit through taxes or based on the functionality of the market resulting inequality. The paper structure includes abstract, review on increasing economic inequality and how it has been propagated by politics. The paper provides data, and mostly financial data as evidence to the claim other include tracking the taxes trend since 1979 to 2011. It also cites various credible academic sources to increase the credibility of its argument. Similar to other wealth disparity sources, this article evaluates politics as one aspect that has attributed to wealth disparity in the country. The article answers the question regarding the sources of wealth disparity in US and what can be done to handle it.

Flores, R. L., & Halsall, J. (2017). The rising gap between rich and poor: A look at the persistence of educational disparities in the state and why we should worry. Cogent Social Sciences,3, 1-11.

This article reflects on how persisting educational disparities contribute to the widening gap between the rich and the poor in the US. According to the author, there has been variation on the level of education and quality of education between white and disadvantaged children or minorities in the county. The article structure include introduction to education disparity in the U.S., review of public education in the U.S., review of the corporatization and neoliberalism of public education, public education dismantling, U.S. charter school movement, education disparities persistence, and the requirements for investing in public schools. The author cites credible sources including research papers as evidence to his claims. This paper is similar to other sources on wealth disparity since it also points out another major cause of disparity in the country. The sourceanswers the research question by pointing out education disparity as another major contributor of wealth disparity in the U.S.

Choi, L. (2011). Addressing widening income inequality community development. Community Investment Fall, 23(2), 1-40.

The source provides extensive information regarding wealth inequality in the USA and how the government can manage it. The article gives intensive analysis of the variation between median yearly household income and the annual earning of top CEOs in the U.S. to demonstrate diversity between the two. It then analyses the great divergence in the country, its cause and how community development can be used to manage it. The article uses graphs to demonstrate the wealth disparity between rich and poor in the U.S. The research has used various data that include wages changes from 1973 to 2007, decile income share data from 1917 to 2008, and the U.S. households Gini index from 1967 to 2009. The article argument is also based on a wide range of credible sources which include government statistics, peer reviewed journals and organizational reports. Similar to other wealth inequality sources, this source points out on the level of inequality in the U.S., its cause and what can be done to bridge the gap. The source answers the research question by pointing out extensive wage variation as the main source of wealth disparity in the country.

Way Establishing a Safety and Health Management System in an Organization Complement and Improve Compliance with the OSHA Standards

In what ways does establishing a safety and health management system in an organization complement and improve compliance with the OSHA standards?

Health and safety management system is a systematic and coordinated approach to safety and health risks management. Health and safety management system assist an organization in improving its safety compliance and performance to safety and health standards and legislation progressively. This kind of a system assists an organization that adopts it in directing its effort in enhancing its work environment. This system describes measures, procedures, and behaviors that promote workers safety and wellness and prevent illnesses and injuries in the workplace. Implementation of such system makes it easy for the company to voluntarily examine its working areas and identify aspects that can cause physical or psychological injuries to the users (Maine Deparment of Labor, n.d.).

In the spirit of promoting safety and healthy, the organization acts swiftly in changing these aspects to promote wellbeing of those working in the unit. The company with this kind of the system also focuses on promoting risks preventive measures which include wearing protective clothing, installing warning tags and other signs necessary to communicate any danger in any working place, and ensure regular and proper maintenance of their machinery to ensure that they always perform as anticipated (Maine Deparment of Labor, n.d.). The goals and objectives of health and safety management system match most of the goals and objectives set in OSHA. For instance OSHA advocate for wearing of protective gear every time a worker is in a dangerous work environment. The ergonomic OSHA rules require an organization to regularly assess its workplace units and determine any ergonomic danger and make adjustments as soon as possible to ensure total safety. Proper maintenance of moving machinery and other important work tools is also demanded by OSHA to prevent damages and to promote work efficiency. Thus, an organization embracing of safety and health management system play a great role in enhancing the OSHA standard compliance in an organization.

Example of a Violation of the General Duty Clause (Section 5(a)(1) of the OSH Act)

Assignment Instructions

Using the requirements for General Duty Clause violations in Chapter 4 of the OSHA Field Operations Manual (FOM) and any additional information you can find in OSHA compliance directives or standards interpretations, describe a situation involving ergonomics that could be cited as a violation of the General Duty Clause (Section 5(a)(1) of the OSH Act). Explain how your citation meets the four elements listed in the FOM as necessary to prove such a violation

 

Sample Answer – Example of a Violation of the General Duty Clause (Section 5(a)(1) of the OSH Act)

The section 5(a)(1) of the General Duty Clause of the 1970 Occupational Safety and Health Act require employers to offer their workers with an employment place which is free from renowned hazards which are causing or probable to cause serious harm or death. According to the court, an employer has the legal obligation to offer a workplace that is free from activities or conditions which is recognized by either the industry or employer to be hazardous to the workers in any way (OSHA, n.d.a). This implies that subjecting any employee to a work situation that result to any kind of renowned injuries which include serious ergonomic injuries is a violation of the General Duty Clause. For an ergonomic hazard to be regarded as the violation of General Duty Clause one must be able to prove that there is existence of ergonomic hazard at the workplace, the hazard existence is recognized by the employer, the hazard is resulting to serious injuries, and that the employer has not implemented any measures to eliminate the hazard, despite knowing of its existence. For instance instant musculoskeletal disorder is one of the common risks experienced in a material handling industry that involves lengthy sitting hours and repetitive use of hands and fingers for instance in a computer workstation. The harm can be reduced by providing workers in an ergonomic workstation station that include adjustable tables and chair, ergonomic keyboard, foot rest hand support among other changes to ensure a health work environment (OSHA, n.b.c). The employer inability to provide for an improved or an ergonomic workstation where lengthy sitting time is involved which include garment or textile sewing companies and computers workstation can be regarded as the violation of the General Duty Clause.

Expectations of Stakeholder for a Nonprofit Organization Vs a For-profit Business

One of the key differences between non-profit organizations and for-profit businesses is that for-profit organizations use more factors for production labor to maximize profit. Such factors include capital, land, and technology intensive. Non-profit organizations totally depend on goodwill donations from public, private sectors, citizens, and government entities. Most for –profit financial activities are contingent upon marketing strategies and profit on the sale of goods and services (Daft, 2013). Other differences that one may anticipate in regards to stakeholders for nonprofit and for-profit organizations as opposed to for-profit organizations is as following; stakeholders in for-profit organizations are more engrossed on the level in which their products appeal to consumers and in what ways does it maximize profits.

Non-profit organizations focus their attention toward volunteering individuals and communities for donations. In addition, for-profit has great prospects on profit margin where they expect the business to have more profits than expenses, whereas non-profit organizations are more focused on how the organization can bring about change in the life of an individual or a community (Daft,2013). Though non-profit and for-profit organization stakeholders have different interest, they both have the responsibility to conduct their job to better the company and the stakeholder’s interest. Business managers represent the stakeholders and are entrusted to bring about profit and revenue toward the business, whereas non-profit managers rely on the stakeholders to raise funds in order to run the day-to-day operations of the organization, thus, I believe that non-profit managers have to pay more attention to stakeholders than business managers.

Why Shared Information Is Important In a Learning Organization

Why is shared information so important in a learning organization in comparison to an efficient performance organization

One can agree that sharing information across a company’s department is a very imperative tool for current and future success. Shared information is essential in a learning organization as compared to an efficient performance organization because sharing information endorses and encourages communications and partnership enabling people to be involved in ascertaining and solving various problems. This allows an organization to unceasingly advance and expand its capability.  The three characteristics of a learning organization as follows:

  1. “It develops both individual and collective knowledge;
  2. It uses learning to improve performance and boost competitive advantage; and
  3. It continuously enhances its capacity, through reflexive praxis, to adapt to its external environment. “(Lyle, E. R. 2012)

Furthermore, within the learning organization, shared information keeps the organization operational at an ideal level, instead of using the information to take hold of the employees; a fundamental part of the manager’s day-to-day operations is to find efficient and effective ways to open up channels of communication so that ideas can flow in every direction.  Shared information maintains open lines of communication with customers, suppliers and at times even competitors to enhance the structure, learning, culture and strategy capabilities. There’s a correlation between information sharing and structure; during 1776 in the time of Adam Smith, organization information was only kept between top executives and the design of the organizations were very vertical. The hierarchy provided the mechanism for total supervision and control, the strategy was constructed by the top management and executed on the organization. Over time, most organizations have gone away of the traditional vertical structures and implemented horizontal structures such as the learning organization. The new structures dispersed the boundaries between top management and the workers.

Then, new and update structures changed the task performances from monotonous tasks to empowered roles. For the task were broken into specialized separate parts as a machine, and now a task is assigned to one worker. This also allowed for the empowered employees to have the strategy change in such a way that employees are now in with identifying needs and finding solutions, thus participating in the strategy making. Furthermore, the new collaboration strategy has changed the culture in which organizations do business from the old rigid culture into a more adaptive culture. Contrarily, in an efficient performance organization, there is no need for sharing information for the flow of production is linear. A great example of an efficient performance organization is a manufacturing company, where parts are made in order and each department is different from the other.