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Impact of Implementing Triple Aim Goals Nationally

MHA 515 Assignment Instructions

Write a paper that evaluates the impact of implementing Triple Aim goals nationally. Determine whether the three dimensions of Triple Aim would be achievable. Use a heading of your own words for each of the following.

  • Improving quality and satisfaction for the patient experience of care
  • Improving the health of populations
  • Reducing the per capita cost of health care

Triple Aim Goals – Sample Paper

The Triple Aim Goals by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) are targets intended to improve the state of healthcare in the United States. The three goals focus on increasing patient satisfaction, reducing the cost of healthcare, and improving the health of populations. Analyses of these goals show that they are attainable through the implementation of certain measures.

Improving the Patient Experience of Care

The manner in which patients experience care while in hospital settings is of central importance in the provision of healthcare. This goal should be clearly defined in order to identify areas that directly contribute to a better experience of care by all patients. Studies show that negative experiences by patients while seeking healthcare services negatively impact their health-seeking behavior. A patient who feels to have been poorly treated will not want to be in the same experience again. This impacts an individual’s health negatively in the long term, as well as a population’s health if most of them feel the same.

Read also Caring According To Nursing Theories and Patients Lived Experiences

The goal of improving the patient experience of care is achievable. This goal can be achieved through a number of ways that help to improve the experience of patients while seeking healthcare services. One of the ways of achieving this is by ensuring that patients are engaged at all times (Barello et al., 2016). This approach ensures that patients feel valued. Patient experience can also be improved by enhancing communication between healthcare providers and patients. Communication is important in creating a better understanding and provides an opportunity for clarification of concerns that patients might have. Treating patients with respect increases the quality of care provided, and ensures that the patient is fully satisfied with the healthcare services. Through these approaches, it is possible to significantly improve patients’ experience of care.

Read also How Patient Education and Technology Impacts the Delivery of Healthcare and Nursing Care

Improving the Health of Populations

Population health denotes the promotion of the health of a given group of people. It could also mean the overall promotion of the health of the population. Measures such as widespread vaccinations against certain diseases are a classic example of how population health is achieved. For example, by ensuring that all children are vaccinated according to the outlined schedule, the healthcare system ensures that these children are not vulnerable to the diseases that they have been vaccinated against (Quinn et al., 2019). Improving the health of populations is an ideal goal that can be achieved through a number of ways in the healthcare system. Reduction of the rates of certain diseases is one of the main goals that can be used to achieve improved health of a population. For example, a target to reduce the rates of such conditions as diabetes leads to improved health of the population. There should also be a focus on reducing health disparities.

Read also Why Population Health Management Is A Significant Contributor To Improved Patient Care And Decreased Complications

There are a number of recognized health disparities among different populations, such as in the manner in which African Americans and Caucasians receive healthcare. The former group has been widely reported to be highly disadvantaged as far as access to healthcare is concerned. Addressing these issues ensures that there is equal access to healthcare services, which ultimately improves the health of the general population. Finally, encouraging healthy behaviors and lifestyles has a positive influence on the health of populations. This method can reduce the rates of such conditions like diabetes and hypertension by encouraging healthy diets and exercise.

Read also Application of Community Health and Population-Focused Nursing

Reducing the Per-Capita Cost of Health Care

The cost of healthcare is one of the main factors that influence the manner in which people consume healthcare services. The cost of healthcare has risen significantly due to the increased number of diagnostic tests performed on patients, as well as the increased cost of drugs. Another significant factor that has led to the increased cost of healthcare is the emergence of private insurers in the healthcare sector. These insurance companies concentrate too much on profits, and this greatly disadvantages consumers of health. Unavailability of easily accessible health centers also means that patients have to travel for long distances to seek quality and specialized care.

Read also Cost- Cutting Strategies In A Healthcare Organization

Reducing the cost that each person spends on healthcare is an achievable goal that can be achieved through the implementation of various measures. The federal government and the state governments should negotiate the prices of drugs in order to reduce their cost (Frank & Zeckhauser, 2018). This measure has a trickle-down effect as the drugs will be cost-effective to all patients. Measures should also be put in place to ensure that medical professionals are not incentivized to prescribe the most expensive drugs. Appropriate levels of cost-sharing with employers should also be established to ensure that the cost of health is effective at all levels (Carlin et al., 2016). Encouraging good consumer behavior would also reduce instances where people need healthcare services on a regular basis. These steps are helpful in containing the cost of healthcare.

Read also Impact of The Growth of Health Care Cost on The Government and Employers


The attainment of the three goals is a desirable goal that the government and the health sector should focus on. The analyses of the three goals show that they are impactful in how they influence the health sector, especially in promoting the improvement of healthcare services. The three goals are the pillars of a sound healthcare system that is responsive to the needs of the population.

What is a Just State?Intersectionality and Utilitarianism – PHI 2301

The notion of a ‘just state’ is a concept that has been explored by leading philosophers over the centuries. In particular, the organization of a nation state, power structure, education and the relationship between the individual and the state have emerged as major areas of focus in this philosophical discourse. This paper will, therefore, explore this conception by first discussing intersectionality, utilitarianism, in addition to conducting an in-depth evaluation of intersectional and traditional social justice approaches. 

            Intersectionality is a relatively modern theoretical framework which primarily focuses on exclusive types of discrimination brought forth by combining social and political identities. The initial objective of this charter was to elucidate aspects of feminism which had not been explored by leading proponents of the movement. For instance, proponents of intersectionality such as Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw were critical of the preliminary agenda which seemingly explored this concept through the perspective of Caucasian white middle-class woman. In coining this term, Crenshaw sought to introduce a comprehensive agenda to probe combinations of injustices experienced by society at large. Furthermore, Crenshaw endeavored to introduce a qualitative analytic framework to categorize intertwining structures of power responsible for the injustices suffered by marginalized members of society. It was through this agenda that overlapping categories were classified in a bid to promote equity within society. According to Rosen et al. (2015), intersectionality bolstered the feminist agenda by concentrating on the amalgamation of various forms of oppression which can be attributed to injustice in society (p.123). Contemporary intersectionality investigates multiple sources of oppression commonplace in society and the fact that individuals are typically treated for one. The interaction of varying social identities and experiences eventually shape human beings, in addition to the disposition they adopt later on in life.  Intersectionality essentially acknowledges that intragroup differences are typical in society, even in the case of individuals sharing a common identity. Individual experiences differed slightly due to an overlay of sexual, racial, and religious identities which eventually resulted in an intersection of oppressions.

            The idea behind utilitarianism is the adoption of policies and actions with the aim of promoting the overall well-being of society. It is anchored in the premise that a just society is one which primarily focuses on maximizing the happiness and welfare of the individual members for posterity. Maximizing utility in society aims to introduce positive consequences while considering the interests of all affected parties equally. Utilitarianism, as espoused by John Stuart Mill, is now widely regarded as a moral theory whose main objective is improving the welfare of the community through the introduction of individual benefits (Mitchell, 2015). However, it is essential to note that utilitarianism regarded pleasure as a relative concept with fluctuating aspects of quality and quantity.  Individuals seeking pleasure were required to acknowledge its basis in higher faculties and direct links to the decisive attainment of goals and life objectives. Besides, utilitarianism also included aspects of virtuous living as a regular sentiment of the social nature of human beings. These standards form the basis of utilitarianism which should always be considered when regarding it as an ethical approach. Utilitarianism also places happiness at the crux of morality. It is the sole desire of every individual, with every other item being regarded as a means to an end. Thus, justice in society has its foundation on utility since the existence of rights is solely for the purpose of improving human happiness.  Intersectional and traditional social justice approaches are two dissimilar systems that have emerged over the course of time.  The intersectional justice approach is archetypally applied to multiple grounds complaints which consist of a combination of subjugations which ultimately produce distinct discrimination.  This approach reckons the social and political context in a case when probing a sufferer’s unique set of circumstances. For instance, the type of discrimination experienced by a woman from an ethnic minority may differ significantly from that of a man from the same ethnicity and vice versa.   This phenomenon is attributed to distinctive types of stereotyping which exist in society. Belonging to a specific organized religion such as Islam may expose an adherent to religious discrimination only if they pinpoint an additional ground such as race as a basis for this percipience. Similarly, an individual with a physical disability may experience unique experiences of discrimination, especially when age becomes a factor. An older individual from a racialized group (such as a Native American) with a disability may be subjected to disproportionate discrimination which ultimately introduces significant disadvantages. The intersectional approach is cognizant of the intricacies of individual’s experiences of discrimination while taking the historical, social and political aspects into account.  The traditional social justice approach focuses exclusively on justice with special focus on relations between affected individuals and society. It is based upon access to opportunities and social privileges within a society which commonly shares links with an individual’s ability to fulfill social roles. For instance, the reciprocal relationship currently existing in society is a methodology based on an individual’s responsibility and their access to instruments of power. Thus, this approach assigns rights and responsibilities to individual members based various institutions of a well-designed society.

Constantine the Great Vs Ashoka the Great – Ancient Rulers Comparative Essay

Many cultures in the world have often been associated with remarkable leaders who guided the given communities through different important periods. Leaders are custodians of a community’s way of life, as well as the economic and political interests. Constantine the Great and Ashoka the Great were remarkable leaders who led their communities during periods that greatly defined their communities to this day.  Constantine was a Roman Emperor who lived between the year 272 and 337. He ruled the Roman Empire between the years 324 and 337. He is renowned for his steadfast leadership, his decisive thinking at crucial moments, as well as having transformed the Roman Empire into the greatest empire of its time. Ashoka lived between 304 BC and 232 BC. He belonged to the Maurya Dynasty and served as the emperor of India between 268 and 232 BC. He is famed for waging destructive wars against his enemies, and expanding the territory of the Indian subcontinent. A comparative study of the two leaders reveals that they had much in common, and contributed immensely to the growth and dominance of their territories.

Read also Comparative Essay – Empress Wu Zetian of China and Pharaoh Hatshepsut of Egypt

Constantine and Ashoka have a number of similarities that put them on the same pedestal. Firstly, the two leaders are responsible for leading two main religions to prominence in their territories. Constantine the Great advanced the course of Christianity in the Roman Empire. During his rule, Christianity was growing exponentially across the region and the surrounding territories. Constantine converted to Christianity due to the insurmountable influence the religion was gaining (Burckhardt, 2018). Although he converted due to the immense force of Christianity, his conversion played a significant part in pushing the course of Christianity even further. Many people that were doubtful of the religion followed his move. He also set up committees that served the purpose of harmonizing the religion and its teachings in the Roman Empire. His formation of the Nicene Creed elevated the status of Christianity in the region (Nelli, 2016). He also granted Bishops a special position in the society. Ashoka, on the other hand, promoted and accelerated the growth of Buddhism in India. His most important action in this regard was in converting to Buddhism. Ashoka created the Buddhist council, much like Constantine’s Nicene Creed, that helped the advance Buddhism in the Indian subcontinent. Another significant similarity is that the two leaders waged destructive wars against their enemies, and expanded their territories in the process. Constantine’s war against Licinius and Ashoka’s Kalinga war represents this similarity.

The two leaders had significant differences that put their leadership styles and way of life apart. Firstly, religion played a significant part in the manner in which Constantine executive his leadership. He sought to use religion in a manner that would benefit him politically. His elevation of Christianity in the empire is widely interpreted as an attempt to appeal to the majority of the population who had already embraced the religion (Mititelu, 2018). In the process, this helped him to align himself with the population and made it easier for him to execute his agenda. His promotion of Christian leaders also helped him politically as people saw him as an actual champion of the belief system. Constantine used these leaders to advance his political causes in the empire. Ashoka, on the other hand, did not use Buddhism as a political tool. He valued the need to employ the law as the cornerstone of his politics. Another difference is the manner in which the two leaders ascended to power. Constantine rose through the ranks in the military and finally gained the status to take over as emperor. Ashoka rose to power as a compromise candidate after the crown prince, Susima, ran out of favor after being deemed too erratic.

Read also Confucius and Aristotle on Virtue – Comparative Essay

The two leaders exercised their rule in territories that were culturally rich and different from each other. The two cultures were very rich in art and developed many different forms of art-forms that significantly elevated their status. The two cultures had different forms of art, and especially in the development of portraits. The most dominant form of imperial art in the Roman Empire was portraiture. Most of these portraits captured the themes of youth, idealism, and realism. The art in the Indian Empire focused on buildings and the drawings displayed on their walls. These art-forms formed the basic means through which the culture identified itself. Another cultural difference is the fact that the literal theatre was very popular in the Roman Empire. Most of them were performed by all-male actors. In Indian culture, however, the most popular form of performing art was music. In conclusion, culture and leadership have a central interplay in society. Constantine used religion as a means to consolidate his power and political influence. Ashoka, on the other hand, used the law as a means to attain fairness and justice for everyone in society. These elements of leadership are rampant in the modern world with the existence of many theocracies such as Iran and Saudi Arabia that use religion as the main factor in politics. In many cultures, art continues to play a central role in careers as well as representing cultural elements.

Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau – Who’s Theory of Government is Most Compatible With Biblical Principles?

GOVT 302 Research Paper Instructions

You will prepare your Research Paper on the topic “Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau: Who’s  Theory of Government is most compatible with biblical principles?” Choose 1 of the 3 philosophers, and then compare and contrast all 3 philosophers on such topics as: human nature, natural law, human law, origin of government, purpose of government, civil disobedience, right of revolution, and government and religion.   In addition, use relevant ideas from the ethical and social theories of Adam Smith and David Hume in forging your evaluation.

In your Research Paper, develop and apply a critical criteria to explain both why you selected your author and why you did not choose the other authors. If you believe 1 author was more scriptural in certain aspects but another author was closer to Scripture in a different area, explain your position. The important point is not which philosopher you choose but how well you explain and defend your choice. Be specific by citing the individual points with which you agree and explaining why they are scriptural. You must use the textbooks and Scripture as references for this assignment. You may cite additional sources if you wish, but the majority of the references must be from the textbooks and Scripture.

Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau – Who’s Theory of Government is Most Compatible With Biblical Principles? – GOVT 302 Research Paper


Theories of government are composite propositions that have influenced political thought of administration among leading and prominent systems of governance globally. Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean Jacques Rousseau are among notable philosophers lauded for their contribution to modern political notions. They all sought to gain a deeper understanding of the life before the development of institutions, the creation of systems of governance and citizen’s obligation when subjected to autocracy. This paper will employ a biblical world view when exploring significant aspects of theories of government while demonstrating the correlation between the views held by Thomas Hobbes and Biblical Scripture.

Hobbes’s Scientific Perspective

Scientific knowledge is a common factor in major Hobbesian propositions. So much so that it went as far as influencing his worldview and life’s work. Hobbes was well-versed in science and mathematics through which he had could test various phenomena while endeavoring to prove or disprove plausibility.1 An understanding of Hobbes’ scientific base is, therefore, imperative when attempting to decipher his political thought and ideas. In presenting his ideas, Hobbes was mostly trying to create a scientific foundation for ethical and political philosophy meant to aid society in arriving at a position where individuals were capable of performing their civic duties. Firm compression of this little-known fact, therefore, sheds more light on the main reason why specific tenets exist in Hobbes’s theory of government.

Read also The Fundamental Political Ideology of John Locke

Human Nature

Aspects of human nature are critical tenets in writings by Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean Jacques Rousseau. Theirs was a new era where leading philosophers were keen on conducting an in-depth analysis of human nature to influence modern thought. Out of the three aforementioned philosophers, the Hobbesian perspective provided the most accurate and constructive political idea. He specifically explored human beings from a depravity standpoint to gain a deeper understanding of the current state of nature. Hobbes proposed that the government was man’s response to chaos and a constant quest for peace. Furthermore, being political and social did not form a significant part of human nature. His was a clear concerted effort to avert malevolence at the core of the human psyche. Peace is, thus, presented more as a motivator for Hobbes when developing his theory. The government was also tasked with the creation of social constructs with the aim of creating a sense of collective consciousness. Locke, on the other hand, viewed this same state through a lens that also explored freedom and liberty. His idea was based on the idea that man was capable of coexisting without a government since peace is his natural state. Hence, the creation of an authority and government was regarded as an error since man was capable of living with others of his kind devoid of a common superior. Human beings were expected to behave rationally around each other while respecting boundaries. According to Hobbes, social constructs were created to prevent deterioration into a continual state of war, which would ultimately result in a state of anarchy. Society would now be subjected to a steep decline in industry, anxiety, and fear of violent death.

 Rousseau also presented his ideas on human nature, entirely dissimilar from those proposed by his philosophical counterparts. He was against sections of Hobbes’ and Locke’s propositions based on the foundation of their political thought. Rousseau was convinced that both Hobbes and Locke were far removed from the reality introduced by social contracts since they were of high stature in English society. He proposed a pre-historic standpoint to his argument. Rousseau’s belief juxtaposed that of Hobbes and Locke. Although Rousseau did take part of his idea from these two philosophers, he believed the base of their thinking was off kilter. Rousseau’s belief looked at a more pre-historic view and, because of this, had distinct hopes for humans in the state of nature. He was particularly against the idea that man would naturally be inclined to be social. Rousseau’s approach was based on the premise that socialization and the development of language are all but social contracts that would never have been realized in nature. Additionally, this type of nature would forge a new type of individual who did not fear death and pain. Foresight was non-existent in this state, which would render ethics and morality entirely unnecessary. Rousseau firmly believed that the state of nature was ideal for man since numerous opportunities to live outside the social contracts now existed. It is also imperative to evaluate each idea presented by the aforementioned philosophers from a scriptural standpoint. Locke’s propositions stand out as being anomalous since it assumes that man is inherently good and not strive for mere existence. It goes against Mark 7:21-23, which explicitly lists adultery, evil thoughts, pride, and envy as products of the human heart.

From this verse, one can deduce that a form of order was quite necessary in society to create a semblance of order and avoid the chaos that all too often leads to protracted conflict. The state of nature, as presented by Hobbes, bears noticeable hallmarks that align with biblical scripture. For instance, the fall of Adam and Eve is attributed to a deep-seated pride, which ultimately drove them to sin. Rousseau’s proposition holds water, although he regards human beings as beings close to animals. God’s commandment to Adam gave him dominion over other animals and placed him above other creatures. Using this argument, Rousseau’s argument falls short and does not align with biblical scripture. Hobbes’s proposition regarding the state of nature is most accurate of the two and consistent with biblical scripture. His proposal is based on the foundation that man is fallible, corrupt, and covetous. As stated in Jeremiah 17:9, deceit is at the core of human nature and difficult to detect. It is the primary reason why Cain went as far as killing his brother Abel.

The Origin of Government

John Locke presents a convincing argument regarding the state of nature. In fact, his idea is widely accepted by world leaders as one of the most accurate accounts relating to the origin of government. Locke’s idea was based on the premise that government was simply a creation of humanity that currently has numerous manifestations. It also resulted in a contract between individuals and the state where they would give up their freedom to allow the government to play the role of a protector. Locke posited that individuals were responsible for their destinies and owned their labor.

Read also How John Locke Views Personal Identity – Sample Essay

He regarded labor as part of a person’s body, which was also why he insisted that individuals safeguard it at all costs. This “natural property” created the basis for every other type of property and only available in a state of nature. Locke also had sentimental value to land. He believed it was through it that man obtained food and made huge leaps in society by harnessing labor from individuals. Locke thought that land was a valuable asset that had to be safeguarded at all costs. One of the methods employed in such an instance entailed giving the government the authority to secure the property and establish specific rights relating to the task at hand.

           However, Locke’s perspective raises fundamental questions regarding his stance on the state of nature. He fundamentally contradicts his proposition by claiming that a person’s area always bound to be just in their actions within a state of nature. This seems to imply that every individual was responsible for their protection and should, therefore, not depend upon the government for any form of protection. In a state of nature, man is always thought to have good intentions, but this notion raises key questions surrounding the reasons why governments are required, given the fact that man is noble. This idea raises more questions than answers since it is contradictory to create a government for individuals who are seemingly flawless and have proven their capability in developing amicable relationships. Inconsistencies are, therefore, resent in Locke’s ideas regarding the state of nature, which now affects the integrity of his beliefs.

           A review of Hobbes central ideas is also critical when seeking to gain a broad understanding of the origin of government and what it has come to represent in modern politics. One of the key elements in his idea of government is the inner nature and importance of the transfer of power between the government and its citizens. It is through this social contract that human beings first resorted to the creation of governments through a systematic exchange with citizens willing to give up their freedom. This exchange was vital in determining the rights and freedoms of the subordinate, who would typically be expected to accept any decision arrived at and implemented by the sovereign. Hobbes’ theory also presented ideas that were initially thought of as unusual during his time. For instance, the sovereign did not have any obligation to perform any duty or provide services to the citizens. This would occur even when these same individuals gave up their power through a consensus, before proceeding to obey every edict implemented by the sovereign. Hobbes referred to this as a socially constructed government where citizens struck an agreement based on the majority being given the opportunity to govern over their contemporaries. 3. All this is then selected by a vote to determine the rightful ruler and his stint at the helm of power. Individuals who shun this contract continue in their continual state of war and animosity with their neighbors. One inimitable quality about Hobbes’s work is that he always concise concerning his opinions about government but never forgot to leave room for additional interpretation by experts. It is worth noting that he is not specific on whether elected leaders in a democracy, republic, or absolute monarchy are best suited for state governance. He only urges the citizens to provide approval and create a government based squarely on their consent. Hobbes’s perspectives allude to biblical scriptures related to leadership. The Israelites had long been ruled by judges and longed for a new system of governance which would now involve installing a king. Although it is not clear which type of government existed during this period, God dissuaded the Israelites from having a king for their own good. According to Mark 12:17 individuals were expected to pay their taxes and serve God.

  This verse is a clear indicator that God was not specific in the type of government he expected gentiles to adhere to but also an indication that it aligns with biblical scripture.

Rousseau, on the other hand, was a humanist who believed that man is not different from other animals and should endeavor to treat them equally. These opinions are expertly explored when investigating the origin of government. Rousseau regarded society as an artificial construct that did not suit humanity’s progress. Additionally, he viewed the family unit as the only natural society that has ever existed since the dawn of time. Rousseau’s opinion on the formation of government is also quite similar to Hobbes’s proposition. They both believed in individuals giving up their rights and freedoms to the government for peace and tranquility. General will was, thus at the center of his theory on the government where interests were carefully discerned for an egalitarian approach, which assured the community of the best outcomes. Rousseau’s idea of government was based on the viewpoint that the conglomerate of individuals coming together in society was responsible for the development of the community through general will.  An area of concern which emerges from this proposition is that it does not regard self-governance as a plausible reality. Rousseau’s theory of government also expects the government to shoulder the decision-making responsibility, which may be incorrect. This theory presents numerous questions regarding its practicality in modern society.

Civil Disobedience

           Autocracy is a common theme that has featured in Europe’s political history. Locke was aware of this reality during the formulation and endeavored to explore aspects of this particular state. He investigated the possibility of excesses in executive power and the emergence of tyranny in seemingly democratic societies. Locke regarded civil disobedience as the only option available for citizens in a situation where they had lost control and were subject to a sovereign’s dictatorial tendencies. Any illegal actions by the executive were to be met by a continual tirade of civil disobedience to restore the society to a state where citizens retained their sense of control. Civil disobedience was, therefore, justified as a means to an end even though many think of it as an extreme alternative. However, it is important t acknowledge that Locke did not insist on civil disobedience as the first and only option available to the citizenry. He urged scrutiny of any situation before ultimately concluding that civil disobedience was the best possible option. This action was rationalized by the fact that illegal activities were tantamount to a government being at war with its own people. In 16th century Europe, kings were known for their vile disposition and a vice-like grip on power that eventually caused unimaginable suffering to the common folk. Locke’s theory was based on the idea that citizens were obligated to rebel and act in defiance whenever required to serve a rogue executive committing atrocities against his people.

           Nevertheless, it is important to acknowledge that defiance is rejected in biblical scriptures. Adherents of Abrahamic religions are expected to obey leaders and avoid actions tantamount to civil disobedience. However, religious teachings have now been tweaked to ensure they fit into modern political themes. One such example is the fact that individuals are now taught to disobey the government in case it requires members of society to disobey God’s command blatantly. It is now common to encounter teachings focusing on civil disobedience being offered in local chapels and churches. These teachings are largely in congruence with those espoused by Locke.

Civil disobedience should only be conducted under a set of special circumstances; when their basic values are violated by being urged to participate in activities that go against God’s word. The Holy Bible is littered with numerous examples where civil disobedience was employed as a tactic by leading figures. One such story is that of Moses and his quest to free the Israelites from servitude in Egypt. Moses was commanded to travel to seek an audience with the Pharaoh in a bid to urge him to release the Israelites from their shackles. In this particular instance, disobedience was required since the Pharaoh was now an adversary who had entered a state of war with the Israelites through subjugation. Nevertheless, Moses still followed the bureaucratic channels of the day and first ensured that he met the Pharaoh to strike a deal before leaving with his people. This is a clear indication that even though Locke’s perspective on civil disobedience is accurate, it is not always applicable in every scenario.

           Numerous inconsistencies emerge when reviewing Hobbes’ and Locke’s viewpoints on civil disobedience. Hobbes regarded man as a representative of God on earth, which was why he had to ensure that all acts of disobedience were avoided. Hobbes even viewed it as sin since it was an indication of outright insolence when it was clear the God always worked in mysterious ways. Hobbes’s idea also varies to a degree when compared to the scripture. 1 Timothy 2:3 is emphatic in its claim that only God exists as a sovereign, with man playing the role of a mediator. Rousseau also delved deeply into civil disobedience. He reviewed it from a perspective of general will and civil disobedience, the product of a society with individuals who did not have a clear understanding of enlightenment.

 Rousseau also regarded these same individuals as an existential threat to the wellbeing of society and had to be checked to prevent anarchy.

 It is also evident God did not intend to have his people live in a constant state of autocracy since it is an unnatural state that would eventually lead to sin.


Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean Jacques Rousseau are among the most celebrated philosophers. This review was, therefore, critical in evaluating Hobbes’ theory of government and its relationship with the biblical world view. Hobbes’s assumption of the state of nature was accurate since man is driven by selfish desire. Locke regarded man as being inherently good, but Rousseau was aware of his barbarous nature. Thus, out of the three philosophers, Hobbes’s perspectives were more accurate and also revealed a spiritual bearing to his theory of government.

Balancing Unalienable Rights with Unconditional Love – GOVT 376

GOVT 376 – Essay 1 Instructions

Prepare an essay on the topic of “Balancing Unalienable Rights with Unconditional Love.” You must address the tension between insuring unalienable rights for citizens while at the same time insuring a tone of love, civility, and respect to others, avoiding the polarization that so often characterizes relationships between diverse groups in America. You must integrate biblical precepts that provide guidelines for achieving the desired balance.

Balancing Unalienable Rights with Unconditional Love – Sample Essay


     Throughout United States history, there was a challenge to make a balance between the inalienable rights of citizens with unconditional love. It is a challenge to the of how to protect the inalienable rights that God gifted to humans and extend tolerance and love to all of mankind, this challenge comes from the diversity of cultures in our nation. The discussion of this problem started from the day that the founding fathers wrote the declaration of independence until today and it is still a challenge but in our modern days it becomes needful to find a way to balance them .

Unalienable Rights

       The United States was founded under the law of God, the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God. America was founded on the principle that rights are endowed to us by our Creator and that our rights transcend government, which means that God created humans with inalienable rights and it the same time God gave to man authority to establish a government that protects these rights. Dees states “God’s intended role of government is to restrain evil and to promote righteousness while the complementary role of citizen includes submission and right living under the law of God and the law of man”. In the second paragraph of the declaration of independence, the founders wrote that “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal; that they are endowed, by their Creator, with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”. The unalienable rights guaranteed by God and it is protected by the constitution are the basic rights for all citizens. which states that each citizen has the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. First, the right to life is to look to human life and respect the physical, mental, spiritual, and emotional rights. Second, the right to liberty, which gives the citizens freedom of speech, religion, and to do as one pleases while not depriving anyone else of their freedom. Third, The Pursuit of Happiness, which means, “a fundamental right mentioned in the Declaration of Independence to freely pursue joy and live life in a way that makes you happy, as long as you don’t do anything illegal or violate the rights of others.”

Right to Life and Abortion

         How to balance between these rights and unconditional love is a challenge because at some point these rights can be very confused for some citizens to understand. For example, abortion rights, the disputes between proabortion and antiabortion factions have segregated society since 1973. The proabortion movement believe it is the woman’s right to make her own decisions about her body. It is women’s right to privacy and the government has no right to intervene and make it illegal.  While antiabortion movement believes that abortion rights are violated the inalienable rights that guaranteed in the Declaration of independence especially the rights of life. Dees stated that “Respecting Life,” will include three primary categories: Respect for the Unborn, Respect for the Elderly, and Respect for the Traditional Family”.

Read also Should Abortion be Made Illegal?

The right of unborn is to be born and the government must protect this right because pre-born is human. It is not easy to explain that these rights of unborn are based on God’s law. The United States has a diversity of people with different religions and cultures, some do not understand or believe in God’s authority over humans and they think the law of ban abortion is against their inalienable rights. In the eyes of many, this case has challenged the civility because it is against God’s laws and the foundation of this country. This dichotomy offers challenges to the moral code of all that undergirds our society and its legal structure and social divisiveness.

Read also Landmark Cases – Birth Control and Abortion

        Founding fathers understood that they must establish a government that extended love to all of America’s people. They must create a system where all citizens have the right to speech freedoms, and religious liberty free from any persecution or hardening. The Media role and Collective responsibility should extend love when addressing sensitive issues such as abortion rights, they must to exam the case from different sides and build ways to dialogue without any intolerance even if they believe that is against their beliefs or ideas, they must adopting rational discourses and move away from the strict discourse, must explain patiently how this country is built under God’s law, and that what made it exceptional and successful over 200 years. The best Bible verses that can support that love is John, which said, “Dear friends, let us continue to love one another, for love comes from God. Anyone who loves is a child of God and knows God.” The love would create a coherent nation without any conflicts because It is normal for humans to be different in their opinion and belief but what is not normal is to treat those, who have different opinions than us in a strict manner through bigotry and hate speech.

Read also Abortion as an Individual Right in the US

Christianity view

          Government, politicians, speakers, society, and media must follow Jesus’ way when he said,” love your enemies”. Jesus teaches us that we should follow to live according to a new law, the law of love. Jesus teaches us that if you hate your enemies, you have no way to redeem and to transform your enemies but if you love your enemies, you will discover that at the very root of love is the power of redemption. Matthew said, “You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.’ But I say to you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, so that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven.” As Christian, we must treat others as we like to be treated, we must love and to respect their right to believe whatever they want, even if we don’t agree with them, we must show others how Christianity is the religion of love and respect.


Finding the balance between American unalienable rights and extending a tone of civility and love is not something easy because the United States has a diverse group of citizens. This diversity brings a lot of assumptions and ideas to the table and is not easy in this case to control or change the way that people react when there is a change.

The Impact of Recent State and Federal Legislation

The Impact of Recent State and Federal Legislation Instructions

Select a health care facility or service (e.g., hospital, physician practice, long-term care facility, ambulance service, pharmacy, or skilled nursing facility). Identify and read one recently proposed or enacted state or federal legislation that has an impact on your selected health care facility or service.

Write a 700- to 1,050-word policy brief on the effects the legislation will have on your selected facility or service and on the state’s population. Use the following structure when putting together your policy brief. Include a heading for each of the following:

  • Title
  • Executive Summary (175 to 260 words) (Use this as your heading)
  • Recommendations
  • Introduction
  • State recommendation again (use a heading hear representative of recommendation)
  • Body (use the headings below for the sections of your body – please do not use “Body” to label the overall section)
  • Overview of problem
  • Review of relevant research
  • Application of research results
  • Policy implications
  • Conclusion

Impact of Health Care Facility Fee Disclosures Legislation – Sample Answer

Executive Summary

The cost of healthcare is a primary factor that regulates consumption of healthcare at all levels. Patients consider this cost very highly before choosing to visit any given facility for their healthcare needs. The role of a healthcare facility is to ensure that it meets the needs of all patients. These needs are often health-related in nature. However, economic factors should also be considered while addressing concerns in provision of healthcare.

Read also Review of a current Scholarly Article on Current Healthcare Legislations and its Possible Effects on Healthcare System

This paper elaborates on the State of Minnesota health legislation that requires health facilities to provide full disclosures of fees to patients to enhance efficiency and transparency. According to the legislation, healthcare facilities such as hospitals have the duty to disclose their fees to all clients. This process ensures that patients do not meet hidden costs once they have started using services of a given health center. This legislation also ensures that patients are able to make informed decisions on the health facilities from where they would love to obtain treatment. Application of this legislation has led to increased patient satisfaction, as well as improved service delivery in many healthcare facilities.


  • Implement measures to promote health care facility fee disclosures
  • Provide patients with an opportunity to inquire about relevant fees charged in the healthcare facility
  • Explain all fees satisfactorily
  • Extend fees disclosures to suppliers and all stakeholders in order to harmonize all costs


Transparency in billing procedures in hospitals has been lacking for many years. This problem has led to a situation where most patients do put into question the trustworthiness of hospitals and their managers. Worse even, some patients are discouraged and fail to seek health services from hospitals. Some hospitals have also been sued by patients for actual or perceived exaggerated costs while receiving services. These issues are a call to action from all stakeholders concerned with management of healthcare.

Best Practice

The best mechanisms of handling the mentioned problems include the following:

  • Ensuring that there are full disclosures of possible fees that a patient is likely to experience while receiving services.
  • Harmonizing costs with all stakeholders and suppliers in order to ensure that all elements of costing are captured.
  • Proving patients with an opportunity to ask questions on the cost of healthcare services, and providing clear explanations for the raised concerns.

Overview of Problem

Most patients often find that they are required to pay substantially more fees than they had been made aware before service delivery. Hospitals usually focus on disclosing the core fees related to a given service. However, other significant costs are encountered by patients in the process. Most of these hidden fees fall in the “facilitation fees”, fees meant to support the service being provided (Brot-Goldberg et al., 2017). For example, the cost of purchasing hospital cards is not usually disclosed to patients when they make enquiries on cost.

Read also Healthcare Legislation – S103: Enters New Jersey in Multistate Nurse Licensure Compact

Review of Relevant Research

The cost of healthcare is one of the main issues that influence how people consume healthcare services (Simon et al., 2017). This reason explains why such legislations as the Obamacare exists in order to help patients to access healthcare services better. Although the available insurance schemes are working well, patients are still forced to foot significant bills from out of their pockets (Dusetzina et al., 2017). This fact frustrates many patients and prevents them from seeking healthcare services as frequently as recommended, or when they are in need of healthcare. The introduction of the Minnesota legislation on fees disclosures has helped to fill the existing gap in transparency.

Application of Research Results

There is a need to improve on communication to patients. Part of this communication involves providing patients with a clear picture of the costs they are likely to encounter while receiving services in a given facility (Frakt & Mehrotra, 2019). Printing and displaying of these costs ensures that patients are well informed, and that they can make right choices. The cited articles also show that there is need to improve further on legislations that deal with healthcare, and especially focus on reducing the cost of healthcare.

Policy Implications

Full disclosures of fees to patients are a move in the right direction. The legislation has been lauded for serving the interests of patients by promoting transparency. By making it mandatory for hospitals to publish and display all costs to patients, patients are likely to be more trustworthy of healthcare facilities that they visit. The policy also has the potential of improving competition among hospitals. This potential exists is because hospitals will be forced to eliminate many unnecessary hidden costs in an attempt to be attractive to patients.

Read also Proposal for New Healthcare Legislation to be Presented by Political Party to United States Citizens


The Minnesota State legislation on disclosures of fees is timely and serves a clear purpose in enhancing access to healthcare. Healthcare facilities should focus on improving their prices, and ensure that all factors that deal with the cost of enjoying healthcare services are well examined and evaluated. As cost is a central factor in accessing healthcare, healthcare facilities should work on lowering them, as well as eliminating unnecessary costs, and making them readily available for patients to scrutinize for better planning.

PHI2301 – Reality, Art, and Truth Project

Reality, Art, and Truth Project Instructions

This 6-8 page essay assignment will be completed in three parts and will draw upon the material from Weeks 1, 2, and 3.

I. The Self

Discuss the avocado idea of the self and explain at least one version of the idea that human beings have a shared essential nature.  Contrast this account with the artichoke idea of the self (drawing upon phenomenology and existentialism to develop your account) and a discussion of how the modern/avocado and postmodern/artichoke ideas of the self differ. You may use your analysis from the Week 2 and 3 discussion assignments to develop your account in Part I.

II. Truth and Reality

Discuss how these ideas of the self are disclosed in art by choosing an example of a character/narrator/subject in a work of art (novel, poem, film, graphic novel, short story, television show, song, painting, etc.) who you think captures the avocado/modern idea that we have an essential, shared human nature and that the self and the world are distinct entities. Then, choose an example of a work of art that you think illustrates the artichoke/post-modern idea of the self.  Consider the following ideas and questions in your analysis of these two examples:

Are the self and the material world distinct entities, as Descartes thinks? What are some examples of representative art that illustrate the idea that the subject/mind and the object/world/body are distinct? Alternatively, are the self and the world organic unities, as Schelling argues? How might artistic creation express this unity of subject and object?

Is art mimesis/representation (as in Platonism and Aristotelian aesthetics) or is it a means of transforming the self and reality? Might it be aspirational, allowing us to achieve catharsis, as Aristotle suggests? Consider, too, how the idea of art as representation is akin to the avocado view while the idea of art as transformative is more like the artichoke view.

III. Art and Philosophy

What is the relationship between art and philosophy? Do you agree with Descartes that logic and critical thinking are the best means of achieving certainty about reality and existence, or is your view more akin to the perspective of Keats, Schelling,  Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and/or Heidegger that art is the ultimate expression of truth? How are these views a rejection of the natural standpoint we see adopted by empiricism and rationalism and rejected by phenomenology? Do some kinds of art (music, for example) express the truth more fully than others? How so? How does the idea and purpose of art differ across cultures?

Reality, Art, and Truth Project – Sample Paper

The Self

 The avocado and artichoke outlooks are two unique perspectives often explored in philosophy. They are vigorous attempts to succinctly explain human nature and the essence of every individual’s disposition. While the avocado is a subtle fruit that usually emerges from a viable planted seed, the artichoke represents a flower, which is a more prominent part of the plant. Furthermore, Greek rationalism views artichoke through the idea of various stratums functioning as protective layers during one’s entire lifetime. Thus, the artichoke is one of the most common examples used when seeking to gain a firm understanding of the self. Its layers represent the many functions that each part of the self serves in its mission to maintain optimum functionality (Mitchell, 2017). Additionally, it is worth noting that the artichoke is an unusual plant. The absence of seeds often complicates the normal duplication process, which makes reproduction demanding. Conversely, the avocado follows a relatively simple process of reproduction, usually with a planted seed. It is similar to other organisms and human beings concerning how reproduction occurs (Mitchell, 2017). For instance, human beings are noticeable by their exterior but also bear a divine nature that is at their core.

Read also Avocado Vs Artichoke Views Of Self – Compare And Contrast Essay

 The artichoke perspective is based on the self as a product of experience, ultimately transformed over time. Both the avocado and artichoke viewpoints allude to numerous representations for which they elucidate. Through the artichoke perspective, one gets the sense that individuals consist of several layers that have different functions at specific stages in life. These perspectives can be explained using Platonic and Aristotelian paradigms. Both aspects believe that a deep-seated reason for being is at the core of human life. Nevertheless, Aristotle was among the first philosophers to suggest that the soul was one with the body and eventually died with it. The Platonic and Aristotelian paradigms of defining human nature posit that there is a clear difference between temperaments in the sexes (Cazeaux, 2017, p. 34). While men were viewed as rational, their female counterparts were generally thought to be irrational. Even so, Plato still held the view that both could achieve unimaginable feats.  It was this perspective that sparked heated debates in the Christian Church regarding whether women are a product of man or a mere reflection of God. Artichoke’s view is thus more narcissistic. Both philosophers believed that an immobile spirit was at the core of the human experience and should always be considered when endeavoring to explain the “self.”

Read also Consumption as a Primary Source of Self and Identity Construction

 The avocado and artichoke perspectives differ considerably in views held. The avocado outlook stands out in its description of human beings by focusing on abstract qualities such as the soul. Perspectives similar to those expressed by the artichoke outlook are prevalent globally in many world cultures. Buddhism, Confucianism, and African thought all express elements of this view. For instance, the self is non-existent in the Buddhist tradition. Emotions, perceptions, aspects of the mind, and form are the most critical parts of a human being within individuals in this culture (Mitchell, 2015, p. 140). Buddhism refers to this as the skandhas of life. In this particular perspective, the core of each skandhas is devoid of souls, only emerging when individuals express their desires.  It is for this very reason that Buddhists have a strong connection to the idea of enlightenment as it improves one’s understanding of happiness as a personal responsibility. Similarly, Confucian thought is based on a belief that five core components (earth, water, fire, wood and air) are at the center of every human being. They represent the many phases of life and the changes that are bound to during different seasons. These five components also share a deep relationship with the self and contribute to spiritual stability. On the other hand, Africans thought is based on the idea that human beings are a product of life (Mitchell, 2015, p. 147). The Asante culture, for example, strongly believes in developing and maintaining a strong personality. Both sexes play a complementary role and are expected to adhere to a set of principles that will make a stronger society. In this particular culture, males are known for their strength and grit, while females espouse life, creativity, and fertility (Mitchell, 2015, p. 148).  This view essentially explains the importance of conforming to societal rules and regulations, which differs significantly from Western existentialism.

Truth and Reality

The foremost philosophical idea accepted over time regarding mimesis is that reality always has a source of information.  Ancient Greek philosophers generally took the idea that art was born out of an imitation of reality. However, Plato and Aristotle differed in their definition of this concept. In The Republic, Plato discusses his style of poetry and the use of heroes as protagonists. He goes on to remind the author that the self and distinctive traits displayed by the characters are based on an imitation of the actual demeanor of noble individuals in reality. Plato employs the use of outright falsities when using figures such as Homer and Aeschylus to inform his audience of integral fundamentals of the human psyche.

Read also Plato – Philosopher Biography

Conversely, Aristotle is direct in his claim that art and poetry imitate realities that human beings are confronted with daily. Aristotle further describes art as an imitation of “actions of men” in The Poetics, allowing philosophers to deal with issues using a universal approach. Imitation eventually results in similar reproductions to express an inherent and inner reality. Truth and reality, therefore, denote intricate sections of philosophy. However, both perspectives are a common feature in Abrahamic traditions, and together with Platonic and Aristotelian ideas, reflect the avocado idea of the self.  The Biblical account of creation adopts the avocado notion to explain the emergence of man and the development of human nature. According to scriptures, human beings are a reflection of God for they are made in his image and likeness (Mitchell, 2015, p.123). Jewish perspective is based on the idea that human beings are an expression of God and bear a divine nature. God is said to have molded man from mud and breathed life into him. Human beings are in a class of their own since they are a reflection of God while possessing a remarkable divine nature. Also, human beings possess an external representation similar to an avocado. The only difference is the divine nature possessed by every human being and its influence on their outlook in life. This is similar to the protean view of the self. In Greek myth, Proteus was known for his unusual abilities, which allowed him to change and transform into different life forms at any given moment. The view held in this particular perspective supported the reformation of human beings through an elaborate system focusing on the self (Mitchell, 2015, p.132). The transformative attributes of Proteus are similar to the avocado perspective since human beings are, mostly, structured.

Art and Philosophy

 Art and philosophy share a close reciprocal relationship. The creation of art is born out of philosophical inspiration, which enables artists to produce. It is also possible to express philosophical wisdom using art as a medium. I agree with Descartes that logic and critical thinking are critical when seeking accuracy, explaining reality, and the origin of existence. Clear correlations are present between art and metaphysics regarding key aspects of their technicality. The search for truth is a long, arduous task when seeking to understand the many realities that currently exist in life. Philosophers are continually pursuing the truth using evidence to guide the entire decision-making process. The widely accepted idea is that aesthetics are capable of leading individuals to truth (Mitchell, 2015, p.306). Through art, a better understanding of the underlying reality can be arrived at which will eventually allow one to gain a better understanding of truth and reality.

Art is transformative and has been hailed for expressing the unity of subject and object. Keats, Schopenhauer, Schelling, and Heidegger all held unique opinions about art and reality and can reflect the artichoke idea of the self. Schelling’s view is similar to that held by Plato when explaining objects and subjects. The ideas expressed by subjects are the result of formulations developed from an original object. It is through art that reality can be explained, allowing individuals to peel through layers similar to those of artichoke and access the world (Mitchell, 2015, p. 325). Similarly, Schopenhauer arrives at a similar conclusion by first exploring Kant’s dilemma. He emphasizes that the will to live is the necessary foundation of existence. It also results in success and the main reason why individuals were advised to strive for art as a form of a higher expression. Nietzsche also had a firm understanding of art, its place in the world, and its influence on the self. Greek deities such as Dionysus and Apollo were characters of particular interest in classical tragedies (Mitchell, 2015, p.328). Through this form of expression, the audience members pick valuable lessons to avoid falling into similar circumstances. Although expressed as an illusion, both characters are an important element capturing the artichoke perspectives and the importance of one of self. Moreover, art and philosophy share a close relationship based on the popular aesthetics theory. The principle explored in this particular case is based on the idea the art has both a philosophical and ontological relevance. Art seemingly contributes to the quality of life lived by individuals and a vital tonic useful in alleviating arbitrariness.  Philosophy strives to cover the inadequacies of art by introducing rational thought to explain concepts. It is based on intuition concerning a specific concept that can be expressed better through various aspects of conceptual thought.  Art is an integral part of most cultures where it is regarded as a medium used in the expression of the divine (Mitchell, 2015, p.315). Additionally, art aids the interpretation of philosophy through the self, as is common in Oriental traditions. The Zen Calligraphy by Khing is an example of Zen’s philosophical expression through meditative art to depict the self.

Negotiation Techniques – Public Private Partnerships

Benchmarks – Negotiation Techniques

Find a situation (a real-world situation or a fictional situation) with two or more parties of jurisdiction or interest over a specific project or policy (public/private partnership, intergovernmental). At least one of the parties needs to be a governing board or elected officials.

In 750-1,000 words, do the following:

  • Explain the participants in the situation. (power involved, interest, requirement)
  • Explain the difference between influence and negotiation among the parties.
  • Recommend strategies to build the relationship between the parties in preparation for negotiation (at least one of the parties needs to be elected officials or a governing board)
  • Recommend different techniques of negotiation the parties can utilize to get their interest or requirements met.
  • Discuss how each party determines the value of what they are negotiating for and what they are willing to give up.
  • Discuss what would make each party agree to a decision within a negotiation or leave the table (how much leverage does each party have).

Federal Highway Administration and Lane Construction – Public Private Partnerships Negotiation Techniques Sample Paper

Public private partnerships are cooperative ventures where the public sector agrees to work with a private company in order to achieve efficient production of public goods and services. These ventures usually serve the interests of both the government and the private agency (Delmon, 2017). In such partnerships, the public sector is interested in providing goods and services to the public at an affordable price, while the private company focuses on making reasonable profits from the common venture. These partnerships are usually formed out of elaborate negotiations that seek to meet the interests of each party. A possible public private partnership can be exemplified by the Federal Highway Administration; and the private company, Lane Construction, in a common project of constructing a highway.

Read also Conflict Management , Negotiation and Dispute Resolution Approaches and Models

The Federal Highway Administration (FHA) is responsible for the construction and maintenance of highways in the United States. The agency is responsible for identification of areas where highways need to be constructed, as well as takes care of the highways that are already in place. Lane Construction, on the other hand, is a private company that specializes in the actual construction of highways and roads. The FHA is an influential agency as it is the one that is publically mandated to handle contractual issues in construction of highways. It is in the agency’s interest that public highways are constructed in a timely manner, and at a cost-effective price. Lane Construction is one of the leading construction companies in the country, and it is in the company’s interest that it makes good profits on each project it handles.

Read also Sample Negotiation Plan For An Emerging Market – Asia

Influence and negotiation play an important part in all public private partnerships. The FHA has a significant influence in a possible deal between the two parties because the agency is the sole contactor for federal highways. Lane Construction also has significant influence because of its reputation in the market. As regards negotiation, the FHA would like the construction to be done at the lowest price possible, while Lane Construction would like to construct at the highest price possible in order to maximize on profits. Due to these differences, it is imperative that the two entities build a relationship between embarking on negotiations. This relationship can be built through maintaining constant contact, as well as seeking to understand the concerns and interests of each party.

Read also Undesirable Tactics for Persuasion Used in International Negotiations

The parties can engage in different negotiation techniques to achieve their set goals and objectives. One of the most important techniques that the two parties can use in their negotiation is by trying to be inventive in finding win-win situations in all circumstances (Schachter et al., 2017). This approach is crucial as it alls both sides to find amicable solutions in areas where they find difficulties in reaching straight-forward agreements. Parties can also identify possible common ground before starting their negotiation. This step helps in finding alternative solutions, and aids in creating common areas where both parties can be happy about.

The primary factor that negotiating parties usually consider during business-oriented negotiation is the monetary gain they will derive from the transaction. In this case, the FHA is a governmental organization, which implies that they will be looking to minimize their expenditure as much as possible (Wang et al., 2018). On the other hand, Lane Construction will judge the value of the negotiation by how much profit they will be able to make from providing their services to the government. Therefore, the FHA will be willing to give up on all additional factors that do not affect the quality of the structures that will be constructed, such as decorations. Similarly, the Lane Construction will be willing to giving up on installing features that do not compromise the durability of the structures they construct, as long as it helps them to maximize their returns.

            The factor that would make both parties agree to a decision is the willingness to compromise on each one’s part. Essentially, everyone in a negotiation has their own demands but not all of them can be met by the other party. Accordingly, in order for the deal to be feasible for either the FHA or Lane Construction, each of them must be willing to relinquish some of their requests that might be too harsh for the other side; otherwise, it will be almost impossible to agree to a mutually beneficial deal. One thing that might make either party to leave the table is the realization that the costs of undertaking the project outweigh the benefits that they will gain. In such a case, it will not make sense to push through with the negotiation. In conclusion, negotiations play an integral part in striking of effective public private partnerships. These negotiations should be based on elaborate preparations that consider the interests of each party. Such techniques as identifying common grounds and creating win-win situations are essential in such partnerships. Possible partners should at all times reach agreements that meet the interests of each other, based on reasonable benefits and compromises.

Significance of Drug Courts in the United States – CJUS 230 Final Research Paper

CJUS 230 Research Project – Final Research Paper Instructions

You must select a criminal justice topic of your choosing. You will then compose a thesis statement on this topic as you work toward your Final Research Paper.

The thesis statement must include the paper’s topic and an explanation of the position the paper will take in analyzing the subject. The thesis statement must clearly identify the major points of support for your position. The selected criminal justice topic must be sufficiently limited for the substantive content of a 4–6-page paper by presenting only 2–3 major points.

The thesis statement must be no more than 2 sentences long and must be a declarative statement rather than asking a question. The thesis statement must be simple and direct. The statement must take a position on a narrowly focused criminal justice topic. The Final Research Paper must develop an argument that is highlighted in the thesis statement and supported with solid academic research and analysis. Each facet of the thesis statement must be addressed and analyzed throughout the paper.

The body of the Final Research Paper must be comprised of 4–6 pages of content. The Title Page, Abstract, and Reference Page are not included in the page count. The introduction must include background information on the criminal justice topic, a well-written thesis statement, and a preview of points. The body must thoroughly support the assertions made in the thesis statement with the use of analysis and comprehensively developed subpoints and academic research. Each paragraph must address one issue and directly relate it to the thesis. The body must also be well-organized and use properly formatted headings. Information must clearly relate to the main topic. The conclusion must summarize the main headings of the paper.

Significance of Drug Courts in the United States – CJUS 230 Final Sample Research Paper

Since the turn of the 20th century, addictive drugs have posed an ever-looming threat to American society. Years of policy change initially failed to introduce positive change which then prompted legislators and government officials to lobby the introduction of fresh programs to address this crisis. Consequently, the so-called “war on drugs” was incepted in 1971 by the Nixon administration to combat the production, supply, and use of psychoactive drugs. The primary aim of this seemingly noble campaign was to avert the illegal drug trade that had permeated the United States and prevent new addicts from mushrooming in society. 

Nevertheless, the war on drugs is regarded as one of the biggest fiascos in American history. The campaign was largely unsuccessful, with most of its detractors placing the blame squarely on the interdiction and mass incarceration policy. This was further confirmed by the Obama administration after a public admission that the campaign had been counter-productive for failing to view addiction as a disease. The war on drugs also resulted in the disproportionate arrest of ethnic minorities from drug-infested inner-city neighborhoods resulting in a 60 percent increase in the number of inmates within the first 10 years of its implementation (Tiger, 2018, p. 24). Mandatory minimum penalties often meant that individuals found guilty of possessing or using controlled substances were sentenced to lengthy prison sentences which resulted in overcrowding. It is a well-documented fact overcrowding has a negative impact on inmates’ mental and physical health. Thus, drug courts were introduced to aid in the introduction of new criminal justice schemes which would ultimately work to reduce overcrowding in prisons. An evaluation of drug courts, their history, efficacy, and the wants vs. needs debate is critical to understanding their significance.

Defining Characteristics

           Drug courts within the United States are specialized divisions of the criminal justice system which implement a public health approach when dealing with drug offenders. Its scheme of operation is based on a model combining mental health wellbeing, social services with addiction treatment for drug offenders. Drug courts seek to introduce long-term recovery as a viable option for this select group of individuals to enable them integrate into society and avoid run-ins with the law. These judicially supervised dockets espouse treatment as a solution to the drug epidemic in the United States.

Read also Nonviolent Drug Offenders Should Not Be Imprisoned

Drug courts also include elements of parole where individuals who commit to participate in an addiction recovery program are monitored to determine their compliance. Persons who participate partially or fail to adhere to stipulation may be subjected to additional sanctions imposed by a presiding judge. Random drug tests and incarceration stints are common for individuals found guilty of contravening the program’s basic tenets. Subsequently, drug courts pursue a philosophy informed by the importance of breaking the addiction cycle while ensuring that participants do not become repeat offenders. Their presence is regarded as a welcome addition since it aids in the reduction of substance abuse, criminal activities and mass incarceration.

Historical Background of Drug Courts in the United States

           The idea behind the introduction of drug courts was first conceived during the 1980s at the height of the war on drugs. Within 10 years of its inception, caused a 60 percent increase in the number of individuals incarcerated across the United States for drug offenses (Nolan, 2017). The Regan administration was the first government to introduce drug courts back in 1989 to combat the crack cocaine epidemic in Miami. Any non-violent offender arraigned before these courts was offered treatment as one of the available options during sentencing. Drug courts have now been adopted across the United States and mainly situated in communities ravaged by drugs and substance abuse. Their increase has also been linked to a drastic reduction in drug-related crimes across state lines. This form of intervention aims to ensure that long-term change becomes a reality for offenders instead of subjecting them to punishment. Drug courts also seek to right the disastrous socio-economic effects of substance abuse. The productivity of addicts often dips as the federal government struggles to fund correctional facilities. Addicts are referred to treatment facilities as one of the main ways in which to reduce the recidivism rate. Offenders with a high likelihood of transforming their lives are identified during court proceedings and offered a guilty plea deal. Successful completion of this program assures offenders of a new slate devoid of previous drug-related charges. Originators of this intervention previously foresaw a future where children would no longer be separated from their families, vulnerable individuals face criminal charges and communities affected by drug addiction. 

The Efficacy of Drug Courts

           Drug courts have been hailed for their role in reducing the incarceration rate and prison population across the United States. Offenders are offered an alternative with the primary objective of allowing them to avoid serving time and improve their lives. The Drug Courts Program Office was among the first federal agency to acknowledge the impact of drug courts to the criminal justice system

           Drug courts have been instrumental in reducing the recidivism rate across the United States. Their success lies in the treatment programs which use a public health approach to cure addicts of substance abuse. According to Cooper, Peters, & Kushner (2014), drug courts were responsible for a 7.5 percent reduction rate of recidivism across the United States. Former drug users who successfully graduate from drug court programs eventually seek gainful employment and are rarely rearrested for similar offenses. Non-participants often end up continuing with the same behavior that landed them in prison in the first place and, therefore, increases the chances of being a rearrested exponentially

            Substance abuse has also reduced in the United States after the introduction of drug courts. Participants in drug court recovery programs gain an understanding of their habits and drug use as the origin of their problems with the law. Individuals who arrive at this realization are typically ready to transform their lives by kicking their destructive habits. Drug use reduces considerably after the intervention by drug courts which then goes a long way in reducing recidivism.

           Drug courts are relatively cheaper and bound to benefit the justice system in the long run. Costs associated with the actual arrest, booking, processing, and probation are virtually non-existent in drug courts which makes them an affordable option. Therefore, law enforcement, paralegals and attorneys save a substantial amount of money that would have been spent on court proceedings. The Washington State Institute for Public Policy even estimates that drug courts save the federal government approximately $12,000 annually (Washington State Institute for Public Policy, 2017). These savings would be better spent on efforts to improve the condition of participants during the recovery process and providing them with opportunities for self-improvement.

Wants vs. Needs in the Drug Court System 

           The specialized status of drug courts often means that they are capable of superseding an offender’s request and place them in a recovery program. This is because officials are aware of the impact of substance abuse on individuals and their connection to criminal activity. For instance, Barry A. Hazle Jr.’s no-contest plea was rejected in 2006 after being found guilty of possessing methamphetamines, after which he was placed in a residential drug treatment program (Winston/RNS, 2017). Although the offender was strongly opposed to this particular option, the court went ahead and put him in a religious-based recovery program for his wellbeing.  

           Furthermore, the relative success of drug courts is attributed to its unorthodox intervention strategy. Drug courts follow a unique protocol that requires the participation of offenders in a collaborative effort to attain the desired goal. They strive to serve offenders best interest while, simultaneously, making certain that the community remains safe. Frequent drug testing keeps former offenders grounded which is critical to the program’s overall success. Non-compliance is dealt with swiftly and judicially, which reminds other offenders of consequences for every action. Graduates who succeed in overcoming their addiction soon become models who are then used by the courts to inspire others to effect long-term change. A transformation in behavior and attitudes is critical to the court’s success, eventually putting former offenders in a position to transform their lives. 


Drug courts are an integral part of the criminal justice system and praised for lowering incarceration rates in the United States. They offer a workable alternative for offenders with mental health issues and substance abuse to ensure they recover from their affliction. Drug courts are an effective alternative which ultimately reduces criminal activities, arrests, and recidivism among at-risk individuals.

Social-Constructivism Theory – Interprofessional Theory Review

Interprofessional Theory – Learning , Sociological, Behavioral

The review consists of identifying the components of the Interprofessional theory. Identification of the Theory components allows one to understand how to link the Theory to a practice situation.

  • Purpose
  • Concepts and Conceptual Definitions
  • Theoretical Statements
  • Structure and Linkages – (if there is a model that depicts this area, please use the model and make a few statements of how it links).
  • • Assumptions – (not all theories will have assumptions, if none noted, then identify an assumption from what has been presented).
  • • Nursing Implications – the text does not have this piece. Once you have reviewed the components of the Theory, then identify how the application of the theory will affect practice.

Read also Nursing Theory Analysis Paper Instructions

Social-Constructivism Theory – Interprofessional Theory Review Sample Paper

Inter-professional education and collaborative activities have increasingly become an essential part of the healthcare system. These efforts aim to improve a practitioner’s knowledge of professional goals while fostering teamwork within the facility. The rationale behind Inter-professional Education (IPE) mostly relies on sociological aspects such as social constructivism to inform and bolster this interdisciplinary approach. This review will, therefore, evaluate the Social-Constructivism Theory by assessing its purpose, concepts, theoretical statements, structure and linkages, assumptions and implications.

Read also Unpleasant Symptoms Theory – Middle Range Nursing Theory Review


            The primary objective of social constructivism is to promote an understanding of learning and best practices when solving problems. It is based on the idea that human learning develops as a result of interactions where knowledge is passed from one individual to the next. Real-life adaptive attitudes are then adopted, which then encourages sharing experiences where individuals make sense of specific workplace dynamics (DeCoux Hampton, 2016). Social constructivism espouses human cooperation as a vital requirement when seeking to produce important artifacts or a specific service. Social interactions between dissimilar groups encourages learning which eventually improves the quality of services provided at any given time. Human interaction is, therefore, capable of improving a group’s level of cognitive development through the transfer of information between individuals.

Concepts and Conceptual Definitions

            Constructivism is one of the major concepts in the theory mentioned above. It focuses on systems and roles in an organization in attempt to introduce a semblance of order through stability. Similarly, workable deliberations and philosophic pragmatics are key tenets of the Social-Constructivism Theory. Workable deliberations improve relations within a group by laying the foundation for cordial interactions while philosophical pragmatism ensures that empirical ideas form the basis of concepts presented. Interdisciplinary interactions also contain aspects of social understanding and acceptable behavior during routine interactions. The introduction of situational resources makes certain that the parties involve understand and acknowledge that presence of relevant norms which should be adhered to.

Scientific knowledge also underpins social constructivism by suggesting that each individual serves a unique role and can benefit from others through regular interaction. The main aim of introducing this particular aspect is to make sure that a paradigm shift is easily introduced for the purpose of future success. Superhuman necessity is rejected with the focus being on a justification technique based on the growth of scientific knowledge. Pure relational realism fosters good relations between two or more divergent groups by finding a halfway point before reaching a compromise on preeminent practices (Prentice, Engel, Taplay, & Stobbe, 2016). Furthermore, human relation through interaction introduces an element of sociological interchange through which critical knowledge is shared while improving interface. A variety in social constructs also present diversity within the groups while learning from shared experiences.

Theoretical Statements

            The Social-Constructivism Theory relies upon the collaborative nature of human nature to introduced aspects of cognitive learning. Likewise, the underlying assumption informing the theory is based on the idea that learning cannot be separated from its social context. Regular interaction by individuals from different cultures and backgrounds introduces aspects of accommodation where learners are ready to integrate new knowledge to practice. Active construction of knowledge is based on aspects of environmental stimuli and interaction where roles can be transformed. Differences in how an individual reality can be harnessed for the purpose of overcoming limitations within a particular field by stimulating human cognitive structures which ultimately introduces lasting change.

Structure and Linkages

            The fundamental structure of the Social-Constructivism Theory is based on the proposition that cognitive motivation is intrinsic in human beings. An individual’s drive during interaction with an individual from a different group will ultimately determine the amount of knowledge they gather and the degree of success they enjoy later in the future.  The rewards presented by this type of interaction are, thus, linked to an improvement of knowledge within a group of individuals while promoting the learning process. Social constructivism involves other players in the learning process which results in the implementation of workable solutions. Interactions within groups allow participants to adopt generalization which develops a strong foundation for ideas and a clear understanding of the subject matter. Additionally, the interaction creates an opportunity for self-regulation and perseverance in the face of work-related challenges. Collaborative skills are associated with the Social-Constructivism Theory where individuals develop critical thinking and an ability to solve any emerging problem.

Nursing Implications

Over the years, the Social-Constructivism Theory has influenced the nursing profession, and with far-reaching consequences. The theory has influenced policy makers tasked with managing inter-professional liaisons to improve the knowledge and professional capability of all nursing staff. Aspects of articulation are introduced after collaborative efforts with groups that are well-versed in particular aspects of the profession (Callara & Callara, 2018).  The application of the Social-Constructivism Theory in relation to inter-professional education and collaboration translates into practice where nursing practitioners are emboldened to make informed choices. It can also be used to design and review interventions bound to introduce positive changes within the profession. Patients will also remain assured of improved outcomes since collaborations foster sharing of information crucial to the development new approaches.  Nurses will also gain a comprehensive understanding of their responsibility to the facility, patients and follow staff members.