Category: Uncategorized

History of Public Administration

This paper describes the history of public service by doing the following:

  • Identifying significant events and people who shaped the field of public administration.
  • Explaining how those events and people affected the evolution of the study and field of public administration.

History of Public Administration

Public administration involves the effecting of policies formulated by government for the purposes of serving the general public. It also involves the study of government policy and the implementation of the same for the purposes of readying public servants for working in service of the public. The field of public administration has a long history and has evolved over many years to encompass many aspects of resource management and organization in many societies. This paper elaborates on significant events and people who shaped the field of public administration and how this has impacted on public service.

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The history of public administration is ridden with people who have significantly contributed to the evolution of this field. Alexander the Great (325 B.C) and Diocletian (284 A.D) played huge roles in ancient times in the formulation and structuring of public administration. Alexander the Great is known for applying the tenets of line and staff in many of the wars he was engaged in. This helped him to conquer many territories and expand his reach and power. Diocletian was the foremost Roman emperor to lead through the employment of delegation and use of elaborate chains of command. He achieved this through division of his territory into different parts and installing different leaders to them directly on his behalf.

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Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) was among the most prominent figures in the 20th century as far as public administration and public service is concerned. Woodrow Wilson served as the President of the United States between 1913 and 1021. Long before that, he had taken part in campaigns that sought to reform the public service extensively. While serving in the field of academia in the 1880s, he supported the public service reform by advocating for the introduction of public administration into academia (Goodnow, 2017). He led efforts against the old system that rewarded political losers by getting them appointed to posts in public service.

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Max Weber is well known for the formulation of the theory of bureaucracy, which is sometimes referred to as the bureaucratic theory of management (Shafritz et al., 2015). Mark Weber held that bureaucracy was the best way through which an organization and administration could be run to achieve efficiency in all its mandate areas (Shafritz et al., 2015). Principles of bureaucracy include task specialization, hierarchy of authority, formal selection of employees based on competency and technical skills, and expertise among others. Over the years, many governments and administrations have applied bureaucracy in their structures of delivering public services. The many organizational layers in a bureaucracy can be effectively structured though policies and rules to attain efficiency. However, the communication channels can be slow and lead to delayed decision-making processes.

The Pendleton Act of 1883 is one of the most renowned legislations in the history of public service in the United States. The act led to the formation of the United States Public Service Commission. It led to the abolishment of the so called “spoils system” which had been by politicians to reward colleagues that had lost in elections. In its place, there was the establishment of the merit-based system of employing civil servants. This system stated that political considerations would not be used to appoint civil servants, but rather competence would take precedence. Although its implementation was slow, it has grown to be one of the strongest pillars in public service.

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The issuance of the Executive Order 10988 by President J.F Kennedy in 1962 marked a paradigm shift in public service. The executive order recognized the right of public servants working in federal government to enter into collective bargaining agreements (Gitterman, 2017). Civil servants were granted the right to join organizations of workers and other workers’ unions. This was important to workers as it allowed them to join hands in common efforts to fight for their common interests. However, the executive order did not grant the workers any right to strike. This order led to an increase in the number of workers’ unions over the following years.

The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 of 1978 significantly overhauled the administration of public service in the United States. It did this by abolishing the United States Civil Service commission and replacing it with three bodies: Federal Labor Relations Authority (FLRA), Office of Personnel Management (OPM), and the Merit System Protection Board (MSPB) (Boeckelman, 2016). The FLRA is charged with adjudicating workers’ right to collective bargaining agreements. The MSPB is in charge of hearing and determining appeals of workers’ who have either been disciplined or fired from their jobs. OPM formulates policies that are used in the management of human resources in federal agencies. In conclusion, it is clear that public administration and public service has undergone a lot of evolution over the years. The main purpose of public administration is to ensure better and effective service to the public. It is clear that persons like Woodrow and Weber significantly contributed to developments in public administration. In the United States, the Pendleton Act and the Civil Service Reforms Act have played a big part in evolving the field of public administration.

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) And How It has Impacted American Government and Society

How some facet of process philosophy has impacted American Government and society – Obamacare

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), popularly known as The Obamacare, is one of the most significant and landmark legislations enacted and passed into law in the United States in the last 10 years. The law was passed by the 111th congress in 2010 and signed into law by President Barack Obama in March of the same year. The main role of the act was to expand health insurance coverage to ensure that all Americans could access insurance coverage easily. The law also initiated a number of measures geared towards improving the quality of care provided in the country as well as bringing down the costs of accessing healthcare services. This paper elaborates on the impact the legislation has had on government, the political landscape and the American society in general.

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One of the biggest impacts of the legislation is the fact that it has led to a significant reduction in the number of people without health insurance, as well as leading to improved health outcomes.  Many reports have confirmed significant increases in the number of people taking up insurance cover. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) reported in 2016 that the number of people of people without health insurance cover reduced from about 16 percent in 2010 to 9 percent in 2016 (Center et al., 2017). Due to the expansion of Medicaid services and the reduction in the insurance costs, many people could afford to pay health coverage.

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Additionally, the law provided for the charging of fines for those who failed to obtain insurance services once the registration period elapsed. The requirement that employers contribute to the insurance costs of their employees, the costs on the part of the employees went down significantly (Almeida et al., 2017). The law mandates health insurance to not discriminate people with preexisting conditions or any person on the basis of sex, gender, race among other variables. With this, many people that could not get insurance before are now assured of coverage. This has led to improved health of the general population and inclusion of the entire citizenry in the healthcare insurance landscape.

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The legislation had, and continues to have, a lot of stake to play in government and the political landscape. The law is credited as the biggest and the most consequential of the Obama era. The Congress Budget Office has projected that the legislation would lead to the reduction in the federal deficit by more than US$ 200 billion between 2012 and 2021 (Kaplan & Pear, 2017). This is credited to the fact that with increased insurance services and increased in the number of enrolment, the overall health of the population is bound to improve and therefore put fewer demands on the government for investment in healthcare. This is also based on the fact that the legislation put a greater focus on preventive medical care which is cheaper that curative care which is very expensive.

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On the political perspective, however, the law has divided the major political parties deeply. The Republican Party has severally opposed the legislation on the basis that the legislation comes with exorbitant premiums that unfairly targets the very rich. In conclusion, it is clear that Obamacare has been impactful in a number of ways in the country. The legislation has led to an exponential increase in the number of people with health insurance coverage. This has been significant in improving the health outcomes of many Americans, especially for those with preexisting conditions who had difficulties in accessing insurance coverage before. The legislation also has potential of significantly reducing the federal deficit in the long-run. However, it is clear that the law has also been at the center of controversy and been a bone of contention between the Democratic Party and the Republican Party.

Patient-care in Watson’s and Nightingale’s Nursing Theories

Comparing Concepts In Nursing Theories

Find a concept within Watson’s Theory of Caring and a similar concept within any other nursing theory.  Compare the two concepts for similarities and differences. Illustrate how a person reading about a theory can be influenced in their understanding of a theory if they have a different definition of a concept than the author.

Patient-care in Watson’s and Nightingale’s Nursing Theories

Jean Watson and Florence Nightingale developed theories that focused on the caring of patients. While the care of patients is a wide concept that encompasses many parameters, the two theorists approached it from almost similar perspectives. Nightingale’s theory elaborates on how the immediate environment of the patient impact on their health (Alligood, 2013). On the other hand, Watson’s theory elaborates on the impact of the relationships between nurses and the patients and how it affects patient care and health outcomes. This paper elaborates on the similarities and differences of patient caring in the two theories, as well as the impact of a reader having a different definition of a concept on their understanding of a nursing theory.

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In the two theories, the focus is put on the patient with the main target who should be at the center of nurses’ attention. Nightingale expounds on the manipulation of the patient’s immediate environment in order to provide the patient with the most suitable conditions for healing (AliSher et al., 2019). This includes ensuring proper air circulation and regular changing of beddings. Watson explains that it is important for nurses to be close to their patients as this helps to improve health outcomes (AliSher et al., 2019). The main differences in the concept of caring in the two theories, however, are the fact that caring of patients is elaborated from different perspectives. While Watson insists on nurse-patient relationships as the most important aspect in patient caring, Nightingale considers the environmental factors to be of central significance to a patient’s health (Alligood, 2013).

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A person needs to have a clear understanding and definition of a concept in a manner that is in concert with the author’s in order to understand what the author is talking about. Difference in understanding of concepts between the reader and the author may lead to misunderstanding. This is because different concepts can be defined differently or approached and effected differently. The reader might therefore need to skim through a theory before taking a deep reading in order to get an idea of what the writer is talking about.

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In conclusion, it is clear that patient care is a concept that is covered in both Watson’s and Nightingale’s theories. The concept is similar in the two theories in the emphasis put by the theorists on patient care. The difference in the two theories as far as patient caring is concerned is the approach that the two theories emphasize on. It is also clear that a reader and an author must have a shared understanding nd definition of a concept if the reader is to fully understand an author’s nursing theory.

Survivorship Care Plan – Colorectal Cancer

Task Description and Case Study Resources

This Essay is based on an EdCaN Case Study on Colorectal cancer . You are the Cancer Care Coordinator at the hospital where John receives his adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. John is currently receiving his last cycle of chemotherapy and you will be meeting with him to provide education with regards to his discharge and self-management planning following the end of his active treatment.

Discuss the content you would include in a Survivorship Care Plan, and outline your approaches to education and collaboration with John and his wife to develop this plan. Your plan should consider:

  • The recommended follow up regimen after curative treatment for
    colorectal cancer, having critically reviewed the available evidence.
  • Signs and symptoms associated with colorectal cancer recurrence.
  • Strategies to prevent survivorship issues that John may experience
    across all domains of health (including physical, psychological, social
    and spiritual health) after treatment for colorectal cancer.
  • Evidence-based communication strategies and theories of behaviour
    change to facilitate effective education about health behaviours and
    promote a healthier lifestyle.

Survivorship Care Plan For John A Colorectal Cancer Patient


Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases in the world (Seagel, DeSantis & Jemal, 2014). The risk for the development of the disease increases with age and for many years its prognosis remained poor. However, with developments in such advances as early detection, surgical treatment and adjuvant chemotherapy regimens, the survival rate beyond 5 years has increased (Seagel et al., 2017). It has therefore become paramount that post-treatment issues are addressed and this has led to the development of survivorship care plans and elaborate discharge protocols and patient education. This paper focuses on the survivorship care plan for 65-year-old John who is a survivor of colorectal cancer.

Discharge Planning

Mr. John is a 65 year old male who has been suffering from colorectal cancer. He was specifically diagnosed with a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma infiltrating the serosa.  Mr. John had surgery of the colon as a treatment option to remove the section that had been adversely affected by the cancer. The surgery was specifically for high anterior resection for the tumour that had been found during a colonoscopy. After a recommendation by the multidisciplinary team that John receives adjuvant chemotherapy regimen, the patient agreed to it following a through deliberation between him and the caregivers. The treatment that he has been on consist of the following: Calcium folinate  (Leucovorin) 50mg IV administered on day 1, Fluorouracil 400mg/m² IV administered on Day 1, Fluorouracil 2400mg/m² by IV infusion over 46 hours that commenced on day 1. The frequency of these adjuvant therapies was after every 14 days and has been given for 12 cycles.

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Considering that there exists a risk of recurrence of colorectal cancer as well as development of other kinds of tumor after the treatment of colorectal cancer, it is important to discuss with the patient the recommended follow up regimen after the curative treatment that he has had. It would be important that I inform John and his wife of the kind of post-treatment surveillance screening that include carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) test, pelvic CT, periodic abdominal and chest CT scans. The CEA test is significant for diagnosis of rectum and colon cancers while the mentioned scans are for detection of metastatic cancers to the respective regions (Schreuders et al., 2015). These tests would be occasionally done in order to detect second primary tumors and/or detect colorectal cancer recurrence (Rex et al., 2017). It has been found that the incidence for the adenomatous polyps and metachronous primary colorectal cancers four years post-curative surgery to be about 60 percent and 8 percent respectively (Jayesekara et al., 2017). A third of those who receive curative surgery for colorectal cancer normally die to recurrence of the disease. It is therefore significant that there be tests to detect recurrence early when they can be handled.

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I would also inform John and his wife of the signs and symptoms associated with colorectal cancer recurrence. These include back and pelvic pain, diarrhea, and constipation and belly pain (Vega, Valentin & Cubiella, 2015). The patient could also experience malaise, lack of appetite and difficulty in breathing. The patient should also look out for any sudden and unexplained weight, especially one that lasts for more than 6 months (Meyerhardt et al., 2017). Finally, it would be important to remind the patient of the essence of carrying with them their medical records whenever visiting a general practitioner for checkups as this helps in coordinating the continued management of the patient.

Collaborative approaches to education and planning for self-management

Colorectal cancer survivors face concerns that traverse spiritual, social, psychological as well as physical. There are many effects associated with the management of colorectal cancer and these are categorized into late effects and long-term effects of treatment. It is therefore significant that there be an elaborate communication and coordination of care that the patient can provide to themselves as well as those that take care of them at home and the clinical caregivers at the hospital. In this case, it would be significant to handle some of these issues concerning Mr. John and also involve her wife in the entire elaboration in order to empower her to fully participate in her husband’s post-treatment care.

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Physical issues that may confront the patient include the development of lymphedema, which is one of the most common presentations that occur long after the treatment of colorectal cancer has occurred (Stanton, Rowland & Ganz, 2015). Surgery may lead to the disruption of flow of lymph through formation of scars in the lymphatic system. Chemotherapeautic agents also predispose to the same condition (Stanton, Rowland & Ganz, 2015). Lymphedema develops very late after these events and therefore the patient should be informed about them. Another issue of concern is reduced function due to frequent feeling of fatigue which may last upto three months after treatment of cancer. The best way to prevent and reduce the effects of fatigue is to reduce activity level and only engage in light duties. Lymphedema can be prevented by the patient through taking part in regular light exercises.

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Psychological issues that I will address with John include possible concerns about his body image and appearance. There exist concerns and challenges regarding appearance and body image after the rigorous chemotherapy and its consequence on the body such as reduced body size and hair loss (Santin et al., 2015). These concerns could be there from the time during the treatment or others may set in during the post-treatment period. To prevent these concerns from affect John, I would advise him to visit a psychologist who may help him to recover confidence in himself and appreciate that his appearance post-treatment is a worthy sacrifice that had to be incurred if he was to be healed from cancer.

The main social issue that I would touch on while discussing with John would be about his financial concerns. Cancer treatment and the monitoring that occur after treatment is a costly affair financially and may take a toll on a person’s capital which may reduce their contribution to their families (Ramsey et al., 2016). This could be a major cause for distress and personal esteem. I would advise Mr. John to consider acquiring an elaborate insurance scheme that would be able to help him take care of his financial concerns.

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Spiritual concerns that could confront Mr. John include the fear of recurrence of the colorectal cancer as well as the risk of development of new primary tumors of the colon (Jeffery et al., 2016). Talking with the patient about this issue is significant in allowing the patient to appreciate the spectrum of the disease and the risk that he faces going forward. It has been shown that psychological preparation contributes a lot towards the patient’s health and the care post-treatment. Given that John is above 60 years and had been diagnosed with a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma infiltrating the serosa, he is at a high risk of experiencing recurrence and therefore this knowledge is important to him. Included in this context would be the signs and symptoms of recurrence as well as for the development of new primary tumors in order to enable the patient and the wife to note them when they occur. The preventive measure would be to insist to the patient on the need for frequent and regular checkups which would serve to give him reassurances and therefore reduce his fears.

Mr. John would require an elaborate health education that would enable him to continue to recover and also to help him reduce the risk of recurrence or for development of new primary tumors of the colon and rectum (Senore et al., 2015). The education provided would focus on how he would take care of himself as far as such factors as diet and physical activity are concerned (Baenas & Salinas, 2015). This information would be shared with him and his wife Carol because she is an integral caregiver in the health of her husband. I would advise that he avoids red and processed meat because they are associated with increased risk for the development of colorectal cancer (Bouvard et al., 2015). This therefore means that they could predispose John to the recurrence of colorectal cancer, development of new primary colon tumors or metastasis to distant areas. I would also advice that the patient increases his body activity in order to improve on his avoidance of insulin resistance as part of a lifestyle change (Li et al., 2016). Insulin resistance is associated with increased insulin in blood, which increases risk of tumor development. It also induces and increases the activity of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) which promote the growth of cancer cells (Sanchez-Lopez et al., 2016). The patient should also avoid cigarette smoking as this affects blood vessels and thus inhibiting optimal healing from colorectal cancer. Cigarette smoking is also associated with increased risk for the development of cancers, including colorectal cancer.

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Communication strategies are important especially when it comes to addressing survivorship issues in cancer patients post-treatment. One of the communication strategies would involve employing motivational interviewing. The patient in this case would require a lot of motivation in order to adhere to the necessary follow up therapy and screenings. This type of interview helps the patient hear themselves while they express their commitment to the agreed regimen and hence enhances their motivation to act on these commitments (Miller et al., 2017). I would also employ trans-theoretical model of change to enhance the patient’s commitment to change their lifestyle (Magnan & McCaul, 2019). The intention of the post-treatment survivorship plan is to ensure that the patient develops and maintains a healthy routine that includes avoidance of risk factors that predispose to cancer such as smoking, developing a good cancer screening routine as well as close monitoring of any signs that may indicate recurrence of colorectal cancer. The maintenance stage of the trans-theoretical model is the most significant stage as it allows patients to adhere to a given lifestyle that is beneficial to their health (Magnan & McCaul, 2019).


From the case study and the elaboration provided above, it is clear that proper survivorship care plans are integral in taking care of survivors of colorectal cancer. Discharge planning captures the patient’s diagnosis and the treatment that they have received. This is important for future references and in the coordination of the patient’s care. Collaborative approaches to the patient’s care helps to bring everyone concerned on board as well as address all the areas of concern as regards the patient’s health. All these are important measures and help to cater for such issues as risk of recurrence of the disease and the impact the disease has on the overall well-being of individual and social life.

Civil Service And Civil Service Reform Act of 1978


The civil service describes the body of professionals and highly qualified personnel employed to serve in the public sector for the purposes of delivering impartial government services to all citizens. The main duty of civil servants is to represent the interests of the public and to work in the best interest of everyone. Civil servants are not appointees of government but rather professional workers employed based on merit. This paper elaborates on the state of civil service before the enactment of the 1978 civil service act as well as the impact the act has had on civil service.

Civil Service before the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978

In the periods canvassing the early 19th Century, civil servants that worked in the federal government were employed at the pleasure of the president. This means that the president could therefore fire them at will for any wrong-doing or for no reason at all. In some instances, due to politics being tied to job positions at government level, some employees were required to take sides politically if their jobs were to be safe. By around 1910, there was a change and most civil servants were employed based on merit. The Hatch Act of 1939 restricted civil servants from taking part in political activities in order for them to focus on serving everyone impartially. The U.S. Civil Service Commission which was established in 1883 was at the forefront of enforcing a merit-based system in the employment of civil servants. Lloyd-La Follette Act of 1912 gave civil servants the right to form unions and to petition government.

Civil Service since the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978

The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 abolished the U.S. Civil Service Commission. The position of the Civil Service Commission was then taken up by three newly created bodies which are: Federal Labor Relations Authority (FLRA), Office of Personnel Management, and the U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board. The Office of Personnel Management is tasked with the provision of management advice and guidance to the sectors of the executive government (Boeckelman, 2016). The body also provides the regulations and policies that guide and control the human resources of the government. The U.S. Merit System Protection Board conducts research on civil servants and is in charge of hearing and determining appeals of civil servants who have been fired or disciplined. The Federal Labor Relations Authority is in charge of the rights of civil servants at the federal level (Boeckelman, 2016). It ensures that civil servants sign into correct collective bargaining agreements and that they make use of collective bargaining agreements when being employed by government agencies in order for their jobs to be secured. The main purpose of the 1978 act was to increase efficiency in civil service as well as eliminate loopholes through which people could cheat the system and get into civil service without meeting the required set standards.

Implications of the Act of 1978

The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 has had many implications on the face and the nature of the civil service since its enactment. The act formally ended the ambiguity that existed in civil service where no actual system of merit was used to employee personnel who could work as civil servants at various levels in government (Brewer & Kellough, 2016). The merit system introduced in 1978 stipulates how civil servants are to be employed and as such there has been witnessed a huge increase in efficiency and transparency in the delivery of services by civil servants (Brunsson & Olsen, 2018). This has been attributed to the right people being in place. The act also made it possible for civil servants to form labor unions that would help them to spearhead their grievances. In every sector of civil service currently, there are labor unions that push and fight for the right of workers.

Additional Federal Laws that have contributed to Diverse Workplaces

There are numerous federal legislations that have been passed over the years that have gone a long way in ensuring that there is no discrimination in the workplace. This has had many positive consequences including the fact that it has ensured that there is a diverse workforce in the realm of civil service. Federal Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Laws protect potential workers of different workers. Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA) makes it illegal to discriminate a person based on their genetic information. The 1991 Civil Rights Act demands that monetary damages should be paid to anyone that is discriminated against in matters to do with employment.  Additionally, the 1964 Civil Rights Act makes it illegal to discriminate against a person as far as employment is concerned based on their race, national origin, religion and gender (Eisenberg, 2015).  These regulations have played a huge role in creating a diverse workforce and their continued enforcement is of paramount significant to the quality of civil service.


The above elaboration has made it abundantly clear that the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 inaugurated sweeping changes in the civil service. Before the passage of the act, efficiency in the provision of public services was markedly below the required standards due to employment of unqualified people. The rights of civil servants were also not adequately addressed and therefore could find themselves in great danger of being abused. Additional legal frameworks like the 1964 Civil Rights Act have also contributed immensely in creation of diversity in civil service.

Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services – Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Man Scenario

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Man from Palm Island

You are a registered nurse working at a hospital in Brisbane. Matt is a 24 year old Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander man from Palm Island, he is currently an inpatient, but is awaiting transfer to the discharge lounge. He will be traveling back to Townsville today where he will continue his care from his mother’s home in Kirwan, Townsville.

He experienced some challenges while admitted to your ward, however thanks to your confident and informed patient advocacy and culturally safe care, he was able to be empowered to complete his care.

Following is the discussion topic:

You have been asked to review the discharge plan for Matt. The discharge plan currently identifies the Townsville Hospital as the facility that has been in correspondence. However, you know from recent discussions with Matt that he plans to have his care handed-over to the Townsville Aboriginal and Islander Health Service (TAIHS), the local Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS). When you approach the Community Hospital Interface Program (CHIP) nurse about this error, she asserts that ACCHSs are just like a General Practice (GP), and may not have the resources to support Matt’s rehabilitation.

The Australian Human Rights Commission’s Close the Gap 2018 report highlights the need for greater investment ACCHSs as a preferred service for closing the gap. Address the following tasks in your discussion essay:

  1. define what an ACCHS is, and discuss how ACCHSs respond to holistic health needs, as per the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander definition of health (as included in the NACCHO Constitution) (325 words)
    • what is ACCHS
    • what is holistic health and its needs
    • how ACCHSs respond to holistic health needs.
  2. compare and contrast ACCHSs and GPs regarding their ability to provide holistic and culturally safe care (325 words)
    • what is ACCHSs ability to provide holistic and culturally safe care
    • what is GPs ability to provide holistic and culturally safe care
    • what are their similarities and differences in providing holistic and culturally safe care
  3. describe the role of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Worker (ATSIHW). Discuss what nurses need to consider when working with ATSIHW in an interdisciplinary team (325 words)
    • describe the role of ATSIHW
    • Discuss what nurses need to consider when working with ATSIHW in an interdisciplinary team
  4. define self-determination and explain how it relates to ACCHOs, ATSIHWs and cultural safety (325 words)
    • define self-determination
    • explain how it relates to ACCHOs
    • explain how it relates to ATSIHWs
    • explain how it relates to cultural safety

Aboriginal Community Controlled health Services (ACCHS) – Sample Paper


Indigenous Australians have been experiencing poor healthcare services that pay little or no attention to their cultural needs. This resulted to poor access to primary care, causing huge health disparity between indigenous people of Australia and the rest of the population (NACCHO, 2014). To improve the situation, the indigenous family focused on developing their own healthcare system that is managed and controlled by indigenous people, for indigenous people of Australia. The established ACCHS focused on provision of culturally based and holistic care to indigenous people of Australia (Ward, Fredericks & Best, 2017). This paper focuses on analysing ACCHS and its role in ensuring effective provision of healthcare for indigenous people of Australia.

ACCHS and its Response to Holistic Health Needs as per the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Definition of Health

ACCHS refers to an incorporated Aboriginal organization based in and initiated by a local Aboriginal community. ACCHS was established across Australia to offer culturally accessible and appropriate primary care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (Panaretto, Wenitong, Button & Ring, 2014). It offers culturally appropriate, comprehensive and holistic health care services to indigenous Australians community, who also controls it via Board of Management which is locally elected (Panaretto et al., 2014).  ACCHS offers an extensive range of community, preventive, cultural and population wellbeing and health services (NACCHO, 2014).

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Holistic health characteristically regards the whole person; spirit, mind and body. A holistic healing approach goes past symptoms elimination. Its condition defines the momentary condition of mental-psychical-social and physical relationships. Holistic health needs to consider the overall wellbeing of a person and aspects that influence people’s wellbeing which include economic needs (Mato-Juhasz, Kiss-Toth & Szegedi, 2016). According to Mato-Juhasz et all., (2016), the general health state of a person is determined by several factors which include personal behaviour factors, external environment factors and the host factors. Holist health needs to consider individual spiritual, economic social, emotional and physical needs, their response to illness, and the illness effect on individual ability to meet self-care requirements. Nurses offering holistic health care ensure that patients receive the prescribed medication, social and psychological support by talking to them and building friendship and trust with patients, give training about self-care, and ensure spiritual support (Mato-Juhasz et al., 2016).

 In ACCHS, holistic health involves considering the cultural aspects of indigenous people and how they influence their health, accessibility aspects, individual behaviours, lifestyle and individual perception of health (Ware, 2013). It also focuses on eliminating barriers that have been preventing effective access to primary care in the past, which include different social determinant of health among aboriginal people. The ACCHS responds to holistic health needs by integrating Aboriginal and Torres Islander people culture into the primary care services. They also consider their economic status and how it influences the accessibility to primary health care (Ware, 2013).

ACCHSs vs GPs Regarding the Ability to Provide Holistic and Culturally Safe Care

ACCHS was specifically designed to address the health needs of indigenous Australians. Its main purpose was to bridge the health gap by ensuring equity to access to healthcare services. ACCHS was incorporated by Aboriginal organizations and initiated in a local Aboriginal community, employing Aboriginal workers, and ensuring culturally competent health care services. ACCHS has been found to offer the more effectual and equitable primary health care services to indigenous people (Ong, Carter, Kelaher & Anderson, 2012). This means that ACCHS is one of the most cultural safe healthcare environments for indigenous people in Australia. ACCHS was also designed with holistic healthcare in mind. Its implementation thus plays a great role in ensuring the accomplishment of holistic care (Baba, Brola & Hill, 2014).

The Australian General Practice Services (GPS) have severally failed in providing effective healthcare services to Australian indigenous community. According to Kilian and Williason (2018), aboriginal adolescents and children in need of mental care services experienced difficulties navigating the Australian health care system, due to complex socio-cultural factors. This situation has also been experienced in other healthcare units in the GPS. Holistic health normally involves considering all factors that can influence people’s health. The GPS inability to consider indigenous people cultural aspect and how it influences their health and wellbeing makes it fail in provision of holistic care (Thomas, Mitchell, Rich & Best, 2018).

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ACCHS was basically created with indigenous people cultural and holistic care needs in mind. It thus demonstrates high ability to ensure culturally safe healthcare environment and total consideration of holistic health needs of patients. On the contrary, GPS has failed in creating a culturally safe health care environment for indigenous Australians. GPS was design to address healthcare needs of Australia people. Its designer had little or no knowledge or concern on special cultural needs of indigenous people that would influence their health. Although GPS is designed for holistic care its inability to consider cultural influences in indigenous people’s health makes it perform poorly in provision of holistic health care.

The Role of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Worker (ATSIHW)

ATSIHW refers to persons with initial qualification in the clinical practice and primary health care field. They play an essential role in the provision of primary and clinical health care for community groups, families and individuals, including specialty areas of mental health, alcohol and drug, eye and diabetes and ear health (Health.NSW, 2018). The ATSIHWs common goal is to help the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to assume a strong role in managing and controlling their own lifestyles and health.  Their main role in healthcare include offering cultural and health education to the community, acting as interpreters and communicators, treating injuries and diseases, and keeping medical records. They also offer life skills education, crisis intervention referral and counselling, and offer input in the evaluation, planning, monitoring, development and implementation of all health programs in the community   (Health.NSW, 2018). 

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According to Nancarrow et al. (2013), interdisciplinary team work refers to a complex process where in, different kinds of staff operate together to share skills, knowledge and expertise to influences patient care. The complexity is compounded by the team work multifactorial nature, comprising of the mix of skills, service organization, care setting, management structures and individual relationships (Nancarrow et al., 2013). While working together with ATSIHWs nurses need to ensure effective communication between the two team members. Effective communication ensures enhancement of care safety by avoid errors due to miscommunication, especially in a situation where (Ramsamy, 2018).

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ATSIHWs performs role that are quite similar to those of nurses, despite being less qualified. It is therefore important for the two groups define their roles and boundaries in an interdisciplinary operation, considering what ATSIHWs can or cannot do based on their level of qualification. Nurses should demonstrate respect for ATSIHWs and respect their contribution to the interdisciplinary operation (Ramsamy 2014). Effective care plan should also be enhanced to ensure total participation of all, without feeling undermined.  The two groups can also have shared roles and work as a team to enhance effective care for all especially in the nursing aspects that ATSIHWs are good at (Gausvik et al., 2015).

Self-Determination and how it Associates to ACCHOS, ATSIHWs and Cultural Safety

Self-determination refers to the equal entitlement to be in ones destinies control, while living with the governing institutions. Self-determination is important to enhancing indigenous wellbeing and health (O’Mara, 2012). Self-determination involves engaging the aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population in each decision making layer, to be able to meet their health needs. Active involvement is required in the control, delivery and design of health services to those who will be using the services (O’Mara, 2012).

ACCHOs are health care organizations created by indigenous Australian people for their own health care services. The ACCHOs played a great role in the development of ACCHs that is total a self-determination healthcare system for indigenous people (Mazel, 2016). The system is created with intention of eliminating things that indigenous people did not like in the GPS, and integrating things they wished could have been prioritized in GPS. ACCHS is a system in which indigenous people took the main control in the health research, completion and assessment, obtaining the actual picture of the indigenous people health needs and considered them in developing indigenous people health care system (Armstrong & Hayman, 2012). ATSIHWs ensure self-determination by running the indigenous people health care services in a manner that considers their cultural needs. This ensures that the health care services are provided as people would want them to be. ATSIHWs belong to Aboriginal and Torres communities and thus, they clearly understand their health needs and how they can be addressed to gain better outcome. The involvement of indigenous people in the development of the ACCHS ensured that they integrated their cultural aspects in the provision of health care system (Ward, Fredericks & Best, 2017). The engagement of Aboriginal and Torres in the health care services provision through ATSIHWs ensured effective implementation of indigenous cultural aspects in care. This resulted to creation of a culturally safe health care environment through self-determination (Ward, Fredericks & Best, 2017).  

Conclusion Indigenous people of Australia have been experiencing cultural challenges in the main Australian health care system. This resulted to a huge health gap between them and the rest of the Australian population. The need for culturally safe healthcare system pushed the indigenous people into fighting for self-determination health care system, where indigenous people were fully involved in developing a health care system that suits their health care needs and that ensure a cultural safe health care environment. This resulted to the development of ACCHS which is commended for serving aboriginal and Torres people in a more satisfactory manner by considering their holistic health and cultural aspects.

Incorporating Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development into the Justice System

CRJ 220 Assignment Instructions

Imagine you are the chief of police. As the chief of police, you will need to ensure that your law enforcement officers lead ethical careers. In order to prepare for this assignment, review Chapters 7 through 9 in the textbook. Then, research Kohlberg’s stages of moral development and find at least two (2) relevant articles that discuss Kohlberg’s theory, Means vs. Ends, and Kantian ethics.

Write a two to three (2-3) page paper in which you:

  • Identify and discuss the three (3) levels of Kohlberg’s stages of Moral Development, and explain how you would address each level within your department.
  • Explain how your officers can use Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development to evaluate three (3) types of criminals who are at different stages of moral development.
  • Illustrate two to three (2-3) ways in which you would address self-interest and pursuit of pleasure to prevent police corruption.
  • Identify and discuss at least three (3) Prima Facie Duties that you believe all of your law enforcement officers should fulfill.
  • Support your position statement with two (2) relevant and credible references, documented according to SWS.

Incorporating Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development into the Justice System

Morality is defined as the principles that are used to tell right from wrong. These principles can be universal or personal and encapsulates a person’s attitudes and understanding on morals. Moral development is the evolution of a person’s definition of what is moral over a long period of time, such as from childhood to adulthood. This paper elaborates how Kohlberg’s theory of moral development can be applied in the justice system, specifically in the police department.

Read also Moral development by Lawrence Kohlberg

There are three stages of moral development according to Lawrence Kohlberg. These are pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional levels. The pre-conventional level defines a stage in moral development where an individual’s sense of morality is highly controlled by external forces like parents, and that the person’s actions are guided by the consequences of their actions (Audi, 2015). Conventional stage is where an individual’s actions and sense of morality are guided by possible benefits that could result from those actions. The post-conventional stage involves an individual defining morality in abstract manner and holding opinions of some rules being unfair and therefore should be eliminated. As the Chief of Police, I would ensure that there is a great understanding of this theory of development in order to foster investigations of criminals who might fall into the different categories which could result in better findings.

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The Kohlberg theory can be used to evaluate criminals at different stages of moral development. In stage 1, a criminal entirely attempts to duly follow the law and obeys the authority. However, their criminal actions are as a result of experimenting with their actions in order to see what happens and may end up in the wrong without intending to harm. In the second stage, a criminal is motivated by the returns that they would achieve from their actions. In the third stage, the criminal may be having attitudes that some rules and regulations are unfair and unjust and therefore would not consider them as worthy of being adhered to. This leads them to break some of the rules that end them up in jail.

Police misconduct is rampant and I would therefore institute effective measures for the public to report the police that engage in misconduct as well as proper retraining mechanisms. I would push for the creation of a public reporting system which would ensure that all police officers that do not adhere to the rules while in service are reported to the relevant authority for action. This has been shown to be effective and should be pushed even further. Retraining would involve introducing regular classes where the police are reminded of the right conduct and the negative impacts of police misconduct in society.

Read also Six Pillars Of United States Policing

Prima facie duties that police have include a duty to not cause harm. This includes avoiding excessive force while arresting an individual in order to prevent injuries and other bodily harm to the person. Another prima facie duty is to seek to expand personal knowledge and skills in order to provide more efficient and effective services to the community (Cameron, 2019). This gaining of knowledge helps to expand the competence of the police officers in their line of duty.

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In conclusion, it is clear that Kohlberg’s theory of moral development can be effectively applied in the justice system. This is seen in its application in the evaluation of criminals at different stages of moral attitudes. The theory can also be applied to improve the conduct of police officers in their line of duty. Additionally, it is seen that a duty to not harm people as well as a duty to expand personal competence comprise the most important prima facie duties of the police.

The Role of Managers in the Budgeting Process – Discussion

Although most managers may not be directly responsible for creating the different parts of the organizational budget, they frequently contribute to its development and implementation. Managers are often called upon to provide input and useful information as the budget is developed. Managers are almost always responsible for understanding what the budget entails and for being accountable for aiming to meet their budgets. In order to adhere to a budget, managers must set goals and make decisions in accordance with budgetary constraints.

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As you review this week’s Resources, pay attention to the role of the Human Resource manager in the various stages of budgeting. Consider why HR managers must have an intimate understanding of their departmental budgets to make appropriate decisions and allocate resources efficiently. Also contemplate the importance of establishing attainable goals and the many factors to consider in setting goals. Adhering to organizational and individual departmental budgets, including the HR department is essential for an organization’s overall financial well being.

Post by Day 3 a cohesive response that addresses the following:

When setting profit goals, what are at least five items that should be considered in determining achievable goals? Why are these five important? Give an example of each.

To determine achievable goals, there are a number of aspects that need to be considered. These aspects include organizational structure, product line, skills of the labor force, production cost and effectiveness of the sales force. Organizational structure refers to a system which outlines how specific activities such as responsibilities, roles and rules are directed so as to attain the organization goals. Organizational structure also dictates the information flow in the organization, and thus, it plays a vital role in determining the ability to attain the set goals and objectives. For instance centralized structure may have a higher control of operations than decentralized structure, and hence a higher ability to influence profit goal than the decentralized structure. The product offered is important since it determine the volume of the market the product can control based on the targeted market (Shim & Siegel, 2012).

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For instance a product used by majority is likely to attract more sales than a product used by minority group. Labor force skill is importance since it influences speed and quality of production. This plays a great role in determining volume of production and meeting customers. For instance a highly skilled labor force can ensure more innovative products are produce at minimal cost increasing productivity. Production cost plays a great role in influencing profits. High production cost minimizes profitability while production cost management increase productivity. The company ability to manage cost is highly needed to meet profit goals. Effectiveness of the sales force is important since it controls the volume of sales. For instance a highly effective sale force will increase the sales volume and hence profitability and vice versa (Shim & Siegel, 2012). 

Consider your own organization or one with which you are familiar. For which aspects of the budget is a department-level manager typically responsible within the individual departments? Which aspects of the budget are generally within the department manager’s control and which are beyond control? Provide at least one specific example for an HR manager.

Cost control is one aspect of the budget that can be done at the department level. Each department manager should find a way or reducing operational cost in their department and enhancing operational efficiency.  Department managers also have a role of offering information from their department that can influence budget planning. This include information such as cost and revenue of the department, and maybe the past budgeting outcome; a comparison between the department budget and actual spending (Shim & Siegel, 2012).

Read also Budget Planning and Control – Assignment Instructions And A Sample Answer

The department manager can also provide information on their plan to boost profitability and to reduce cost. Department managers can employ most of the budgeting planning aspect within their department. However, they cannot manage to go beyond there. Only the budgeting committee or those working in the financial department can develop the general organizational budget plan by compiling information sourced from all departments and by use of the organization general guidance (Shim & Siegel, 2012). For instance the human resource department can offer information on strategies put to improve profitability such as workers training and motivation programs, and the cost involved in doing so (Cohen & Karatzimas, 2011).  

What steps should a manager take to ensure that he or she is best able to make decisions based on limited resources and budget constraints? How can a manager plan for and manage potential changes that inevitably occur during a budget cycle? Provide at least one specific example within an HR context.

A manager should always be able to handle changes related to limited resources. They should be able to cut cost and employ alternative measures to meet the department objectives. The selected alternative needs to be practical and to yield to the highest profit possible in the department. For instance, the human resource manager may consider employing right workers for the right job with the highest job-skills match to minimize on the needed training. Human resource manager and also consider eliminating non-performing group to be able to motivate the performing group to perform even better (Cohen & Karatzimas, 2011).

What are some steps HR managers might take to help meet organizational budgets?

Some of the steps that HR managers might take to assist in meeting the organizational budgets include reducing operational cost by ensuring high level of workers efficiency through hiring skilled workers, investing on training and workers motivation. HR managers can control quality of production by controlling workers skills and attitude. They can also control volume of sales by controlling sales force efficiency through the adapted method of compensation and selecting the most talented workforce. They thus have high ability to control revenue and to cut the budget expenditures, making it possible to meet the budget expenses (Cohen & Karatzimas, 2011).

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Has the Traditional Media Become Less Important In Politics With The Rise Of Social Media?

The world has been experiencing change in the forms of communication, after the invention and spread of internet across the globe. Media industry has been experiencing rapid evolution in the last three decades, and still continues to evolve in new, sometimes unexpected manner. The new media have extensive-ranging effects for political practices. New media have radically changed manners of communication in politics, and ways of operation in government institutions. It has also redefined the journalists’ role and system of the political media. Today, people depend on new forms of media to communicate, in all sectors of operation, including politics. One of the new forms of media that are highly employed in modern communication is social media. Social media is being extensively used in today’s world to facilitate exchange, dissemination, and production of political content within networks, and on platforms which accommodate collaboration and interaction. This has brought about great change on the use of traditional media, which used to play the primary role of disseminating political information in the past (Owen, 2018). This paper focuses on determining whether the traditional media has turned to be less significant in politics, with the rise of social media. Answering this question is important in demonstrating how the change of technology has affected political communication. The article will assess the extent to which social media favourable communication atmosphere to political agents compared to traditional media, and aspects of social media that makes it more preferable than the traditional media in political communication. 

Read also Role Of Social Media in Politics – Magazine Style Article

Social media is regarded as a group of internet-founded applications, which is built on the web 2.0 technological and ideological foundation that permits the exchange and creation of user generated information. Social media have in the past few years demonstrated a rapid user count growth to over 800 million people in facebook and over 200 million users in Twitter, based on 2012 research. This social media applications mainstream adoption has altered the information diffusion physics. The major obstacle for an individual who required some information to spread via a community was the technical infrastructure cost needed to reach a huge number of people. This bottleneck has been extensively eliminated, with the current widespread internet access. In this regard, personal publishing modalities that include weblogs, micro-blogging and social network sites have turn to be more predominant. The process through which people coordinate, organize and locate groups of persons with similar interest,  the nature and number of available news and information sources, and the aptitude to  share and solicit ideas and opinions across different topics, have all experienced drastic change with social media rise (Stieglitz & Dang-Xuan, 2012). The Social media have recently been said to have an effect on the communication and public discourse in the society. Specially, social media are used increasingly in political context. Social media site such as the facebook and microblogging services such as Twitter, were more recently believed to contain the ability for augmenting political participation. Although twitter is a perfect platform for spread of both political and general opinion, publically by users via their networks, political institutions which include political foundations, political parties and politicians, have also started using facebook groups or pages with intention of getting into direct dialogs with the public, and promoting more political discussions (Stieglitz & Dang-Xuan, 2012).  

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Social network platforms are a crucial technique for gathering news and information from traditional news media organizations, friends, or families. According to Booulianne (2015), about 50% facebook users track traditional sources of news through facebook, though more significantly, 78% users in facebook report being incidentally exposed to news via social media ties. This means that social media does not replace journalism, but the means in which journalism ensure that information reach the public. Social networking has made news sharing process among members of a network, easier. Today, a user just need to click on ‘like’ or ‘retweet’, then all members connected to the one’s social network will get the news story access. According to Booulianne (2015), social network platforms can enhance the news sharing from those that are well-informed, to those who are less informed via incidental learning. The research demonstrates that 45% of 15- to 25- year olds youths reported obtaining their news from friends and families via Twitter or Facebook, at least once per week. Thus, social networking platforms might be specifically significant for informing young population (Bialik & Matsa, 2017). Social media has also introduced unprofessional form of journalism, where member of the public can capture interesting incidents in their vicinity, post on social media in form of pictures or videos and attract audience. Generally, traditional way of disseminating news is losing or has lost popularity. Although their news content is still treasured, majority prefer following their news briefing in twitter or facebook for more accurate news, rather than waiting for news time as it used to be the case in the past. This includes political news. 

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Social media is also said to play a great role in promoting political participation. Social media has been thought to enhance various kinds of political engagement, although there is no enough research evidence to support this. In a husk, for social media to create an effect on public participation, contingencies chain needs to be realized. Citizens need to expose themselves, either incidentally or intentionally to political information they consider to be relevant. Incidental political information is very frequent in social media.  There is a high likelihood of coming across political information, even when one does seek it, especially in situation where there are burning political issues in the country. According to Knoll, Matthes and Heiss (2018), uninterested individuals have constant encounter with unintentional or incidental exposure to political information, since such content are frequently pushed to them by their relatives, friends or other acquaintances and hence, it is hard to ignore.  This gives social media an upper hand in promoting politics (Young, n.d.). There are also political ‘memes’ that are easily shared and spread through social media. These memes initiate individual interest to follow on the political stories that inspired them.

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The main success of social media in promoting political affair is due to its extensive use by people of all age groups, particularly the youths. The research has clearly noted low level of youths’ participation in politics, especially during the times when traditional media dominated the field (Young, n.d.). The main appealing aspect of social and digital media is that sharing and capturing information and news is easy and cheap. This enables ordinary individuals to share information with extensive audiences from anywhere. The extensive use of digital technology especially among the youths makes it easy for them to access political information through social media. This means, that social media can be used to develop a political platform where every person can be reached. The interactive nature of social media also makes it easy for the population to express their dissatisfactions, frustrations, dislike or likes based on the topic or leader in questions. This encourages more people to participate either actively or inactively by reading opinions of others or airing own contribution (n.a, 2018).

Read also Difference Between Social Media And Other Medias

The internet and its facilitated devices make information easily accessible and instant, enhancing new kinds of political and civic action among youths. According to Baumgartner and Morris (2010), the cognitive and personal connections of young people can be promoted through digital communication, which is a social relations norm among youth. Since youth utilize digital technology to enhance their social relationship, they might also employ it for civic and political engagement. In Baumgartner and Morris (2010) views, young adults aged between 17 and 31 associate being politically engaged with finding information, having political knowledge, knowing major candidates views, and being guided by information while voting. Youths have a preference for participatory social media, which support personal expression, permit them to organize political or social action with peers, and permit them to make contribution to digital knowledge body.  In Baumgartner and Morris (2010) views, youth, particularly users of social network seem more probable to take part in online politics. The research has also established that civic engagement is related to extensive use of facebook, while political participation is related to joining facebook groups. Moreover, offline political participation is related to online political participation. Although active political participations such as signing online petition are not popular, online participation has in the past initiating strong changes offline, in different parts of the world (Baumgartner & Morris, 2010). This analysis demonstrates that social media plays a great role in attracting youths into politics, and achieving great political results than traditional media has ever imagined.  

Read also Characteristics of Social Media

   Different from the traditional media, online media can be used to initiate political change and to propagate political agenda. Unlike traditional media which is none-interactive, social media can easily be used to fuel a revolution spirit in a population, following unpleasant political occurrence. A good instance is in 2011, where new media was used in Philippine to organize demonstration against congress stand to protect a corrupt president that was supposed to be impeached. This happened only two hours after the announcement. Members of the public were able to share the message using short text messages that requested them to come out and meet on Epifanio de los Santos Avenue. Majority of the message receivers passed the message on to their network, and within no time, most people living around the selected venue were in a meeting. The message was passed to over seven million people in the country, and within two days, there was a big crowed, big enough to paralyze the city operations (Shirky, 2011). These kinds of demonstrations have been quite common in the 21st century, following the expansion of internet use and extensive spread of hand held digital technology. They include a successful demonstration in Spain in 2004 and Arabs Green movement uprising that started in Iran in 2009 June influencing a number of Arabic countries into revolution and ending in Egypt. All these demonstrations were propagated using short messages, which were shared among individuals network, reaching millions of people (Karlsen & Enjolras, 2016). Such kinds of political protest cannot be organized by use of traditional media, especially due to lack of interaction.

Read also Effects of Social Media

Social media has also been extensively used to promote political campaigns, and to communicate political manifestos and ideologies in different parts of the world, especially in the US presidential election. The Obama campaign team in 2008 revolutionized the social media use in an election which they were sure they could have lost with the use of the traditional media. The campaign utilized features of advanced digital media which capitalized on community building, collaboration and networking ability of social media to develop a political movement. The campaign team ensured that they were active on YouTube, Twitter and Facebook among many other social media platforms that focused on specific constituencies, for instance Glee, AsiaAve and BlackPlanet. Social media was utilized to collect data on consumers and people’s political preferences, and built voter profiles to follow unique groups that include young professional voters, by use of customized messages (Kumar & Natarajan, 2016). The tradition of using social media during campaigns has been carried forward in the other two presidential campaigns in the country. American president is also using social media widely to report on major day engagements, to comment on burning political issues and the country’s foreign affairs among other things. In conclusion, traditional media has been greatly faced out in normal living and political world, with social media taking over. However, traditional media is still being highly respected for provision of accurate news or information, without ‘Fake news’. However, to remain viable, most of the traditional media is considering using social media platform to share their news. This makes it easy for the public to still depend on them for breaking news information, since they are likely to display verified news than any other group. This move by traditional media to integrate modern platform is a clear indication that traditional media has become less important with rise of social media, especially in news dissemination and in creating interactive political platform. However, traditional media inability to create an interactive communication platform has made it lose its popularity and preference in the political world. Social media seems to attract a larger crowd creating a better political ground for any politician. They also permit real time interaction give people a chance to access their leaders and information in a better way than before. It also provides people a better chance to air their opinion among other things. All these good features of social media have made it superior over traditional media in the modern world.

Psychodynamic Theory and Cognitive Theory – Comparing and Contrasting Mental Health Theories

Compare and Contrast Two Mental Health Theories

Submit a paper which compares and contrasts two mental health theories:

  • You may choose your theories from the textbook or from other sources.
  • Describe each theory, including some history about the person who developed the theory and the major ideas and applications of the theory.
  • Describe the ways in which the two theories are similar, and how they differ.
  • Include a statement of how each theory could be used in your nursing practice. Include specific patient examples if you have them. You may also critique the theory: Is there anything with which you disagree or are there any problems you can identify?
  • It is expected that this essay will be 2-3 pages in length (not including the title page), double-spaced. Your paper should include an introduction and conclusion and proper APA citations from any source material you use, including your text.

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Psychodynamic Theory and Cognitive Theory Mental Health Theories – Sample Paper

Mental health is an important part of the overall health of a person. The World Health Organization (WHO) succinctly captures this fact in its definition of health, which states that health is not only an absence of disease, but rather the complete presence of physical, emotional, social, and mental health. In an attempt to provide help to mental health patients, psychologists use various theories that are geared towards understanding the patients better. As a result, the patients receive the most appropriate care that is tailored toward their unique challenges. Psychodynamic theory and the cognitive theory are two of the most popular theories that are used by psychologists and therapists.

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The psychodynamic theory holds that a person’s behavior and actions are determined by the individual’s life experiences. According to the theory, no human behavior is accidental. The basis of this line of thought is that human action is founded on past experiences that the person has had (Guntrip, 2018). As people have different past experiences, their interaction shapes an individual’s actions and behavior in a dynamic manner. In applying this knowledge during therapy, psychologists ask patients to narrate their thoughts and feelings. This approach helps in uncovering unconscious events that are in constant play in the patient’s mind. The patient’s behavior and response during therapy sessions help the psychologist to fully diagnose the patient’s problem. The cognitive theory, on the other hand, posits that cognitive processes control a person’s actions, behavior, thoughts, and feelings (Weeland et al., 2017). This theory is useful in understanding the attitudes and the assumptions that patients have, and how they impact on their behavior. Psychologists use this theory to identify inaccurate attitudes that wrongly influence a person’s decisions.

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The psychodynamic theory and the cognitive theory share a number of similarities. Both consider a person’s past experience to be integral in influencing their current actions and behavior. This view is important in the proper diagnosis of a mental health patient, as well as in proper management of their condition. The two theories also use a similar approach in the diagnosis of patients. Therapists ask patients to narrate their feelings and give an account of their actions in the use of the two theories. This method enables them to make appropriate conclusions on the patients’ needs, and be able to respond to them appropriately.

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However, the two theories have a few differences in their application. The psychodynamic theory overwhelmingly focuses on a person’s past experiences. The patient is required to provide important events in their lives that happened in the past. These events are then analyzed to see their link with the patient’s current state. Although past experiences also play a part in cognitive theory, the primary focus is on the patient’s current state of mind, as well as their current attitudes and assumptions that impact on their emotions and thoughts. Another difference is that psychodynamic theory focuses on a person’s actions, while cognitive theory concentrates on the patient’s feelings.

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Psychodynamic theory and cognitive theory are extensively used by psychologists in the management of mental patients. Nurses can also apply these theories to understand mental health patients better and provide them with suitable care. The two theories help in diagnosis, as well as in devising the correct mode of treatment. The use of these theories in mental health counseling is effective as they combine various useful approaches that suit various types of patients.