HIV/AIDS, STD, HCV Epidemiology in Queen’s County

Introduction

  • HIV/AIDS, STDS, and hepatitis c virus are interrelated infections that in terms of risk factors, symptoms, and socioeconomic effects.
  • To ensure effective research on these epidemic, there was realignment in the Queens country department of health. Bureau of HIV/AIDS Epidemiology (BHAE) and the Bureau of STD control were moved from Center for community Health to AIDS Institute (Murrill et al, 2008)

The realignment was aimed at providing in-depth research of the epidemic through combining staffs performing partners service and those performing anonymous HIV counseling and testing .Creating a bureau of STD prevention, new division of epidemiology, evaluation and research (DEER), which brought together BHAE, BSTDPE, and OPER.

Demographic data of the HIV infected persons in 2013

  • General population in 2013 was 19.4 m
  • White and black non Hispanic 58% and 14% respectively
  • People of color and whites 67% and 33% respectively

New HIV Diagnosis

  • 2002 -2012 37% decrease
  • A makeable increase in the number of persons living with HIV infection
  • New infections 2,925 (17.6 per 100,000 population
  • Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics 70% of new infections
  • Estimated rates for non-Hispanic blacks 41.6/100,000
  • Estimated for non Hispanic whites 6.8/100,000
  • Hispanics 34.0/100,000
  • Age 25-34 rates 34.5/100,000
  • Homosexuals 71% of new infections

Demographic data of STD and Hepatitis C infections

  • Overall increase in syphilis case with 80% of the cases reported on males
  • 85% of the cases were from homosexuals
  • Black non-Hispanic reported the greatest number of syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia
  • Adolescents and young adults aged between 15-24 had the highest rate of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea
  • Overall there number of females with STDs was the highest at 64%
  • The surveillance system identified all the persons infected with HCV but did not distinguish the chronically infected and those with risky health problems (New York department of health, 2012).
  • The cases of HCV were more on male than on female
  • There were more new cases, but age 40-65 reported the highest cases

Hepatitis c transmission, symptoms, and treatment

  • People contact HCV when infected blood get into the blood stream of uninfected person. Initially, blood transfusion posed people to greater risk of the disease but today, sharing of needles and other sharp objected are the major transmitters.
  • There are no severe symptoms though the infected person may have mild-flu, dark urine, fever, light stool, and fatigue
  • There is no cure or vaccine for HCV. However, treatment is administered to reduce multiplication of virus that cause liver damage

Dangers of STDS

  • STDs can pose a risk of Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  • Infertility
  • Organ destruction
  • Death if left untreated for long
  • May have an effect on mouth, throat, eyes, upper thighs, and anus

Symptoms of STDs infection

  • Rashes on palm and sole feet
  • Conjunctivitis and swollen eyes
  • Swollen joints
  • Throat and mouth infections
  • Chronic flu
  • Penile discharge in men and unusual discharge in women
  • Pain when urinating or ejaculating
  • Virginal itching
  • Painful and swollen testicles
  • Frequent urge to urinate
  • Pain when having sexual intercourse
  • Unusual virginal odor

Identifying a person with HIV/AIDS

  • It is not easy to notice an individuals infected by HIV/AIDS virus
  • Most of the victims are not aware of their condition because it takes time to develop the symptoms
  • It is impossible to determine the HIV status by physical appearance, gender, race, and sexual orientation
  • There only way to determine whether one is HIV positive or negative is only by carrying out a test

Signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS infection

  • Different symptoms occurs at different stage of HIV virus infection
  • The early symptoms include a prolonged flu that can last between 4 to8 weeks
  • HIV seroconversion syndrome
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Persistent headache
  • Muscle aches
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Rashes on abdomen, legs, face, and arms
  • Sore throat
  • Fever
  • Oral thrush

Opportunistic diseases that affect HIV infected persons

  • Cervical cancer
  • Coccidiomycosis a fungal infection that affect brain and lungs
  • Cytomegalovitrus a viral infection that cause retinitis and systemic ailment
  • Herpes simplex ulcers
  • Isosporiasis
  • Immune system cancer
  • Tuberculosis
  • Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
  • Excessive weight loss
  • Kaposi’s sarcoma
  • Histoplasmosis
  • Candidiasis of trachea, esophagus, or lungs

HIV/AIDS and STD protection

  • The best way to ensure that risk of HIV is reduced is through abstaining for unmarried and remaining faithful to one partner for the married. Incase of more than one sexual partner, they should always have protected sex.
  • Avoid direct contact with body fluids such as blood, pre-seminal fluids, rectal fluid, and vaginal fluids of infected persons
  • Precaution should be taken to ensure that mother to child transmission does not occur before, during, and after delivery.
  • Needles and other piercing tools used win tatooing and drug injection should never be shared

HIV/AIDS and STDS Treatment

  • Most of the STD can be treated, but this does not prevent a person from contacting HIV
  • HIV has no cure or vaccine however, there are anti-retroviral medications reduce the effect of the virus
  • The HIV/AIDS infected individual should seek medical attention for the treatment of any other opportunistic disease immediately the symptoms appear to ensure that there is no further destruction of white blood cells.

Prevention and support services

  • Positive pathways

It’s an innovative public health initiative financed by the centers of disease control and prevention. The project have launched correctional facilities that identify new and existing HIV positive persons and link them to medical care

  • Criminal justice initiative

It was developed to respond to emerging prevention and service essential for HIV infected patients and risk detainees. It aims at implementing a combination of interventions and support services by ensuring that there is reduction in the rate at which the virus is spread.

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