Mumbai Terrorist Attacks of November, 2008- Was It Unexpected Event Or Not?

This paper discusses the events that comprised the attacks in Mumbai, India way back in 2008. It will further discus the question of whether the Mumbai attack was considered unexpected or not in light of the available capabilities in modern technology such as the internet, cell phones and handheld devices. It is worth noting that attacks in Mumbai comprised an aspect of carefully coordinated and planned operation that involved a number of trained and experienced gunmen. The terrorist operation happened in several locations in a simultaneous manner within a matter of minutes. Mumbai’s Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus railway station (CST) was the first target where the crowd of passengers were attacked by gunmen who fired at them indiscriminately (Cannon, 2010). Other events of the attack occurred at Taj Mahal Palace and Oberoi-Trident, which comprise some of Mumbai’s luxury hotel. The gunmen, also, opened fire at Nariman house Mumbai’s Jewish Center, also, a business center. During the attacks, the gunmen were strategic enough to fire at the busiest locations. In addition to hospitals and hotels, terrorists attacked crowds at Wadi Bunder, Western Express Highway, Crawford Market, and railway stations. Generally, the gunmen attacked more than seven places using grenades and automatic weapons.

It is essential to note that the Mumbai attacks were unexpected. This is because the sea approach was the main strategy that the terrorists used to access Mumbai. The fiyadeen terrorists took decisions to follow the least expected and least practical route that even got the government security off-guard. Besides, in light of the capabilities in the modern technologies, the attacks in Mumbai are considered unexpected. This is because the criminal underground has a high level of innovativeness, and usually work ahead in order to adopt the emerging technologies (Zaidi, 2012). The first historical account of inventions used for terrorists’ act was observed in the 9/11 attacks. The attackers used jetliners that possess complicated flight control computers that fly them with the precision of a highly skilled pilot. The second historical accounts of inventions or technologies used for terrorists’ acts was observed in the Mumbai attack. The terrorists left Karachi, Pakistan and navigated to Mumbai across the Arabian Sea with the assistance of a global positioning system handset. By use of satellite phones, they were able to know the most direct routes to their targets. Both the 9/11 and the Mumbai attacks made significant use of technology in order to effect an unexpected event.

In conclusion, this paper discusses the events that comprised the attacks in Mumbai, India way back in 2008. It is worth noting that attacks in Mumbai comprised an aspect of carefully coordinated and planned operation that involved a number of trained and experienced gunmen. It is essential to note that the Mumbai attacks were unexpected. It is essential to note that the Mumbai attacks were unexpected. The fiyadeen terrorists took decisions to follow the least expected and least practical route that even got the government security off-guard.


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