Behavior Focused Vs Trait Focused Performance Appraisal

Compare and Contrasting two Different Methods of Performance Appraisal

The two methods of performance appraisal that are selected for analysis in this case include behavior focused performance appraisal and trait focused performance appraisal.

Differences Between Behavior Focused And Trait Focused Performance Appraisal

The trait-centered system focuses on attributes that include punctuality, dependability and helpfulness.  In this case workers are rated by their supervisors by indicating particular traits exhibited by every worker. On the contrary, behavior-centered rating system judges actions of the workers by use of rating scale to weigh specific behavior. Unlike trait-centered system where only one scale is used for all traits, rating based on behavioral-centered system employs four rating scales that include mixed standard scales, forced choice scales, behaviorally anchored rating scale and graphic rating scale. Different metrics are used in each rating scales are used in each case (Semantic Scholar, n.d.).

Similarities Between Behavior Focused Vs Trait Focused Performance Appraisal

Majority of trait-centered systems apply a simple checklist with ratings of needs improvement, satisfactory or excellent. Similarly, some of the four rating scales in behavioral-centered system also use this simple scale rating running from lower to the upper range of evaluation. For instance in forced choice performance rakings is done by using a scale lists with options such as excellent, need improvement, poor, and average, are used. In graphic rating workers behaviors are judged on a sliding scale running from poor to excellent. The main disadvantage in the two form of performance appraisal adopting simple listing assessment is that that this form evaluation is prone to supervisor personal bias in both cases. In addition, most of workers get the satisfactory marks, an aspect that limits the accuracy and reliability of the system in both cases (Semantic Scholar, n.d.).

The Best Method of Performance Appraisal – A Personal Opinion

Between the two selected performance assessment techniques, trait centered seems more effective to me. This is because, the metrics used to define performance are clear and easy to determine. For instance it is easy to notice late job using the deadline allocated compared to the submitted time. It is also easy to determine dependable workers based on how well one complete an assignment and whether more input may be needed from his or her work based on the completeness of the work, punctuality of submission, level of creativity, quality of the work and accuracy. It is also easy to differentiate workers who can be helpful and those who cannot base on how they do their work and the level of their reliability. On the contrary, it is considerably tricky to identify individual actual behavior since individual behavior may vary based on who the person is relating with, and what one may be going through at a specific time. In my opinion it is not easy to get it right when assessing performance based on individual behaviors.

Updating the Mission, Vision, and Values of a Health Care Organization

Your chief executive officer (CEO) has just notified you that the board wants the health care organization to update the mission, vision, and values of the organization. The CEO asks that you complete the following in 2-4 pages not including title page and reference page:

  • Create a mission, vision, and values statement for the retail clinic
  • Provide the definition and meaning of each statement
  • Describe the individual importance of each statement to the organization
  • Discuss methods of communicating those statements to all staff members
  • Discuss organizational leaders can evaluate each statement’s effectiveness

Note: Use APA style to cite at least 3 scholarly sources from the last 5 years.

Mission, Vision and Value Statement of the Retail Clinic – Sample Paper

Mission Statement

The retail clinic mission is being dedicated to enhancing the general health of the surrounding community by offering comprehensive quality service and care in a comprehensive and cost-effective manner.

Vision Statement

To be a comprehensive, independent primary care medical clinic of choice for the healthcare needs of the surrounding community

Values Statement

  • Ensure collaboration among workers to promote knowledge sharing, teamwork, and involvement contribute to our future
  • Always work to exceed the expectation of our customers 
  • Strive to offer safest and patient care of the highest quality at all the time
  • Ensure personal accountability for adopted procedures, medical practices or decisions
  • Ensure open communication among staffs and with the patients that build partnership

Definition and Meaning of Mission, Vision, and Value Statements

The organization mission is a statement that converses the organization’s purpose for being, and how the organization aims to assist its main stakeholders.  The value statement provides the guiding principle of an organization, in which the organization has invested emotionally. Value statement refers to what the organization beliefs in. 

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The vision statement refers to a future-oriented declaration of the aspiration and purpose of the organization. It demonstrates what the organization wishes to become based on the organization purposes cited in the mission statement. Mission and vision statement main critical roles include communication the organization purpose to the stakeholders, develop measureable objectives and goals by which to measure the success of the strategy of the organization and creating the measurable objectives and goals by which to measure the success of the strategy of the organization (Akeem, Alani & Edwin, 2016).

Individual Importance of Each Statement to the Organization

Retail clinic mission statement stands for its reason for existence, the inherent duties, and the definition of its responsibility in the community. It determines the service the clinic offers to the society. In this perspective, mission statement refers the workers to a common alignment and assists to define the objectives of the organization, making them extra operative. The vision of an organization is normally connected to the mission, values or principles. It thus translates the tactic followed by the clinic as a healthcare unit. It supports good practice through service quality ethical culture, respect and humanization of the people’s dignity. Values are the primary reference principles which the organization and its workers anticipate to respect and the principles which are the basic assumptions, regulations, doctrines and rules by which employees and managers are anticipated to act. Therefore, the principles reinforce values and determine the primary fundamental and priorities expectations. Values, mission, and vision act as the foundations for the life quality of the organization. To be able to fulfill tasks and objectives, every retail clinic incorporate values, mission, and vision conceptual matrix evidence which identify it as constitute and institution reference (Rego, Araujo& Serrao, 2016).

Methods of communicating those Statements to all Staff Members

People normally accomplish more when they understand the rationale and logic behind the vision, mission and goals in an organization. Leaders thus have the duty to inform them on the new changes in the organization, what they are expected to do and how they will impact them. Leaders then need to take every chance to communicate their desire consistently to counter resistance and to remind workers of the new organization mission and vision and what they are expected to do. Frequent communication eliminates rumors and their effect in an organization (Blazey, 2013). The selected communication method should also ensure that it engage everyone to ensure that everyone understand his or her role in the implementation of the organization mission, vision and value. The new organization mission, vision and value should be communicated to all in a face to face meeting. The communication should be done using PowerPoint presentation or using any other visual aid where the company mission, vision and values are explained in details. Verbal presentation should be used to supplement the presentations as a way of enhancing understanding. Workers should be allowed to ask question, raise ideas and critics where necessary. Response should also be provided to ensure that all workers understand their contribution to attaining the organization mission and vision. Regular emails and messaging should be done to remind them of their role in the new organization mission, vision and value.

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Each Statement by the Organizational Leaders

Effective communication of organization mission, vision and value statements enhances effective application of organization strategies, practices and operations to assist in accomplishing the organization goal and objectives. The organization leaders should thus determine the effectiveness of the mission statement by determines how well the organization accomplishes its purpose on daily basis. This can be determined by evaluating patients feedback with regard to kind of services received. The organization vision statement effectiveness can be evaluated by determining the extent to which the organization is growing and it has remained in line with its mission. This can be determined by reassessing the organization performance progress. The effectiveness of the organization value can be measured by determining the level of collaboration among workers, and the quality of services in the organization. Organization leaders should use patients’ feedback, performance metrics, and individual workers performance assessment result to determine the effectiveness of the organization values (Akeem, Alani & Edwin, 2016).   

Westpac Group Sustainability Performance Report 2017 Case Study Report

Case Study Report Instructions

After reading your chosen company’s sustainability report, prepare a report covering the following points:

  1. Discuss the level to which sustainability strategy is integrated into overall business strategy of the company.
  2. Briefly explain the key stakeholders the company engages with.
  3. A commentary on areas of strong sustainability performance of the company.
  4. A commentary on areas of weak sustainability performance of the company.
  5. Make an overall assessment of quality of the company’s sustainability report based on the following aspects:
    a) Readability (eg: logical structure, uses a graphical presentation of the data, drawings, and explanations where required or uses other tools to help navigate through the document) b) Adoption of GRI principles or other frameworks.

Westpac Group Sustainability Performance Report 2017 Case Study Report

Sustainability is founded on the sustainable development concept, which is development which addresses the present needs without compromising the aptitude of the future generation to address their own needs. Sustainability needs organizations to regard the interrelated effect of their activities on the society, environment and the economy. It is concerned with the future ability to uphold specific capabilities, assets, or values. Sustainability entails decisions which handles the interaction between economic, social and environmental domains and requires options that consider equity in across generations in the society (Langfield-Smith, Smith & Andon, 2017).  This paper analyses the level of sustainability in Westpacgroup. Westpac is the oldest company and first bank in Australia. Westpac is among the four main bank organizations in the country and among the largest New Zealand banks. The company focuses on developing sustainable value by striving to be among the great service companies in the worked, assisting people, communities and customers to grow and prosper.

The Level of Sustainability Strategy Integration in Overall Business Strategy of the Company

Westpacgroup has employed great effort to enhance sustainability. The company always has annual sustainability initiatives that revolve around embracing societal change, improving financial futures,, and offering environmental solutions. Embracing changes in the society involves assisting people to enhance the way they live and work as the society changes.  The company promotes sustainable initiative by making sure that the workforce is the community representative. The company also extends its quality and length of working lives and expects the future needs of culturally diverse and ageing customers. The company also has an initiative of assisting in solving environmental challenges. This is done by offering services and products to assist customers adjust to the environmental challenges. Increase investment and lending in environmental and CleanTech services and lower environmental footprint. The company also has an initiative of developing improved financial futures. The company assists customers to create an improved association with money for improved life. The company guarantees all customers get the right advice to attain a secure retirement. It also assist customers meet retirement financial goals, increase access to pacific financial services and assist people to gain access to affordable housing (Westpac Banking Corporation, 2017).

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 The company sustainability initiatives are strategized to be addressed in a five years span with the recent accomplished sustainability initiative running from 2013 to 2017. Other 2017 sustainability initiatives include supporting gender equity by promoting women leadership in the company and in the society. The company has embraced inclusion of minority groups in its employment and internship programs to include LGHTIQ, and refugees in the country. Its 2017-2020 action plan centers on developing skills for the future by offering free maths education access in mathspace, and launched business institute to assist business bankers to get on developing their skills. Others measures include promoting cultural diversity, improving wellbeing, enhancing it human right position, and creating change via its supply chain. The company has also enhanced its climate change position, by investing in limiting global warming to below 2oC by offering climate bond. The company is also increasing its commitment to environmental and CleanTech that include green business initiatives, renewable energy, energy efficiency, forestry and green building. The company is also working to lower its environmental footprints through recycling its wastes, improving its electrical efficiency and maintain neutral carbon status. The company is also trying to align its operational goals with sustainability to ensure high level of growth and development of its key stakeholders (Westpac Banking Corporation, 2017).     

Key Stakeholders the Company Engages With

The company involves a number of stakeholders in its sustainability initiatives. Some of the key stakeholders engaged by the company include customers, employees, suppliers, investors, community and the government. The company ensures sustainability among its customers by offering them products and services which foster personal growth. Some of these services and products include financial education, risk management, and home ownership. These products and services add customers’ value by enhancing their financial confidence, attainment of financial goals, and enhancing business, family and individual prosperity. The company focuses on adding employee value through development and training, ensuring their wellbeing, and ensuring their financial security. Westpac add community value through innovation and partnership, philanthropy, capacity building and mentoring, granting scholarships and funding, and positive financial impact. This ensures community resilience, development of social enterprise, community inclusion in the banking system and offering them support in their time of need (Westpac Banking Corporation, 2017).

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Westpac add value to its suppliers by promoting capacity-building for different suppliers, collaborating with them through innovation, and sourcing quality product from all its diverse suppliers. This has resulted to inclusive and sustainable business growth and establishment of resilient and responsible suppliers. In addition to this, the Westpac also focuses on adding value to its investors by promoting long-term capital growth and providing them with dividends characterized by high financial performance. This result to increase in their income and ensures long term creation of wealth. The company ensures sustainability among its stakeholders by adding value to them. The company also relates to the government and the community in general through various activities that involves taxes, foreign capital and strength of balance sheet. It ensure economic value by ensuring stability in the financial system of the country, by ensuring economic resilience and wellbeing, funding of public services and infrastructure and by supporting productivity and innovation in the country (Westpac Banking Corporation, 2017).

Commentary on Areas of Strong Sustainability Performance of the Company

The company’s areas of strong sustainability performance include enhancing financial future and enhancing societal changes. The company has managed to bring financial sustainability to almost all its stakeholders who include employees, customers, investors, suppliers, community and the government. By offering effective banking services, the company has managed to address financial needs of many people in the society by facilitating personal financial growth through savings and loans with controlled interest rate and effective payment methods. The company also offers more improved banking products to better peoples’ life such as online banking,, low cost credit cards, and well facilitated bereavement information support system to assist customers and their kin after a loss. It also has a system to assist customers experiencing financial problems, improved banking for Australian indigenous customers, measures to enhance financial literacy among people its stakeholders through online sessions and physical workshops. In addition, the company offers programs for supporting future businesses. This aspect of sustainability addresses financial status of people in the society, which is a very important aspect in life of human beings. The change brought about by financial sustainability in the community served by Westpac is likely to improve life of many people in this society, alleviating poverty in the community and uplifting the life of minority in the society, especially the indigenous community (Westpac Banking Corporation, 2017).

Societal change is another strong sustainability initiative employed by Westpac. The company tries to change the society by improving its workforce. It has ensured that its workforce represents the surrounding community by employing inclusion criteria where all members of the society are represented. The company employs all qualified individual by ensuring to consider minority groups. It also ensures that its workers are well train to handle all customers’ distress effectively. It also supports cultural diversity by supporting international students, and by integrating programs that promote workers wellbeing. Other measures employed include offering scholarships, financial knowledge development among locals and international community and skills development. The approach thus ensures that the company wins in changing life of the majority in the society and also sets a good example of enhancing social development using its own workforce (Westpac Banking Corporation, 2017).   

Commentary on Areas of Weak Sustainability Performance of the Company

The company also puts an effort to enhance environmental sustainability by reducing its environmental footprints, recycling, offering climate bonds and funding energy efficiency solutions. Although the company has taken strong measures in enhancing environmental sustainability, it has not exhausted its options that it can employ in reducing carbon footprints and enhancing environment sustainability. Being the main source of business funding at different levels of business operations to include industries and manufacturing plants, the company can limit its funding to businesses that satisfy green production and those that adapt technologies that promote energy efficiency and reduced carbon print. By so doing, the company will manage to enhance environment management and promote good health in the surrounding and the world in general. The company can thus consider stretching more to be able to promote environmental sustainability in the country (Westpac Banking Corporation, 2017).   

General Assessment of Quality of the Company’s Sustainability Report

Westpac group has provided a detailed sustainability report which is easy to read and understand. The report has a logical structure which includes introduction statement, table of content, brief company history, the company vision statement, leaders’ statement on company’s commitment to sustainability, and then reporting on company sustainability initiatives. This is followed by briefing on the company sustainability milestone, and how the company creates sustainable value. The company gives sustainability progress report. The report is divided in different sections with each section having several subtitles under it. Some of the sections other than the ones pointed above include issues which matters such as sustainable development goals, the fundamentals which touches on the company sustainability strategy, performance metrics and other general information which include the company global reporting initiative index among other things. This makes it easy to follow the report and to understand different sections. The report is also facilitated with different graphics that include bar graphs, scatter graphs, and tables. The paper is also structured to enhance improved human interface by using links set at the header of the report to navigate every section of the report rather than scrolling. The report readability is also enhanced by use of different colors for titles and sub-titles. The report also ensures that other subtitles in the text are in bold to differentiate them from the normal reading. Different font size and background colors are used also used to enhance readability (Global Reporting, 2016).   

The report has also tried to observe the Global Reporting Initiative. The report observes the general disclosure requirement by reporting contextual information regarding the organization and its sustainability practice. The report provides its brief history, organization vision and sustainability strategy. It also reports on stakeholders and their engagement in enhancing value and sustainability. Although the report does not give full information on its governance, it has a leadership section where leaders’ opinion regarding sustainability is aired. The table of content is uses to clear on the reporting process and structure to be used.  The report also fulfills the management approach standards as per series 200, 300, and 400. The report touches on economic topics especially financing and how the bank enhance people’s financial life through its banking services and products. It also provides accounting details of the company financial health, which include the company’s financial statement. It also torches on how environmental matters especially on measures the company is taking to reduce carbon footprint and to promote environmental sustainability. In social topics, the company discusses how the company brings changes in the society (Langfield-Smith, Smith & Andon, 2017). The section also demonstrates the company contribution in enhancing social life of the people in the society. The sustainability reporting is well organized, clear, and with reliable information that is highly informative to any stakeholders in need of this information. The report also touches on all the relevant parameters and hence it demonstrates a high level of completeness. It has included all relevant information for all stakeholders, ensuring every group of stakeholders is represented. The provided information covers on all possible materials that include social, environmental and economic strategies and impacts. The provided materials are suitable enough to inform stakeholders in decision making and assessments regarding the organization. The report is thus well developed, structured and presented to satisfy accuracy, reliability, completeness, clarity and balanced report (Langfield-Smith, Smith & Andon, 2017).

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The Change in Family and Civic Dynamics between 1650–1800

There was expansion of Atlantic trade during 1650 and 1800 which brought about great change in the involved regions which included Europe, America, and Northern and Western parts of Africa. This duration experienced growth in slave trade which involved capturing of Africans and transporting them to Westerns nations as laborers. This resulted to distraction of families where family members were separated. The sailors also left their families to explorer and expand their trades internationally. The main catalyst of change was desire for colonists to accumulate wealth from their colonies for themselves. There was also development of industries and mechanization that resulted to ability to expand agricultural activities and more labor to handle the manufacturing process. Industrialization and development new transportation system resulted to migration of people, mostly men to urban areas in search for jobs or for trade purposes. This resulted to separation of families in western nations with the role of raising kids being delegated to women as men concentrated on trade and formal employment (Inikori, 2002). There was also increase in inter-relation between people of different regions. Although intermarriages were not common, people, there was interrelation from people of different regions resulting to birth of mixed raced children. The development of urban centers resulted to emergency of municipality form of governance where the landlords and owners of the industries ruled over laborers. People focused their life more on improving their economic and financial status to be able to acquire a position in the society. There was development of classes, with those with massive wealth forming the upper class, those offering services were lower class whose fate lied on the upper class and slaves who never had any rights. This duration thus introduced great changes in the society, especially due to high level of migration at local and international level (Morgan, 2001).

The Nature of Atlantic Trade Between 1650–1800

Atlantic basin and Atlantic world refer to a geographical area which comprises of Western Europe comprising of countries such as Ireland, Italy, Britain, Portugal, Belgium, France, Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, and Austria, Western Africa from Namibia in the southwest to Mauritania in the northwest and America which included Canada, the United States of America, Caribbean and modern Latin America. The Atlantic trade during 1650 and 1800 was mostly slave trade which involved transporting Africans from Northern and Western parts of Africa to US and Europe to offer labor services (Inikori, 2002). About seven million Africans were kidnapped and transported to western nations to offer their labor services. The captured Africans were traded with other goods such as weapons, precious stones or other trade good. The Atlantic trade during this particular time also involved export of surplus agricultural products cultivated by slaves from American farms to Europe. Some of the involved products included sugar, cotton, coffee, indigo, cocoa, and tobacco. Others included ammunition, guns, copper, cloth, slave beads, gold, lumber, rum, spices, and manufactured goods. Some of these products were traded as raw materials for manufacturing especially in textile industry.  Some of the laws employed to regulate Atlantic trade during this time included the Navigation Acts which restricted route of trade, monopolizing shipment trade to British colonies (Morgan, 2001).

Mercantilism from a Colonist Perspective – Was this a Blessing or a Curse?

Mercantilism referred to the primary economic trade system used from 16th century to 18th century. Theorist of mercantilist believed in the static world wealth, and thus, European nations employed several measures to guarantee their countries gathered as much wealth as possible to their region. The main objective was to increase wealth of a nation by employing government la which facilitated the commercial interest of their country. Thus colonist focused on maximizing on exporting goods to their mother country, and minimizing imports from their mother country. This at first created huge wealth to the European countries as colonists exported of raw materials and agricultural products such as sugar, cotton, iron, tobacco, furs and indigo to their mother country. Thus. colonist enjoyed the concept of mercantilism for a while before it turned against them.

However, mercantilism resulted to adaption of different economic trade laws and restriction that limited colonial business freedom and which promoted stunted growth of their businesses. The Navigation acts for instance made American colonies more reliant on Great Britain manufactured products, reversing the initial intention of exporting more than it is imported by colonies. Mercantilism also resulted to slave trade to enhance agricultural production in US, which later resulted to split of stand about slaves’ rights and continuation of slave trade among colonists, weakening their strength. There was also high demand of silver and gold bullion, resulting to insufficient supply of bullion in the market, initiating the need for paper currency. The paper current mismanagement yielded to inflation periods. Constant war engagement among colonists, this resulted to need of higher taxation to support navy and army. The inflation and taxes combination resulted to discontentment of great colonials. All these resulted to failure of mercantilism. The most important aspect of mercantilism resulted to expansion of governmental system knowledge to colonies and expansion of knowledge on importance of resources, pushing the colonies to take action to protect their resources.

Toxins Categories, Beneficial Applications of Toxins And How Toxicity Manifest

Broad Categories of Toxins

Toxin can be classified in various groups based on various factors that include the agent, reaction, and physical states among others. The first category of toxin can be founded on the source of toxicants. In this category, toxin can be groups as plant toxicants such as strychnine, curare, and morphine, animal toxicant that include venoms and zootoxins, mineral toxicants that include iron, selenium, lead and copper, and synthetic toxicants that include aluminum phosphide, carbonates and organophosphates. Toxin can also be classified based on their physical states which include gaseous toxicants that include phosphine, hydrocyanic acid, carbon monoxide, and sulphur dioxide, solid toxicants that include atropine, opium, and strychnine, and dust toxicants that include metallic dusts, silicon dust or asbestos dust.

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This can also include fumes toxins which mostly occur when metals are burnt in production process. Toxins can also be classified based on their reaction on the body and the part of the body system or organs they impact. Some of the group examples include hepototoxins which target the liver such as phenol, aflatoxins, and carbon tetrachloride (Clark & Smith, 1984). Others include neurotoxins that impact the neurosystem and they include organophosphorus insecticides, nicotine, anaesthetics, and phrethroids, Nephrotoxins which impacts kidney tissues and cells that include oxalates and heavy metals, and pulmonotoxins that impacts the lungs and include ammonia gas, hydrogen sulphide, and alpha-naphthlthiourea. This can also include dermatotoxicants that impact the skin and that include p-tertiarybutyl phenol, heavy metals and compounds of coal tar. Other form of classifying toxin can be based on toxicant chemical structure or nature. This include two subcategories that include inorganic toxicants that include acids and alkalies such as potassium hydroxide, non-metals such as chlorine, nitrates and phosphorus, and metals which include antimony, mercury, copper and lead. The other subcategory is organic toxicants which include carbon compounds that include hydrocarbons, organic acids, amides, ethers, phenols and alcohols, amides, alkaloids, proteins and esters. Toxin can in addition be classified based on effect. These toxins include carcinogens such as nickel and vinyl chloride, clastogens such as caffeine and UV light, teratogens such as thalidomide and triazines and mutagens such as nitrogen mustards and ethyl methane sulphonate (Silbergeld, n.d.).

Beneficial Applications of Toxins

Toxins can be poisonous and destructives to human. However, they can as well be used to benefit humans especially economically. In agriculture, toxin such as herbicides, insecticides, fungicides and rodenticides are used to destroy various organisms that act against farmers efforts to increase production. These toxins are mostly sprayed on plants to skill insects, weeds or disease on plants increasing production. They are also used to kill animals that destroy farm products either in the farm or stores. Animal venom has been in several cases applied for medical purposes. According to Utkin (2015), various venom components particularly in snake venoms have been identified for having wide applications in haemostatic disorders diagnosis. For instance, protrhrombin activator Ecarin from venom of Echis caranatus is applied for the diagnosis of abnormal form of serine protease Protac prothrombin.

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The characterization and identification of various venom toxins isoforms, together with the search of synthetic and natural inhibitors that include polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, and molecules with various chemical characteristics that include plant extracts, clotting factors and heparin has increased the probability of utilizing these agents as extra effective alternatives for therapy (De Silva et al., 2014). Poison an also be used in developing important medicine to assist humans. For instance, salicylic acid is a toxic compound produced by wintergreen plan which can be harmful when consumed in high concentration. Nevertheless, in lower dose and in modified form, this same product can be used as aspirin active ingredient. Toxins from fish, snails or snakes have also been found to contain elements or possible elements to relief severe pain, especially among surgical patients. In addition, 300 tests conducted on chemicals created by the Fraser Island funnel web spider demonstrate its ability to treat breast cancer. In addition sweet wormwood plant has offered artemisinin medication for malaria. Thus, although toxin can be harmful to human, it can as well be used to their benefit in right dosage and sometimes with slight modification (Parry, 2013). 

Ways Toxicity Manifest

Toxicity can be manifested in human body in various ways. The mode of manifestation varies extensively based on the toxin released and the mode of exposure and the body organs of systems affected by the toxin. Toxin can directly affect the blood a situation that can be considerably fatal. It can also affect specific organs such as liver, heart, kidney or lungs. Toxin can as well impact the nervous system, body muscles, or body cells and skins. The main determinant of what to be affected is the mode of exposure, dosage and exposure duration.  Toxin can be manifested in form of shock syndrome which occurs after toxin released by staphylococcus aureus bacteria is released in the body (Meduniv, n.d.). Some of the symptoms related to this toxin include diarrhea and vomiting, hypotension or low blood pressure, sudden high fever, headaches, confusion, seizures, muscles aches, a rash similar to sunburn especially on your soles and palms, and redness of throat, mouth and eyes.

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Toxin diffused to the blood can also result to anemia which is manifested by general body weakness and feeling excessively tired, or affects the heart, resulting to sudden cardiac arrest. Toxic that is exposed to the body through lungs, trachea and nose such as poisonous gases is likely to manifest through respiratory system irritation, choking, coughing and tight chest, difficulty in breathing, low breathing or complete breathing cut. Toxin which affects specific organic such as kidney is likely to manifest through back pain and abnormal urination which can be less or more than usual. Toxic which affect the neurological system is manifested in spinal code and brain through headache, convulsions, dizziness, coma, behavior confusion and depression. Toxin that affects different body muscles can result to muscles clamp, general weakness of muscles. Toxin can also cause affect the skin which is manifested in form of skin irritation, skin burns, skin redness and swelling (Extension Toxicology Network, 1993).

Concept of Servant Leadership and The Difference Between Servant Leadership and Transformational Leadership


When people agree to enter the health care industry, they are agreeing to serve the public and their patients. The success of any organization is determined by the kind of leadership provided in that organization. Good leadership is associated to high level of performance, since it involves creating a good work environment and enhancing workers contribution to the organization growth. Poor leadership on the other hand results to demotivated workers, without work morale or any desire to attain organization success. This paper evaluates the concept of servant leadership and determines the difference between servant leadership and transformational leadership.

Servant Leadership

Servant leadership concept proposes that leadership must basically address the needs of others. It centers on others instead of self, and on comprehending the leader’s role as a servant. The primary objective of a servant leader is to serve and address the needs of others, which should optimally be the leadership prime motivation. Servant leaders develop individuals, assisting them to flourish and strive (Stone, Russell & Patterson, 2004). They offer vision, influence others, and gain trust and credibility from followers. Servant leaders share power with followers, prioritize on followers needs, and assists persons to optimize performance and develop. They are also ready to learn from others and abandon personal rewards and advancement for the sake of their followers. To me a servant leader concentrate on day-to-day coaching, performance planning, and assisting people to attain their goals. The eventual duty of servant leaders is persistent leader life investment in followers’ lives (Stone, Russell & Patterson, 2004).  

Comparing and Contrasting Servant Leadership with Transformational Leadership

Transformation leadership happens when a leader motivates followers to share his or her vision, enabling them to attain vision, and offers the necessary resources for developing their personal ability. Transformational leaders act as role models, mobilizing commitment and supporting optimism, and center on the followers requirements for growth. Transformational leaders change followers’ personal values to support the goals and vision of the organization by nurturing an environment where associations can be formed and by creating a climate of trust where vision can be shared. The four transformational leadership primary behaviors comprises of individualized consideration, charismatic influence, intellectual stimulation, and inspirational motivation (Stone, Russell & Patterson, 2004).

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Based on the analysis, the servant leadership and transformation leadership have relatively analogous traits. The two forms of leadership try to explain and define leadership based on people. The leadership frameworks in both concepts incorporate modeling, influence, integrity, vision, delegation or risk-sharing, and trust and credibility or respect. The two concepts of leadership stress on the importance of valuing and appreciating people, empowering, listening, teaching, and mentoring followers (Smith, Montagno & Kuzmenko, 2004).

The two forms of leadership are also different in various ways. According to Allen et al. (2016), servant leaders center on service to the organization, customers and followers while transformational leaders center on the organization goals. Servant leaders influence followers by serving their needs while transformational leadership influences followers by modeling. Transformational leaders use persuasion and enhance individualized influence. Servant leadership on the contrary enhances team problem solving and individualized development. While servant leadership motivate by offering resources and autonomy, servant leadership motivate with charisma to achieve common goals (Allen et al., 2016). 

Servant Leadership Influence in Delivery of Quality Health Care

Servant leadership plays a great role in ensuring that workers have a favorable work environment to accomplish their duties.  By focusing on workers need, servant leaders ensure that workers have the required skills, knowledge and resources to be able to offer quality services. Workers have a high job satisfaction and hence they are highly motivated to do their work with a lot of energy and determination. A servant leader also ensure that workers have a manageable schedule and hence no cases of burnout or other disheartening situations. He or she also ensures that workers can share knowledge and ideas while addressing a particular problem in the organization. Servant leadership thus plays a great role in influencing high quality of health care in any organization where it is adopted.

Example of A Personal Code of Conduct

Adopting a personal code of conduct can guide leaders and managers to make and prioritize decisions. You have been selected to serve in a critical leadership position in your organization. Write a personal code of conduct (sometimes called a personal code of ethics) that you would pass along to your staff. Explain how you would communicate your personal code of conduct across the organization. 

Code of Conduct

Code of ethics is a central reference and guide for workers in supporting behaviors, daily operations and decision making process. A code of conduct that is well written clarifies principles, values and mission of an organization, connecting them with professional conduct standards. The code of ethics should be utilized as a daily business reference associated to ethics in an organization. This paper focuses on developing personal code of conduct by organization leaders with intention of implementing them in an organization to influence the general operation process and decision making in the organization workforce.

Personal Code of Conduct

Work Environment

  • Workers are expected to obey the organization authority based on the set leadership structure in the organization
  • The organization provided equal employment opportunities and hence all workers should respect each other with respect and without discrimination or harassment
  • Workers are prohibited from involvement in any violent activities.
  • Conflict should be resolved using the provided channels and by following the provided dispute resolution protocol
  • All workers are required to observe safety measures defined by their unit of operation without fail
  • Workers are prohibited to be drunk or to take alcohol at the work place or any other drug substance (Ladkin, 2015).

Organization resources

  • Workers are required to take care of the organization resources and only use them for the purpose entitled and not for personal gains. This include time 
  • Workers are required to take good care and maintain the initial condition of organization equipment, machines, computers and other mobile gadgets to ensure their durability
  • Workers have the responsibility of maintaining organization security and privacy, especially in IT related devices and information or data, to protect them from any kind of security breach (Ladkin, 2015).

Individual Conduct

  • Workers are cautioned against involving in any corrupt and/or fraud related activities in the organization
  • Workers are forbidden from engaging in personal activities that would result to conflict of interest while in the organization
  • Every worker should observe simple daily operation rules such as punctuality, work accuracy, and upholding right standards
  • Breaking of any of the above rules will attract l disciplinary action which include warning, suspension, dismissal or/and litigation based on the nature of the case (Ladkin, 2015).

Communicating the Code of Conduct across the Organization

The leader will need to disseminate information about the new code of ethic and what it entails to the organization employees. This should start by adopting a public memo addressing all workers regarding the upcoming code of conduct. The memo should touch on the areas in which the code of conduct will address in the daily workers operation. The memo should be pinned in all the organization public notice boards and also in department notice boards. This should be followed by another memo informing workers on the completion of the code of conduct, and announce the launching of the new code of ethics, stating the date, time and place for the face-to-face meeting for the launch (Adu-Oppong & Agyin-Birikorang, 2014). The leader should consider clearly reading and explaining the new code of conduct to the workers, taking questions, view and ideas where necessary. This should be a workers-leaders interactive moment where workers are free to give ideas, ask questions or give critiques about the new code of conduct. The meeting should be attended by all workers. Based on the meeting outcome, the code of conduct write-up should be edited accordingly and printed out for each worker to have two copies. The workers should read through the printout and sign both copies to show their commitment toward the document. One copy should be return to the HR department for filing while the other copy should be kept by workers for reference. A copy of new copy of conduct should be pinned in all notice boards in the organizations. The head of departments should also send a read only copy to all their workers through email. This will ensure that workers can easily refer to the code of conduct and adjust their behaviors accordingly. Another public memo should be released to state when the new laws should start to be implemented and remind workers of the consequences of failing to observe these laws (Adu-Oppong & Agyin-Birikorang, 2014).

Most Significant Change in Political Philosophy between 1450 and 1800

The most significant change in political philosophy between 1450 and 1800 was enlightenment. Enlightenment is a loosely arranged intellectual egalitarian, secular, movement, liberal and rationalist value and outlook that prospered in the middle of 18th century decades. I believe that enlightenment was the most significant change since its impact resulted to permanent changes in different aspects of life that include religion, science, politics, economics, social science and  creative arts. The philosophy of enlightenment also spread across Europe and thus, causing major impact across different parts of the world, especially in Europe.

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Enlightenment uprising over the Christianity cultural and intellectual authority was highly dramatic. Catholic Church experienced high level of critiques from protestant who condemned Catholic Church for charges exploitation through ideological delusion (Armitage, 1949). Enlightenment thus marked a source of religious hostility. Enlightenment also played a great role in science promotion especially with regard to generic science idea, as a cognition distinct sphere from religious belief was surely an 18th century gift. Enlightenment initiated 17th century political thought of revolution, resulting to emergency of natural rights in modern traditions of Pufendorf, Grotius, Locke, and Hobbes. Enlightenment age also had an insightful impact on economy since this is where the laissez faire or free trade ideas were initially propagated (Armitage, 1949).