Biographies of John Wycliffe And John Huss

The church faced heresy in the 1300s, but some Christians were courageous, willful thinkers and independent.  These courageous Christians remained steadfast in their thoughts and expressed their views through writings. For instance, the tussle between Pope Boniface VIII and French King Philip IV, led to a brief kidnap of the papacy to Avignon in 1303. These fourteenth century reforms owe much credit to John Wycliffe and John Huss for their efforts to reform the church.

Brief Biography of John Wycliffe

            John Wycliffe was a preacher, translator, theologian and a philosopher, who was born in 1330 in North Ridings, Yorkshire. His family was of the Saxons origins. John moved to Oxford, Balliol College, to study theology, mathematics and natural sciences. He would later become a master of Balliol, though his interest remained in the study of scripture and theology.

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            In 1365, John was made the head of the Canterbury hall by Archbishop of Canterbury. It was through his great understanding of the law and his reputation as a great scholar that made the Archbishop make him the head of Canterbury hall. When the Pope pressed England to pay taxes, Wycliffe was instrumental in making the reply to the Pope that the papacy had no power to demand tribute a foreign power. In response, Pope ceded the demands, seeing no need to antagonize the English.

            In 1374, John’s political influence was furthered when he sat a negotiator between England and France in the Peace Congress at Bruges. The time that John spent in Oxford would soon influence his stance. His education and influence by the Catholic philosophy made him critical of the huge power that the clerics wielded. He felt that by wielding so much secular power, the clerics would often act in an immoral way, which was against the gospel.

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            When he returned from Bruges, with the support of patron John of Gaunt, Wycliffe began to write a number of books that expressed his views. His popular works included the Summa Theologiae that included the denunciations of the collection of indulgences for sin remission. Moreover, he reiterated that the King, if justified, had the right to take away property from the church.

            John Wycliffe became a popular preacher in London, and many people became inclined to his views. However, he faced resistance from the individuals with powerful position from the church, towards his reform agenda. His call for secularization of the British church property, led to his indictment for blasphemy, to which he was put under his defense at Lambeth Palace. Owing to an opinion split, he was barred from speaking about the matter.

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            However, he gained powerful backers and continued to advance his church reforms through the translation of the New Testament from Latin to English. This allowed many people to read the gospel, removing the church as the chief “interpreter” of the gospel. His opponents order the destruction of his translated version of the gospel, but few copies remained, which suggested his influence and the distribution of the translated gospel were successful. His reform movement attracted a group called Lollards, which helped him to spread his ideas throughout England. The increased attacks on his ideas, led to his excommunication from his position, with the help of the parliament and the people in Oxford.

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            John Wycliffe later retired to Lutterworth, where he suffered stroke in 1384, dying three days later. In 1415, he was condemned as heretic and that his books should be burned and his body exhumed and burned. In 1428, his body was exhumed and his bones burned and cast into the river. However, his pioneer work of reformation had left a huge mark in Europe and England. His challenge for the authority of the papacy and the church led to the later rejection of papacy and promotion of the bible. Moreover, his work to translate the bible into English was instrumental in the development of the English Christianity.

Brief Biography of John Huss

            John Hus was a master and philosopher at Charles University, Prague, Czechoslovakia. He was born in 1369 and ordained in 1400, serving as a priest in 1401, where he also preached in Bethlehem Chapel.  Huss was greatly influenced by the writings of Wycliffe, which had found their way to Czechoslovakia. Inspired by Wycliffe’s writings, 1404, Huss received bachelors degree in theology. He was of the opinion that the Church was supreme above the pope. He saw the need for reforms, where he sought to fight corruption and poverty, ridding the abuses that he felt was propagated by the Roman Church. Huss felt that every believer needed a bible, which was in the language that they understood.

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            The decree that was initiated by other leaders together with Huss, which demanded that foreign countries have one vote and Bohemia (present day Czechoslovakia) have three votes, led to mass evacuation of students, masters and doctors from Prague University. In 1409, the University of Leipzig was formed and Prague University lost its international appeal. This news of Bohemian heresy spread throughout Europe. Archbishop Zbynic Zajic was isolated and Huss became the rector of Czech University.

            Having the feeling of reforms within the church, Huss during his sermons, heavily criticized the abuses that were done by church leaders. This spelt the beginning of Huss’ troubles with the church. He showed the total regard towards the reservation of chalice from laity for the priests, during the Holy Communion. Moreover, he accepted the need for preaching in native language. This was based on his argument that the locals had important roles to play in Church leadership and administration, and that Christ and not the Pope, was the head of the Church. His views that the Church leaders should exercise spiritual authority, rather than being governors of earthly possessions led to his excommunication in 1412.

            The increased desire for Huss for Church reforms finally led Alexander V to issue an authority for the Archbishop to cease all his free preaching and the burning of all Wycliffe’s books. However, feeling the support of the government, Huss continued to preach and push for Church reforms. His sermons in the Bethlehem Chapel attracted huge masses, thus increasing his power. He became fearless in criticism of the abuses of the Church. Huss and his adherents were eventually excommunicated from the Church.

            In 1412, after the death of Alexander V, a crusade against indulgence in which Huss was convened. Huss delivered a speech during that crusade, which was believed to have been extracted from the book of Wycliffe, De Eclessia. In his speech, Huss asserted that no Pope or Bishop has an authority to raise a sword in the name of the Church. He felt that it was only through man’s repentance that one attained forgiveness.

            Owing to his fierce criticism of the Church and the Papacy, the Pope order Cardinal of St. Angelo to arrest Huss. He was arrested and delivered to archbishop and his Chapel was destroyed. In retaliating, Huss appealed and reiterated that Jesus Christ and not Pope was the supreme judge. He was forced to leave Prague by Wenceslaus, though his reforms had already built great momentum.

            In 1414, a council at Constance was convened to end papal schism and attempt to reform the church. Huss agreed to be part of the council, where he saw it an opportunity to convert the council members to his own doctrines. However, as he was staying in a house of a widow, word spread that Huss was trying to flee and was sent to the dungeon of Dominican monastery. Although the judge heard the prosecution witness, Huss was never given an opportunity to appoint an advocate. When the antipope excitement had ceased, Huss was taken to Gottlieben, Rhine, in the castle of Archbishop of Constance. 

The Rise of the Papacy

Papacy: Center of Power in Rome

In the second century, various Christian elders received respect that was proportionate to the rank of the city in which they were residents. Being the most powerful city in the world, that was both the richest and largest city of the time, Rome was viewed as the queen of the Imperial Roman Empire (Berean Beacon Ministries 2015). This elevated status ensured that Rome remained politically esteemed among the cities of the world even after the barbarian nations overthrew and took leadership of the Roman Empire. In later centuries the Barbarian leadership that had overthrown the Western Roman Empire, gave way to Papacy, which rose gradually to claim the central position politically. This gradual process began with Catholic bishops from the various parts of the Western Roman Empire perceiving and carrying themselves as being superior to ordinary elders and instead pledged allegiance to Catholic bishops in Rome (Berean Beacon Ministries 2015).

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Between the third and the fifth centuries, what had started as a simple pledge of allegiance evolved to the point where Bishops in Rome felt it was their right to assume leadership and as such demanded submission of the other bishops from the other parts of the empire (Bennett n.d.). Incidentally, it was also between the third and the fifth centuries that churches saw the growth of ritualism in churches, which was characterized more by ceremonialism as opposed to spreading the gospel and facilitating the conviction of the Holy Spirit on worshippers (Rosa 1988). Over time, the ruling clergy, based on their newly developed rituals and ceremonies organized themselves into a hierarchy with priests taking on more responsibilities besides the core duties of a priest: mediating between men and God. As the fifth century came to an end, it saw priests and ministers of the Gospel organized around the Bishop of Rome who had become the most powerful individual (Stark 1996).

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As the Catholic Church became an institution heavily dominated by hierarchy the Bishop’s power continued to increase as that of the Emperor declined from imperial power. The office of the Pope came about organically from the sixth century as the Bishop’s power and prestige continued to advance. This process received great political impetus from endorsements by Emperors such Emperor Justinian, Emperor Valentinian III and Emperor Theodosius 11 who revered the bishop and published decrees that identified the bishop as the rector of the whole church (Stark 1996). The title of ‘Pope’ was therefore associated with power and prestige and befitted the person who was the Bishop of Rome.

In the eighth century Papacy was propelled to new heights when Sylvester; the Bishop of Rome at the time, was bequeathed great spiritual power, authority and a lot of property by the then Emperor Constantine (Berean Beacon Ministries 2015). This contentious transfer of imperial power and authority from the Emperor to the Bishop was characterized by an inheritance so vast and full of splendor that was documented in an otherwise spurious document dubbed the ‘Donation of Constantine’. In addition to being bestowed with all the glory, all the dignity and all the authority of the imperial power, the Bishop of Rome, also referred to as the holy Pontiff and his successors were freely gifted the palace of the Lateran, all the western cities of Italy, and the city of Rome (Bennett n.d.). This deed of gift was often cited impressively, applied as a code and people were forced to believe it. There was no room to question its genuineness or point out its inconsistencies as those who refused to believe its legitimacy were faced with the punishment of death through burning.

It was from this authority that Popes, such as Pope Nicholas, were able to command territories and demand submissions from princes and bishops (Bennett n.d.). This unchecked power possessed by the Popes soon became corrupting, rendering the Papacy one of the most disorderly institutions in Italy (Rosa 1988). Politically the Papacy became a strong powerhouse that was fought over like a possession by the most powerful families of Italy (Bennett n.d.).

Factors that Contributed to Papacy’s Dominance of Western Europe

The split between the Latin Church and the Greek Church in the tenth century over ritualistic and doctrinal difference, to some degree buoyed Papacy especially in the political scen (Stark 1996)e. The transfer of imperial power from the Emperor to the Bishop of Rome is one of the most significant factors that contributed to the dominance of Papacy in Western Europe because it changed the political terrain by making the Pope more powerful than a Roman Emperor (Stark 1996). The fact that the Latin Church was well organized into an institution with a hierarchical system that commanded great power and facilitated a detailed belief system as the mediator between God and man is another factor that contributed to the dominance of Papacy (Stark 1996).

The church’s earlier connection with the apostles who came after the era of Jesus is also a significant factor that contributed to the dominance of Papacy as it lend credibility to the Latin Church making the institution overly popular among the people. People believed that the Papal office descended directly from Peter, the apostle appointed by Jesus to be the head of the church and thus recognized the Roman Catholic Church as the first authentic church in the empire. To cement this notion, Pope Damasus used the utterings of Jesus from Matthew chapter 16 verse 18 “And I tell you that you are Peter,and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it” (Bennett n.d.). This Bible verse formed the foundation of the doctrine that the Roman Catholic Church was established by the Apostles.

The Positive and Negative Ramifications of Papacy

The existence of the Papacy can be explained based on a theological rationale and a philosophical rationale. Philosophically, the Papacy as an authority expected to rule influenced the creation of social conditions that promoted human excellence at both the collective and individual levels. The Papacy as the head and leadership of the Roman Catholic Church played and continues to play a significant role in shaping global politics (Mansueto 2005). During the rule of the barbarians’ government, Christian conversions and the Church influenced governance by giving guidance to the leadership, which resulted in changes in government and consequently changes in people’s lives. The monastic ideals advanced by the Papacy had a positive impact on society and in particular the western civilization since monasteries also served as schools and the monks were educators who preserved literature and transmitted knowledge and information. In addition to this, the monks were disciplined, hardworking, and responsible for the growth and development of practices such as Agriculture and animal husbandry. The Church played an important role in the preservation of literature and the arts especially during the middle ages when there was a significant decline in all the arts. Through theatre performances, usually of dramatized stories from the Bible, literature, art, theatre, and other forms of art were preserved and passed down to the next generations. After the Roman Catholic Church was bestowed with so much power, the power began to corrupt the bishops after a while arrogance and other such inconsistencies bred disorder in the institution. According to Mansueto (2005), the imperfections of the papacy were as a result of difficulties in sustaining the autonomy needed to balance between the political powers required to influence the political arena globally and defend society against unjust social structures. To succeed in fulfilling the mandate of the church, the Roman Catholic Church is in desperate need of evolving into an institution that can hold authorities in the public sphere accountable before the court of natural law (Mansueto 2005). The heavy and narrow reliance on the papacy by the Church as a political power and a guarantor of the Church’s autonomy has proved unsustainable in the long term. The inherent problems and weaknesses found in papacy ought to be replaced by an institution that is strong both in leadership and in membership. Only when this is achieved can the Church succeed in their mandate to defend society from the ruling class and the unjust social structures they impose on people for their own benefit.

Use of Imagery in the Story “A Good Man Is Hard to Find” By Flannery O’Connor

Introduction

            The story “A Good Man Is Hard to Find” uses imagery to describe vividly and provide the illusion of the whole journey and the intrigues that unfolded at the end of the story.The story, “AGood Man Is Hard to Find” by O’Connor, commences with the loud complain of the grandmother towards her son and his family’s plan to visit Georgia. The grandmother expresses great concern towards Misfit, a serial killer who escaped from the Federal Penitentiary and is out to terrorize the people. The story illustrates many themes and techniques, which are inherent throughout the story. One particular technique the author employed extensively is imagery. The following is an analysis of the O’Connor’s use of imagery and how it has been employed in the story.

Use of Imagery

            O’Connor depicts the idea of imagery early on in the story. The author describes the conversation between the grandmother and her son, Bailey, in a move to convince him to change his mind from travelling to Florida. The author clearly describes the mother’s sitting position, her movements in the chair and the movements of her son. Moreover, the author describes Bailey’s wife, her sitting position, the attire and her body shape.

“Bailey did not look up from his reading so she wheeled around then and faced the children’s mother, a young woman in slacks, whose face was as broad and innocent as cabbage and was tied to a head-kerchief that had two points on the top like a rabbit’s ears (O’Connor, 1982, pg. 3).”

            The use of imagery is very significant as it portrays the theme of fear, as illustrated in Bailey’s behavior and the Grandmother’s determination to convince the family against going to Florida. The Grandmother’s fear is evidence in her use of the journal to assert her fears over Misfit. Moreover, the description of Bailey’s wife depicts innocence, as the woman did not have any position or any news regarding the presence of a gang in Florida.

            The technique of imagery in the beginning of the story, which depicts the appearance of the Grandmother, has another relevance of revealing the mother as a principled and righteous woman. The author further describes the trip to Florida by describing the dressing of the woman that reflects her as a woman. The striking descriptions are the finery that the woman wore; the white gloves, white dot in the print on her navy blue dress, her white organdy collar and scuffs and the white violets on her blue straw hat (O’Connor, 1982). The appearance of the Grandmother further portrays her as superior to the other members of the family. The author points that the Grandmother appearance would easily make her to be noticed as a woman in case she died in an accident. Perhaps the nature mimics the Grandmother’s attire. As the family travels out of Atlanta, the Grandmother recalls past experiences.

“The blue granite that in some places came up to both sides of the highway; the brilliant red clay banks slightly streaked with purple and the various crops that made rows of green lace-work on the ground. The trees were full of silver-white sunlight and the meanest of them sparkled (O’Connor, 1982), (Paragraph 13).”

            As the family travelled, the author gives us the images of life-vs.-death, which prepares the reader towards the eventual catastrophe that would later unfold. The Grandmother took the child, offering a glaring contrast between her old leathery and the baby’s bland face (O’Connor, 1982). Immediately, the family passes through an “old family burying ground” and the Grandmother points to the five or six graves, which equals to the number of the occupants in the car. Before passing the “old family burying round”, the author gives a description of the Stone Mountain. The character here is the Grandmother who narrates about the mountain, describing its outcropping, with trees that gave silver-white sunlight.

            The images portrayed in the description of the “old family burying ground” and the Stone Mountain gave an illusion of death that Bailey and his family would later encounter. The old family ground has six graves, which was a premonition of the death that the six family members would later encounter at the hands of the Misfit. “Count them, six, six graves” (O’Connor, 1982). The family of Bailey had six members, that consisted of Bailey himself, his mother, wife and three kids. The silver-white light that the trees emitted is an imagery that associates with heaven. O’Connor further points that even the meanest of the trees sparkled under the illumination of the sunlight.

            In addition to the significance of the six trees, the description of the surrounding of the graves with fence is imagery. “They passed a large cotton field, with five or six graves, fenced in the middle of it, like a small island’’, (O’Connor, 1982).  The description of the “old family burying ground” as being like an Island is significant as it mirrors the fate of the family later when Misfit traps and surrounds them, just in a way that an Island is surrounded by water.

            O’Connor employed the silver-light and the “meanest” as an imagery to help the reader decipher the association with heaven. Moreover, the “meanest” could have other significance in the story, depending on how one interprets the meaning of the term “meanest” as employed by the author.  The author uses the expression “meanest” to mean cruel or average, in apparent reference to the trees. The first case mirrors Misfit in his role when they captured and surrounded Bailey and his family. The second meaning would be as a representative of Bailey’s family during their predicament.

            Further use of imagery is evident in the description of the monkey and his association to the chinaberry tree. The chinaberry tree is a plant that bears small yellow bead-like fruits and is common in the south. “A grey monkey about a foot high, chained to a small chinaberry tree, chattered nearby. The monkey sprang back into the tree and got on the highest limb as soon as he saw the children jump out of the car and ran towards him”, (O’Connor, 1982, pg. 7). The presence of the monkey is the tree probably an image that was meant to create an illusion of the story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden.  The two children symbolize Adam and Eve, while the monkey symbolize the serpent in Eden, which tempts Adam and Eve, who in this case represent John Wesley and June Star.

Conclusion

O’Connor employs a number of techniques in the story to foreshadow the tragic developments at the end of the story. Imagery has employed extensively by the author throughout the story. O’Connor begins the story by describing the conversation of Grandmother and Bailey’s family, depicting fear. Moreover, the author narrates, with vivid description of the conversation and behaviors of the characters throughout their journey. The description of the mountain and the six graves, offered an illusion of the death. The behavior of the children towards the monkey provided an illusion of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, which depicted deceit and death. The story ends as the illusions that were described finally come to happen when the family were killed by Misfit.

Sex-Offender Legislation and the Effectiveness of These Policies on Offenders and Our Communities

The Megan’s Law

            The Megan’s law involves the notification and registration of sex offenders upon their release to the community (Lytle, 2013). The registration must take place within a specified period after release and involves the provision of the address to local police station, who will then notify the community of the presence of the sex offender. Notification is aimed at informing the community and past victims, the presence of the sex offender so that they can exercise individual protection. This means that the criminal justice is compelled to keep the registry of all sexual offenders, those that have been released.

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            Although the true effectiveness of Megan’s has not been measured fully, the law has positively influenced protective behaviors among the victims (Cain, Sample, & Anderson, 2015). However, the law has had negative influence on the sex-offenders. The enactment of the law has created victimization, stigmatization, abuse, loss of job and housing, verbal, and physical assaults of the sex offenders (King & Roberts, 2015). Megan’s law may not be effective in reduction of recidivism, although it leads to rapid detection of sexual offenses by the released sex offenders. To address the shortcomings of the Megan’s law, it is recommended that other methods of treatment of sex offenders, such as psychological treatments, mandated parole and strict supervision be employed in order to reduce recidivism.

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Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006

            Singed into law by President Bush in 2006, the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006 require all the states in the United States to adopt three-tier system based on sex offense committed (Zgoba et al., 2015). A failure to register and update information is considered as felony. The Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006 has had economic and social implications. The implementation of the act has seen a reduction in recidivism among the sex offenders. Sex offenders are less likely to be re-arrested for similar offense upon their registration. Moreover, strange children abductions has decreased tremendously. However, the act has caused negative repercussions on the released sex offenders as some have been killed, while many are subject of social stigmatization.

There is no research with published evidence that shows that the reduction in recidivism as a result of implementation of the act, has led to increased protection of children against sex offense from the released sex-offenders (Zgoba et al., 2015). Although the act has helped criminal justice system in fighting crimes related to sex offense, the act has changed the functions of the criminal justice system, which is now additionally required to keep registry of all offenders upon their release. In order to address the shortcomings of the act, there is need to increase protection of the offenders by restricting the access to their personal information in the registry to prevent them from attacks by people who access their information over the internet.

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Campus Sex Crime Prevention Act

            The act provides for the collection and disclosure of information of convicts and registered sex offenders, who either are enrolled or working in the institutions of higher learning. Moreover, the act requires that such information is made available to the law enforcement agencies near the institutions. Although the law has reduced the number of sex offenses in the campuses, it has led to unintended labeling. Labeling has a negative implication of creating secondary deviance among the convicts of sexual offenses (Maddan, 2008, p. 74). Moreover, most of the sex offenders have found exclusions from education as a result of being registered sex offenders (Wright, 2014, p. 269).

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The Campus Sex Crime Prevention Act has reduced sex offenses in the institutions of higher education. However, the registration of sex offenders has warranted the deviation from the rehabilitative goals of the juvenile justice system. In as much as the law has seen success in reducing cases of sexual offenses in the institutions of higher learning, it tends to negate the primary goals of the juvenile justice system. It is recommended that a rehabilitation program be established within the institutions of higher education in order to tackle secondary deviance. Moreover, the establishment of rehabilitation services within such institutions will facilitate the integration of the sex offenders into the society.

Restorative Justice Policies and Potential Future Criminal Justice Policy Evolution

Introduction

            In many countries, restorative justice emergence under different forums including justice system, academia and activism workplace. The concept of restorative justice is described as an alternative means of settling disputes. These include new criminal justice system founded on the principles of restoration to the communities, offenders and victims living in our society(Walgrave, et al., 2013). The process involves the diversion from the formal court process, to alternative means of ensuring similar court decision are observed throughout the process such as from arresting, pre-sentencing and prison release. The restoration of justice is aimed at improving the justice system of the country(Edwards, 2015). It is applicable in child/family welfare protection, criminal justice and juvenile justice cases. Studies have shown that restorative justice incorporates informal justice, transformative justice and reparative justice among others.

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The Change of Criminal Justice Policies in the Past 30 Years

            In the last three decades criminal justice has evolved because many practices and programs have been implemented under the restorative justice rubric. Initially, restorative justice focused on bringing victims and offenders to the table to try and strike a deal for resolving the conflicts(Acton, 2015). The moderated meeting adapted the traditional mediation models. Progressively, the mediation meetings incorporated friends, families and professional of the parties as well as other stakeholders who have access to the community resources(Ferguson, 2015). Criminal justice policies that have evolved over the past three decades includes prisoners’ rights and alternatives to prisons, conflict resolutions, victim-offender reconciliation programs, victim-offender mediation, victim advocacy, family group conferences, sentencing circles and other practices. The objectives of these policy changes is to minimize the punishment of offenders through incarceration and if possible to abolish prison and jail terms.

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            Some professionals and scholar have argued that offenders are victims of gender and racial discrimination, impoverished communities and societal neglect which could be avoided by eliminating these virtues in the society. The need to create a caring community that conclusively addresses the issues affecting victims and offenders gained momentum in 1980s. Based on legal principles of criminal justice system, formal legal process was receiving growing concern of disillusion with adversarial adjudication and fact-finding(Walgrave, et al., 2013). Therefore, negotiation was considered the appropriate alternative option because it is less centralized. In addition, restorative justice focuses on restoring the right relationship between the victim’s and offenders’ parties. Through, the incorporation of religious institutions and principles, the policy of victim-offender reconciliation program was introduced in United States. The objective was to boost close working relationship and cohesion in the society.

The Factors that have Led to Change in Criminal Justice Policy

            Many factors led to change in criminal justice policy of which some of the factors have been discussed in the above paragraph. Some of the factors included that in early criminal justice system, it was focused on punishing the offender and neglecting the motivation aspect on the part of offenders. Past criminal justice system emphasized on compensating the victims and sentencing the offender(Walgrave, et al., 2013). Professional and scholar found out that it was not just enough to compensate the victim, rather it was important to identify factors that motivated the offenders to commit the crime. As a result, restorative justice emphasized on identifying the motivational factors at the community level in order to eliminate them in the society. The second factors was the increasing number of prisoners in the United States in late 1980s and early 1990s. The growing number of incarceration made the justice department to establish an alternative option of dispute resolution. As a result, restorative justice focused on introducing alternative option of resolving conflicts without relying on incarcerations.

            The third factor that led to change in criminal justice policy was the need to reconcile the victims’ and offenders’ parties as a means of creating cohesiveness in the society. Restoration justice intended to achieve this through negotiation and the sense of creating a caring community as well as establishing the right relationship among all the communities living in the society(Zernova, & Wright, 2011). The forth factor was eradicate aspect of discrimination and inequality in the society. Considering that the judicial system is perceived to be free, impartial and fair to all people in the society, legal professionals and scholar argued that formal judicial system is characterized with adversaries relating to fact-finding and adjudication process.

The Importance of Restorative Justice to the Future Criminal Justice

Critical analysis of various justice models including rehabilitative, retributive and restorative justice models indicated that the overall outcome of justice system is to punish the crime, treat the offenders and repair the harm. The comparison of these three justice models indicated that restorative justice is superior in the future over the other models. This shows the importance of restorative justice in the future in relation to progressiveness in the justice system(Ferguson, 2015).

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Some of the important aspects of restorative justice include moving beyond oppositional caricatures of justice, address the relationship between consequentialism and retributivism to restorative justice, it gives less promises and use more accurate terms. However, it is important to incorporate restorative justice with the current practices in the formal justice system.

The Relationship Between Air Pollution And Asthma Amongst City Dwellers

Introduction

City dwellers have continually suffered disproportionate asthma morbidity regardless of the efforts put in place in the United States to significantly reduce asthma mortality and morbidity. Despite recent studies indicating that many factor are attributed to this phenomenon, city air pollution and indoor environment has been considered the strong contributor to hindrance to asthma control(Middleton, Yiallouros, Nicolaou, Kleanthous, Pipis, Maria, Demokritou, & Koutrakis, 2010). Studies have shown that inner-city dwellers are among the population that have risk of asthma prevalence. This is attributed to air quality and closed environment where fresh air and ventilation is limited to most of the residences. Public health has recognized that city dwellers are exposed to air pollution that elevate asthma prevalence among the residences especially to those residences dwelling and working in overcrowded areas with little ventilation.

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Studies have indicated that air pollution in city environment include dust, smoke from motor vehicles and other allergens such as cockroaches, mice, pets and rats. These allergens triggers chronic and acute symptoms in patients with asthma. Air pollution is a mixture of complex pollutant originating from outdoor air and indoor pollutants generated by activities taking place in the surrounding environment(Middleton, et al., 2010). Empirical evidence in the past studies indicated that most studies have focused on the outdoor air pollutions rather than indoor pollutants. Air pollution is attributed to the increased respiratory symptoms, airway reactivity as well as reducing lung functions. City dwellers are exposed to air pollutions such as asthma morbidity, secondhand cigarette smoke, particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen oxide.

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Particulate matter

            These consists of liquid and solid particulate matter suspended in the air. Activities that increases the emission of particulate matter into the environment in city environment include cooking such as frying food and using stove, cleaning the house through sweeping and dusting the room(Public Health Information Team, 2012). Also, smoking the cigarettes has proved to be the main distributor of indoor particulate matters. Outdoor and indoor air pollution investigations have indicated that increased exhaled nitric oxide thus stimulating airway inflammation. This means that patients with asthma symptoms are exposed to more allergens in this environment. Studies have shown that children are the most affect group in the environment.

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Nitrogen dioxide

In city dwelling environment, the most common sources of nitrogen dioxide include common ambient air pollutant such as high temperature combustions. Indoor and outdoor sources include fireplaces, furnace, space heaters and gas stoves. Studies indicated that nitrogen dioxide elevated asthma symptoms in patients with asthma especially children because it decreases airflow in the airways(Matsui, Hansel, McCormack, Rusher, Breysse, & Diette, 2008). Further studies indicated that continuous exposure to nitrogen dioxide is attributed to wheezing and chest tightness especially those individuals living in multifamily housing units which is common in the urban setting. Also, housing setting is common to people categorized under lower socioeconomic status. In addition, nitrogen dioxide air pollution is concentrated in the urban center because of the use of gas stove.

Secondhand smoke

Secondhand smoke is describe as involuntarily inhaled cigarette smoke composed of gases and particles created through the combustion of additives, paper and tobacco. Studies have indicated that secondhand smoke air pollution exposure is attributed to wheeze illness among the patients with asthma(Matsui, et al., 2008). Parents who regularly smoke cigarettes in presences of their children exposes them to increased symptoms of asthma. Also, exhaust fumes from fuel combustion in urban setting increases the complication of asthma symptoms amongst asthma patients.

Explication of the Poem “Nani” by Alberto Rios

In the poem “Nani” Alberto Rios describes his personal multicultural experience. To understand the poem one needs to understand the background of the author. Having been born in Nogales city, Arizona, which borders Mexico, he spoke English and Spanish during his early childhood age. He went to a school that discouraged the speaking of Spanish but encouraged the use of English. For this reason he lost interest in Spanish and slowly started forgetting it (Cheyene, 2011). The poem therefore depicts a moment when he visits his grandmother. She can only communicate in Spanish but not in English. This brings a situation where communication between grandmother and grandson is impaired. The two however find solution to their language barrier problem by use of culture, food as well as body language.

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The poem “Nani” is structured as a sestina. A Sestina is a type of poem that is made up of six stanzas. The poem, further, makes use of six specific words that the author chooses to use to end each of the sentences in the poem. The last stanza of this poem, however, has only three lines. The three lines end with one of the six specific words as well. This last stanza is referred to as the envoi.

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The specific six words that end each line are critical in the creation of meaning as well as flow in any sestina. In the poem Nani these words are “serves, words, me, more, her, and speak”. “Serve” has been used in with two different meanings. The first meaning is to function while the second meaning is the act of offering food. In the poem Nani, the grandmother serves the persona with “sopa de arroz” which represents her culture as well as her love and care for her grandson. Sopa de arroz is used to symbolize culture. The word “her” is used repeatedly in the poem to show a means of communication that the persona uses of observing his grandmother and letting her be. This is shown in statements like “I watch her”, “I tell her I test mint, and watch her speak smiles at the stove” (Alberto, 2011). The repeated use of “Words” emphasizes the fact that neither the persona nor his grandmother has the appropriate words to express their affections and feelings to each other. For instance he says “I own no words to stop her.” “More” on the other hand is intended to give specific examples on the modes of communication between the grandmother and the grandson. Thy mainly communicate through culture and food. The grandmother expresses her love to the grandson through giving him more and more food. This is the only way she can best express her love for her grandson. The grandson’s love for her grandmother does not allow him to stop her even though he confesses that he is full. Finally the author uses the repeat word “Speak” to bring out the extent to which the persona has lost contact with his ancestral culture as well as language. He is not able to communicate fluently in his ancestral language and hence very unsettled when in the company of his grandmother.

Going through the poem, one can’t help but notice two distinct tones: the tone of sadness as well as the tone of love. There is great love exhibited between the grandmother and the grandson. This affection, the grandmother expresses through serving the grandson with more and more food. The love for his grandmother prevents him from stopping her even though he is full. He says “I own no words to stop her” (Alberto, 2011). The tone of sadness is expressed by the fact that the persona has failed to communicate to communicate to her grandmother. He therefore has a feeling of sadness that comes from disappointment. Is a statement he says “I wonder how much of me will die with her what were the words I could have been, was. Her inside speaks through a hundred wrinkles, now, more than she can bear, steal around her shouting.”  (Alberto, 2011)This show that the persona is afraid that he may not have a long time with his grandmother to make up for the time he has not been able to communicate to her.

The line “how much of me will die with her” symbolizes not only more than just the sense of lose once his grandmother passes on but also the current loss of culture, language and a way of connection to his grandmother.   In conclusion, the running theme in the poem is the loss of cultural relatedness of the persona to her grandmother. The love of the grandmother to the grand son to the extent that she serves him to satisfaction before she can even serves herself. As I go through the poem, I can’t help but relate personally to the love exhibited by the persona’s grandmother having experienced a similar love from my own grandmother. I can therefore personally relate to the main idea running at the centre of this poem.

How the Elimination of the Automobile Affect Social, Cultural and Economic Arrangements in the American Society

The innovations in the automobile industry are one of the best technological advancements to have happened in the last century. The development of the diesel engines has revolutionized transportation and led to unprecedented economic, social and cultural developments in the American and world societies. The cars provide a means of transport from which people move goods, go to work in distant places, move from one destination to another with ease and thus bridging time gap. Moreover, cars have made it easy for people to meet and socialize. Therefore, cars have brought huge economic, social and cultural changes and their elimination would have huge impact on the social, cultural and economic aspects of the American society.

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The American society has developed to its current social, economic and cultural status thanks to the developments in the automobile industry (American Library Association, 2011). The United States has since grown into the world super power. The presence of good road network in the country facilitates the movement of people and goods from one destination to another and this has played a huge role in its economic growth. Road network in the United States is estimated to stretch to over 3.9 million miles, with road transport accounting to more than three quarters of the transportation system in the country. This means that if all cars in the United States were banned today, a huge economic gap would be witnessed. For example, it would be difficult to move people and goods from one destination to another and thus posing huge economic impact.

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Moreover, the automobile industry remains one the largest and biggest contributors to the American economy (American Library Association, 2011). The international automobile manufacturers such as Toyota and the Detroit big three employ thousands of Americans, who are engaged in direct manufacture or in the sales. The elimination of cars in the country would mean that the many Americans who are employed directly or indirectly in the automobile industry will lose jobs and thus compromising their source of livelihoods. While any government struggles to eliminate unemployment and improve the livelihoods of its citizens, the elimination of cars would mean that unemployment rates will increase in the country. Consequently, the taxes that come from the automobile industry would be lost and thus negatively effecting the country’s economy.

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Banning of all cars would have adverse effects on the social and cultural developments in the country. The Americans society is one of the most social; the citizens cater in different locations for social functions. Most people go to church, some attend to family meetings on regular basis and most these require movements involve the use of cars. As the Americans are accustomed to the use of cars as a means of movement, their elimination would make it hard for such people to have social meetings without cars. Moreover, the use of cars are not only a means of movement, they are used to express one’s social class. The elimination of the cars would effectively effect and eliminate the cultural identity amongst the Americans, which is associated with the ownership and use of cars. An example is the pop culture, which is associated with use of pimped cars. According to (Reed, 2011), the American pop culture is one of the most attractive elements in the American culture.  Eliminating the use of cars will equally lead to the removal of American pop culture, which has a substantial impact on the economy of the United States.

The Adjustments That Americans Would Have To Make to Effectively Function In an “Automobile-Free” Society

The elimination of automobiles from American society will be faced with fierce resistance, an indication of the hard adjustments that the Americans would have to make. Although it would be hard to make such adjustments, it would be a decision that everyone would have to make if forced to. According to (Kotter, 2007) change is one of the hardest processes to adopt, as it is faced with resistance as people find it hard to leave their comfort zones. Although it may take time to make the adjustments, eventually the Americans will adapt to life without cars. However, the Americans will have to make a number of adjustments in order to settle into their new way of life.

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            What comes into the mind of many Americans with the elimination of cars is how to accomplish the daily tasks that are facilitated by cars. The first adjustment would be how to bridge time gap created with the elimination of cars. Most people will learn to use the rather untraditional methods of going to work, for example using bicycles. Therefore, many households will be forced to acquire and learn how to ride the bicycles. This would only work for cases that involve short distances, especially jobs that are nearby. However, if the place of work were far, more adjustments would have to be considered, for example the use of train.

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            As mentioned earlier in the paper, cars are used for cultural and music purposes. Therefore, in order to meet the new challenges posed by the elimination of the cars, many Americans will be forced to use trains and bicycles for purposes of travelling for meetings. However, the pop music industry may opt for more flashy motorcycles, which are less common among the pop stars. Cars offers flexibility of mixing one’s daily responsibilities and still finding time to visit relatives because they are fast, offers relatively more safety compared to other forms of movement like motorcycles. Unlike trains, cars facilitate movement to one’s destination. Moreover, unlike bicycles and motorcycles, cars have roofing, which shields one from rain and the effect of external climate. Therefore, with the elimination of cars, the American society will have to content to having family gathering less frequently, especially if involves travelling far distances. In order to bridge the gap, Americans will be forced to use other methods of communication like voice and video calls for business, social and cultural meetings.

What I would personally Give Up / Change About My Lifestyle to Live in an “Auto-Mobile Free” Society

            Living in an “automobile free” society would require more change that is personal and even giving up on some things associated with the use of cars. First, I would have to give up some of my luxuries, for example meeting less frequently with friends and going out less frequently. This is especially for cases that involve meeting friends who come from far. I will have to content with outings that involve shorter distances and this would mean having to get accustomed with only nearby friends. In addition, I would have to change and make occasional visits to my relatives who live far. In addition, in case I have to visit them, then I would have to start to use train. I will have to start to try to walk a lot since the elimination of cars will mean the need to walk more.

            If I had to change, I would make such adjustments, albeit with more time for it would be hard to imagine a world with no cars. Acquisition of a bicycle would be easy, however, the idea of using it when visiting my friends and for social gatherings is hard to envisage. Moreover, it would be easy to adjust into using trains for long distances, although it would involve more sacrifice like letting go the comfort of being in a personal car and travelling with people of different races, culture and ages. Therefore, I would make the adjustments given the nature of circumstances but it would take time to fit into the new mode of transport.

The Ways That American Society Would Be Better Off Without the Automobile

            Although the advent of the automobile has revolutionized development and economic growth, it has also created problems. The automobiles are associated with accidents, which claim lives of many Americans annually and health problems caused by the emissions (Anwar, Ejaz, Ashraf, Ahmad, & Javeed, 2012). The increased uses of automobiles have created congestion and massive green house gas emissions. The American society would be better off without cars, as it would mean living in an environment that is free from pollution, which is threatening the global biodiversity. Moreover, many people continue to lose their loved ones from road accidents owing to reckless driving. Life without cars would mean less accidents, cleaner environment and free movement of people within cities and towns.

The Ways That the Society Would Be Worse Off 

Life without cars would mean difficulty in giving emergency response in case of criminal attack or sickness. Moreover, the ease with which cars facilitate business meeting means it has accelerated the speed of movement of goods and business meeting, thus allowing people to conduct their businesses in record time compared to life without automobiles. In addition, perishable goods, drugs and other emergency necessities can be moved from one location to another faster and in large quantities that would otherwise be hard to do with other conventional means of transport like use of bicycles. Therefore, life without cars would mean a loss of all these and the society would be worse off without cars.

A Comparison of Management Information Systems of Wal-Mart and McDonalds

Introduction

Management information systems (MIS) are integrated systems that provide management with information to make decisions and to run their organizations effectively and efficiently. The functions of any MIS includes data capturing, data storage, data processing, data and information distribution, prediction forecasting, planning and control (Kotler, 2009). The paper will compare the management systems of Wal-Mart and McDonalds and discuss how they use them for competitive advantage. It will also discuss the consequences of the use of IT and recognize the potential security breaches and computer crimes associated with the same.  

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Wal-Mart

Wal-Mart started operations in 1962 with 15 stores which grew to 276 in 10years. By 1989 it had 1402 stores and currently has 10,185 stores in 27 countries with 2.2 million employees serving 176 million customers a year. Wal-Mart’s success lies in its focus on customer needs, reducing costs through efficient supply chain management to give its customers the best price.   Wal-Mart uses various systems for its ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning), SCM (Supply Chain Management), CRM (Customer Relationship Management), and KMS (Knowledge Management System). The company uses EDI (Electronic Data Interchange), VOF (Voice based Order Filling), CPFR (Collaborative Planning Forecasting and Replenishment), and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) which has given it competitive advantage in offering its customers the best price and availability of goods whenever they want them.

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In 1970, Wal-Mart was the first organization to centralize its distribution system known as the Hub and Spoke as part of its supply management system. The system enables Wal-Mart to purchase goods in huge quantities which gives them a cost advantage which they pass down to their customers offering them the best price. Wal-Mart moved to EDI which connects all their suppliers. The system tracks all sales, merchandise inventories and allows stores to manage their stock thus reducing unproductive inventory. Stores can ensure that customers get what they want most in any Wal-Mart store. Wal-Mart also set up its own communication system to work with EDI that improved operations (Laudon, & Guercio, 2014).

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In 1998, Wal-Mart introduced the VOF for their employees. The advantage of the VOF was quick replenishment of stock, quick movement of goods within the stores which improved logistics and made it quick to locate goods to replenish. Later on Wal-Mart introduced a retail link that connected with the EDI through an extranet that is accessible to all suppliers. Suppliers are able to monitor product performance against competition in al Wal-Mart stores.  Wal-Mart has the most sophisticated computer system that manages all its operations. The system incorporated the use of MPP (Massively Parallel Process) to track movement of goods and stock levels (Laudon, & Guercio, 2014). In addition the company included an internet enabled SCM system with additional functions that include collaborative planning forecasting and replenishment. The systems work in real time which reduces inventory costs and enhances product availability across the supply chain (Frieden & Roche, 2006).

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In 2002, Wal-Mart switched its 14,000 suppliers from VAN EDI to a web enabled EBI which saved the company license fees paid to private VAN vendors. In 2003, Wal-Mart introduced RFID to its 100 top suppliers. RFID replaced bar code technology, reduced SMC costs, enhanced efficiency, and reduced stock outs (Laudon, & Guercio, 2014). The use of IT for Wal-Mart has given it competitive advantage over its competitors. Wal-Mart is the number one retail giant in the world, number one in Canada and Mexico. Its closest competitor is Target in the US and Carrefour in Europe. The company is a global success of its MIS that ensures that customers get quality and the best price (Lucey, 2005).

McDonalds

McDonalds is a leading global fast food retailer with 30,000 restaurants in over 121 countries, serving 47 million customers every day. McDonalds offers the best quality fast food, service, and value to its customers. The middle and upper level managers depend on its MIS to support decision making. The MIS is based on technology, information and people. One of the company’s main goals is to improve IT and IS.

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McDonalds has the following systems; POS System, TPS (Transaction Processing System), MYS (Made for You System), and the Hyperactive Bob System. These systems have given it competitive advantage and ensured that customers get meals that are fresh, tasty and hot in any of its restaurants.  The POS system ensures that customers get their orders with minimum error. The company can monitor sales and losses of its restaurants.

The MYS is a communication portal between the counter and kitchen. The cashier inputs the order into the system which the kitchen gets on their screen in real time. The meal is always prepared after the order The POS is incorporated with the MYS to ensure efficiency. The inputs to the POS is immediately relayed to each work station, the payment due is displayed to ensure fast an accurate orders.

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McDonalds has also introduced the Hyperactive Bob System based on artificial intelligence or robots that manage the kitchens. Each restaurant has cameras at the entrances and parking lots to see how many people are coming into the restaurant. This assist the kitchens in planning on the amount of meats required needed to meet the orders. In addition McDonalds also has a TIOS (Touch Interface Ordering System) which allows customers to place orders and pay electronically without the cashier. This system has minimized labor costs and increased customer orders (Frieden & Roche, 2006). The restaurants also have WIFI that gathers information about customers’ habits. All the above systems have given a competitive advantage to McDonalds and have increased productivity, increased quality levels, improved kitchen operations to ensure that customers are served with meals that are fresh, tasty, and hot. The MIS systems have reduced costs and maintained existing customers and attracted new ones (Laudon, & Guercio, 2014).    

Consequences of the Use of IT and Potential Security Breaches and Computer Crimes

Despite the advantages of using MIS to increase efficiency and support management decision making, the use of IT has its own challenges on security breaches and computer crimes (McLeod & Schell, 2007). The number of global security incidents in organizations is growing faster the global number of smart phone users. Cyber crime rates have increased by 48% in the last year. Hackers have become very sophisticated and are coming up with new ways to infiltrate computer systems. This can compromise the financial situation of any company and endanger its future (Straub, Goodman, & Baskerville, 2008).

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Consequences of the use of IT include wiping at all data leaving the company with no information to use for its operations. Data can be manipulated providing false information leading to inaccurate decisions by management. Employee and supplier information can also be compromised with personal details including security numbers and payment details (Zhang & Galletta, 2006).

Security breaches are brought about by disgruntled employees, careless and un informed employees, the policy of BYOB (Bring Your Own Device), the use of cloud applications, the lack of cyber security policies or security standards, and lack of recovery plans in case of an attack. Other reasons include confusing compliance with cyber security, failure to update software and use of encryptions, and lack of information or training of employees on security issues (Straub, Goodman, & Baskerville, 2008). 

Companies need to protect themselves, their customers and suppliers from security threats. Companies should have a cyber security policy in place. They should monitor, control, and manage privileged credentials to prevent exploitation from employees. They need to implement protocols and infrastructure that can track logs, and record activity, create alerts for quick response to potential threats. Employees should be trained on cyber security best practices and taught how to use string passwords which should be changed every 30 – 60 days. The company needs to use a password management system and encryption where necessary. Companies should also implement mobile security solutions to deal with the BYOB policies. Cloud applications can be protected through the use of string encryptions to protect sensitive information. In addition, they should use patch management programs to ensure that devices and software are updated at all time (Zhang & Galletta, 2006).

Conclusion

The discussion on the MIS systems for Wal-mart and McDonalds shows the importance of MIS in providing information for management decisions which leads to efficiency and effectiveness in internal operations. MIS clearly gives the organizations a competitive advantage over their competitors. Continuous upgrading of MIS systems and the recognition of potential security breaches and computer crimes has assisted both organizations to increase productivity and become global leaders in their industry.

Tuskegee syphilis studies and the Zimbardo Prison Experiment – Critical Analysis and Comparison of Scientific Researches

Introduction

            There are numerous scientific researches that have been conducted, and most of these researches involved human population in one way or the other. The scientific researches that involve human population must always be carried out in accordance to a codes of ethics of research (Pierce, 2007). These ethics of scientific research were developed in order to ensure the researchers protected the rights, dignity and the welfare of the research participants. However, some social research studies that have been carried have involved unethical experimentations, and have been controversial in nature. The paper makes a critical analysis and comparison of the Tuskegee syphilis studies and the Zimbardo Prison Experiment.

Tuskegee Syphilis Studies

            The Tuskegee syphilis study program was a government sponsored experiment that ran for forty years in the county of Macon, Alabama in the middle of the 20th century (Blitz, 2014). Syphilis is a disease that had been in existence for years and the attempts to create its remedy led to fatalities since the available cures were mostly poisonous metallic compounds. However, in 1881, the Tuskegee University that was established in order to offer higher education to the slaves, who were majority inhabitants of the Tuskegee, Alabama, would later be involved in the research that sought to find the vaccine for the disease.  

            In the early part of the 20th century, the government of the United States had developed the Public Health Service, which was in charge of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases that affected the United States citizens (Blitz, 2014). In 1929-1931, the Rosenwald Fund, which promoted education and health care promotions among the poor African-Americans, sponsored a study that was carried out by the Public Health Service, to determine the extent of the syphilis menace in the Southern counties. Initially, the objective was the identification and treatment of the disease. However, the great depression struck in the 1931 and the Rosenwald Fund was unable to sustain the funding of the PHS. Therefore, the PHS approached the Tuskegee University about the possibility of the two organizations forming a study group in order to investigate the effects of untreated syphilis among the male population in Macon County, which had the highest rates of infections.

            The study involved an enrollment of six-hundred Macon county men, from which 399 men had been infected with syphilis, while 201 were free from syphilis (Blitz, 2014). One striking ethical aspect of the study was that none of the participants knew what the objective of the study was. Most of the participants had been lured into participation with the promise of free health care, which was not offered to the African-Americans and the cure for “bad blood”, a term that was used to refer to ailments such as anemia, and other venereal ailments. Other promises that were used to entice the men into participating included free burial insurance, free medical exams and meals. The researchers used deception in order to have a large sample of population and ensure that the participants remained in the study group.

 Moreover, the participants who had the disease were never informed of their diagnosis nor were they treated (Blitz, 2014). Many unnecessary and painful spinal taps were also carried on many of the participants in the field. In addition, the researchers took advantage of the fact that most of the participants were illiterate and it would have been hard for them to know the main reasons behind the research study. Similarly, there was documentation of racial prejudice amongst the researchers. Thus the researchers, did a total disregard of protection of the participants who based on the description of the samples, they formed a vulnerable group. The study would go on for over the initially intended nine months due the breakthroughs. Finally, although penicillin was discovered, none of the participants was offered the treatment as the administrators wanted to monitor the progression of the disease and the subjects would be observed, as they got sick until their death.

Zimbardo Prison Experiment

            In a study to determine the major cause of brutalities in the United States prisons, Zimbardo performed a study in order to determine whether the brutality amongst the guards was situational or dispositional (emanating from the guard sadistic behaviors) (McLeod, 2008). In order to determine the effects of a prison cell on the behavior of prison guards and prisoners, Zimbardo,converted the basement of the Stanford University into a mock prison cell. A total of 75 students volunteered and after subjecting them to psychological screening, 24 male students were eventually selected and paid to participate for the study, which was to take place for a fortnight.

            The participants were randomly selected and assigned the roles of prison guards and prisoners (Zimbardo, Maslach, & Froming, 2012). The prisoners were treated just like criminals, being arrested from their homes without warning and the guards worked in shifts. Zimbardo, while acting as a researcher observed the behaviors of the prisoners and the guards. Within a short time, prisoners and guards had settled into their roles. The guards begun to adopt sadistic behaviors and begun to mistreat the prisoners, while prisoners begun to be aggressive and one had to set free after 36 hours because of the uncontrolled cries, bursts and screaming.

Similarities and Differences between the Two Studies

            The Tuskegee and the Zimbardo studies involved studies of human subjects under control experiments. The Tuskegee study was carried using the patients with syphilis and those without the disease as the control sample. On the other hand, the Zimbardo study involved the students who were randomly selected in order to determine the impact of prison environment on the prison guard behaviors. Whereas the Zimbardo study exercised random selection of the participants, who were informed about the study, the Tuskegee study did not randomly select its study participants nor did it obtain any consent form them. Moreover, the participants in the Tuskegee study were coerced and promised money and burial insurance for participating in the study. Unlike the Zimbardo study, which exercised participant protection, the Tuskegee study exercised no regard of participant protection despite the fact that they constituted vulnerable population.

Ethical Principles in the Case Studies

            The Tuskegee syphilis study has a number of ethical principles that were never observed. First, the study involved subjects that were not randomly selected. The control population and the participants who suffered from syphilis were just coerced and deception used in order for them to form part of the study sample. The study failed to adhere to the ethics of research, which demands the protection of the rights of the study sample (Daugherty-Brownrigg, 2012). Moreover, the selection of the population was not randomly drawn but based only on a specific population that consisted of only poor African-Americans. Furthermore, the researchers failed to seek the consent of the participants, taking advantage of the illiteracy of the participants to make them part of the study population. In doing so, the researchers totally disregarded the rights and welfare of the participants. For example, the participants who were free from syphilis were injected with the virus without any explanation that the injection was meant for study purposes.

            In contrast, the Zimbardo prison experiment adopted a different strategy that was guided by the ethics of social research. In the study sample selection, Zimbardo obtained the consent of the participants by giving them a detailed description of the purposes of the study (Haney & Zimbardo, 2008). Moreover, the study samples were randomly selected and thus giving every individual and equal chance of being part of the study sample. These strategies ensured that the rights of the participants were observed. In fact, unlike the Tuskegee study, in which the participants were not treated despite the discovery of the vaccine, the Zimbardo prison experiment had to be terminated when it was found that it had degenerated into a bad condition and some participants whose behaviors had become uncontrollable were removed from the experiment.

The Success of the Strategies in the Two Case Studies

The Zimbardo prison study was successful owing to use of better research strategies of random selection and proper explanation of research purpose to the participants. However, the Tuskegee research study failed to attain better results since the whole study led to fatalities and the researchers were not able to treat the participants who were left to death due the need for continued observation even after death. After all, the research deemed the promise of burial insurance amongst the participants was enough for the study participants. The failure by the Tuskegee researchers to observe the research ethics led them into violating the rights of the participants and thus did not offer any treatment to the participants who suffered the disease, even despite the discovery of its cure. The studies that were later carried after the Tuskegee syphilis research showed that majority of the African-Americans were less willing to participate in the future research that involved clinical trials as compared to the whites, owing to the incidents of the Tuskegee research study.

Alternate Strategies That Might Also Have Been Used To Achieve the Same or Better Results

            The research ethics demand the protection of the rights and welfare of the research study participants (Pierce, 2007). The syphilis study among the minority groups in the Tuskegee would have adopted the research ethics that involves seeking of the consent of the participants before being involved in the study. The participants would have been informed about the intention of the study and the possible implications in order to allow them to make informed decisions. Furthermore, the participants would need to selected randomly in an open and free manner devoid of coercion and bribery. In doing so, the study would achieve better results and would not attract any negative publicity and future skepticism of participation in other studies.

The Case Study that Represents a Better Implementation of Research Ethics

            The Zimbardo prison study achieved better observation of research ethics since the participants were randomly selected and subjected to psychological tests to determine their fitness for the intended study. Moreover, the study exercised study participants protection, for example, when it was observed that some participants had displayed aggression, they were withdrawn. However, the Tuskegee study violated research ethics through adoption of coercion, deceit in recruitment of research participants and use of participants without their informed consent (Engelhardt, 2007). Furthermore, the study population represented vulnerable sample, which demanded better protection. For example, the study participants were not given any treatment, but left to die despite the fact that the syphilis vaccine had been discovered. The researchers valued the study other than the protection of the research participants.

The Ethical, Practical, and Political Consequences of These Cases for the Researchers, Participants, and the Social Groups

            The manner in which the Tuskegee study was carried out has been a subject of great debate to date. The United States government was forced to offer an apology to the victims of the study and the state offered to provide free medical insurance cover to the participants who still survived and their descendants, which still runs to date (CDC, 2013). The study raised serious bioethical implications even for future studies, where there is shrewd regard to study that involve human subjects among the African-Americans. Moreover, the study has been a subject of great scrutiny and criticism from the social groups and the researchers for failure to stick to principles of bioethics.

Conclusion

The Tuskegee and Zimbardo studies represent two cases studies that employed studies on human population. However, the two studies exhibit glaring differences in the manner in which the studies protected the rights and welfares of the research participants. The Tuskegee study has been cited by many researchers for the violation of rights of study population and lack of regard for bioethics. In contrast, the Zimbardo experiment was able to achieve better results owing to its random selection of the study sample and obtaining of participant concept.