Ways To Instill Public Trust in Public Administration

Public administration is a critical element in society as it involves the management of public resources. Government is one of the biggest entities in the realm of public administration. Public administrators are expected to be people of the highest level of integrity. This is because they are entrusted with huge amounts of essential resources that are expected to serve the interests of the public. Deviation from these expectations leads to mistrust from members of the public. With increased levels of corruption and misuse of public resources, there has been an increase in distrust of public administrators by the general public. This paper elaborates on the ways through which I would instill trust in public administration.  

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Public participation is an essential element in all spheres of public service. It is vital that the public is invited to take part in all decision-making processes for them to have complete trust in public administrators (McLaverty, 2017). Many pertinent issues call for leaders in the public sector to make radical decisions that affect how public resources are exploited. In some cases, these decisions lead to the wrongful use of the resources in question, and this leads to mistrust from the public. It is, therefore, important to engage the public before taking such decisions. This increases the level of trust that the public harbors towards their leaders.

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In cases where these joint decisions fail, the public would not blame the public administrators based on the fact that the decision was shared by all of them, and, thus, the responsibility for negative outcomes is shared. Some situations may call for unilateral decisions from public administrators. Even then, it is important that the public is adequately informed of the reasons why such decisions had to be taken. There should also be adequate proof that the intended goals would be of great benefit to the public. As a public administrator, I would put these factors into great consideration.

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In public administration, accountability is an element that cannot be negotiated about. Public trust goes hand in hand with the level of openness that they feel that their leaders provide. It is important that the public is fully informed of how resources are being used. A complete breakdown of the total resources that each public office has been allocated should be provided to the public (Koliba et al., 2017). This is essential in enabling the public to be able to monitor how their resources are being utilized. As a public administrator, I would ensure that all these issues are adequately catered for. It is also important to inform the public of completed projects and how much they cost.

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Another important issue in public administration is on appointments. Considering that various positions in the public sector require personnel to fill them, it is important that correct steps are carried out in doing so (Kozhakhmetov & Otarbayeva, 2016). Those appointed should be of adequate integrity and fully qualified to serve the public in the given office. The best way to achieve this is to employ a merit-based system. This means that those appointed will have emerged as the best among the potential competing appointees. In doing this as an administrator, it would enable the public to have more trust in my serving of them. In conclusion, it is clear that public administration is a delicate sphere that depends on public trust. It is important that the public have enough trust in public administrators if they are to support them in office. In an attempt to instill public trust in public administrators, it is important that the latter ensures that issues of accountability, public appointments, and public participation in decision-making processes are duly taken care of.

McDonald’s SWOT Analysis

The primary model of the McDonald’s business is the operation of the McDonald’s restaurants, as well as franchising the same in the United States and internationally. The restaurant serves locally relevant menus, in addition to serving internationally recognized menus. Due to the global brand that the company enjoys, it can attract many franchisees who acquire the rights to run their restaurants under the McDonald’s brand. Individual franchisees independently run a majority of McDonald’s restaurants. Franchisees agree to run their restaurants in compliance with the McDonald’s model and best practices. This enables the uniformity of operations and practices internationally, which enables it to run a unified global brand. The products that the company deals in include: cheeseburgers, hamburgers, shakes, salads, chicken sandwiches, soft drinks, and coffee, among others. This paper elaborates on the SWOT analysis of the company.

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McDonald’s boasts of a wide array of strengths that enables it to command a strong presence in the service industry. One of the biggest strengths is that the company has substantial economies of scale. This enables it to share its fixed costs over the many various restaurants. The sharing of the expenses in this kind of manner allows McDonald outlets to be one of the most affordable places to eat at. The company is also big, which enables it to have an advantageous power over its suppliers, which, in turn, enables it to acquire supplies at relatively lower prices (Wu, 2018).

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McDonald’s enjoys a broad reach of audience due to its widespread existence in many parts of the world. This enables the company to have increased access to more customers. In addition to this, the company is able to such secondary services as home delivery of food. This clearly demonstrates the significance of the company being close to many of its customers, which is facilitated by its huge presence in many areas across the world. The fact that the company operates in different countries it exposes it to different currencies. This is significant in protecting the business when some currencies fall in value.


With the expansion of the food service industry in the United States, many companies have come up that do the same service as McDonald’s. There are multiple companies in various regions of the United States that run the restaurant business in the same model that McDonald’s does it. This means that it has become more difficult for the company to find new locations in the country to set up new outlets. This, therefore, means that if the company is to expand further, it has to look for new locations in other countries. This poses the challenge where the company might have to embrace different cultural models in its operations. The annual dividends that the company offers have been slowing down. Even though the dividend growth rate has been experiencing positive hikes, they have progressively been slowing down. This has the potential of reducing the company’s bargaining power among potential investors.

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Many opportunities for setting up new restaurants outside the United States exist. The Asian market has been receptive to many businesses that center on the food service industry. This, therefore, means that the company has a huge opportunity for expanding itself in the Asian market. China is a promising destination in the Asian market due to its uniform and single market. Another significant advantage of the China market is that it has a huge population. These factors make China a primary target as far as expansion destinations are concerned.

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The increased purchasing power of different sets of the population is another area of opportunity that McDonald’s can exploit. Many women and youth continue to find job opportunities at an increasing rate. This has been due to an increase in education levels, which has made them more employable, as well as enabling them to also venture into self-employment. This increase in purchasing power is a factor that contributes to people eating in affluent restaurants such as the McDonald’s. The company should, therefore, focus on advertising themselves to these sets of people (Bragg et al., 2018).

The fact that menu innovations are unlimited, the company should focus on expanding its menu to cover many local and international tastes. Innovations regarding the menu in a restaurant are only limited by imaginations, and, thus, the company should come up with increased varieties that can be tested for reception by different people. Those that attract a wide audience can then be optimized and marketed internationally. 


The main threats that the company faces have to do with its main competitors. The company faces stiff competition from such companies as the Burger King, Brands, Stock Pick, and 11 O’clock among others. This calls for the company to always review its activities and practices to be able to remain competitive and relevant in the industry.

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Slowing rates of economic growth in different countries that the company operates in limit the company’s operational capacity. Increases in the prices of commodities mean that the costs of the company go up as well. However, it becomes difficult for the company to pass these costs to consumers in cases where the economy of a country is struggling (Mialon et al., 2016). In cases where a country’s economy slows down, the purchasing power of the entire population in general declines.

Possible expansion areas

The company can expand into the soft drinks industry, as well as new markets where the company still has an insignificant presence. At present, the company has a deal with the Coca Cola company which provides it with Coca Cola products such as soda that customers can use as accompaniments to their products. Although Coca Cola provides these drinks at a significantly reduced price, it is possible that McDonald’s could be thinking of coming up with their own soft drinks line which can enable them to eliminate their partnership with Coca Cola. Africa remains mostly unexploited by the company, and this remains an area where the company could be looking to venture into at an increased rate.


Invest in new markets – Asia holds the key to future corporations, and therefore, McDonald’s should look into expanding extensively in this market. Africa is also a huge potential area that the company can expand into.

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Come up with a line of soft drinks – Starting a new line of soft drinks will enable the company to liberate itself from the deal it is in with Coca Cola. This will help the company have a new source of revenue as the drink can replace soda from Coca Cola in its restaurants. This can also grow and take a life of its own, where the company can release the product into the market.


In conclusion, the SWOT analysis of McDonald’s reveals that the company is in a strong position in the market currently.  The company enjoys enviable brand awareness globally, and this is essential to the company’s business. Competition from major companies like King Burger is a major threat that the company faces. However, considering the Asian and the African market remain largely unexploited by the company, this offers a huge opportunity for expansion.

Using HRM Metrics To Measure Success and Strategic Value of HRM Policies and Practices

Assignment Instructions

Many organizations apply metrics to measure the success and strategic value of their HRM policies and practices. Metrics not only give HR professionals the evidence of strategic value, they also act as the drivers of HR policies and practices. HR metrics are an essential tool for the design, implementation, evaluation, and revision of HRM strategies. In addition, HR metrics give HR professionals the necessary information to more effectively manage and deploy HR assets.

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There are many metrics organizations can use, so it is important to utilize the most appropriate metrics for the organization. For example, organizations have used economic and financial analysis to calculate the value of HR practices. The calculations are straightforward and provide the evidence of the extent to which HR practices are deployed toward specific strategic organizational objectives.

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Choose an organization with which you are familiar or have access to public information (e.g. BP, McDonald’s, or Starbucks). You will use this organization throughout the course in various assignments. When selecting an organization, think about how you—if asked to act as an HRM, would determine the most appropriate metrics for demonstrating success and strategic value. What might these metrics include?

For this week’s Assignment, in a 2- to 3-page paper:

  • Identify 3–5 metrics that your particular organization might consider in measuring the success of the organization’s HRM policies and practices.
  • Analyze each metric’s relevance in setting HR annual strategies, assessing HR success and contribution to the organization’s successful attainment of its organizational strategies.
  • Finally, discuss whether each of the HR metrics are equally important to the organization you have selected for increasing strategic value and why. If not, which metrics are the most critical? Be specific and provide examples to justify your response.

Threat of Corporal Punishment And Juvenile Delinquency

Do you feel that juvenile delinquency can effectively be curbed by the threat of corporal punishment? Why or why not?

In my opinion juvenile delinquency cannot be effectively curbed by the threat of corporal punishment. In most cases juvenile delinquency is propagated by violence. Most of delinquent youths come from violent families, families with strict and autocratic parenting styles, violent neighborhoods, or they have ever experienced abuse in their life. This means that violent has been the major contributor to the development of delinquency. It cannot therefore be used to address the problem it has caused. Majority of delinquent youths are already used to violent and hence corporal punishment would not scare them at all. On the contrary, a better ways of helping and guiding delinquent youths would play a better role in curbing delinquency effectively compared to the threat of corporal punishment.

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Do you feel that juvenile delinquency issues should be addressed by the threat of corporal punishment? Why or why not?

Juvenile delinquency is a sensitive issue that is deep rooted to social problems that include poverty, abuse, negligence, peer pressure poor parenting, drugs use, violence and serious psychological problems among other things (Hirschi, 2002). This means that juvenile delinquency issues should not be simply addressed by the threat to corporal punishment. Corporal punishment cannot in any way uproot the main cause of juvenile delinquency. In any case, physical suffering caused by corporal punishment may act as a fuel to more bitterness and aggression among those youths, making them more dangerous, vengeful and violent. Thus threat of corporal punishment may not play any positive role in handling juvenile delinquent issues. Although it may create fear to some, the fear can be easily surpassed by other forces pushing youths to delinquent behaviors. Moreover, the brain development of youths is not mature and may thus be prone to acting in impulse. This means that most of them will not get time to think of the threat and instead, their action will mostly be influenced by the circumstances at hard. Thus those threats may not bear any fruits in fighting juvenile delinquency issues.

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How would this punishment interact with the laws now with regard to child abuse? Explain.

Corporal punishment is a form of inflicting physical pain to a child without causing injuries as a punishment for what he or she has done. It is used for control or correction purpose. A child is hit in a single or multiple parts of the body using belts, canes, yardsticks, or paddles among others objects to cause fear and pain (Advocacy Committee, 2003). Corporal punishment should not be a form of child abuse, unless in a situation where it is injurious or in a situation where corporal punishment is said to impact social interaction, psychological and physical wellbeing of a child (Basssam, Marianne, Rabbaa & Gerbaka, 2018). Thus, whoever administering corporal punishment should do it in a measurable manner to avoid a situation where corporal punishment surpasses its intended purpose to result to abuse.

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Do you think corporal punishment would have a lasting adverse effect on the psyche of the child? Why or why not?

The effect of corporal punishment on a child can depend on a number of factors. One is whether the child understands its meaning and why he or she is being punished. In my opinion, in a situation where a child is beaten up without understanding why, the child is likely to take it negatively. When a child see the punishment as a form of abuse, discrimination and mistreatment, then it is likely to cause adverse effect on the psyche of the child. In addition, when corporal punishment is used frequently, it may hurt the child’s psyche. It is therefore important to moderate corporal punishment and to always make children understand why they are being punished. The beating should match an offense, by ensuring is not exaggerated to create different impression.

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Full Disclosure in Financial Reporting Assignment

Assignment Instructions

According to the textbook, the goal of financial reporting is to report financial information that is transparent and complete and truthfully report the financial performance of a company. Investors and other interested parties need to read and understand all aspects of financing reporting.

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Use the Internet to research Verizon Communications financial statements, annual report, notes to the financial statements, president’s letter, and management discussion and analysis from the most recent year in order to complete this assignment.

Write a five to six (5-6) page paper in which you:

  • Discuss the disclosure requirement on accounting policies, and identify at least two (2) examples of the most commonly required disclosure. Explain the key ways in which the examples you provided are useful to financial statement users. Analyze Verizon Communications’ disclosure on accounting policies, and give your opinion on whether or not the information is helpful for decision making. Provide a rationale for your response.
  • Explain the importance of the management discussion and analysis section of an annual report. Select three (3) items from Verizon’s management and discussion analysis of the annual report that could be useful to potential investors. Provide three (3) specific examples of how the three (3) items you selected could influence a potential investor’s decision to invest in Verizon.

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  • Describe segmented information, and explain the way in which companies determine segments. Identify at least three (3) advantages and three (3) disadvantages of segmented financial data. Give your opinion on whether or not the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. Outline the manner in which Verizon segments its financial data. Suggest key actions that Verizon’s management can take in order to improve the company’s segmented financial data. Provide a rationale for your response.
  • Analyze the various types of auditors reports, and determine the impact that the auditors report has on a companys ability to obtain financing from a bank. Identify the type of auditors report issued on Verizon and speculate the way you believe banks will perceive Verizons auditors report.
  • Use the Strayer Library to locate at least two (2) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and other websites do not qualify as academic resources.

Review of a current Scholarly Article on Current Healthcare Legislations and its Possible Effects on Healthcare System

Article Review Instructions

You are required to submit a 1–2-page review of a current scholarly article on the current healthcare legislations and its possible effects on the healthcare system. Please try to locate political neutral articles. You will utilize the Article Review Form provided in the Assignment Instruction folder. Article reviews will include the following elements:

  • Author’s proposed purpose/goal of the Article Provide a brief overview of the article, its intended audience, and its purpose.
  • Analysis of Key Issues – Analyze the article’s key issues discussing their strengths and weaknesses, providing evidence to support your opinions.
  • Conclusions/Findings/Assumption – Discuss the author’s conclusions, findings or assumption as they relate to the current healthcare discussion. Also identify any social or political position the author is promoting.
  • Personal assessment and reflection – Provide several assessments of how the article can be used in support or rejection of current healthcare policy and clearly relates them to biblical principles.

Format the reviews and all references/citations used in your review in APA or AMA style and see the Article Review Grading Rubric for the specific grading criteria.

The US Affordable Care Act: Reflections and directions at the close of a decade by McIntyre and Song (2019) – Article Review

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), popularly known as Obamacare, was enacted by Congress in 2010 and signed into law by President Obama in the same year. The act is a federal law that sets out the policy framework and regulations for the functioning of the healthcare sector in the country. Many scholars have written extensively on the successes of the implementation of the act, as well as the challenges faced in its execution. This paper reviews the article, “The US Affordable Care Act: Reflections and directions at the close of a decade” by McIntyre and Song (2019).

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The goal of the authors was to highlight the successes that the act has enjoyed in its first decade. The article also highlights, in details, the challenges, and the difficulties that the law has faced. The authors write that the act has led to an increase in the uptake of insurance cover. Many Americans have been able to access insurance cover because the law removed many hindrances (Hu et al., 2016). The article also highlights the fact that the act made it possible for people with preexisting conditions to obtain insurance cover. One of the main challenges that the article puts forward is the fact that the courts rolled back the federal mandate on Medicaid, and put this mandate on individual states. This limited the rate at which Medicaid could expand (McIntyre & Song, 2019).

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One of the key issues that the authors touch on is on the expansion of insurance coverage since the enactment of the legislation. Most private insurances were very affordable to most Americans, and this greatly aided in the expansion of insurance services across the country (Dresden et al., 2017). The aspect of individual mandate is another factor that pushed many to take up insurance as they feared facing penalties. Another critical issue that the article covers is on the fact that the removal of funding for cost-sharing has increased the cost of insurance in the recent past. 

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The authors find that the act has a strong backing in the general public, and is therefore set to enjoy the dominance in dictating health policy in the country. Though the act faced challenges in the first two years of the Trump administration, the new congress that is dominated by democrats means that the legislation is safe going into the future. The authors also establish that most states have been able to create arrangements and bills that have been able to increase funding for cost-sharing reductions. This has led to the stabilization of insurance prices and continued increment in the number of Americans enrolling in insurance schemes. The authors do not appear to be leaning on any political side, and are in favor of bipartisan deliberation by the congress in order to stabilize the legislation even further.

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Personal Assessment and Reflection From my own research, it is clear that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act has been of central significance to the improvement of healthcare in the country. An increase in the number of people that have healthcare insurance cover is an essential element that indicates that many people are secured in case of medical emergencies (Hu et al., 2016). I think this is an essential indicator that shows the health of a country. There is a direct correlation between a healthy population and its economic growth. An assurance of quality health ensures that people can focus on working and improving the economy.

ENGL 103 Formal Proposal

Formal Proposal Instructions

You are the chief operating officer (COO) of Training World, Inc., an international workplace training organization, located at 9476 Henderson Highway in Charlotte, North Carolina 28213.  With over 200 full-time and part-time employees, your company handles training and development in in the health care field.

You have spoken with Ms. Jocelyn Hightower, director of Human Resources at Central Dallas Medical Center (CDMC) at 14763 Main Street in Dallas, Texas 75208, about a three-day training program for all employees at that medical facility. 

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Choose a topic with which you are most familiar that would be appropriate for the employees of CDMC and submit a 7-8 page formal proposal addressing the training you could offer, the purpose and benefits of that training, and the cost for the three-day training that you propose. 

Your proposal must include the following elements:

  • Title page
  • Executive summary
  • Table of Contents
  • Introduction
  • Headings throughout your proposal
  • Conclusion
  • References

Proposal for a Training on Hospital Acquired Infections – Sample ENGL 103 Formal Proposal


The primary purpose of a private healthcare institution is to provide quality healthcare services and to make profits while at it. Quality healthcare involves the provision of the best available diagnosis, medication, and follow-up. The cost is also a huge part of quality as costs impact heavily on the lives of patients. The hospital should also be able to prevent the transmission of infections to patients in the healthcare center. If patients are made to stay longer in the hospital due to infections that are acquired in the hospital, they are bound to give the institution a negative rating which could negatively impact on the reputation of the institution. This could significantly affect the hospital’s brand and lead to losses in the long-term as people would lack trust in the institution’s ability to provide them with quality care.

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Going by the fact that most of the hospital-acquired infections arise from poor handling by healthcare professionals, our company intends to provide quality training on how these infections can be minimized. The training provided by our company will help to reduce the number of this kind of infections in your institution. Our training will equip your employees with the necessary skills and knowledge of how to reduce the transmission of hospital-acquired infections in your facility. This will have a significant impact on the quality of your services, as well as play a part in assuring your facility of a sustainable and profitable future.


Hospital Acquired Infections are infections that patients acquire while in hospital. These are infections that the patients did not come with to the hospital. They are also known as healthcare-associated infections or nosocomial infections. They are infections that are not present or incubating at the time of the admission of the patient in the hospital. There are factors that increase a patient’s risk of contracting these infections. These risk factors include patient’s weakened immune status, prolonged hospital stays, the prevalence of infective agents in the community and the hospital, invasive procedures, use of indwelling devices such as catheters and valves, multiple underlying illnesses and old age (Cornejo-Juárez et al., 2015). Some of the leading hospital-acquired infections include urinary tract infections, hospital-acquired pneumonia, surgical site infections, gastrointestinal infections, and central line infections (primary bloodstream infections) (Khan, Baig & Mehboob, 2017). These infections have been blamed for prolonging patients’ hospital stays, as well as increasing mortality and morbidity. Lack of observation of proper hygiene by healthcare professionals that attend to patients on a regular basis is the leading cause of the transmission of these infections.

Factors that Increase the Risk of Nosocomial Infections

Use of catheters has been implicated as one of the main factors that increase the risk of hospital-acquired infections. It is apparent that it is impossible to avoid the use of catheters in the hospital setup. Many patients present in the hospital with such issues as urinary retention, especially old patients, and this requires drainage by use of catheters. Other patients with fluids in such areas as the chest may require insertion of drainage catheters. The administration of fluids through the blood vessels also necessitates the use of catheters. The main ways through which catheters predispose to infection include: when they are inserted to an area without disinfection of the external skin surface, the catheters coming into contact with infected material before being inserted into the body, as well as prolonged use of catheters among others.

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Surgery is another major cause of acquisition of nosocomial infections. This can happen when surgeries are not done in totally aseptic conditions. Surgery is an important issue because it leads to penetration of inner parts of the body, and, therefore, makes it easy for direct infection to occur. Post-operative wound infections normally occur from the first day going onwards. However, it normally happens between the sixth and the tenth day after surgery. Infections are the the most common complications that occur after surgery and should, therefore, be addressed as they lower health outcomes for those that undergo surgeries.

Considering that injections are very common in the hospital setup, they also play a big part in the transmission of nosocomial infections. Injections are used for such purposes as the drawing of blood for examination, administration of medications and fluids, fine needle aspiration of tissue for cytology, and the drawing of fluids that have accumulated in any given area of the body. Injections predispose to infections in many ways. Some of these include: reusing of needles, infection of the needles when they come into contact with dirty surfaces, lack of disinfection of skin surfaces before injections, and the injected surface coming into contact with infectious agents in hospital beddings.

Lack of thorough cleaning of the healthcare setup also increases the risk of infections. Such areas as the injection rooms, venipuncture rooms, catheterization area, and the admission wards require regular cleaning as they are used by many patients who may be harboring different kinds of infectious agents. Some chronic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa may persist in a given area for a long time and infect many people. Regular cleaning and disinfection ensure a reduction in microorganisms as well as the elimination of many of them. This helps to reduce the number of infections acquired by patients in the hospital setup.

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Transmission of infections from healthcare professionals to patients is also widespread in the healthcare setup. When healthcare professionals like nurses and doctors are suffering from such illnesses as cholera, flu, hepatitis B, and staphylococcal infections, among others. It is easy for them to transmit these infections to patients. This is because these infections are highly infectious and thus pass from one person to another easily. Lack of proper measures to curb these kinds of transmissions increases the risk of patients acquiring them.

Common Nosocomial Infections

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common infections that are acquired by patients in the healthcare setup. Urinary tract infections are responsible for up to 40 percent of hospital-acquired infections. Hospital-acquired urinary tract infections are commonly associated with the use of urinary catheters in the hospital. Most hospitalized and bed-ridden patients require the use of urinary catheters and can therefore not avoid its use. This predisposes them to high risk of urinary tract infections as the catheter go deep into the bladder. The most commonly implicated organism in this category is the Escherichia coli bacteria.

Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is the second leading infection in the realm of nosocomial infections. Hospital-acquired pneumonia develops 48 to 72 hours after the admission of a patient to a hospital for a different health complaint. The patients with this kind of pneumonia present with difficulty in breathing, coughing up of purulent sputum, and chest pains, among others. Hospital-acquired pneumonia has been blamed for extending a patient’s hospital stay for up to two weeks, leading to an increase in the patient’s hospital costs. This infection also increases the costs of running a healthcare institution and overstretches its resources.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is another major challenge as far as nosocomial infections are concerned. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections are responsible for almost half of all deaths that result from infections with antibiotic-resistant microbes. Resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus are very prevalent in hospital setups and are a significant cause of concern for healthcare institutions. These infections are commonly found in patients who have recently had surgery or those with open wounds that are still under management. Infection with this organism complicates treatment and prolongs stay in hospital.

Hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection is also another major issue that confronts healthcare setups. The infection is commonly implicated in patients who have had a prolonged stay in hospital. Infection with Clostridium difficile is widespread and affects patients of different characteristics (Leffler & Lamont, 2015). However, it mainly affects pediatrics and could hinder the normal progression of growth. The infection is associated with the use of certain antibiotics for prolonged periods. Based on this, it is the leading cause of antibiotics-associated vomiting and diarrhea in hospitalized patients.

Surgical site infections and central line bloodstream infections are also prominent hospital-acquired infections. Surgical site infections in the hospital setup occur following the carrying out of surgery in septic conditions, which leads to the introduction of infectious agents into the surgical wound.  Poor handling of wounds after surgery by healthcare providers also increases the risk of introduction of microorganisms. Injections introduce central line bloodstream infections into veins. This happens during such procedures as the administration of medications or drawing of blood for laboratory tests.

Content of the Training Course

The following outline provides the content that will be covered under each area:

  • Reducing Catheter-related nosocomial infections
    • Proper handling of catheters
    • Disinfection of catheters before insertion
    • Duration of catheters in the body
    • The catheterization area
  • Reducing Surgery-related nosocomial infections
    • Proper handling of the skin surface on surgery area
    • Surgery-related hygiene techniques
    • Patient-centered education on surgical site infections
    • Regular handling of surgical sites
  • Reduction of Healthcare setup infections
    • Hygiene in the healthcare setup
    • General disinfection
    • Surgical theatre hygiene management
  • Reducing injection-related nosocomial infections
    • Handling of injection sites
    • Proper syringe and needle usage
  • Reducing health care workers to patient infections
    • Institutional handling of ill workers
    • How healthcare workers can minimize transmission of infections to patients

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Proposed Training Schedule

Training Aspect Date and Time Trainers
Reducing Catheter-related nosocomial infections   July 1, 2019 – Morning Dr. Brooks and Dr Reddington
Reducing Surgery-related nosocomial infections   July 1, 2019 – Afternoon Dr. Jana and Dr. Anita
Reduction of Healthcare setup-related infections   July 2, 2019 – Morning Dr. Hussein and Dr. Kenya
Reducing injection-related nosocomial infections   July 2, 2019 – Afternoon Dr. Taarabt and Dr. Nasibu
Reducing health care workers to patient infections   July 3, 2019 – Morning Dr. Stevens and Dr. Darwin
Review of all of the above topics July 3, 2019 – Afternoon All the trainers


The cost of our three-day training program is very cost-effective and competitive. We hope that the prices that we provide will be desirable to you based on the assurance of quality that we offer. Our content is well-researched and up to date based on the latest research on the science and impact of hospital-acquired infections. The total cost of the three-day cost is US$ 50,000.

Benefits of the Training to your Facility

The training should be able to improve services in your facility and significantly impact the facility’s future.  Your workers will be equipped with invaluable skills and knowledge that they will apply at all times while in service. Reduction in nosocomial infections in your facility will help to reduce the length of hospital stays of your patients. This will make it possible to attend to many patients without overstretching of resources. The bigger picture is that this should be able to translate to higher profits and positive reviews for your facility. It is therefore apparent that this training is immensely necessary and holds great potential for Central Dallas Medical Center.

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In conclusion, it is evident that nosocomial infections are a serious challenge to the success of a medical institution. Based on the fact that your facility’s success is based on the provision of quality healthcare services, it is essential that minimization of these transmissions is prioritized. Training of healthcare workers is an essential step in this aspect. Through the provided schedule and cost, we hope that we can work together in this project to the benefit of both parties.

Nonprofits that Partnered with Africa to Reduce AIDS/HIV During the Second Bush Administration

Assignment Instructions

Conduct research on nonprofits that partnered with Africa to reduce AIDS/HIV during the second Bush administration. In 750-1,000 words, do the following:

  • Explain how the nonprofits filled the need.
  • Describe why nonprofits were able to fill the need when other entities were not able too.
  • Describe the intended and unintended consequences of these partnerships.
  • Use two to four scholarly resources to support explanation.

President Bush’s initiative on fighting the HIV/AIDS In Africa

For many years, HIV/AIDS affected many people in the world. The disease has been a cause of public health concern for many years. As much as the developed countries mounted rigorous campaigns that focused on the prevention and management of HIV/AIDS, many less developed countries lagged. Many countries in Africa are known to have remained behind in the fight against the disease. This led to the spread of the disease in most of these countries, and especially in countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. President George Bush made it one of his main agendas to initiate programs aimed at containing and controlling the disease in the continent. This paper elaborates on the role that George Bush’s initiative played in this regard, as well as the role of non-profits in fighting HIV/AIDS in the continent.

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At the center of the addressing of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa was the lack of adequate funds to support essential programs. Many countries in the continent have long initiated programs directed at fighting the disease. However, the lack of sufficient resources has always frustrated the programs. George Bush’s program; President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, was a significant initiative created to combat HIV in Africa (Gray, 2017). This initiative worked in partnership with many non-profits that were interested in the same mission and vision. Most of the non-profits organizations that took and continue to take part in the fight against the disease in Africa have taken it upon themselves to ensure that they are well funded. Such foundations as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation focused on investing in preventive measures and public education on the same (Duncombe et al., 2015).

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This was enabled by the foundation’s ability to mobilize funds from the founders’ businesses as well as partners. Other organizations like The Elton John AIDS Foundation and the Global Fund are non-profits that have contributed significantly to the fight of the epidemic in Africa. The two organizations directly funded government projects as well as running independent programs that support preventive as well as HIV/AIDS management measures. In the area of filling the need for research and dissemination of information focused on HIV/AIDS, UC San Diego’s Center for AIDS Research has made huge steps in researching on the subject and assisting governments in public education.

Read also A Comparison Of HIV-AIDS Prevalence In USA, Haiti And Rwanda

Non-profits employed many strategies that made them more successful than other players in the fight against the HIV epidemic in Africa. One of the main strategies was the employment of measures aimed at specific elements of the epidemic. This includes focusing on the prevention of mother to child transmission, and the provision of sex education to vulnerable groups such as commercial sex workers and the youth. This focus on specific areas allowed the concerned non-profits to concentrate on those particular areas fully and therefore led to significant success overall. One of the non-profits that used this strategy is the Melinda and Bill Gates Foundation, which focused on the prevention of mother to child transmission. The non-profits also exhibited a high level of organization and planning, and this counted a lot in the success of their initiatives. Organizational capacity is an essential element in the running of any particular effort as it allows proper designing and implementation of objectives (Fowler, 2016). Another aspect that made non-profits to be successful was their ability to mobilize adequate funds to finance their projects. This was backed by exceptional management skills that allowed them to allocate funds to areas that would have maximum impact. All these factors came together to give non-profits an advantage of other bodies that attempted to play a part in the fight against the epidemic.

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A few significant unintended consequences arose from the partnerships of President Bush’s initiative with non-profits. One of the main ones is the perception that the initiative worked with organizations that were motivated by moral rather than health agenda. Such issues surrounded the fact that the organizations funded by the government’s initiative were made to pledge that they would promote measures that take the stand of abstinence-until-marriage. Another negative consequence that arose from the partnership was the fact that there existed substantial pay disparities between those employed by the programs in comparison with the salaries afforded to the same level of employees in their local countries (Agyemang et al., 2017). This was seen as not sustainable as they were not at par with local economies and therefore did not support local healthcare systems.

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In conclusion, it is clear that President Bush’s initiative on fighting the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa had considerable success. This was made so by its ability to work with independent non-profit organizations that had similar targets maximally. These non-profits had various advantages that made them well-suited to play a central role in fighting the epidemic. These include their ability to mobilize funds; they possess significant organizational capacity, as well as the ability to focus on specific aspects of the epidemic for maximum impact. However, there were a few unintended consequences that came out of the partnerships. For example, the requirement that non-profits follow specific codes was seen as the Bush initiative administering loyalty oath to them.

Differences Between Research and Evidence-Based Practice

Prompt : Using supporting documentation from at least one (1) nursing publication, describe how evidence-based practice is different from research. How would you identify a research project as being an evidence-based intervention project versus the creation of knowledge in a nursing research project?

How Evidence-based Practice is Different from Research

Research and evidenced-based practice play an integral role in the field of healthcare. Their primary purpose is to ensure that the best knowledge that is available is put into practice for the benefit of patients. Due to the fast evolution of methods and solutions in the provision of healthcare, it is always necessary for new researches to be carried out to come up with alternatives to a given care model, as well as coming up with new ways of approaching a health problem. A great number of researches in a given topic make it essential to have an evidence-based practice that evaluates the available solutions. This paper elaborates on the differences between research and evidence-based practice.

Read also Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) Summary

Research is carried out to evaluate an existing hypothesis or to provide new knowledge on a given topic (Conner, 2014). Research uses either qualitative or quantitative methods to investigate a parameter that is thought to have a certain impact. Through this objective approach, research can establish credible findings that can be used for reliable decision-making. Evidence-based practice, on the other hand, employs the art of analyzing the existing evidence on a given topic to make informed decisions on the care of patients (Conner, 2014). EBP also takes into account the preferences of patients in deciding how to care for them.

Read also Characteristics of Qualitative Research Studies and When it is Appropriate or Not

Research focusing on knowledge creation can be easily identified based on the methodology applied. Those projects focusing on specific questions on a subject are research projects. Those projects that focus on the comparison of various evidenced-based solutions and their application are evidence-based intervention projects. Another integral aspect found in EBP is the critical appraisal of research projects to establish their credibility (Conner, 2014).

In conclusion, research projects and evidence-based practices are essential factors in healthcare. While research projects focus on the creation of new knowledge, EBP concentrates on the analysis of available evidence to arrive at the best practice that can be used in patient care. These are essential factors, and each occupies a unique position in the realm of healthcare.

Role of Physical Activity in Management of Diabetes – Initial Steps for an Evidence-Based Project


Diabetes is one of the most significant health problems that affect the general population.  This project focuses on establishing the impact that physical activity has on the prevention and management of diabetes. A greater understanding of the relationship that exists between exercise and diabetes can help improve how diabetes is managed.

Overview of the Problem

Diabetes is a significant health problem due to its chronic tendency and difficulty to manage. The prevention of diabetes plays an important in the management of the condition worldwide. However, considering that there has been an increase in the number of people diagnosed with the health condition, it is important to explore alternative means of prevention and management of d. Physical activity has been shown to play an essential element in the management of this condition and thus forms the basis of this paper.

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Purpose Statement

The purpose of this paper is to establish the link between exercise and diabetes. This is significant in shedding more light on how best the condition can be prevented, especially for those in high risk of developing diabetes. The second significance is in establishing whether exercise can be effectively employed in the management of diabetes. 

Background and Significance

There has been an increase in the number of people who have diabetes. Lifestyle changes have been a significant contributor to this fact. One of the considerable factors in lifestyle has been diet and physical activity. A big part of management has been on nutrition and medication aimed at either preventing or managing acute symptoms and complication. Exercise has been shown to have a high potential in contributing to a better outcome in the management of the condition. Because increased activity improves the utilization of glucose, it has a huge potential in contributing to the management of diabetes.

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PICOt Clinical Question

To be able to carry out impactful research on a given topic, it is of considerable significance to develop a relevant question that correctly captures the aims and the objectives of the study. This helps to guide a researcher in its mission to establish credible findings that can be adequately applied to develop a solution. The PICOt structure is an essential element that is widely used in the formulation of a relevant clinical question while researching a given subject.

Read also Searchable Question In PICOT Format – Sample Paper

The PICOt question for this paper is: Does increased physical activity improve health outcomes in patients who have diabetes type 2? The following table illustrates the breakdown of this question into various parts of the PICOt.

PICOt element    Part of the Question
P= Population    Patients with diabetes type 2
I= Intervention    Increased physical activity
C= Comparison    Those leading sedentary lifestyles
O= Outcome    Improved management of diabetes
t= Time    Not applicable in this question

The population of the study must be captured in the question when it is of interest to the researcher. In this case, the population of interest is the patients that are suffering from diabetes type 2. In some instances, the population is not indicated, especially when the intervention under study is expected to apply to a wide range of the population. An intervention is defined as the element that is introduced and its effectiveness is to be tested. It is included in all questions where the intervention is the principal element under study. It is what is expected to give an outcome that can be compared with previously used interventions. Time is an essential element when a given study is to be restricted. However, there is no need for time restriction in this study, and, therefore, the aspect of time is not included.

Literature Review

A literature review is an essential element in any research project, and especially one that seeks to establish and highlight the existing knowledge regarding a given topic of interest. For this evidence-based project paper, a search was conducted on Google Scholar, PubMed, NCBI, and PsychINFO. These resources were used because they contain peer-reviewed and scholarly articles and research materials that are essential in forming the basis for sound evidence-based project paper. The terms and phrases used in the search process include: “diabetes type 2”, “role of exercise in diabetes”, “how exercise affect insulin function”, and “impact of exercise on health outcomes diabetics”. From the extensive search process, the following research studies were found to be most relevant for this paper.

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Way et al. (2016) assess the effect that regular exercise has on a patient’s body tissues sensitivity to insulin. The study focused on randomized controlled trials that demonstrated that exercise played a big part in the control of type 2 diabetes. The authors explained that when established exercise regimes were stopped, the patients’ diabetes control went down. The authors conclude that this clearly shows the link between exercise and control of diabetes.

According to Colbert et al. (2017), physical activity has a central role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. The study establishes that regular physical activity is needed if the patient is to realize any meaningful outcomes. Participation in daily physical activities helps the body’s tissues to utilize glucose better. In the process, responsiveness to insulin is scaled up, and this is found to be necessary for long-term management of diabetes. Kharroubi and Darwish (2015) establish the standard regulatory mechanisms employed by the body in the usage of glucose and the control of the excess levels. Although the authors focus on the distribution and the epidemiology of the condition in terms of different regions across the world, the link between exercise and diabetes is made. The authors establish the areas where people are more sedentary face poor outcomes as regards diabetes.

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Resistance training has a significant impact on how muscles work and utilize energy (Pesta et al., 2017). The skeletal muscles are the one that takes part in the usage of the majority of the glucose that gets into the body for energy production. The researchers found that resistance training increased the use of glucose by muscles, and therefore, led to improved diabetes management. Increased physical activity improves the sensitivity of the tissues to the effects of insulin (Bird & Hawley). The writers expound that insulin acts to reduce the amount of circulating glucose by either increasing its usage by body tissues or converting the excess into storage forms. Physical activity is shown in this study to improve the management of diabetes type 2.

Critical Appraisal

The research study by Pesta et al. (2017) focuses on the role of resistance training on management of diabetes type 2. The evidence provided is reliable as it directly studies a group of people who have diabetes and how their participation in endurance training helps them manage their diabetes. The research has the weakness of not having considered whether the same findings can be found in the general population. One gap in the study is that there is no way of establishing alternative means of taking part in resistance training for those with disabilities.

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The research by Way et al. (2016) is well structured and follows the correct order. The research takes the form of a literature review which focuses on analyzing existing studies on the topic. In selecting the proper research studies to review, the authors employ a very rigorous process in searching. The articles are derived from credible sources like PubMed. To increase the relevance, the materials reviewed are the most recent, which helps to capture the most updated information on the subject.

Colbert et al. (2017) focus on principles established by the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association. The research study focuses on highlighting the link between exercise and control of glucose levels in people with diabetes. The authors analyze the daily lives of those who have diabetes and finds that those who exercise daily have better control of diabetes. By doing this, the research establishes its relevance as there is the employment of follow-up of people in their daily lives.

Read also Health People 2020 Diabetes Objective

Kharroubi and Darwish (2015) is a research that looks at the global perspective of the distribution of diabetes among different population sets. The study is relevant to this paper’s subject as it focuses on the influence of sedentary lifestyle on the management of diabetes. There is also a focus on the effect of exercise on insulin function and control of glucose levels. By taking this approach, the study can credibly conclude that a sedentary lifestyle is linked to poor control of sugar levels and, therefore, leading to poor health outcomes, especially concerning diabetes. The apparent gap in this research by Kharroubi and Darwish (2015) is whether a sedentary lifestyle contributes to the development of diabetes.

Bird and Hawley (2017) is a credible research study that focuses on the analysis of the available knowledge on the topic. The researchers assembled a wide range of researches that focuses on the subject. Through this, the authors can conclude that exercise increases sensitivity to insulin, and therefore, improve the control of glucose in the body. The central gap in the research is the fact that there is no independent of the extent to which exercise on its own contributes to the management of diabetes without the addition of anti-diabetic drugs.

Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) Standard

Based on the knowledge established above, it is possible to develop a direction on how patients can be advised further on how to prevent or manage diabetes. The table below illustrates a model that can be applied:

Patient history    Recommendations
Patient has no diabetes, but has there is a history of diabetes in family Advise patient to undertake daily exercises and to be keen the kind of diet they take.
The patient is diagnosed with diabetes    Advise the patient to adhere to medications in addition to daily exercises.

Read also Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) Summary

The patient’s preferences in terms of the exercises that they might prefer should be considered. Some patients may prefer light exercises, in which case the healthcare professional should advise the patient to do them for a longer duration and more frequently to match the results that would have been achieved from rigorous exercises.


The discussion above provides many opportunities for learning and application in the management of patients with diabetes. Considering that diabetes is a chronic illness that requires long-term management, there is the need for a concerted effort to provide patients with a wide array of alternatives with which they can put to use in the management of diabetes. On research, it is clear from the works of literature reviewed above that many areas still need to be worked on. There is the need for research to be conducted on alternative ways of achieving the same resistance as that of resistance training, and especially for people with diabetes who are physically challenged and thus cannot engage fully in physical activities. There are also areas of this topic that can be used for educational purposes to improve literacy on the subject and management of diabetes. Medical professionals should be well informed of the significant contribution that exercise plays in improving the health outcomes of patients with diabetes. The general public should also be informed, frequently, of the importance of engaging in daily exercises to prevent developing diabetes. This is an essential tool for public health and can be conveyed in schools and public gatherings. In practice, it is clear that medical professionals need to seriously consider integrating the aspect of physical activity in the management of diabetic patients. It is a regular practice to rely on medications heavily. However, this paper has established that physical activity contributes to the increase of sensitivity to insulin by body tissues. This is important as it helps to increase the amount of glucose that is utilized by body tissues and therefore leads to improved control of blood sugar levels.