Defining Pornography Without Inhibiting Freedom of Expression?

How should we define pornography without inhibiting freedom of expression?

The first amendment protects freedom of speech and expression of the people of the United State. This is said to protect pornography which can be termed as a form of speech or expression. However, when critically evaluated, pornography is obscene and indecent material that can be used against women or to violate women, and to corrupt the moral values of a society. Pornographic materials are highly available especially virtually, where they are easily available. It is therefore considerably hard to define pornography without obstructing freedom of speech, particularly in the current level of technology advancement. Pornography is a form of speech used to injure and harm others since it can also be addictive (Sunstein, 1986). Explicit sexual expression is protected by the first amendment unless it is real and obscene. However, it is hard to create boundary on what is obscene since it varies based on individual level of conservativeness, traditional or religious values, and culture. What is obscene to one person may not be considered to be obscene to others. This makes it hard to define pornography without inhibiting freedom of expression. However, the aspect of real makes it clear that anything obscene which is presented virtually cannot be classified as pornography.

How do we enforce such a definition without enforcing censorship?

Censorship takes place when people impose their view on others. Based on the law, pornography refers to anything that is obscene. However, this definition can be ambiguous due to the variation in personal measures of obscene. However, for material to be regarded as pornography it must be real, meaning the judgment of obscene can be based on American culture. It is therefore possible to define pornography without enforcing censorship, since what is obscene based on American culture can easily identifiable to all

Preventing Back Injuries – Lifting a Box from a Tabletop And Placing It On The Floor

Imagine that you are leading a training event to help prevent back injuries, and you are teaching students the proper way to lift. Describe, in detail, your recommended steps for lifting a box from a tabletop and placing the box on the floor in a way that would not create any pain or ergonomics issue(s).

Back injuries can easily be caused by use of poor lifting techniques. It is therefore important to us the right lifting and down placing procedure to protect your back. To ensure that a load is lifted from a table and placed on the ground without causing back injuries, one must follow the right steps. The first step is planning the lift where one need to ensure that the path is clear, the load is not beyond what one can carry, and the calculation on the need to stop for a rest based on the distance the load is to be carried. The second step will involve load sizing up where one ensure that the load is balanced and stable. The load weight should then be tested by lifting the corner to ensure that it is not too much (Osha, 2007). The next step is base establishment which can be done using the foot or the table edges. In this case, the load is on the table and hence no need bend the knees slightly, with the heels placed off the ground. One is required to bring the load closer to the body, getting a good grip using the palms, with enough hold before. The leg strength should then be used to lift in a controlled, smooth manner. The stomach muscles need to be tight and shoulders and head in up position. The feet should be made to turn and not the waist line. Then one should walk to where the load is to be placed. The position made when lifting should be made again and the load placed down using the hands and legs strength to place it down on the ground (Osha, 2007).

Supply or Demand Change Led By Move of  Equilibrium States Due To World Events

ECO 561 Assignment Instructions –  Market Equilibration Process Paper

Equilibration is the process of moving between two equilibrium points as a result of some change in supply or demand. Understanding how market equilibrium is sought following such a change is essential for business managers. It is important to understand how economic principles, and specifically supply, demand, and their determents are a part of your everyday business decisions.

Write a paper, create a video, or create a PowerPoint presentation using a real world experience in a free market (not government regulated) to describe a change that occurred in supply or demand as a result of world events that led to the need for a move between two equilibrium states. Explain the process of how that movement occurred using behaviors of consumers and suppliers. Graph the movement between the two points as well.

Required Elements:

  • Include academic research to support your ideas
  • Consider the Law of demand and the determinants of demand
  • Consider the Law of supply and the determinants of supply
  • Describe Efficient markets theory
  • Explain Surplus and shortage
  • Deliver the content in no more than a 700-word paper, OR 7- to 10-slide Microsoft PowerPoint presentation, OR 2- to 3-minute video (Please choose one of these choices, not all three),
  • Use University of Phoenix Material: Appendix A to create graphs illustrating the movement between the two equilibrium points and include this in the body of the assignment.
  • Your assignment is consistent with APA guidelines.

Helping Employees Avoid Improper Bending

Describe how you would get employees to avoid improper bending to pick up items from the ground. Use the four Es: empowerment, encouragement, education, and enlightenment. 

Improper bending can be the main cause of back injury among workers. To prevent this, workers need to be trained on the best way of bending to ensure that they do not suffer from back injuries and constant backaches. This can be done using the four Es which include education, empowerment, enlightenment and encouragement. Education is the most important step to enhancing proper bending. In this case, the organization workers should be educated on the right bending posture to ensure equal distribution of body weight and proper protection of body muscles, nerves, tendons and bones. Workers should also be enlightened on the danger of careless bending. They should also be enlightened on the advantages of using the right bending techniques in protecting themselves from back injuries and controllable backaches. Enlightenment should be done in a manner that it encourages the workers to desire change and to fight towards achieving the needed change for personal benefits. Workers are also empowered by provision of enough knowledge regarding their health and why some accts are dangerous to their health. They can also be empowered by provision of rewards that are associated with their ability to implement the provided knowledge and information to enhance proper bending at all the time. Encouragement is also important in boosting the workers morale and interest in following the right bending procedures. Encouragement includes words that would make the workers to come out of their careless ways of doing things to life a healthy life. It should also focus on persuading workers on the importance of proper bending and ensuring that they are always healthy, of back free of injuries and pain

L5-S1 Vertebrae and How a Bulging Disc Might Affect the Spinal Nerve

Explain the relationship between the L5-S1 vertebrae and how a bulging disc might affect the spinal nerve. Be very specific by using anatomical terminology. What strategies could you recommend to avoid these types of injuries? 

Lumbar 5 and sacral 1 are the two nerves that are most usually pinched in the lower back. The nerve of L5 supplies the muscles nerves which raise the big toe and foot, and thus, impingement of this nerve might lead to muscles weakness. L5 numbness runs over the foot top. The S1 nerve impingement can lead to weakness with the muscles of the large gastronemius in the calf back, resulting to difficulty with pushing the foot. S1 nerve numbness runs on the outer part of the foot. The nerve root of S1 also supplies ankle jerk innervation, and a loss of this reflex demonstrates that S1 impingement, though it does not result to loss of function (DeWitt, 2013).

The most usual cause of pain which originates from the segment of L5-S1 lumbosacral includes disc herniation, degenerative disc disease, and isthmic spondylolisthesis. Disc herniation happens when the inner part leaks out and hints the proximate nerve root resulting to pain that radiate in the down leg and lower back.  If the L5-S1 disc is conceded, the L5-S1 disc can result to leg or lower back pain. Moreover, a small facet joints fracture can permit L5 vertebra to slip frontward over the S1 vertebra, imposing the nerve root and resulting to leg pain among other symptoms. Nevertheless, lumbar spine does not have spinal cord and hence, even the most painful situations are not probable to cause permanent damage or paralysis (DeWitt, 2013). Some of the measures that one can employ to prevent these injuries include weight control, education on suitable body mechanism, regular physical exercises, and avoiding lifting and carrying heavy objects

How the US Government Has Influenced Marriage and Family with Time

Assignment Instructions – Worldview Analysis Essay

Write an essay  providing examples of how some facet of “process philosophy” has impacted American government and/or society. You may focus on just 1 example, or you may discuss 2–3 examples. Options include the following topics:

  • A specific piece of legislation.
  • The “party platform” of either the Republican Party or the Democratic Party (or both).
  • Family and marriage.
  • Economics.
  • Civil rights.
  • Education.

Sample Answer – How the US Government Has Influenced Marriage and Family with Time


Process philosophy refers to a prevailing ideology and perception which is presented by scholar of philosophy explaining a particular event in the society. Process philosophy is essential in all facades of life in elucidating issues behind incidences in the society. There are a number of process philosophy facades which have generated a great effect in the government of the United States and its society in general. Part of these process philosophy facades includes economics, education, civil rights, as well as family and marriage among others. This paper will be based on family and marriage. The paper will critically analyze how the US government has influenced marriage and family with time. The paper will also reflect on biblical view of marriage and the government contribution in its destruction or reinforcement. The paper will analyze family and marriage topic from the traditional perspective of family and marriage and how continuous changes in this institution has been influenced by the government and Christianity or religion at large.

Family and Marriage

The American mainstream culture is constantly changing to reflect the current chief values and belief systems, including what are frequently regarded unchallengeable social systems that include the family. Families are basically care institutions which change over time and differ across cultures. Their important historical function has been contributing to the basic family members’ economic survival. Therefore the families structure frequently adapts to the culture ideologies, economy and laws developed to strengthen that adaptation. According to (), societies grow overtime to become extra stratifies and complex, and the quality and nature of family life turns to be more differentiated based on changing economies and the specific family position in the economic system (Sagepub, n.d.). These changes can explain why the size of the American families has been reducing over time to an average of 3-4 persons in a house. The concern about extended family has also declined with more people paying more attention to their nuclear family, with less regard to the extended family.

The marriage and family process has changed in history on aspects concerning how it has influenced the American government. Initially, American population embraced cultural marriages which could vary from one sub-tribe to another. These marriages could include polygamy and polyandry among others. This was changed by the institution of Christianity Monogamy. Christian monogamy did not authorize divorce (Bergstrand& Sinski, 2010). Marriages were considered sanctified from heaven and only death could free a partner from the bondage. The situation of marriage and family was changed with 19th century enactment of Married women’s Property Acts that permitted married women to own their own properties. The Post war period also resulted to institution of more women into the professional world, making them contributors to the family economy. This has with time resulted to the formation of single-parent families. The ideology of marriage sanity has been neutralized by permission of divorce by the government even for the partners in Christian marriages, even due to irreconcilable differences. These partners can currently part through legal processed divorce and remarry to create blended families. One can also consider remaining single and raise the children (Bergstrand& Sinski, 2010).

The society has also experienced the growth of single by choice families where people who have never married get and raise children single handily. More changes in the institution of marriage and families have been seen with the enactment of same marriage Act or gay marriage that took place recently. This legal change permitted new families where same sex couples can adopt and raise a child. Family and marriage has been changing from time to time both from the social perspective and economic perspective. Today, most families comprised of two working parents and a nanny to take care of the children. Economic demands has pushed the changes in the role of a woman and a mother in the family to be more financial oriented than care oriented, though they still offer more care to the children compared to men (Thornton& Philipov, 2009). The change of women’s position in the society affected women’s marriage perception from submissive wives to feminists. These changes made women to focus more on their economic achievement creating need for family planning and abortion of unplanned pregnancy. This has advanced to development of mass of single parent families among other changes in the families and marriages in the US.

Liberty Counsel – Organizations Impacting Culture

Liberty Counsel  is a non-taxable organization that supports litigation associated to values of evangelical Christians. The organization mission is to restore culture by fighting for the advancement of religious freedom, the holiness of the family and human life (Liberty Counsel, 2018). The organization has its headquarters in Virginia, the District of Columbia and Florida. However, they have attorneys that practices in all courts across the United States. The attorneys offer help in cases which uphold their mission. The organization has been in forefront in fighting uncultured practices especially in marriages that have eventually been upheld by the law.

Liberty counsel has been highly involved in fighting against legalization of gay marriage, with their clear stand that this kind of marriage should not be allowed since it interfere with family religious and moral values (Liberty Counsel, 2004). The organization has been using its resources to uphold Christians’ value in families and in human life by vigorously fighting what they consider to polarize these values using the country’s legal system. The organization also offers support to any citizens who have a case related to such issues and wishes to stand for traditional cultural values that are well known to respect human life and to uphold the sanctity of family. The main organization strength is its strong network of attorneys across the country and their rich knowledge in the laws of the culture, as well as the traditional cultural values of the people of the United States. The organization is also rooted in religious value and hence it has great support from the people who believe in respecting religious value and honor traditional practices that defined a family and human life.

Pneumatic Impact Wrenches And Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs)

Pneumatic Impact Wrenches Ergonomics

Pneumatic impact wrenches is an electric powered hand tool that is commonly used in vehicle maintenance facility. This tool is likely to subject the user into a number of ergonomic hazards that include numbness, nerve issues, and musculosketal pain. Other hazards that are related to the pneumatic impact wrench include wrist and hand injuries, probable electrical injuries due to electrocution in case the tool is faulty,  and exposure to dust. Nevertheless, the most serious possible ergonomic hazard is the work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). To protect workers using pneumatic impact wrenches from WMSDs the ergonomics team should ensure that the wrench are ergonomically designed to assist in reducing injuries, fatigue and in enhancing the general tool efficiency. Some of the design aspect to check on includes handle length which should be long enough to enhance proper grip. The hand should not be smooth; it should have some curves or roughness to enhance the grip. The tool diameter should match the users hand size to ensure that one can grip the tool easily and comfortably with one hand. The tool should be light enough to be held by the hand for a length time period (Hytorc, 2017).

In addition to this, the ergonomics team should ensure that the pneumatic impact wrenches are in good working condition at all times to lower exposure time to vibrating surfaces. Workers using this tool should also be offered protective clothing that includes gloves to protect them from hand injuries. The team should also ensure that only workers well trained in handling this tool uses it. This will help in reducing preventable injuries due to improper use of the tool. The team should also define maximum working hours for individuals handling this tool. This will assist in limiting the time one is exposed to vibration per day, reducing health complications that can take place due to prolonged exposure to vibration (Stack, Ostrom& Wilhelmsen, 2016).

North Korea and the Sony Hack – Case Study Diagnosis, Prognosis, Prescription and Proscription

North Korea and the Sony Hack

The existence of valuable and confidential corporate information has always prompted hacking attempts by malicious and cunning individuals. Normally, when hackers intrude into a company’s information technology system, they are motivated by a multitude of reasons ranging from protest, profit, challenge, information gathering, recreation, challenge, to evaluation of system’s weaknesses. However, most hacking activities in the cyber-world are normally inspired by malicious or negative intent which spans from political to personal. Whether anarchy-themed security intrusions are performed by individual hackers or political groups, they always result in losses and compromise of crucial company or government data. The Sony hack is perhaps the most fitting example that showcases the pursuit of corporate information by ill-intentioned parties. The most recent is believed to be the Russian influence over the 2016 US presidential elections where Russia is said to have altered the vote outcome.


The theoretically-confirmed cyberattack on Sony Pictures Entertainment (SPE) by North Korean hackers in late 2014 remains one of the most significant cybersecurity infiltrations of the century. Soon after the death of Kim Jong II, North Korea’s power was transitioned to his son Kim Jon Un, who is said to be firmer in his rule than his predecessor. News outlets reported that Kim Jon Un’sgovernment-appointed hackers to, one way or another, threaten the western world and show that it was indeed to be reckoned with. Hence, the assumption is the hack on SPE was politically motivated and was aimed at interfering with the release of the film “The Interview,” a parody plot that featured the assassination of the North Korean Leader.

While one may think that a leader would invite the idea of such a fictional portrayal of themselves in a film, and a humorous interpretation for that matter, it is alleged that North Korea perceived it differently as a terrorist attack. In response, the North Korean government plotted a cyber-attack on SPE to destroy the movie and showcase its might. The result of the attack was the leakage of confidential data, including corporate financial and personal information comprising of emails and social security numbers.What supervened was a joint investigation by the National Security Agency, Federal Bureau of Investigations, and other unnamed organizations in an attempt to verify the culprits.In the course of the investigation, the investigating parties scanned through methods that had been executed in past attacks as well as the network signatures employed by other notorious hackers. Finally, the joint group confirmed that the signatures and techniques had originated from North Korea.


Given the scenario, one cannot be sure whether the outcome would have been altered by any influences. There are many probabilities that could have led to the occurrence of an attack of the same magnitude. In fact, the number of possible motivations is numerous. The current political status of the North Korean nation and its relationship with the rest of the world remains unstable. However, the involvement of the country’s government in cyber-attacks cannot be confirmed entirely. Even so, there are many strategies that companies and governments can implement in order to collect more information about such events in future. Technological innovations have boosted computing power immensely,and there is a need to utilize them effectively especially when it comes to cybersecurity.  In particular, they should be used in monitoring information channels on both political and cyber fronts to guarantee the safety and security of vital information. Technology can also be embraced in the improvement of communication between the US and North Korea. It is important to remark that technology alone cannot protect a system against cyber-attacks. It needs to proper management and regular updating in order to fall in line with current standards.


SEP should continue with its normal operations of making and producing movies. Nevertheless, it should install proper and more stringent security mechanisms to avoid similar events in future. With regard to handling the North Korean dilemma, the US should ensure that its critical infrastructure, agencies, companies, and people are safe from data breaches by facilitating the creation of superior security standards and protocols. In general, SEP should proceed with caution in its future ventures, especially the ones that rely onare related to the cyber world. One of the most recommendable measures is continuous monitoring of traffic.


The prevention of successful cyber-attacks can only be executed by implementing and maintaining systems for monitoring, identifying, tracking, and localizing perpetrators. Therefore, the US along with corporate systems should invest in security measures. The US government should particularly seek resolutions to the feud with North Korea via diplomatic means. Once the hackers are identified, they should face punishment according to international law, such as through monetary policies and sanctions in case the government is involved. The final solution should be peaceful, stringent, and indefatigable with regard to the political arena. Personally, I believe the right solution should be to upgrade the current system beyond standards that hackers can infiltrate as well as seek solutions politically with North Korea. Priority should be given to peaceful means.

Potential Solutions For Back Pains Arising From Working At A Workstation

Describe one or more potential solutions for an employee who is experiencing the onset of back pain after working at his or her workstation that primarily requires the employee to work in a seated position.

Possible causes of back pain for an employee who works in a seated position are poor posture and/or poor ergonomic design. Awkward postures can increase strain on the back muscles and bend the spine in a manner that puts strain on the disks. Therefore, the first potential solution would be for the employee to sit in a proper posture(Doyle, 2018). Their hips should be either equal or slightly higher than their knees, and should be pushed backwards so that the back rests on the backrest of the chair. Tense sitting positions in which the employee leaves their back unsupported only puts prolonged tension on the muscles. Additionally, the employeeshould avoid the crossed legs position and prolonged sitting(Guarino, 2010, p.59).

The other potential solution is designing the employee’s office in accordance with standard office ergonomics. This includes adjusting distances and positions of the eyes-to-the monitor or source, the input devices such as mouse and keyboard, body-to-chair, and feet-to-floor(Al-Otaibi, 2015). The configuration of the chair is particularly important as it affects the posture of the user. Hence, an adjustable chair would serve as a probable solution since it would allow the employee to fine-tune it according to their best sitting position. The desk can also be modified to suit the users, for instance, by including an adjustable keyboard tray that slides under the work surface(Chebykin, Bedny, & Karwowski, 2008, p.20). In general, all potential solutions would rely on the principles of good ergonomic workstation design.


Five Forces Analysis of the Craft Beer and the Beer Industry

Threat of New Entry

Beer market is experiencing emergency and growth of home brewer. These brewers have adopted the spectrum competition by packing their products in lower quantity at lower prices making them affordable to many. They also seem to diversify in terms of flavors and taste. If licensed, home brewers may become great threat to Craft Brew in the future (Qumer & Purkayastha, 2016).

Buyer Power

Beer buyers in the region are presented with variety of brands and brewers such that they have a wide spectrum to choose from. Buyers are also presented with both local and international beer packed in different volumes and at different prices. This gives them a wide spectrum to choose from and hence, increasing their bargaining power. The availability of home brewer who pack their beer into much smaller quantities increases customers bargaining power leaving Craft and other large brewers to depend only on customers that are brewers or brand loyal. Beer may also be associated with styles or seasons. This results to fluctuation of demand especially in seasonal based beer, making it hard to enhance good sales throughout. This may force seasonal production of some brands or reduction of prices of some brands to attract more customers during other seasons.

Supplier Power

Brewing companies depends on grains in brewing which is highly available directly from farmers or wholesalers. However, in a situation where a special grain is required, the brewer will need to search for the product which is considerably scarce. In this case, grain specified production increases suppliers bargaining power in the market. The increase in the number of brewing companies has also increase the demand of the brewing grains which result to increase in suppliers bargaining power. Craft Brew produce high-quality and unique beer meaning it requires specialized grains in its production and hence likely to be affected by the high supplier bargaining power. Brewing also requires some equipment needed in different parts of processing. Scarcity in some of these equipment such as aluminum cans of 16-oz increased the supplier bargaining power (Qumer & Purkayastha, 2016).

Threat from Substitute

Craft Brewer produces high-quality and unique products that are well known in its distribution region. This makes its product well distinguished in the market, reducing substitution threat. Craft is the only local brand that is able to focus on uniqueness in testing and quality. Thus, no local brand can manage to substitute it. Although foreign brands have tried being presented as Craft products, they have still not managed to substitute it. Customers may consider taking similar cheap beers in the market, however the quality produced by Craft is highly unmatched and thus, those loyal to the brewer will remain loyal.

Competitive Rivalry

Craft beer is experiencing stiff competition from large foreign companies that include SABMiller and AB InBev among other breweries in the market. Some of these international brands are offered at a lower price compared to Craft products.  The competition is so stiff such that the above named companies have tried posing some of their products as Craft brands to earn more market shares from locals who are brand or brewer loyal. Moreover, they are associated with a certain style which makes them preferred by some locals than locally produced products. The company is also experiencing competition from other local products though in a lower magnitude compared to big foreign companies (Qumer & Purkayastha, 2016).

Hand-Arm Vibrations (HAVS) And Their Long-Term Issues

Describe hand-arm vibrations (HAVS); what are the long-term issues an employee might have if vibration sources are not corrected?

Hand-arm vibrations (HAVS) are symptoms that arise from vibration damages in the arms, hands, and fingers as a result of operating vibrating machinery for prolonged periods. HAVS generally fall into three categories namely, musculoskeletal, vascular, and neurological disorders(Pitts et al., 2017). Musculoskeletal injuries can take the form of tendonitis, arthritis, and changes in muscle fibers. The long term effects are reduced mobility, impaired grip force, and pain. Vascular HAVs affect capillaries in the victim’s hands and fingers, which further results in blanching. Lastly, neurological injuries bring about tingling and numbness in the arms, hands, and fingers. Neurological damages can develop into irreversible injuries, causing prolonged limited dexterity and sensibility.

Security Director’s Professional Responsibilities in Today’s World And Need For Strong Working Relationships with Various Internal and External Entities

CCJS 345 – A Preparing for a Speech Before a Security Professional Organization


“Good morning to you all and welcome to the ASIS International Seminar. I am very delighted to address professionals involved in the “duty of care”. We are the people that organizations depend on to ensure protection of assets and offering solutions to various security problems. Our duty is becoming more and more important, especially in the current global world where organizational workers have to travel across borders to accomplish various duties and as they operate in work environment that are increasing hostile. Increased risk in the current global economy has introduced the new need into protecting the most valuable assets; workers, in our organizations. As security directors, we have important responsibilities in the current world which involves prevention of loss, administration, investigation, and managerial functions. We all face a lot of challenges while trying to accomplish these roles, and to be successful, every security director will need to have some critical skills that provide us with the ability to cope. We also need to develop strong working relation with different external and internal entities to be able to enhance shared responsibilities to accomplish the proactive mission. My today’s speech will basically address our roles, challenges, skills and other things we need to do to be able to accomplish our duties with high level of efficiency, especially in the current world where we have to think globally.

Current Operations and Challenges

We as security directors are currently experiencing a number of operational challenges in our work environment. Some of these challenges include cyber security, employee theft, property crime, workplace violence, unethical business, terrorism, and crisis management. Cyber security is one of the major issues that we are facing in today’s world. Our professional has for a long time been focused on physical security.  Even before we were able to completely manage its requirements, the need for virtual world security emerged, making out task considerably challenging, since most of us do not have the knowledge required to handle this (Dempsey, 2010).Other than that, we have been experiencing other security issues that include theft of company’s products, raw materials, tools and equipment among other things. Sometimes the ability to recover them becomes a challenge since some workers tend to hide them in places that one cannot just instruct for a search without invoking controversies and human rights laws in our operations. Property theft is also becoming a great challenge as we all know that an attack to the organization at any time involves gangs that come with more powerful weapons than what our officers may be having on the ground. This subjects some of them into serious injuries and sometimes causing their death.

Unethical businesses may also take place in our organizations, and to expose them one may need tangible evidence which may delay the process. This may not be easy, unless one has special investigation skills and ability to network and work with other people that are internally and externally connected with the organization. Terrorism is also becoming a serious issues to our organizations, especially those involve in retailing businesses. We all know that we have to be very careful and vigilant in protecting organization workers, customers and other properties from terrorism related attacks. We also need to be well prepared to handle crisis whenever they occur, or to identify their chances of occurrence and define the best mitigation measures to employ to maintain peace and order in our organization (Hess, 2008). Most of these duties are not easy. They may attract a lot of enemies and in most cases put our lives in danger. But we have to handle the situation and to remain in control on security related matters at all the times. To manage this we all need to have the required skills as well as personal developed tactics to address different situations. We need to be good in our investigation skills, we need to develop cybercrime investigation tactics, and we will also need to define who to establish a relation with to be able to create a network that permits effective collaboration in enhancing security in our organizations.

Professional responsibilities

As security directors we have a number of responsibilities that we must accomplish. Some of these responsibilities include loss prevention, managerial, administrative and investigation functions. As investigators, we need to be to demonstrate our knowledge and skills in the fields of management of case, collection of evidence, and presentation of these cases. To accomplish this, one may need to have the ability to work with other people in and outside the organization. One will also need to have special personal developed tactics that include people skills to be able to get all the needed evidence easily (Hess, 2008).

One must also show competency in all managerial aspects that constitute security management. Management responsibilities include deciding on the organization security protocol, enhancing the design of the organization surveillance, controlling all organizations security measures that include crisis identification and mitigation, and providing the required security tools and technology to security officers, their installation, and identifying the security officers needed to work in different area among other things.

Security directors need to have strong loss prevention responsibility. This is a responsibility that requires security directors to identify and define possible risks that can occur in an organization and define preventive mechanism or mitigation strategies. Risks subject an organization to various losses assets through theft, property destruction, or loss of workers. To do this security directors must be able to define feasible preventive measures that will ensure that the organization properties are safe and that workers can operate in a safe environment. The director should also be able to work with other professionals in the organization to define the best preventive measures for cybercrimes. Security directors also need to have administrative skills to be able to accomplish administrative roles. This include assigning security duties and supervising them, defining the security operation procedures, ensure effective management of security resources and equipment and ensure proper security record keeping among other duties (Dempsey, 2010).

Critical Skills

To be able to accomplish protection duties effectively, the security director needs to have a number of skills. One of these skills is the risk assessment skills. A security director needs to be able carry out threat surveys to be able to define a security system that addresses possible security risks that an organization can experience. Directors should also have design skills that will permit them to structure integrated security system which incorporate people, procedures, and equipment. Directors also need to have good management skills. Management skills include having good judgment of the situation, and making the right decision regarding the situation at the times. It also involves having good communication and people skills to be able to investing all possible information before making a decision (The Cccirccuit Magazine, 2018).

Relationship with Internal and External Entities

Security directors need to establish a strong internal and external relationship to meet security operational objectives. This is quite significant to security directors especially in gathering all possible information regarding the security of an organization. Having relation with internal entities permits the security director to have information of what is going on around and outside the organization that may impact the organization security details. It makes it easy to uncover unethical businesses especially those that involve sourcing products from the organization and selling them outside the organization. These internal and external entities act as the directors’ third eye or undercover personnel who report cases that could have been hard to be uncovered by known security officers. External entities such as the police officers can assist in investigation and in prosecuting the caught criminals. These entities can also include some chosen employees in the organization, while external. Others include security officers from other regions who can assist offering security information regarding their region or organization that may be useful in developing a strong security system or taking measures when trading with some groups of individuals in the region (Sennewald, 2003).


In conclusion, there are a few things we always need to remember as the security directors in our organization. We need to remember that we have the main role of protecting the organization assets. To accomplish this we need to accomplish other supportive roles that include investigation, management, administrative, and loss preventive roles. We also need critical skills that include research skills, investigative skills as well as management skills. We also need to have a well-established relationship with both internal and external entities to be able to enhance effective protection of the organization assets.   Relation with internal and external entities can assist in gathering security related information in and outside the organization, and also assist in ensuring criminals are caught and brought to books. If we do this effectively we can easily manage to enhance organization security despite of possible challenges. I hope that this information is useful to all us and I now invite anyone with a question or anything to add.”

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CCJS 345 – Introduction to Security Management – All Projects With Sample Answers

CCJS 345 Project 1: Role of Private Security

Project 1: Preparing for a Speech Before a Security Professional Organization

Scenario: You are the Corporate Security Director for XYZ and a recognized leader in the security profession. You accept an invitation to speak at the ASIS International Seminar and Exhibits about the various security operational and other challenges with which organizations are confronted in protecting assets and possible solutions. Because of your expertise, you are asked to discuss in detail a security director’s various professional responsibilities in today’s world, including loss prevention, investigation, administrative, and managerial functions and the critical skills required of a security director to fully succeed in accomplishing the protective mission. You are also asked to address the importance for a security director to develop strong working relationships with various internal and external entities and provide examples how these associations will promote a successful security operation.
Writing Assignment: After conducting the appropriate academic research using at least three different sources, write a speech that comprehensively addresses the following:

  • Provide a “welcome” statement and a strong introduction describing to the audience the purpose of your speech.
  • Identify and discuss the current operational and other challenges confronting security directors and possible solutions to those challenges.
  • Identify and discuss in detail a security director’s various professional responsibilities in today’s world, including loss prevention, investigation, administrative, and managerial functions.
  • Identify and discuss the critical skills required of a security director to fully succeed in protecting an organization’s assets.
  • Identify and discuss the significance in establishing strong internal and external relationships to meet security operational objectives and provide examples of the individuals and groups with whom partnerships must be forged.
  • Provide concluding remarks that summarize your presentation and close your speech with an invitation for the audience to participate in a question/answer discussion session.

Note: One or more of your research sources may include interviews with properly documented private sector security professionalsin a position to respond to the types of questions required to ascertain the information to write this speech. Students will identify these individuals and their titles to the course instructor one week before the project due date. Also, in organizing your written speech, you should consider using short sub-titles (e.g., Operational and Other Challenges and Solutions; Loss Prevention Role; Investigation Role; etc.) for distinct areas cited above so you do not inadvertently omit a project requirement.

View Security Director’s Professional Responsibilities in Today’s World And Need For Strong Working Relationships with Various Internal and External Entities sample paper or order a unique answer to this assignment at an affordable price.

Transportation – Health Services Utilization Determinant

Assignment Instructions – Health Care Utilization

Select and analyze 1 determinant of health within the concept of its impact to the U.S. health care system.

  • Describe the health care demand and supply as it relates to your chosen determinants.
  • What will be your recommendation on how to reduce or eliminate this determinant?


Transportation – A Determinant of Health and How it Impact U.S. Healthcare System – Sample Answer

There are various factors that determine the health of American people and hence influencing the healthcare system in a country. These factors include energy, transport, waste, food and agriculture, urbanization, and housing. The selected determinant of health that is believed to highly influence the U.S. healthcare system is transportation. Transportation has highly impacted the healthcare system of the U.S. people by causing accidents involving motor vehicles, pedestrians, and motorbikes. It also contributes in noise pollution, and air pollution especially from burning fossil fuels that include ozone and particulates and change of climate because of emission of carbon dioxide. This negatively affects the U.S. healthcare system by increasing the healthcare cost to those injured during accidents, those that acquire respiratory diseases such as lung diseases and asthma, due to air pollution (World Health Organization, n.d.).Different forms of transportation especially the use of vehicles promoted physical inactiveness, subjecting the population into health issues that include overweight. Transportation also promotes the spread of vector diseases, especially when an infected person travels to another region. This result to increase in healthcare cost related to the treatment of these individuals. In addition, accidents related deaths results to lose of revenue that the individuals contributed to the healthcare system in terms of taxation, reducing the amount invested in ensuring a healthy population.

On a positive side of view, transportation plays a great role in enhancing population access to healthcare services. The availability of easy modes of transportation ensures timely arrival of patients during emergency improving the healthcare system’s ability to save life and promoting general health. Some modes of transportation for instance bicycle riding and walking play a major role in promoting physical exercises, which is a key to good health.

Healthcare Demands and Supply Related to Transportation

The cases of fatal transport based accidents resulting to death and injuries of people in the US have been waving. The rate transportation based accidents has been increasing, which a clear indication that transportation has been increasing the demand of healthcare services associated to transportation injuries (Bureau of Transportation Statistic, 2016). This impacts the supply such that, more people demandhealthcare services offered by the same number of workforce, causing a strain in the provision of these services. This implies that the level of healthcare demand may go higher while the supply remains constant. This may impact the level of healthcare services provision efficiency in the country, especially in emergency departments that are involved in receiving accident related patients, and other emergency health cases such as asthma.

Recommendation on Reducing or Eliminating the Determinant

The health cost of transportation is mostly cost by increase in the number of accidents and related deaths and injuries. Thus, to eliminate this determinant it is important for the government to determine the main factors that contribute to their happening and measures that can be employed to reduce or completely eliminate avoidable accidents. I would recommend that the government to be stricter in implementing traffic rules such as drunken driving, and careless driving mostly among the teenagers. I would recommend the change of traffic rules to increase the eligible age for driving, so as to eliminate accidents caused by teenage careless driving. To reduce pollution, the population should consider using clean transportation modes that include bicycles or walking, which also promote health (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015).

Worldview and Nursing Process Personal Statement

Assignment Instructions

Being able to articulate your personal worldview can help you formulate a personal philosophy of practice and enhance your influence on patients and the industry. In this assignment, you will have an opportunity to reflect on your current and future practice, and the ways worldview and nursing theory influence that practice.

Draft a 1,000-1,250 word paper in which you:

  • Describe your personal worldview, including the religious, spiritual, and cultural elements that you think most influence your personal philosophy of practice and attitude towards patient care.
  • Choose a specific nursing theory that is most in line with your personal philosophy of practice and approach to patient care and discusses the similarities. Explain how the nursing theory reinforces your approach to care.
  • Include in your explanation a specific example of a past or current practice and how your worldview and the nursing theory could assist you in resolving this issue.
  • Finally, explain how your worldview and the nursing theory will assist you in further developing your future practice.

You are required to cite five to 10 sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

Ergonomics Hazard Assessment – Computer Workstation

Assignment Instructions – Ergonomics Hazard Assessment

Perform an ergonomics hazard assessment on a workstation of your choice. What are the potential stressors of that workstation? What are the potential ergonomic risks and hazards? What type of injury could they cause? Explain each hazard in detail.

Sample Answer – Computer Workstation Ergonomics Hazard Assessment

Potential Stressors

The selected workstation is a computer workstation. Potential stressors in a computer workstation include the seat, the table, lighting, and the surrounding environment. Computer workstations are normally characterized by long sitting hours, continuous wrist and fingers joints movement. Poor sitting position, seats and tables of inappropriate height or that so not match the users’ body can results to various health hazards including backache, neck stress, and wrists aches among other problems. Other environmental factors that include lighting and surrounding noise can also influence users’ vision and hearing ability (Oregon, n.d).

Ergonomic Hazards

Computer workstation involves a number of activities and routines that can subject the users to a various ergonomic related health hazards. Ergonomic illnesses and injuries are hard to diagnose and thus, they can cause extensive damage to the workers. Some of the ergonomic hazards presented in a computer workstation involve the sitting position. Sitting in a tall chair were the feet cannot rest flat on the ground, inability to sit with the thighs lying parallel to the ground or sitting with a small downward angle to the knees from the hips or with front seat pan edge presses into the knee back can cause backaches or swelling of the legs. Having a space between the back rest and spine and failure of the chair lumber to support the lumber spine curves are some of the postures which can subject workers in computer workstation to backaches and swelling of legs (IHSA, n.d.).

Another possible hazard is the wrist pain which can be caused by insufficient forearm support when using the mouse or the keyboard. One can also experience shoulder problems if armrest is too high or too low or even too wide. Keyboard or input device hazard are also common, mostly affecting the shoulders and the wrist. The wrist experience hazard during deviation when using input devices, when reaching to front or side using any input device, or when forearms are not parallel to the floor or by tensing shoulders during input device use or when wrist not flat. Too little or too much light can also be hazardous to the eyes of the computer work stations (Oregon, n.d). Monitor position can influence head and neck position and also the body asymmetry. This is likely to happen when the user is multitasking for instance using the phone and the computer at the same time. Noise caused by most desktop computers especially those working in a communal office can also cause heading or rigging ears. All these are possible hazard in a computer workstation (IHSA, n.d.).

Types of injuries and illnesses

Inadequate or slouching chair support might result to sore back. Improper seating position can also result to backache, neck ache and hands muscles pain due to inappropriate stretching of these muscles. Sore hand, shoulders, arms and wrist can also be initiated by improper sitting position. Other possible injuries include numbness in the feet and legs mostly for poor or restricted blood flow in the legs (NSC, 2003). The computer monitor might not be bright enough, too bright or incorrectly positioned. The reflection or glare on the monitor might be distracting unknowingly causing headaches and eyestrain. Individuals working in a computer workstation are subject to various shoulder, neck, legs and hands injuries mostly due to poor siting position, not having the right chair or table or failure to adjust the table and the chair to fit individual physical needs (Oregon, n.d).

Hand Tool Ergonomics – Handheld Barcode Reader – Description, Brief History And Improvement Suggestion

Discussion Prompt

Choose a hand tool that you are currently using in your workspace. Describe it, and present a brief history of its use. If possible, upload a picture of it as well. Then, make a suggestion as to how it might be improved. How would this improvement assist you?


Sample Answer – Hand Tool Ergonomics – Handheld Barcode Reader

Hand Tool Ergonomics - Handheld Barcode Reader
Hand Tool Ergonomics – Handheld Barcode Reader

The hand tool that I am currently using at the workplace is a handheld barcode reader. This is a point-of-sale scanner that is movable or handheld permitting the user to walk around scanning the price of the item at the item location rather than lifting the item to the scanner at the counter. The device uses a USB cable connected to the sale-point computer. The device has a well build handle that is easy to handle and to grip. It is also considerably light such that one can easily hold in with one hand for a long time period. It can scan items located up to 9 inches away and at least 5 to 9 feet away. The tool was purchased two years ago to replace fixed barcode scanner that needed the cashier to lift the item to the counter, causing wrist dislocation, back pain and other health issues. Although the tool was a perfect replacement of the fixed scanner, it still needs some improvements. The scanner handle is highly smooth making it hard to grip. I believe this could be better with some contours. I also feel that the tool has a large diameter permitting maximum torque. This diameter needs to be reduced slightly. The tool’s handle is also considerably short and thus it is likely to cause avoidable compression and the central part of the palm especially for individuals with a big hand. The length will need to be increased considerably.

Fourth and Fifth Amendments Concepts And The Use Digitally Acquired Information in Both Business Ethics and Criminal Cases

Discussion Prompt

Discuss the basic concepts behind the Fourth and Fifth Amendments and what relevance you believe they have to the use of digitally acquired information in both business ethics and criminal cases.Ethically, how much of such acquired information should be employed against the individual

Sample Paper On Fourth and Fifth Amendments Concepts And The Use Digitally Acquired Information in Both Business Ethics and Criminal Cases

Fourth and Fifth Amendments

The Fourth Amendment protects the US citizens from unreasonable property seizures and searches by the government. It safeguards against random arrests, and it is the foundation of the law regarding wiretaps, search warrants, safety inspections, and stop-and-frisk among other surveillance. The concept behind this Amendment is to ensure that people are not harassed by the government officials unnecessarily and that their privacy is respected. The amendment was made to increase individual comfort at their homes and to eliminate the fear of government interference in people’s life. This concept canbe applied in digital technology where citizens should be protected from unlawful access of their digital information by the government. This includes collection of data from their computers and storing the data for further analysis.It should also be used to protect citizens from digital surveillance. This privacy of personal information stored in digital devices should also be upheld by the fourth Amendment (Harper, n.d.).

Fifth Amendment protects people from self-incrimination. Thus, accused are not required to respond to capital crime unless on an indictment or presentment of a grand jury. This Amendment protects people from testifying against themselves or from making personal confession on committing the crime. In digital era, this Amendment can be used to protect citizens from providing digital data or key identification details to permit access of incriminating data that include passwords, decryption keys and the likes (Prescott, 2014).

Ethically digital information found on public digital platforms where anyone can access them can be acquired and be employed against a person. Also information sent from the person device to another person can be acquired if the receiver of the message is willing to cooperate. However, it would be against fourth amendment to seizure individual digital devices to extract information, especially without a warrant. It would also be unethical to anticipate to get key login or access keys to be able to access data from the accused devices and to use it against the accused in the court of law.


A Reflection Olaudah Equiano Life As a Slave, Path To Freedom And Colonial America and Slavery

Assignment Instructions – Portrait of Olanudah Equiano

Olaudah Equiano reflected upon his life as a slave and his path to freedom in his memoirs. We will read three chapters from his memoir—a book first published in 1789 by abolitionists seeking to end slavery. After reading about his life story in these three chapters, reflect upon what you now know about colonial America and slavery in an essay. There are many directions you can take in this essay. Feel free to incorporate additional questions, but be sure to start with these.

  • How would you describe Equiano’s path to freedom?
  • What surprised you about his experiences in Africa, on a slave ship, at work, and as a free man?
  • What role did his religious beliefs play in his life?


Sample Answer – A Reflection Olaudah Equiano Life As a Slave, Path To Freedom And Colonial America and Slavery


Olaudah Equiano is a biography of an African slave who struggled to free himself from slavery. Equiano was born in Eboe; current Nigeria in 1745. He was kidnapped at his home together with his sister when he was only eleven. He was later separated from his sister and taken in as a slave in unfamiliar place but by his tribesmen, he was later sold to out and landed in a homestead where he was treated as member of the family, but this did not last for long. He was shortly taken away and boarded in a ship in unfamiliar place across shore in Africa. He was sailed by whites to a foreign country; West Indies, in a journal which was full of fear, despair and horror experience. Some people died on the way, while other starved with little to eat as their masters had enough to eat and throw away. Equiano stayed briefly in Virginia, and later sold to serve ships captains of British navy vessels and slave ships. During this time he got an opportunity to travel from one country to another. He had different bad experiences in these countries especially when he started trading to earn himself personal earnings. He however management to overcome all and to save enough money to secure his freedom in 1766 from Robert king who was his master since 1763. This paper reflects on Equiano life as a slave and his struggle to freedom.

Equiano Path to Freedom

Equiano path to freedom was not easy. It took so many years and great level of determination, discipline and God’s grace. Equiano stated thinking about his freedom immediately after he was captured. He kept note of the direction he was taken to from his home with the hope to escape any time he gets an opportunity. He even tried to alert passersby at the initial stage of his journey when he was still together with his sister. However, he was unsuccessful. After killing a chicken by accident and hide in fear of his masters reaction, he realized that running away from his master, which he had planned to do any time he had chance would be a bad idea, since those who were searching him were sure that he would not come out of the wood alive (Equiano 13). The hopes of ever being free and reuniting with his family faded when he was sold out to a different place far from home.  However, at this place he was treated quiet well that the idea of running away did not cross his mind. Nevertheless, he was shortly sold to a foreign nation, an aspect that killed his dream of seeing his family ever again. Although Equiano dream of going home was no more, he still yarned for his liberty even in the foreign nation. He had seen free negros during his service as a slave in the ship, and he knew that this was possible. He tried to find chances to escape during his duties, having experienced how bad the recaptured slaves were treated he knew it was not a good idea. Moreover, he never had the ability to run far since a slave never had anything of his or her own. He owned nothing and hence, he could not have survived for long after running away. In addition, whites were well known for mistreating blacks at any slightest opportunity. It was thus not very easy to run away and survive their wrath, especially when one seems to depend fully on them for survival.

Equiano situation changed when he was sold to Mr. King who was running merchant businesses with help of a ship captain. Mr. King promised him his freedom but at a fee of 40 sterling pounds. This was not a small amount to be raised by a slave who does not own his time. However, Equiano was considerably lucky,Mr. King’s captain seemed to have developed special liking to Equiano due to his job efficiency. The captain requested his master to permit his to be sailing with Equiano as his right hand man. He gave convincing reasons for preferring Equiano over whites who were economically based, and their master permitted Equiano into the sailing business (p. 51). It is here that Equiano considered using the travel from one country to another to sell products from one end to another. He started with very few cents he had at the beginning and managed to grow his earnings with time. However, this was not without challenges which included diseases, being harassed by the foreigners, and in some cases having his good seized by force. Being a Negro, he could not get assistance from the authority.However, Equiano did not lose hopes. He kept on trying and improving. He also seems to have God’s favor upon him. His captain started assisting him to handle brutal whites who could confiscate his goods. His master also bought a new larger ship which gave him a chance to carry more goods (p.56). Eventually, Equiano was able to afford his freedom and his master was good enough to honor his word (p. 58).

What surprised me about Equiano Experience in Africa, on Slave Ship, at Work and as a Free Man

What surprised me in Africa is how other Africans were being used by whites to enslave their own. Equiano was captured by Africans and his trade from the time of kidnapping to the ship he was being exchanged among African. It is quite surprising to see how fellow countrymen would snatch someone’s children without second thought to enslave them in western nations. What surprised me most is that the reaction of Equiano first African master after the death of his daughter. He seemed to be highly affected by his daughter death, although he could afford making other children kidnapped and separated from their parents. His reaction demonstrated a twist in his emotions and humanity.

What surprised me most in the ship is how cruel whites were with Africans. The ship was overcrowded such that people died of suffocation and hunger. This happened when the whites had enough to eat and to throw in the sea. This episode made me think that it was easier carrying enough slaves that they could sustain than having the ship crowed only to have some die and suffer. Surprisingly, even after neglecting most of African in the ship to die, they did not permit them to commit suicide. In (p. 19), the ship crew used their boats and later died into the water to save the life of Africans who considered death as a better option and punished the one that they saved for trying to escape through death. In my opinion, they could have treated them better by trying to preserve their life if they wanted them alive. The chaining of African in a ship which took months in the sea was considerably inhuman, especially due to congestion and lack of enough food. Chaining them reduced their chances of survival. Generally, the white took so much trouble to get African slaves, but did very little to keep them alive. In actual sense they subjected them to hardships that could increase their chances of death. This contrast is surprising and can be used to demonstrate not just their inhuman nature, but also their inefficiency in doing business. Another surprising thing in the ship is the African perception of whites. They kept on thinking that whites intended to eat them at the end of the journey or kill them for some weird sacrifices. The idea of being eaten is laughable to some extent.

At work, Equiano was liked by either his master or a close family member of the family. This ensured that he was treated much better in his life compared to other slaves. He was somehow favored by God to receive kindness from the people who were known to be cruel to Negros. It is also surprising how discipline and honesty earned him a clear path to freedom in the long-run. Equiano was always sold to a good master following his discipline. It is this discipline and good manners that landed him to Mr. Robert King who eventually facilitated his freedom. it was surprising to see Equiano demonstrate a higher level of efficiency more than even whites employed to do so, mostly after being properly educated. I am surprised by Equiano ability to learn. He was able to work in the deck effectively despite having no previous experience. He was also able to learn clerical work and to be among the most trusted and efficient slaves.  I am also surprised by the fact that Equiano worked for so long in the sea but did not see the importance of learning to swim. He once almost drowned for lack of the ability to swim (p. 30). Surprisingly, the whites he was working with him always protected him and this was considerably surprising. In other cases, they could have used this inability to harass a Negro.

As a freeman it surprised me how Equiano was able to rebuild his life and became successful. Freedom seems to be very valuable since after getting it his quality of life was improved a great deal. I was surprised by his master’s decision to retain him as an employee after he had granted him his freedom as slave. This shows how much his master loved and trusted him. He must have treated Equiano fairly when a slave that he never feared that Equiano would destroy him when free. He even considered leaving the management of his ship under his care after the death of its captain. This demonstrates an example of a health relation between a master and a slave, something that was considerably rare among the whites when handling Negros in this era (p.68). Another surprising thing is that, Equiano never tried to go back home after his freedom. He instead focused on building his life in England where he earned a living via the sea.. This was unexpected, based on the circumstances under which he left his home.

Role of Religious Belief Play in Equiano Life

Initially, Equiano had religious beliefs that matched that of Jews. He was later baptized and became a Christian. Since that time Equiano based his trust in God. He presented any hard situation to God with hope that God will make a way. His faith was considerably strong that he always had a breakthrough in hard situations. He depended on God to be delivered from slavery and shortly after he got a new master who promised him freedom at a fee (p.40). He also trusted that God would heal him when he acquired fever in Georgia and his desires were fulfilled. His trust in God strengthened when he purchased a bible and got to read and understand what God expected of him. This made him work hard to obtain his freedom. He prayed God for help when his fruits basket were seized from him and he got his back, and even after giving the other man denied his bay three-quarter of his, he still made unimaginable profit. His trust in God eased his struggle and made everything possible.His connection with God was considerably strong even after he became a free man. In (p.69) Equiano talks of the recurrent dream that was warning him about the danger ahead in the sea. This dream turned out to be a vision which surely came to pass. His vision made him play a great role in trying to save the ship and its cargo and occupants from drowning. He also interpreted the occasion as God’s punishment to him for cursing the vessel which was his source of livelihood and repeated for doing so. In (p.83) Equiano was yet again faced by the danger of death from fire, and only trusted God for his survive. I was saved from the fire and only had God to thank for this. His reliance and trust in God for deliverance from different forms of dangers in life has been cited in various other occasion.

Data Center Consolidation at Guardian Life Case Study Discussion Questions And Sample Answers

Data Center Consolidation at Guardian Life Case Study Discussion Questions

  1. Do some Internet research on the reasons why businesses generally invest in data center consolidation projects. What benefits do they commonly hope to realize? How do Guardian’s rationale for consolidating data centers compare to those of other businesses?
  2. Getting outside consultants to manage data center consolidation projects is a common practice. Discuss the pros and cons of using consultants to manage data center consolidation projects?
  3. How/why has virtualization fueled business interest in data center consolidation?
  4. Why is the availability of high-speed, high bandwidth communications an important consideration in data center consolidation plans and decision-making?
  5. Do some Internet research on modular (pod) data centers. Summarize the advantages of disadvantages of modular data centers. C7-8
  6. Guardian is consolidating from six to two data centers supplemented with SaaS cloud services. As the company continues to move applications to the cloud, could it consolidate to zero data centers? Why or why not?
  7. Do you think that winning multiple CIO 100 awards has encouraged Guardian’s IT executives to recommend risky IT projects? Why or why not?


Data Center Consolidation at Guardian Life Case Study Discussion Questions Answered

Benefits of Data Center Consolidation

Data center consolidation refers to organization approach to scale downIT assets by utilizing technologies that are more efficient. Some technologies utilized today to enhance data centers consolidation include cloud computing, server virtualization, better planning of capacity and employing tools for server systems processes, substituting mainframes with smaller blade server systems, and storage virtualization. Consolidation is normally done for a number of reasons. One of the major reasons for data center consolidation is to increase the use of servers that are underutilized so as to lower the consumption of energy by data centers, a move that reduce carbon footprint. Consolidation also plays a great role in enhancing total operational cost (TCO) by reducing the utility cost, redundant personnel and old hardware. They also anticipate getting higher equipment utilization, and obtaining connectivity, redundancy and reliability, which cannot be obtained in discrete data storage. Consolidation also assist in enhancing data and computer hardware security, relieve organization department of IT burden, enhance control and standardization, assist in modernizing data centers through consolidation, and enhance agility to manage changes (Computer Economics, 2007).

Guardian’s consolidation centers focus on transferring all datacenters from the three locations to create one consolidated center in Bethlehem. This is anticipated to reduce the cost of database management at local level and hence reducing utility cost and IT workers employment cost to the company. Consolidation will also assist in centralizing data security measures and standardizing data access control. Effective physical security measure of the data center can be enhanced and general software security measures are effectively managed and updated. The utilization of the available hardware is anticipated to go up with consolidation. This implies that the company will experience a high level of efficiency in all its data related hardware, without any form of underutilization or overload.  However, unlike others, Guardian does not give much attention to cost but more to efficiency.

Use of Consultants to Manage Data Centers Consolidation Project

Large organizations consider outsourcing personnel when handling large IT projects. This is because some of the needed IT specialists during project are expensive and needed within a limited time. In this regard, outsourcing assist in ensuring the required level of proficiency is attained but at a manageable cost. This speeds up engineering advantages, provide the organization with world-class abilities, enhance business focus, free resources for different purposes and enhance sharing of risks. However outsourcing has its own disadvantages that include loss of control of the company IT system since the service levels and responsiveness of the outside vendors cannot match that of internal workers. Outsourcing also kills workers morale especially in situation where the workers can handle the outsourced job. Outsourcing is totally based on the contractual terms,which can result to the loss of the flexibility of the company while moving to a new platform of computing (Antonucci, Lordi& Tucker III, 1998).

Virtualization and How it Fuel Business Interest in Data Center

Virtualization technology is turning out to be an essential advancement in IT particularly for business organizations. Virtualization divides or integrates the server based environment computing resources to offer various operating environments by use of various techniques and methodologies such as a software and hardware aggregation or partitioning, complete or partial machine time sharing, emulation, and simulation. Virtualization technique is anticipated to augment the use of underutilized servers so as to lower consumption of energy by data center (Uddin & Rahman, 2010).

Availability of High-Speed, High Bandwidth Communications Important Consideration in Data Center Consideration Plans and Decision-Making

Availability of high bandwidth and high-speed communication facilitate swift data transfer from the data center to the terminals and from the terminals to the data center. This ensures that the data stored in the data center is always updated and available when needed. This high level of swiftness enhances the use of the stored data to make decision, especially when the decision in question requires data projection or reporting. this also ensure that all data needed and modification done on the data at real time is registered in the database such that it is easy to made plans and decision using current and accurate data.

Advantages of Disadvantages of Modular Data Center

A modular solution adapts the best notions of efficiency, reliability, and design. It bundles everything into operationally, repeatable, and prefabricated boosted modular system of data center. This system has scalable and flexible design, it can be developed within a short time period, it has efficient design and defers and reduces capital costs. The main disadvantages of using this system is that it cannot do everything or be fit to everyone since it is produced in pre-determined size thus, users may not be in a position to develop a data center to the actual size they might desire. It is also limits users design preference. These physical limitations may discourage users from using this system.

Consolidate to Zero Data Centers

Cloud provides database services to the company where the company is permitted to access its database, manipulate it as per the individual users’ right and at real time, but virtually. Most companies have shifted their database to cloud to take its various advantages that include cost reduction, good IT services, efficiency in system security, software update among other advantages. Guardian has currently moved part of its application to cloud, reducing its data center from six to two. After experiencing the advantage presented by cloud service Guardian may consider transferring everything to cloud which guarantee data security, instant recovery to disaster, and data redundancy. This means the company can afford consolidation to zero data center in the future, to enjoy the efficiency provided by cloud services.

Effects Multiple CIO 100 Awards

I do not thing that winning numerous CCIO award would encourage the Guardian’s IT executives to recommend risky IT projects. The awards are based in their efficiency in analyzing and recommending IT technology that would enhance business advancement in the company. The team was awarded in the past for being able to assess an IT project and making the right decision based on whether it shall be profitable to the company, especially when they have the right measure to mitigate possible risks. I do not think the awards should negatively influence their way of operation, but it should encourage them to be more committed to their work and more sound when making decisions and recommendation.

Addressing Amy’s Ergonomics Issues – Knee, Hip, and Lower Back Pain After Working

Assignment Instructions –  Industrial Ergonomics Unit III

Amy, who works as a cashier in a big-box store, works 8-hour shifts but is often asked to work overtime for up to 4 hours. Amy is now experiencing knee, hip, and lower back pain after working. You have been asked to assemble a team to address the ergonomics issues Amy is facing and to explain a possible solution. Your assignment should meet the following criteria:

  1. Identify and explain the different roles within the team (you may use bullets for this section).
  2. Explain how the ergonomics team can work together to help Amy with her current workstation. Include a possible suggestion to improve Amy’s workstation as part of your discussion.
  3. Explain why it is important for the ergonomics team to implement a plan that considers potential discrimination or disability issues for other employees.

Sample Answer – Addressing Amy’s Ergonomics Issues – Knee, Hip, and Lower Back Pain After Working


To resolve ergonomic issues effectively organizations need to establish ergonomic team which is comprised of workers and personnel from the safety department. An effective ergonomic team should have a cross section of workers representative from different areas or department and levels of staff in the company.  Workers are included in this team since they have direct contact with the work stations, and hence they can easily identify ergonomic issues they experience working in these stations. This paper focuses on defining an ergonomic team to assist in resolving Amy issue.

Role of the Team

The main purpose of developing the ergonomic team in this case will be to assess Amy situation. In this regard, the ergonomic team’s role will include;

  • Assessing Amy work station to identify structural or design aspects that would cause ergonomic issues
  • Assessing how Amy works in terms of time taken to work, to rest, change of position and how this may contribute to ergonomic issues that Amy is experiencing
  • Assessing the work policies and rules for the cashiers and how they contribute to ergonomic issues
  • Evaluating chances for changes which can be imposed in this work position to eliminate the development of ergonomic issues
  • Defining the best design, working mode, and policy changes to enhance ergonomic work environment
  • Implement the proposed design changes to create an ergonomic work environment for Amy or any other employee who will work in that position.

Working to Improve Amy Current Work Station

Ergonomic team will work with Amy to determine the main ergonomic issues Amy experience in the area. It will also use its expertise to identify the main design aspects that could have resulted to the current health issues that Amy is experiencing. The team should assess the standing ground, the working plane, the weight of lifted items and the regularities of breaks and rest time. The teamwill also assess the viability of a person working for 8-12 hours without any significant break in the area. With this information, the team will define any possible measures that should be employed. The measures should be individual based such that Amy physical appearance should be considered while making the workstation design change. Measurements on Amy’s height, sitting height, hip breadth, lower leg length, seat depth, and shoulder breadth among other measures and match then with her sitting and standing work station to ensure that she is comfortable. Some of the changes include raising the standing surface based on her height, provision of foot rest, provision of ergonomic sitting position that matches her body and request for short sitting breaks. Other measure would include provision of portable bar code reader to scan heavy objects rather than lifting them to a fixed bar code. The team should also advocate for change of shift. Standing for 8 hours could be very demanding. To ease this, the department should define a shift schedule where Amy can change position and another person with a different exercise; sitting task takes over (International Labor Organization, n.d.).

Importance of Implementing a Plan that Consider Potential Discrimination or Disability issues of Other Workers

Ergonomic design should be done based on the specific physical appearance of the person working in that particular station. The physical requirement of a workstation for a short person will not fit for a tall person and similarly, a person who is huge may find it hard to fit in a work station designed for a slim person. In this regard, a workstation should be designed with the user in mind. However, to make the plan useful to all in instances of change of the user, the designer should consider the fact that people are not the same physically and hence, enhance adjustment measures (Khan& Pope-Ford, 2015). An ergonomic workstation should thus be an all fit in that, every user can adjust it to meet his or her physical requirements. This will assist in reducing the design cost and enhance efficiency in the workstation despite of who the user is.

Historic Events Leading to 14th Amendment, Supreme Court Interpretation And Relevant Cases

Historical Event Resulting to 14th Amendment Adoption

This paper will be based on 14th amendment. The 14th amendment talks of various facets of citizenship and citizens’ rights. According to first section of the 14th amendment, all individuals naturalized or born in the United States and subject to the US jurisdiction are United States citizens and citizens of the state they live in. No state according to this amendment enforce or make any law that shall abridge the immunities or privileges of the US citizens, nor shall any person be deprived of property, liberty, or life by any state without due law process, nor deny any individual within its authority the equivalent protection of laws. This amendment was ratified on 28th of July in 1868, denoting the change in attitudes that hit majority of American following the chaotic Civil War. Thus, the amendment followed the US civil war. It acted as the American initial trial to legally challenge supremacist ideas of white by developing multiracial society that was truly equal (Bartley 473). The civil war intensely altered the power and role of the government of the United States. In the years of war; 1861-1865, the federal government role expanded as the administration of Lincoln tried to handle due issues of eradicating slavery and uphold the union. The constitution attitudes changed from the limited traditional interpretation to extensive interpretation. Federal authority expansion by Lincoln pushed normal citizens to agree with federal power change. This acceptance can clearly be demonstrated by ratification of 13th and 15th amendments, which intensely altered realities of racial in the US by assigning the federal government the role of civil liberties defender, resulting to the definition of the 14th amendment (Bartley 474).

Supreme Court Interpretation of the 14th Amendment since its Adoption

The Supreme Court has highly contributed to the adaptation of the 14th Amendment, especially the first section of this amendment. The Supreme Court made the first landmark ruling to support this amendment in 1954 in a case that challenged segregation of students on racial basis. The Supreme Court since used this amendment taken to eliminate racial discrimination especially on the application of the laws of law and to enhance provision of equal treatment to all in public sector, to an extent of nullifying state based acts promoting discrimination. While the application of the first section of this amendment. However, the same cannot be said about the second section of this amendment. The amendment in the second section which states as described above has been highly unfulfilled. According to (1144), through the interpretation of the judicially, the court has reduced the immunities or privileges clause nullity. The clause of due process has frequently failed to offer procedural safeguard over government arbitrary action. The clause was at first limited since the court held that due process was needed when only a right, instead of a privilege was denied. The due process procedural scope more recently has been highly diminished by the positivism embracement. Based on this perception, persons have property and liberty interest only if the government awards them with it and are only entitled to the due process which the governments considers to offer.  The utilization of the clause of due process to safeguard substantive rights seems limited forever since it has been tarred with Lochner era negative implications. The clause of equal protection was almost fully unused for the initial four score the history of amendment (Chemerinsky 1144).

Court Case Relevant to the 14th Amendment

Although slavery abolishment did not solve the race problem in America, the civil war altered the American racial laws, though it did not alter their racial attitude. However the decision of Warren Court in Brown v. Board of Education which the courts eventually instituted the principles of Fourteenth Amendment and tried to develop racial equality legally, and color blindness when conducting social policy and dispensing justice. The case regarded children segregation in public schools (Bartley 474). This case became a landmark case in 1954 when the Supreme Court anonymously ruled that public schools children segregation based on their racial was against the constitution. This marked the end of “equal but separate” precedent created about 60 years earlier by Supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson case that served as a promoter of the extension of civil right movement in 1950s. Another case that supported the 14th amendment was the Loving v. Virginia case in 1967. The case regarded the proceeding on debate to vacate rulings for going against interracial marriages ban. The Caroline County Circuit Court, Virginia, repudiated the debate, and it granted writ of error. The Supreme Court of Appeal in Virginia asserted the convictions, and suitable jurisdiction was identified. The Chief Justice Warren of the Supreme Court of the US however held that miscegenation status implemented by Virginia to stop marriages between individuals primarily on the racial classification basis was against the clauses of due process and equal protection of the 14th Amendment (Law Guides 1).

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Freeman-Brown Private School Case Study Review

Assignment Instructions

The board of directors at Freeman-Brown Private School (FBPS) has hired you as part of a consulting team to review the situation and present your findings and recommendations. Write a paper (1,250-1,500 words) that discusses the case. Complete this assignment from the perspective of the hired consultants. Respond to the following questions:

  • Review how organizations interact with their external environment (as open systems and complex adaptive systems).
  • How effective was Freeman-Brown as an open system at the time of the closure? How effective was Freeman-Brown as a complex adaptive system at the time of the closure?
  • Review your reading this week on the internal environment of organizations. What is your evaluation of the organizational culture and organizational climate at the time the decision to close two campuses was made
  • What is your evaluation of the decision made by Dr. Murphy and Caudill? What is your evaluation of the process of going about the closure?
  • Was FBPS demonstrating social responsibility? Discuss the closure impact on three specific stakeholders.
  • Provide an explanation, using appropriate management theories, for how the administration could have handled the closure effectively with stakeholders? Include one theory from each of the following: the classical approach, the human relations approach, and the modern management approach.
  • You have been asked to suggest two goals: one long-term and one short-term goal for the future direction of FBPS. Justify your decision.
  • Present a concluding statement that integrates the 4 functions of management as a means to revamp management at FBPS and meets the recommended goals.

Sample Freeman-Brown Private School Case Study Review Paper

Freeman-Brown Effectiveness as an Open and Complex Adaptive System at the Time of the Closure

Organizations with open systems exchange information and resources with their external environment. However, they manage to control these interactions by generating permeable boundaries which permit necessary exchange while being shielded from external disturbances (Cummings, 2014). The interaction of the FBPS and the external environment as an open system during the closure of the Hampton and Culpeper campuses was poor and ineffective. The closure was considered abrupt to the families and the surrounding communities.The school denied intending to close following the leaked email, just to protect its administration from parents’ outrage. The school lacked healthy exchange of information with its external environment. There was no permeable boundary and hence there was no exchange of necessary information on time. The lack of this permeable wall also made it hard for the campus to understand the external environment, and hence it was unable to attract enough students to sustain the school operations.

Complex adaptive systems refer to dynamic systems which are capable of evolving with and adapt in a changing environment (Chan, 2001). The FBPS system was surrounded by a number of changes shortly before its closure. The external environment was experiencing financial crisis, intense competition from public schools that are independently operated and chartered. The school was unable to keep up or to adapt to changes that were taking place. They gave in to competition, losing most of their students to their chartered public schools competitors. They also failed to invest in school marketing probably due to tough economic crises that were being experienced by all in the country. It can thus be said that the schools complex adaptive system was ineffective.

Organization Culture and Organization Climate at the Time the Two Campuses Closing Decisions were made

Organization culture and organization climate are two different constructs for hypothesizing the manner in which people describe and experience their work environment. Organizational climate refers to shared views of and the meaning attached to procedures, practices, and policies experienced by workers and the behaviors that they observe attracting rewards and that are expected and supported. Organizational culture on the other hand refers to the shared primary assumptions, beliefs, and values which typified an environment and are taught to all new workers as the suitable way to feel and think, communicated by the stories and myths people tell regarding the organization ways of doing things (Schneider, Ehrhart & Macey, 2013). The FBPS had unfavorable organization climate before the closure of the school. Similar to parents and students, the administration and faculty were all in shock, meaning that they were hearing about the closure then for the first time. This implies that the school did not have internal communication process or policies that would enhance internal discussion or communication of critical decisions before they are communicated to other stakeholders. Workers were not consulted in anything and their welfare was not considered. They were dismissed abruptly with no prior notice or psychological preparations for job lose. There was neither dismissal procedures followed nor any policy that permitted the school to do. The organization had poor communication culture which did not promote collaboration or cooperation in evaluating situations and making decisions. The FBPS generally had unfavorable organizational climate and culture.

Decision Made by Murphy and Caudill

Based on the case study, the country was experiencing tough economic time and all organizations experienced financial pressure. Most schools closed during this period, and hence FBPS was not an exception. However, this does not justify the closure of the school. Tough financial times lasted from 2005 to 2011. The school was expanding during this time, trying to open new campuses, and to diversify by opening secondary schools. This means that the school was doing fine financially, despite the economic crisis in the country. New advancements gave hopes to its stakeholders and it was quite a disappointment to have an abrupt closure. The closure actually happened after the financial crisis settled down and the country economy was in recovery. The excuse given could have been resolved by other means such as marketing, improving administration and management operations among other measures, to enhance its competitiveness. The school had been in existence for decades. It had overcome many challenges in the past and managed to survive due to the quality of education offered. It was not therefore supposed to be shaken by new entries. It had the capability to stand up and reclaim its space. Thus, closing the school was not the right decision. It also tainted the image of the two remaining campuses.

The process followed to execute the closure was even worse. Based on the leaked email, the decision to close the school was made long time ago. However, the managers did not want to make losses by having the students withdraw before the end of the semester. This made them consider reassuring the parents, only to disappoint them later. Abrupt closure created crisis not just to the parents and students, but also the employees. The procedure followed was only beneficial to the management. It was cruel not to consider the future of the students and the livelihood of its workers. Lack of preparation created psychological distress to all stakeholders, especially when trying to determine what next. Students’ enrollment in other schools was closed, same as hiring process. The procedure thus, wrecked many lives forcing them to consider options that were not favorable to them due to lack of alternatives.

FBPS and Social Responsibility

FBPS failed in ensuring its social responsibility. The school had employed people from the surrounding, whose families’ livelihood depended exclusively on them. Abrupt closure of the school subjected these families into financial crisis, and psychological distress. The closure also impacted business people who depended on the schools directly or indirectly to increase their revenue. These include the school suppliers who provided various academic and non-academic materials needed in the school. Another impacted stakeholder was its customers. The organization promised to offer services to its customers only to leave them abruptly without an alternative. The parents were subjected to financial losses, since they were needed to look for new schools and pay for new schools requirements. Students were also required to search for a school that follows similar system as their previous school to enhance their adaptability. This demonstrates that the school did not consider its social responsibility, and that the closure decision was highly cruel to its surrounding.

Handling the closure based on Suitable Management Theory

According to weber’s administrative theory, any organization need to have rules and regulations that defines workers duties, that offer standard operating processes which govern all activities in the organization to facilitate coordination and offer certainty (Cole, 2004).FBPS lacked standardized procedures of communicating and handling crisis. There was no specific way to inform workers about their dismissal due to school closing or on how to compensate them for the losses they would incur following that decision.Thus, based on this theory, the organization required to have established a procedure that it would follow while dismissing any employee for any reason. With regard to human relation, the organization could have considered Maslow hierarchy of needs (Cole, 2004). Both customers and employees trusted that the organization could meet their needs. However, the act of abrupt closure depicted otherwise. Using Maslow theory the school could have considered their psychological needs by giving them the closure notice earlier enough to allow them to find an alternative while still continuing with their life in the school before its closure. This could have enhanced their career and future safety. According to chaos theory, the management needed to understand that sometimes change is inevitable due to the complexity of the organizations as they grow. However, the solution to this is not to punish the stakeholders, but to increase the energy needed to maintain its new complexity level. Understanding this could have made the organization to consider better alternatives rather than to close the organization. With better collaboration of other stakeholders, the organization could have managed to survive the trying times.

Short-Term and Long-Term Goals for Future FBPS Direction

The short-term goals of the future FBPS director would be to rebuild the organization trust in the surrounding. The abrupt closure impacted life of most people in a negative way. This cruel act interfered with the trust the community had on the organization. It may therefore be hard to rebuild the school without rebuilding this trust. The long-term goal of the future FBPS director should be rebuilding the school to its initial level; before its closure. The school had a good legacy and exponential growth. This is not easy to attain, a lot need to be done to reclaim its position in the market.

Concluding Statement

The school director needs to improve her management function. Effective planning on how to run the school to avoid past failure through defining both long-term and short-term goals will be required. The director should organize on how to meet these goals by developing strategies on how to achieve them. The director should be in forefront on guiding others on how to attain the new organization goals, providing direction and resources needed. The director should also ensure that every operation is under her control to avoid losing the grip of what is happening in the organization. Being in the control will enable her to ensure that all processes are learning as required, and hence better results can be attained.