Capital Budget and a Return on Investment Contribution to Sustainable Growth

Capital budgeting refers to a gradual process that is used by businesses to establish investment project merits. The decision on if to deny or accept an investment project as growth initiatives of a company entails establishing the rate of return of an investment of this kind can generate. Capital budgeting is essential since it generates measurability and accountability. The process of capital budgeting is a business assessment techniques to establish the long-term financial and economic profitability of any kind of investment project. Investment approved through capital budgeting must be able to demonstrates measurable investment return period and a reasonable period of making profit before it is written off . This demonstrates that, capital budgeting involves assessing the rate of return of an investment, and based on the outcome, one can decide whether the investment is profitable or not, and for how long the organization can depend on it as a source of income.

Based on the kind of the institution, capital budgeting ensures that the approved investments have the ability to generate a certain level of income per a certain period, within a specific lifetime of the investment. This is like a guaranteed earning when the facility is used as required. In this regard, the investment demonstrates a high level of income sustainability compared to other investments not based on capital budgeting. Moreover, budgeting ensures the amount invested does not exceed the amount to be earned, and that the investment must be able to return the investment cost within the shortest time period.  This ensures sustainable growth in that, the organization will only invest on projects that guarantee good return to the company. With every investment demonstrating positive return, the organization can easily be profitable enough to continue investing and expanding further (Meyer& KIyma, 2015).

Ethical Communication is an Essential Part of Business


Ethics refers to science of people’s traits expressed as wrong or right action conduct. Ethics objective is to institute behavioural norms and moral standards. Ethics distillates on the moral standards as it apply to business behaviour, institutions and policies. It tries to use broad business activities moral principles so as to clarify or resolve the re problems that are characteristically arise in business. Ethical communication engages all relevant information with intention of combating evil and fostering goodness. This kind of communication is accurate and truthful and it evades exaggerative, discriminative and manipulative language. It thus promotes transparency in business and permit ethical operations in any business transaction. Ethical communication is said to be important, this paper evaluates the relevance of ethical communication business by focusing on ethical communication issues.

Ethical Communication as an Essential Part of Business

Business relations with the stakeholders are normally based on the information that the stakeholders have regarding the business operations and the business financial success. This is commonly experienced in the relation between a business and its investors or its customers. To foster a strong relationship, business is required to provide truthful information about its financial performance so as to enable investors to make informed decisions (Beckett, 2003, p.48). For instance, most investors would only consider investing in a company that demonstrates positive financial health and ability to perform even better in the future. They normally use the provided public company’s financial statements to make this decision. While doing so, they expect that the company financial statements which are a form of communication to the company stakeholders were done with high level of accuracy and truthfulness. They therefore assume that the company in question employed communication ethics of being truthful and accurate while making their financial statements. Ethical communication in business helps in creating business trust which makes it easy for a business to attract customers and investors.There is actual requirement for communication managers to generally critique organization ethics initiatives so as to guarantee that they boost trust and that they are actually not forcible regimes which hide essentially unethical procedures (Beckett, 2003, p.48). When the company financial statements are accurate, the company is likely to attract a high number of investors who give value to the company’s share. Any future realization that a company lied about its financial health is likely to draw investors out in huge number and abruptly, resulting to great financial disadvantage. This is also likely to destroy the company’s reputation, making it hard for it to regain its image in the market. Such acts of unethical communication are also regarded as fraud by the law, and hence, a company is likely to attract huge legal penalties or even withdrawal of its operational license.

Communication according to Beckett (2003, p.47) is a central management function. In essence, management is the communication act, where by management processes are connected to the information receipt and its valid interpretation that yields to effective making of decision. It is therefore importance for those working in communication management to have well-based foundation of ethical perception. For instance the communication management should not alter statistical data by decreasing or increasing or by omitting some details to obtain more favourable results for one reason or another. Such acts are likely to influence the decision making process whereby instead of defining solutions to the identified problems, or instead of focusing on determining the cause of the problem, the management will focus on celebrating their positive outcome and maybe plan for further advancement and other positive move when the company records positive outcome. This may eventually results to worsening of the situation, where the company can experience what management may consider as abrupt change of events, which are considerably hard to handle or very expensive to address in unexpected situation. For instance, misleading statistics showing increase in the company market shares as a result of marketing may influence the management to continue using unproductive marketing strategy, or planning for higher revenue which may create negative consequences.

Ethical communication according to Allison (1998, p.1025) ethical communication involves respect of the person receiving the information.  Respect is among the most essential value, and thus it should inform individual action toward others. In this regard ethical communication demands the messenger to check on the attitude created when passing the message. Ethical communication thus calls for avoiding language that exaggerates, discriminates, or/and manipulates others as a way of respecting others. This can highly be applied in human resources management department where the manner in which one communicate to them influence their attitude toward the organization and hence their performance. According to Allison (1998, p. 1026), managers should relate with employees not just as workers, but as full human beings. This applies when communicating to people indirectly and directly. For instance discriminative comments from supervisors and managers are disrespectful and are likely to demoralize and demotivate workers.  However, appreciative comments that demonstrate their value to the organization seem to motivate them, making it easy for them to be dedicated to the organization operations and good performance. A message in ethical communication should be framed in a manner that it does not invoke negative emotions. Even critiques and correction should be put in a manner that demonstrates respect to the recipient. This is the only way to employ ethical communication to promote positive change in an organization. Nevertheless, in case a manager use humiliating and discriminative messages to workers who show negative performance, they are likely to kill their moral and making their performance to deteriorate even further.

Ethical communication is in the above analysis used to demonstrate its effectiveness in business. However, this is not always the case. The aspect of being truthful in business can sometimes result to negative outcome or poor financial results eventually. For instance, media business attracts customers based on how catchy and interesting the message or the title is and not how true it is. Thus how interest the story is plays a major role in promoting sales and hence in determining the profitability of an organization. In this case, focusing on ethical communication f being accurate and truthful may highly impact the organization performance rather than putting it in a better operational position. Thus some exaggerated facts especially among the information that is not damaging can assist the company in attracting more customers. In this case, ethical communication does not hold any importance in the company’s success (TitiloyeOyeyinka, 2013, p.91).  It is also important to note that some truth are quite damaging, especially in this era of social media and other direct form of communication. Previously, the organization reputation was protected by establishing public relation office. This office helped in filtering information that can be damaging to an organization. However, today, anyone can publish information about an organization without much scrutiny.  This means some true but damaging information can easily be published to the public. In this case the communication ethics of being truthful can be quite destructive and thus, it is much better not to publish it.

Communication ethics on the other hand plays a major role in promoting positive growth in an organization. Based on the analysis, an organization that embraces communication ethics is likely to be founded on providing accurate and truthful vital information that influence its relation with its stakeholders. Publication of accurate and truthful information about an organization finances is likely to build a relationship of trust between the organization and its stakeholders, which can enhance growth and prevent future flops in case the covered truth is noticed eventually. Communication ethics also nurtures respect among people in communication. This is likely to promote healthy relationship especially between workers and their supervisors, and hence promoting their commitment to the organization. This is likely to influence the organization performance positively. Giving truthful and accurate information is likely to guide managers in making the right decision regarding different aspects in an organization (Christians & Traber, p.113). This makes it easy for the organization management to solve problems in the organization and to always focus on promoting the organization wellbeing. When an organization communication management is unethical, other management departments are likely to make decision based on misleading information, an aspect that is likely to cause future chaos in the organization operations.


The analysis discusses communication ethics issues and how they influence the business. Based on the analysis, the organization can highly benefit from communication ethics while in some instances; applying these ethics can highly limit the organizations chances of growth. Communication ethics are said to promote organization stakeholders trust and enhance good relationship between the organization and its stakeholders. This also plays a great role in protecting an organization from being involved in fraud and other illegal operations as it try to improve on its profitability. Ethical communication also promotes the relationship between workers and the management and also promote decision making. However, in other instance, communication ethics can easily expose damaging company information to the public or limit company’s growth. This implies that communication ethics can results to both positive and negative impact in an organization. However, the analysis demonstrates that the positive impacts of ethical communication outweigh negative impacts and hence it is important for any business organization to embrace communication ethics.

Changing Public Service System – Flyer

Flyer Instructions

As the associate director of staffing services for your state’s department of civil service, you must create a flyer regarding the changing public service system.

The flyer will be sent to the staffing departments throughout the state to inform the departments of the system’s history and potential challenges within the management of their workforce.

Create a flyer of a minimum of 750-words. In the flyer, address the following:

  • How has the public service system evolved over the last 100 years?
    What major events and decisions were important to the evolution Include a timeline of your examples.
  • What are some of the challenges of managing the public workforce in the 21st century?
  • Explain how these challenges came to be and how they may change in the future. Describe your vision for dealing with these issues.

Note. Please use graphics and images to help support your content.

Source of Wealth Disparity and What can be Done to Cover It – Annotated Bibliography


The change of technology has highly influenced both governmental and private organization’s operation in the world. It has resulted to the development of digital technology which has brought change in the communication industry and enhanced the development of computers and internet. Different countries, especially those in the western have highly embraced this technology to facilitate their operations and to increase efficiency. However, other countries in the developing nations are lagging behind in embracing the new technology. This has made them to be left out in various global developments. This paper focuses no determining the best strategies that the countries lagging behind in digital technology embracement can cover for the gap. The world is also experiencing a huge gap between the rich and poor. This gap has been contributed by a number of factors in the United States. This paper will also review articles that explain the source of wealth disparity and what can be done to cover it.

 Thesis Statement

This paper focuses on determining measures that can be taken to overcome digital divide in the world and to determine the main cause of disparity between the rich and the poor in  the US and how this gap can be covered.

Annotated Bibliography

Shuva, N. Z., & Akter, R. (2011). Bridging digital divide through public, school and college libraries: A case study of Bangladesh. Journal of the Bangladesh Association of Young Researchers (JBAYR), 1(1), 49-77.

This is a case study research paper which focuses on determining measures that can be taken to eliminate digital divide in Bangladesh. The article identifies digital divide existence in Bangladesh, analyses the ICT situation in Bangladesh, government effort in reducing digital divide and to show that improvement off ICT status in public schools and colleges can work better than the current measures employed by the government. The paper structure include abstract, introduction, research objective, methodology, work scope, limitation, literature review, case study of use of ICT in Bangladesh, country initiatives to handle the gap and evaluation of possible result if school based approach is used to bridge the digital divide gap. The article uses extensive primary data as the evidence. Primary data is collected during the case study to demonstrate the level of digital divide in the country. The article also cites other credible sources which strengths its arguments.  The article answers the question on effective measures that can be employed to bridge the digital divide gap in any country, with Bangladesh as the reference country.

Ohemeng, F. L. K., & Ofosu-Adarkwa, K. (2014). Overcoming the digital divide in developing countries: An examination of Ghana’s strategies to promote universal access to information communication technologies (ICTs). Journal of Developing Societies, 30(3), 297-322.

This is article focuses on determining the measures the Ghanaian government has employed to fight digital divide in the country. According to the author, the use of ICT in various governmental operations can assist in enhancing the government functionality.However, its success depends on how it is applied by the government to overcome various challenges that can highly influence its operation. The paper provides an abstract, introduction to digital divide, analysis of digital divide including its description, characteristics, and significance, ICT and digital divide issues in Ghana, government effort to handle the digital divide issue, and challenges faced in addressing it. The article has an extensive range of credible references that include peer reviewed journals, and text books that it uses to justify its arguments. Other evidences include data, and governmental laws, which are used as evidence. Similar to other articles considered on covering digital divide topic, this paper points out how universal ICT access by the government has been employed in Ghana to eliminate digital divide in the country, which contributes to means that can be employed to eliminate digital divide.

Schlozman, K. L., Brady, H. E., & Verba, S. (2017). Growing economic inequality and its (partially) political roots. Religious, 8(97), 1-17.

The article points out on how technological, economic and political development in the country contributes to the wealth inequality in the U.S. According to the author, the politician of the country play the major role in defining policies that determine distribution of education and income based on how the government will benefit through taxes or based on the functionality of the market resulting inequality. The paper structure includes abstract, review on increasing economic inequality and how it has been propagated by politics. The paper provides data, and mostly financial data as evidence to the claim other include tracking the taxes trend since 1979 to 2011. It also cites various credible academic sources to increase the credibility of its argument. Similar to other wealth disparity sources, this article evaluates politics as one aspect that has attributed to wealth disparity in the country. The article answers the question regarding the sources of wealth disparity in US and what can be done to handle it.

Flores, R. L., & Halsall, J. (2017). The rising gap between rich and poor: A look at the persistence of educational disparities in the state and why we should worry. Cogent Social Sciences,3, 1-11.

This article reflects on how persisting educational disparities contribute to the widening gap between the rich and the poor in the US. According to the author, there has been variation on the level of education and quality of education between white and disadvantaged children or minorities in the county. The article structure include introduction to education disparity in the U.S., review of public education in the U.S., review of the corporatization and neoliberalism of public education, public education dismantling, U.S. charter school movement, education disparities persistence, and the requirements for investing in public schools. The author cites credible sources including research papers as evidence to his claims. This paper is similar to other sources on wealth disparity since it also points out another major cause of disparity in the country. The sourceanswers the research question by pointing out education disparity as another major contributor of wealth disparity in the U.S.

Choi, L. (2011). Addressing widening income inequality community development. Community Investment Fall, 23(2), 1-40.

The source provides extensive information regarding wealth inequality in the USA and how the government can manage it. The article gives intensive analysis of the variation between median yearly household income and the annual earning of top CEOs in the U.S. to demonstrate diversity between the two. It then analyses the great divergence in the country, its cause and how community development can be used to manage it. The article uses graphs to demonstrate the wealth disparity between rich and poor in the U.S. The research has used various data that include wages changes from 1973 to 2007, decile income share data from 1917 to 2008, and the U.S. households Gini index from 1967 to 2009. The article argument is also based on a wide range of credible sources which include government statistics, peer reviewed journals and organizational reports. Similar to other wealth inequality sources, this source points out on the level of inequality in the U.S., its cause and what can be done to bridge the gap. The source answers the research question by pointing out extensive wage variation as the main source of wealth disparity in the country.

Way Establishing a Safety and Health Management System in an Organization Complement and Improve Compliance with the OSHA Standards

In what ways does establishing a safety and health management system in an organization complement and improve compliance with the OSHA standards?

Health and safety management system is a systematic and coordinated approach to safety and health risks management. Health and safety management system assist an organization in improving its safety compliance and performance to safety and health standards and legislation progressively. This kind of a system assists an organization that adopts it in directing its effort in enhancing its work environment. This system describes measures, procedures, and behaviors that promote workers safety and wellness and prevent illnesses and injuries in the workplace. Implementation of such system makes it easy for the company to voluntarily examine its working areas and identify aspects that can cause physical or psychological injuries to the users (Maine Deparment of Labor, n.d.).

In the spirit of promoting safety and healthy, the organization acts swiftly in changing these aspects to promote wellbeing of those working in the unit. The company with this kind of the system also focuses on promoting risks preventive measures which include wearing protective clothing, installing warning tags and other signs necessary to communicate any danger in any working place, and ensure regular and proper maintenance of their machinery to ensure that they always perform as anticipated (Maine Deparment of Labor, n.d.). The goals and objectives of health and safety management system match most of the goals and objectives set in OSHA. For instance OSHA advocate for wearing of protective gear every time a worker is in a dangerous work environment. The ergonomic OSHA rules require an organization to regularly assess its workplace units and determine any ergonomic danger and make adjustments as soon as possible to ensure total safety. Proper maintenance of moving machinery and other important work tools is also demanded by OSHA to prevent damages and to promote work efficiency. Thus, an organization embracing of safety and health management system play a great role in enhancing the OSHA standard compliance in an organization.

Example of a Violation of the General Duty Clause (Section 5(a)(1) of the OSH Act)

Assignment Instructions

Using the requirements for General Duty Clause violations in Chapter 4 of the OSHA Field Operations Manual (FOM) and any additional information you can find in OSHA compliance directives or standards interpretations, describe a situation involving ergonomics that could be cited as a violation of the General Duty Clause (Section 5(a)(1) of the OSH Act). Explain how your citation meets the four elements listed in the FOM as necessary to prove such a violation


Sample Answer – Example of a Violation of the General Duty Clause (Section 5(a)(1) of the OSH Act)

The section 5(a)(1) of the General Duty Clause of the 1970 Occupational Safety and Health Act require employers to offer their workers with an employment place which is free from renowned hazards which are causing or probable to cause serious harm or death. According to the court, an employer has the legal obligation to offer a workplace that is free from activities or conditions which is recognized by either the industry or employer to be hazardous to the workers in any way (OSHA, n.d.a). This implies that subjecting any employee to a work situation that result to any kind of renowned injuries which include serious ergonomic injuries is a violation of the General Duty Clause. For an ergonomic hazard to be regarded as the violation of General Duty Clause one must be able to prove that there is existence of ergonomic hazard at the workplace, the hazard existence is recognized by the employer, the hazard is resulting to serious injuries, and that the employer has not implemented any measures to eliminate the hazard, despite knowing of its existence. For instance instant musculoskeletal disorder is one of the common risks experienced in a material handling industry that involves lengthy sitting hours and repetitive use of hands and fingers for instance in a computer workstation. The harm can be reduced by providing workers in an ergonomic workstation station that include adjustable tables and chair, ergonomic keyboard, foot rest hand support among other changes to ensure a health work environment (OSHA, n.b.c). The employer inability to provide for an improved or an ergonomic workstation where lengthy sitting time is involved which include garment or textile sewing companies and computers workstation can be regarded as the violation of the General Duty Clause.

Expectations of Stakeholder for a Nonprofit Organization Vs a For-profit Business

One of the key differences between non-profit organizations and for-profit businesses is that for-profit organizations use more factors for production labor to maximize profit. Such factors include capital, land, and technology intensive. Non-profit organizations totally depend on goodwill donations from public, private sectors, citizens, and government entities. Most for –profit financial activities are contingent upon marketing strategies and profit on the sale of goods and services (Daft, 2013). Other differences that one may anticipate in regards to stakeholders for nonprofit and for-profit organizations as opposed to for-profit organizations is as following; stakeholders in for-profit organizations are more engrossed on the level in which their products appeal to consumers and in what ways does it maximize profits.

Non-profit organizations focus their attention toward volunteering individuals and communities for donations. In addition, for-profit has great prospects on profit margin where they expect the business to have more profits than expenses, whereas non-profit organizations are more focused on how the organization can bring about change in the life of an individual or a community (Daft,2013). Though non-profit and for-profit organization stakeholders have different interest, they both have the responsibility to conduct their job to better the company and the stakeholder’s interest. Business managers represent the stakeholders and are entrusted to bring about profit and revenue toward the business, whereas non-profit managers rely on the stakeholders to raise funds in order to run the day-to-day operations of the organization, thus, I believe that non-profit managers have to pay more attention to stakeholders than business managers.

Why Shared Information Is Important In a Learning Organization

Why is shared information so important in a learning organization in comparison to an efficient performance organization

One can agree that sharing information across a company’s department is a very imperative tool for current and future success. Shared information is essential in a learning organization as compared to an efficient performance organization because sharing information endorses and encourages communications and partnership enabling people to be involved in ascertaining and solving various problems. This allows an organization to unceasingly advance and expand its capability.  The three characteristics of a learning organization as follows:

  1. “It develops both individual and collective knowledge;
  2. It uses learning to improve performance and boost competitive advantage; and
  3. It continuously enhances its capacity, through reflexive praxis, to adapt to its external environment. “(Lyle, E. R. 2012)

Furthermore, within the learning organization, shared information keeps the organization operational at an ideal level, instead of using the information to take hold of the employees; a fundamental part of the manager’s day-to-day operations is to find efficient and effective ways to open up channels of communication so that ideas can flow in every direction.  Shared information maintains open lines of communication with customers, suppliers and at times even competitors to enhance the structure, learning, culture and strategy capabilities. There’s a correlation between information sharing and structure; during 1776 in the time of Adam Smith, organization information was only kept between top executives and the design of the organizations were very vertical. The hierarchy provided the mechanism for total supervision and control, the strategy was constructed by the top management and executed on the organization. Over time, most organizations have gone away of the traditional vertical structures and implemented horizontal structures such as the learning organization. The new structures dispersed the boundaries between top management and the workers.

Then, new and update structures changed the task performances from monotonous tasks to empowered roles. For the task were broken into specialized separate parts as a machine, and now a task is assigned to one worker. This also allowed for the empowered employees to have the strategy change in such a way that employees are now in with identifying needs and finding solutions, thus participating in the strategy making. Furthermore, the new collaboration strategy has changed the culture in which organizations do business from the old rigid culture into a more adaptive culture. Contrarily, in an efficient performance organization, there is no need for sharing information for the flow of production is linear. A great example of an efficient performance organization is a manufacturing company, where parts are made in order and each department is different from the other.

Importance of Becoming a Global Citizen – Assignment Instructions And A Sample Answer

Assignment Instructions

Prepare: View the Globalization at a Crossroads  series episode and read the article A Model of Global Citizenship: Antecedents and Outcomes by Stephen Reysen and Iva Katzarska-Miller (2013). Go to the Ashford University Library, and locate one additional source on global citizenship that will help support your viewpoint.

Reflect: Please take some time to reflect on how the concept of global citizenship has shaped your identity, and think about how being a global citizen has made you a better person in your community.

Write: Use the Week 1 Example Assignment Guide when addressing the following prompts:

  • Describe and explain a clear distinction between “globalism” and “globalization” after viewing the video and reading the article.
  • Describe how being a global citizen in the world of advanced technology can be beneficial to your success in meeting your personal, academic, and professional goals.
  • Explain why there has been disagreement between theorists about the definition of global citizenship and develop your own definition of global citizenship after reading the article by Reysen and Katzarska-Miller.
  • Choose two of the six outcomes of global citizenship from the article (i.e., intergroup empathy, valuing diversity, social justice, environmental sustainability, intergroup helping, and the level of responsibility to act for the betterment of this world).
    • Explain why those two outcomes are the most important in becoming a global citizen compared to the others.
  • Describe at least two personal examples or events in your life that illustrate the development of global citizenship based on the two outcomes you chose.
  • Identify two specific general education courses.
    • Explain how each course influenced you to become a global citizen.


Sample Answer –  Global Citizenship

Importance of Developing Global Citizenship

Global citizenship is a topic that of great controversy following lack of consensus on the best definition to adopt to describe it. This results to various definitions of global citizenship based on theorist perspective and discipline. However, this variation has not influenced the development of globalization, or individuals’ effort to be global citizens. The change of technology and growth of commerce has highly promoted globalization, such that people have no choice than to work on being global citizens. This paper focuses on identifying the most appropriate definition of global citizenship, analyzing its importance and identifying mean that one can employ to attain global citizenship.

Benefits of Being a Global Citizen

Being a global citizens helps one to known his or her identity, to understand his or her emotions and to integrate his emotion in a manner that he understand that people are different and with their own unique identity. With this knowledge, one is able to suppress his or her own emotions, beliefs, and cultural values among other things he may use to identify himself while dealing with other people to be able to accommodate them (Infobase). This helps one not to impose personal beliefs, cultural value and life perception on others and hence promoting the level of coexistence among them. Thus, being a global citizen can highly promote my ability to connect with others and to learn more from them.This can highly improve my multicultural skills, an aspect that can promote my adaptability in any work environment in the world. Global citizenship also helps one to think internationally while solving or addressing issues, either in a work environment or in academic. This will highly help me in considering all possible available solutions in the world and select the best among them while solving problems.

Global Citizenship Definition

There is no single standard definition of global citizenships. This is due to disagreement among theorists focusing on this matter and development of this definition based variation in perspectives and disciplines. In this regard, there are a number of definitions provided for global citizenship from different theorists. Among the common definition include philosophical theorists’ definition which highlight ethics and morals, while education theorists who focus on global awareness in their definition. To develop a standard definition, the article finds the importance of integrating all schools of thoughts in the definition of global citizenship. Among the included schools of thoughts include global awareness which refers to one interconnectedness with other people, normative environment which focus on persons and their settings that are imparted by related global citizen cultural pattern, social justice, and valuing diversity among others. After all these thoughts are integrated, global citizenship is thus defined as caring, awareness and acceptance of cultural diversity while upholding sustainability and social justices, together with a sense of responsibility (Reysen & Katzarska-Miller, 2013). In my perspective, I would define global citizenship as the ability to connect with the community of the emerging world, by demonstrating high multicultural literacy, respect of diversity and promotion of responsible deeds and social justice a to all.

Global Citizenship Outcome

Valuing Diversity

The world is made of different individuals with varying beliefs, norms, and cultural values. Thus to be a global citizen one must appreciate the cultural diversity and learn to respect the culture of others. This makes it possible for one to live with others without judging them based on one’s culture or without wanting them to behave in a manner popular to one’s culture. By so doing, one manages to be accommodative and to learn more on the cultures of others a move that promote individual adaptability in a diverse world.

Intergroup Helping

Global citizens should be well aware of the socioeconomic gaps in the global society. While some are comfortable and happy, others are suffering in poverty, diseases, disabilities, insecurity, illiteracy and calamities among other things.  A global citizen should be able to go out of his or her ways to better the life of those in the lower edge of life. This makes it possible for the global citizen to get in touch with the reality of global life, a situation that is likely to influence their future behavior, especially if given a chance to define policies that would influence life of the poor.

Global Citizenship Outcomes Personal Experience

Valuing Diversity

In the past, I have been forced by circumstances to relate with people from different parts of the world, either on business ground or academic ground. During this time, I realized the challenges that are common to all while interacting with foreigners. Among them were language barriers, different business cultures, and different interpretation of a certain behavior for people from different culture. This made me consider learning more about people’s culture and always trying to understand culture of others before making any kind of contact with people from different cultures. Since then I have learnt a lot about people’s culture, something that have made me more at ease even when relating with strangers from a culture I know nothing about and hence making a forward step into being a global citizen.

Intergroup Helping

I have always had the urge to help those in trouble and less privileged than me. However, the experienced I got for volunteering to assist in managing war related immigrants in our country changed my perspective about life and luxuries. Most of these people had comfortable life in their home country, until all was ruined by civil and political wars. The pain I saw in their eyes and in their narration made me value peace and grew my desire in helping others. Living at peace with each other promotes the likelihood of getting assistance when life situation change on one’s side. This made it possible for me to consider helping anyone in need without thinking of our relation. This act has helped in developing special attachment with human race, irrespective of individual origin of financial status and hence making me a better global citizen.

Education Courses

The two courses that refined my global citizenship include SOC 120: Introduction to Ethics and Social Responsibility. This course has promoted my ability to consider what is right and just before acting. This has made me sensitive to actions that are unjust especially in business and work environment. The knowledge acquired has helped in guiding me to embrace social justice which is one of the outcomes of global citizenship. The second course is ENG 125: Introduction to literature, a course that has promoted my ability to learn people’s culture from the literature. This course has highly promoted my value for diversity, and hence complementing my global citizenship level.


Global citizenship has been a topic of interest to theorists from different disciplines. As the world turns global, it is highly important for individuals to understand how they can acquire global citizenship. Based on the definition, global citizenship can be acquired by refining various characteristics used to classify global citizens. These traits include valuing diversity, social justice, environmental sustainability, intergroup empathy, acting responsibly and intergroup helping. As an individual, I have tried to improve my global citizenship by valuing diversity and helping others, and with this, I have managed to make a step forward in becoming a global citizen.

Role of Perception in the Decision Making Process

Write a 1050 to 1400 words examining the role of perception in the decision making process. Make sure these questions are answered :

  1. what is perception?
  2. how can a person’s perception of others impact an organizations behavior?
  3. what are the positive and negative effects of using perceptive shortcuts when judging others?
  4. how are decisions in real world organizations made?
  5. how can our perceptions shape ethical or moral decisions?

Amphetamine Use and Abuse – Aaliyah Case Study

Aaliyah continues to struggle with balancing her work hours and her schoolwork. She has been drinking coffee to help her stay awake, but it is no longer working. She has an exam coming up and needs to stay up to study.

Aaliyah decides to take an amphetamine to stay awake to study for the exam. She promises herself that she will only take it this one time for the exam. The drug allows her to stay awake and alert while she is studying for the exam. She also feels that she is learning the material better as a result of the amphetamine. When the grades are in, Aaliyah receives an A on her work.

As the semester continues, Aaliyah turns to amphetamines more and more often to help her stay awake to complete her schoolwork. Soon, Aaliyah finds that one pill no longer keeps her awake as long as she needs.

She starts taking more than one pill at a time. She knows that taking amphetamines so often is not good for her health, and she finds she experiences an increase in headaches when she takes them, but she continues to take them because they are helping her be successful in school and at work.

Based on the case study, prepare a paper that addresses the following:

  • Examine the change in amphetamine use and abuse in the U.S. from the 1950s to the present.
  • Explain to which schedule amphetamines belong and why they are on the Schedule of Controlled Substances.
  • Explain the effects Aaliyah might be experiencing as a result of her regular amphetamine use. Be sure to include:
    • Acute effects, chronic effects, and withdrawal
    • Effects on physiology (brain and body), behavior, mood, and toxicity
  • Give at least three indications from the case study suggesting there may be a problem with Aaliyah’s substance use. That is, describe at least three likely behaviors that Aaliyah is likely to exhibit if she is misusing amphetamines.

Determine whether Aaliyah has an abuse problem or a dependency problem. Include a discussion of DSM-IV-TR criteria.

Benefits and Challenges of Implementing Business Analytics

Many organizations today do not utilize business analytics to help them with their decision-making processes. For some organizations, it could be a lack of knowledge about how to apply it, and for other organizations, it could be a lack of technology. When managers do not feel applying business analytics is worth their time or they feel that it is too complicated, they will not utilize it. If you were to work for a company that did not utilize business analytics, how would you convince them that they should?

Research the benefits and challenges of implementing business analytics.

Respond to the following questions:

  • How do you think business analytics can help your current organization with their decision-making processes?
  • What challenges do you anticipate in getting your organization to implement and utilize business analytics?
  • How would you approach management in regards to getting them to implement business analytics?
  • Why should you have an understanding of statistics in order to utilize and implement business analytics?
  • What would be some challenges in using business analytics?

Write your initial response in 300–500 words. Apply APA standards to citation of sources.

Department Of Homeland Security Progress

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was formed in 2001 as a counter response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks with the primary responsibilities of protecting the territory of the US and protectorates from and responding to terrorist attacks, man-made accidents, natural disasters, customs, border and immigration enforcement and cyber security.

DHS combined a total of 22 different federal departments and agencies into a unified, integrated cabinet agency. 21st September 2001, ten days after the 9/11 attacks Tom Ridge was appointed as the first director of DHS in the White house, after the president issued Executive Order 13228. The office then was to oversee and coordinate national strategy to safeguard the country against terrorism attacks and respond to any further attacks. With the passage of the Homeland Security Act by the congress in November 2002 it officially became independent Cabinet – level department and officially opened its doors on 1st March 2003 (Best Jr, 2003).

On February 5th 2005 Secretary Michael Chertoff took over office and initiated a Second Stage Review (2SR) to evaluate the department’s operations, policies and structures. More than 250 members of the department and 18 member action-team participated in this programme. A six point agenda was drawn from this 2SR that included a significant reorganization of the department (Best Jr, 2003).

 The six point agenda include:

  • Increase overall preparedness particularly for catastrophic events.
  • Create better transportation security systems to move people and cargo more securely and effectively
  • Strengthen border security and interior enforcement and reform immigration processes
  • Enhance information sharing with its partners
  • Improve DHS financial management, human resource development, procurement and information technology
  • Realign the DHS organizations to maximise mission performance.

In line with the 2SR a new directorate of policy was created to be the primary department coordinator for policies, regulations and other initiatives, ensure consistency of policy and regulatory development across the department, perform long range strategic policy planning, assume the policy coordination function previously performed by the Border Transportation Security Directorate and finally include office of International Affairs, office of Private Sector Liaison, Homeland Security Advisory Council, office of Immigration Statistics and senior Asylum Officer.

Other structural adjustments made included; strengthening of Intelligence functions and information sharing, improvement of coordination and efficiency of operations, enhancement of co ordinations and deployment of preparedness asset, improving national response and recovery efforts by focusing on Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) on its core functions, integration of Federal Air Marshal Service (FAMS) into broader aviation security efforts, merge legislative and intergovernmental affairs and assigning of office of security to management directorate.

In august 2005, FEMA’s inability to respond to major catastrophe was revealed when the hurricane Katrina and Rita struck, as a result the passage of public law 109-295: DHS Appropriation Act, 2007 gave the appointment of the administrator of FEMA to the president with reporting directly to the secretary of DHS (Martorella, 2006).

It’s inevitable that DHS had to undergo various changes because the issues that it was formed to solve have changed or taken a different shape thus it has to change to handle emerging issues. It has established ties both locally and internationally to enable it to tackle diverse security issues. DHS has also collaborated with other organs to help in their efficiency both private and public to realize a safe and secure nation for the American citizens.

Department Of Homeland Security Agencies

The legislation establishing DHS envisioned an information analysis element with the responsibility for acquiring and reviewing information from the agencies of the intelligence community. As earlier mentioned there are 22 agencies that joined up to form DHS, they were categorised into various departments and the departments include;

  • United States Citizenship and Immigration Service (USCIS) that is charged with the mandate of checking on immigrants by granting immigrations and citizenship benefits, promoting awareness and understanding of citizenship, and ensuring the integrity of the immigration system.
  • United States Customs and Border Protection (CBP) it’s one of the largest and most complex components, with the mission of keeping terrorists and their weapons out of the US, it also has the responsibility of securing and facilitating trade and travel while enforcing hundreds of US regulations including immigration and drug laws.
  • United States Coast Guards (USCG) this is the only military organization within DHS it is charged with the responsibility of protecting maritime economy and the environments. It is one of the five armed forces of the US (King, & Murray, C.2001).
  • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) as earlier mentioned it is a disaster response team. It ensures that the nation builds, sustains and improve its capacity to prepare for, protect against, respond to, recover from, and mitigate all hazards.
  • Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) it’s a training center for law enforcers for their proficiency in delivering their duties.
  • Transport Security Administration (TSA) it protects the transport system of the country to ensure freedom of movement for people and commerce.
  • United States Secret Service (USSS) it safeguards the nation’s financial infrastructure and payment system to preserve the integrity of the economy and protect national leaders, visiting heads of state and government, designated sites and national special security events.
  • Management Directorate which is responsible for department budgets and appropriations, expenditure of funds, accounting and finance, procurement; human resources, information technology system, facilities and equipment, and identification and tracking of performance measures
  • National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD) its work is to advance the department’s risk-reducing mission. Reducing risks requires an integrated approach that encompasses both physical and virtual threats and their associated human elements.
  • Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) it provides federal, state and local officials with the technology and capacity to protect the homeland.
  • Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) works to enhance the nuclear detection efforts of federal, state, territorial, tribal, and local government and the private sector and to ensure coordinate response to such situations.
  • Office of Health Affairs (OHA) ensures appropriate preparedness for and response to incidents having medical significance within the DHS.
  • Office of Intelligence and Analysis (I&A) responsible for using information and intelligence from multiple sources to identify and assess current and future threats to the US.
  • Office of Operations Coordination and Planning is responsible for monitoring the security of the US on a daily basis and coordinating activities within the department and with governors, HDS advisors, law enforcement partners and critical infrastructure operators in 50 states.
  • Office of Policy is the primary policy formulation and coordination component for the DHS. It provides a centralised, coordinated focus to the development of department –wide, long – range planning to protect the US.

These are the major departments of the DHS of which the 22 agencies that joined were put to function (Martorella, 2006).

The Structure Of Department Of Homeland Security

The DHS has a large number of officials in its leadership system that is quite noticeable as you go through the structure, headed by an executive secretariat then by a secretary it creates a lot of bureaucracy in decision making that becomes a challenge to an organization of its nature. This department is based on efficiency rather than bureaucracy which may pose as a challenge especially in times of disaster or implementation of emergency protocols. The number of high ranking officials should be reduced and more personnel sent to the field for prompt action in case of emergency or in times of disaster.

However much there is organization of departments and their roles you notice that there are some departments that could be merged to regulate the flow of information for example what is the need for citizenship and immigration service and immigration and customs department which could as well work as one agency. However much it might be considered as order to some point it creates more of confusion and it may create confusion in roles or breaching in roles when the officers are on duty, laxity may also factor in. it is appropriate that some of these agencies are merged to cut on both expenditure and improve on efficiency (Martorella, 2006).

Finally the numerous officials in their structure mean a lot of financial wastage on a department that could use little and save more for the economy. The fact that there are many people in the structure means many people can have access to high level information that could means selling out of the departments high level operations very easily. They handle high level information like details on counter terrorism, cybercrimes and highly contagious diseases. In case such information leak it could leak to it could lead to general public panic and enemies of the state could have upper hand against them. The number of personnel who have access to high level information should be reduced and that means less number of high ranking officials (Best Jr, 2003).

Challenges In Department Of Homeland Security

There are significant issues that if not solved may deter the proper functioning of DHS, some of these issues maybe fuelled from within and from without. Some of the challenges may include; one major issue is lack of clarity with its relations and some of its agencies, in the DHS website you find websites of some of the websites for the agencies whose mission do not go in hand with that of DHS this can prove negative for their image as a department having agencies within it not of the same goal as the parent department. Some of the agencies as well still do not acknowledge DHS this may make it seem like they are just working to fulfil a duty, to be under DHS. This needs to be addressed as it may cause breakouts within the department as well as functionality flaws to sabotage the overall duties of DHS.

Some agencies within the DHS may decline in their functionality as compared to when they were not tied to DHS. Example FEMA’s role in providing assistance to local authority during disaster would diminish this is due to the different roles they have been allocated under DHS which include providing grants to first responders and assist local authority with training and response planning. This new roles may deter FEMA from fulfilling its traditional mandate due lack of enough manpower and resources. This may cripple some agencies original purpose thus the government should find a way on how to ensure the agencies still fulfil their original duties.

The other challenge is the factor on budgetary allocation, the budget is not enough to adequately run all its agencies this may cause a bit of inefficiency in some agencies that do not get the required amount of allocation. The adequacy of personnel also may mean lack of training in those respective areas to sustain the respective duty area. This should be addressed by increasing the amount of budgetary allocation to the DHS.

Road Blocks To Achieving Its Goals

Some of the issues discussed above maybe viewed as roadblocks that bar Department Of Homeland Security from achieving its goals but some of the barriers am going to discuss are driven from within, some these factors are pushed not by external factors. DHS handles highly sensitive information, with an equally vast department of over 20 agencies which specialize in distinct areas this leads to a very high level of bureaucracy and redundancy leading to wastage of time and resources (Martorella, 2006).  This may lead to lack of attention on some of the issues raised by individual agencies but rather focus on the department as a whole. Some of these agencies share other departments apart from DHS for example the coastguards are also under the armed forces thus it is hard to tie their allegiance to DHS.

There are some agencies that have their functions change due to the period of time they have to get into action and the dynamic nature of the international society. FEMA is charged with was charged with the duty of helping out people caught up with disasters but the current system has early disaster warning mechanism (Martorella, 2006).

This makes their work either easier or nonexistent hence it’s a lot easier if they shifted their functionality and trained the locals in case of any disaster.

The budgetary allocation is an issue they can only present their request for an increase or cut down there expenditure. This is because it’s up to the congress to decide whether they should receive an increase or not. The most viable solution to the problem is to reduce their annual expenditure to fit in with that of their budgetary allocation (King, & Murray, C.2001).

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Internal Vs External Customers

No company can prosper without customers because it is the customer who provides the basis for a company’s objectives. Customers do not only refer to people who enter a company to purchase its products, but it also includes individuals who work every day to help an organization realize its objectives. Therefore, customers can either be internal or external depending on the roles they play in an organization. The manner in which these two types of customers are treated affect quality in an organization (Li, 2003).

External customers are people who use a company’s products and services but they are not part of the organization. For instance, in a retail store, external customers are individuals who enter the store to purchase items. Conversely, internal customers are members of an organization who rely on assistance from others in order to fulfill their duties. Employees are a very good example of internal customers. Internal and external customers are equally critical to the feasibility of every company. External customers assist a company to increase revenue through their purchases. This revenue is very important for the survival of the company. An organization should try to satisfy the needs of its external customers because satisfied external customers will always make repeat purchases and bring new customers to the company. Although internal customers do not directly purchase the items offered by their employers, they play a big role in promoting business success. Therefore, for a company to succeed, it must learn to treat both internal and external customers well (O’Riordan and Humphreys, 2003).

Internal customer service determines how external customers are being treated. A company that treats its internal customers with a lot of respect and kindness is likely to do the same to its external customers. Internal customer service promotes effective communication in an organization and encourages meaningful interaction between a company and its external customers. Employee training is one of the ways through which a company can encourage internal customer service. Training helps to increase job satisfaction, which directly impacts external customer satisfaction. It is important to evaluate employees’ efforts at every level in order to identify their problems and come up with ideas on how to solve them. This allows for more productivity and better external customer service (Li, 2003).

When treating internal and external customers, a company should pay attention to their needs as well as expectations. Peoples’ needs and expectations are always varied and they will only be satisfied if a company learns to identify them. According to O’Riordan and Humphreys (2003), needs and expectations of external customers can be fulfilled by providing great service to internal customers. A company that asks customers what they want will be able to understand what is important for them. For example, by asking employees what they need, it is easy to understand their concerns and device the best ways of solving them. Similarly, a company will produce products that external customers need if it takes its time to ask what they want.

Additionally, a company finds it easier to solve customers’ needs if it tells them what they should do to get the services they need. For instance, internal employees should be informed that they will achieve the desired goals only if they have a proper plan of tasks that they are required to perform. Likewise, a company finds it easier to serve external customers if it let them know in advance of what is expected of them as they try to build a strong business relationship. Moreover, a company that handles both internal and external customers with respect will maintain a strong relationship with them. This includes responding to all emails sent by both types of customers and keeping them informed about changes that directly affect business operations as well as those that affect sales. It is also important for a company to heed boundaries when dealing with its internal and external customers (Li, 2003).

For a company, improved internal customer service boosts employee morale which has a positive impact on quality. When workers from one department come out to assist an employee from another department, they enhance teamwork and mutual cooperation. Eventually, this will benefit external customers since employees will feel more satisfied and work hard to produce products that meet their expectations. Making workers feel that they are part of an organization is a good way of increasing internal customer service (Doane and Sloat, 2003). Both internal and external customers benefit when an organization becomes proactive on how to avoid hindrance to productivity. For example, a manager should act very fast to resolve a complaint for equipment failure. This is because the manner in which internal customers are treated will greatly affect how external customers are treated. The manager should have a schedule of how he should check whatever is going on in all departments just to ensure that internal customers have what they need to produce quality products.

All customers feel that their problems should be solved as quickly as possible, but to the benefit of the whole company. There is great need for every service provider to understand the priorities of its external customers. In order to intuitively understand the priorities of external customers, a manager must have discussions with the customers. The key to a great relationship with external customers is keeping promises and timely product delivery. A company will perform better if it anticipates the needs of its customers and using every means possible to meet those needs (Doane and Sloat, 2003).

Internal customer service creates opportunities for expanding networks with people available to assist a company in a number of situations. The more managers meet to discuss various issues with employees, they find a good opportunity of discussing options for advancement. These advancements are always done in order to benefit external customers and the company in the end. Business owners may have a tendency of focusing only on external customers who come to purchase their products are services. However, they fail to recognize the big role played by internal customers in promoting business success (Li, 2003). By considering employees as very important assets of the company, managers can take appropriate steps in improving internal relations and training employees on how to handle external customers. Companies should treat internal and external customers the same way because they are equally important for business success. When internal customers are satisfies on the job, they are motivated to produce quality products and service that meet the needs of external customers. However, when there is poor internal customer service in a company, quality will be affected and external customers will go away (Doane and Sloat, 2003).

The Perks of Being a Wallflower Literary Analysis

Stephen Chbosky’s novel, The Perks of Being a Wallfloweris a story that narrates the life of a Charlie a young teenager and those around. The novel more so tells of the struggles Charlie goes through as well as his resolve to cope and move on from the experiences that affected him right from his childhood. The storyline is told in a series of letters that Charlie writes to an unknown character who is never revealed within the storyline.The letters are written right from the night before he begins his freshman year in high school in August 1991. Through the storyline, we come to see how Charlie slowly comes of age, and as to how he undergoes life, death, friends and sexual experiences in his life. Chbosky’s novel successfully narrates the novel through Charlie’s perspective giving the reader an inquisitive, nostalgic and exploratory experience of the crucial aspects of his letters. It is through his experiences and traumatic events from his past that the reader comes to realize that he has suppressed memories that hold him back socially and mentally.

As the novel begins, Charlie is portrayed as a socially awkward teenager who has just joined his freshman year.He is also a subjective character which often leaves him acting wrongly or saying the wrong thing. This many at times leaves him in a cyclic experience of anxious and negative emotions. Upon joining high school, the first person he befriends is his English teacher, Bill who helps him persevere through the general isolation he is in.Literature forms the basis of their friendship, with Bill who struggles through love taking the opportunity to help Charlie through isolation. He hands Charlie books that he predicts would help him find people to relate to as well as deal with the high school experience. The books given to Charlie included, For Isolation, For Growing Up, For Being a “Wallflower,” For Wanting to be Alone. It is through Charlie’s literary journey that the reader comes to see how reading the books helps foster a relationship with those around him, make new friends as well as how it strengthens his bond with Bill, even outside of school.

The novel is an exceptional work of literacy in which Chbosky’s further gives the reader a close insight into the meaning of relationships. Charlie has a close but at times distant relationship with his siblings and parents.  Though there is some certain type of resentment towards his family he manages to keep the bond with his family more so with the parents who help him recover from the mental and physiological experiences he underwent at childhood. Charlie’s on and off relationship with most of his friends brings out most of what young teenagers undergo. His relationship with his friends plays a significant role in outlining the influence friends, and peer pressure has in exposure to sexuality, friendships, and drugs. As such, his friends most importantly with Patrick, Brad, and Sam helps the reader understand the meaning of the perks of being a wallflower.

Furthermore, it is through his letters that we come to see how Charlie struggle with the traumatic experiences that happened as he was growing up. The first traumatic experience was witnessing his middle school friend, Michael commits suicide to which he explains he could only react by screaming and crying even when he was helped by a guidance counselor (Chbosky). At the same age of seven, he lost his aunt, Helen who had gone out to buy him a birthday gift.What’s more is that we come to learn two traumatic events have affected Charlie through the years, evidenced by his experimentation and use of drugs. Through his friends and social encounters in different occasion, like in a party, he attended Charlie consumes LSD, a hallucinogenic drug which causes him to experience flashbacks on the traumatic experiences. As the school year closes in Charlie is faced with a possibility of losing some of his friends who are in the senior year, more particularly to Sam who he is attracted to. As he helps Sam pack for a summer preparatory program, they have sexual contact which only brings the repressed memories of his harassment from his Aunt. It is through these traumatic experiences and memories that the reader comes to understand and appreciate the meaning of love and relationships, and how it may affect young teenagers into risky behaviors.

Conclusively, Chbosky pushes the limit to teen fiction by delivering an exceptional novel that gives the reader a deeper understanding of how one’s life can be affected by personal feelings as well as mental health. It is through Charlie’s story that we come to see how teenagers explore the world of sexuality, drugs, and depression. The novel addresses these controversial issues while showing how balance and solution can be achieved to such and other issues affecting teenagers who have experienced traumatic events while growing up.Charlie’s letters give an intimate relation to what it is like growing up as a high school teenager in all its glare and glamour. Caught up between trying to live his life while running away from reality makes Charlie realize he has been a victim of traumatic and stressful occurrences that have hindered his social relationships and personal growth. Chbosky overall message is outlined in need to come to terms with one’s past which is key in shaping one’s present and future life, an aspect the narrator achieves by telling a heartfelt story delivered in a more realistic first-person narration.

BUS 311 – Choosing a Business Entity – Assignment Instructions And A Sample Answer

BUS 311 Choosing A Business Entity Assignment Instructions

If you were to start your own business, which business entity structure would you choose? Justify why your chosen structure is the best organizational form.

Explain the following business structures: sole proprietorship, partnership, LLC, and a corporation. In your analysis address the following for each business structure:

  • Steps to form
  • Personal liability for owners
  • Taxation
  • Advantages and disadvantages

Your paper must be three to five pages


Sample Answer – Choosing A Business Entity – Sole Proprietorship, Partnership, Limited Liability Company (LLC) or a Corporation

If a person were to start a business, that person would need to select the business entity structure that would best meet its needs. The choices are sole proprietorship, partnership, a limited liability company (LLC) or a corporation. The business owner needs to properly analyze each structure to have a good understanding of how to form the business, what the personal liability for owners is, taxation, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are so that the business can be most successful.

Sole Proprietorship

Most likely, small businesses will consider the business entity of sole propriety as the choice to start their business in. This is a simple way of starting a business. The owner owns and manages his or her own business. All the responsibilities fall on the owner as well as all the profits that the business generates. This business owner is also personally responsible for the debts, liabilities and torts.

A sole proprietorship is the simplest of the business structures to form. If you are mowing lawns during your summer break from school, you are a sole proprietor. Licenses and permits can be obtained at the state and local levels (Sole Proprietorship, n.d.). Business owners may use their own name for their business or choose an assumed name that is original. Careful thought should be given to the name to prevent any torts.

Unlimited personal liability exists in a sole proprietorship. The owner is personally liable for all debts incurred by the business as well as any other obligation that the business may be held too. For example, the student mowing lawns can be held responsible if he accidently uses a grass killer on a lawn instead of lawn fertilizer and kills the entire lawn. If business owners are not responsible in the business practices they can risk losing their entire life savings with the possibility of having to file for bankruptcy.

With a sole proprietorship, taxes are passed onto the owner and not the business. The owner will have to report his earnings using the IRS form 1040 (Hopson and Hopson, 2014). Schedule C of the IRS forms is what would be used to annotate the businesses expenses and income, then the filer would transfer the “bottom-line amount” onto the IRS Form 1040 (Sole Proprietorship, n.d., para. 5). Owners can basically file on their own with very little to no help required from a professional tax consultant.

The advantages and disadvantages of a sole proprietorship should be reviewed in order to make a clear determination if this business entity is the best fit for a business. Advantages are that it is easy to start up a business, owners have total control of the business, and preparing taxes at the end of the year is simple. Disadvantages to this business entity is that personal liability is unlimited, to include those liabilities gained from employees (Sole Proprietorship, n.d.). Being the owner and manager of a business can be very tiring leaving very little time for personal matters. Upon learning of the advantages and disadvantages, a business owner may consider a partnership.


At times, businesses may already be in a partnership without realizing it. Partnerships are entered upon by two people that can act as a principal and an agent simultaneously (Rogers, 2012). In the partnership, it is important to understand what each partner will be responsible for. Things to consider are “how future business decisions will be made, including how the partners will divide profits, resolve disputes, change ownership and how to dissolve the partnership” (Partnership, n.d., para. 2). Partnerships can be either a general partnership or a limited partnership. In a general partnership, it is most likely that all partners will have equal shares of profits, losses and liability. In a limited partnership, certain partners may be limited to their participation in the business, decision making, and even profits.

Forming a partnership requires the registration of the business with the state in which your business is located in. This can be done through the Secretary of State’s office according to the U.S. Small Business Administration website (Partnership, n.d.). A unique business name is required. Normally, the legal name is what appears on the partnership agreement and can also be the last names of each partner. Should the partners decide to operate the business under a fictitious name, then they would have to file that with the state as well. After registering with the state, the business will need to obtain the proper licenses and permits at the state or local levels.

Personal liability for owners in a partnership are identical to sole proprietorships. In this business entity, “Partners are not only liable for their own actions, but also for the business debts and decisions made by other partners” (Partnerships, n.d., para. 16). This means that partners can be sued together or individually. Because of this situation, the partnership may want to take up business insurance that may help alleviate some of the liabilities associated with this business entity (Rogers, 2012).

Taxes are still a responsibility of the partners in a partnership. The business is not held responsible for taxes. The partnership will report income, deductions, gains, and losses from the business’s operations by filing an “annual information return” (Partnership, n.d., para. 9). Profits and losses are “passed through” to the partners by the business. The partners will be responsible to claim their corresponding share of the partnership’s profits or losses on their own personal returns. They can do this by using the information provided to them on their copy of the Schedule K-1.

Reviewing the advantages and disadvantages of a partnership can clarify if this is the business entity of choice for an organization. One advantage is that the partnership is simple to form. Partners just have to agree on the extent of their roles and responsibilities. Partners bring in their skills and form a pool in which the skills of each partner can be taken advantage of. The disadvantage is clear when it comes to liabilities. “Partners are not only liable for their own actions, but also for the business debts and decisions made by other partners” (Partnerships, n.d., para. 16). The real disadvantage is that partners may have to utilize their personal assets to satisfy the partnership’s debt. If a partnership is not the best option for a business, then the flexible limited liability company may be the choice.

Limited Liability Company

The limited liability company is new. All members can manage the business or they may opt out in the articles of organization. According to Hopson, “An LLC takes the advantages of a corporation and combines them with the flexibility and pass-through tax treatment of a partnership, has relatively inexpensive startup costs, and is easy to manage” (P. 43). This business entity protects the members and the managers from liabilities.

Forming an LLC varies in each state. In general, owners will have to choose a business name that is unique, state that it is an LLC, and cannot use restricted words that the state puts out. There is also the requirement to file the “articles of organization” that includes the name of the business, the address, and who the members are (Limited Liability Company, n.d., para. 6). If the LLC includes multiple members, then it is recommended to file an “operating agreement” that states the “percentage of interests, allocation of profits and losses, member’s rights and responsibilities and other provisions” (para 17). Registering the business, obtaining licenses, and permits are also required at the state and local levels.

Personal liability for owners remains, for the most part, with the limited liability company (LLC). “Members are protected from personal liability for business decisions or actions of the LLC” (Limited Liability Company, n.d., para. 18). What this means is that the members of the LLC cannot be held personally liable and therefore their personal assets are protected. The LLC will have to settle its debts as well as any torts against the company.

A limited liability company is not a separate tax entity. All federal taxes are reported by each member. “Each partner receives a K-1 from the partnership detailing the individual partner’s pro rata share of each particular type of income or deduction, and the partners report each item on their individual tax return” (Hopson and Hopson, 2014, p. 46).

Even though the LLC is a relatively new business entity it has its advantages and disadvantages. The advantage of limited liability offers protections to the members of the LLC and safeguards their personal assets for the most part, except from “wrongful acts” (Limited Liability Company, n.d., para. 18). There is less paperwork and the start-up costs are not so expensive compared to an S-Corporation. A disadvantage of an LLC is that it has limited life. This means that if a member leaves, then the company is dissolved but the members must continue to close out any business obligations. Through a special provision in the operating agreement, the life of the LLC can continue in the event of a member leaving the organization. If an LLC is not the choice, then business owners can look at the corporation.


A corporation is treated like a person. It pays taxes, it can own property, and it is “subject to civil and some criminal penalties for acts it performs through its agents” (Rogers, 2012, p. 274). The corporation is regulated by the statutes of the state that provided for its existence. This business entity is a legal person. This structure is well suited for companies that are large in size and possess multiple employees.

Forming a corporation requires a unique business name and if operating under a fictitious name that it be filed with the state. Registering the business will require articles of incorporation to be filed with the Secretary of State. The establishment of directors and issuance of stock certificates to the initial shareholders is a requirement in some states. There may be other specific filing requirements that each state may request and business owners must not neglect these additional requirements. Registering the business, obtaining licenses, and permits will also be required at the state and local levels.

A corporation offers limited liability to its shareholders. The corporation will take responsibility for business debts and actions. This can only occur if the corporation operates according the statutes of the state that provided for its existence. According to Rogers (2012), “If the corporate form of business organization is used to defraud creditors, stockholders will lose the protection of limited liability and will be held personally liable for all debts of the corporation” (p. 275). It is wise for the corporation to operate ethically so that it can afford the limited liability to its stockholders.

A corporation must pay federal, state and local taxes. They must register with the IRS and obtain a tax ID number. According to Rogers (2012), “The corporation itself is taxed on its earnings, and the shareholders are also taxed when they receive dividends or sell shares at a profit” (p. 276). Exception to the double taxation occurs in the subchapter S corporation that contains “pass through” taxation. The shareholders are the ones taxed on the earnings.

The corporation has its advantages and disadvantages as well. The advantage of the corporation is the limited liability of the shareholders. Here, the corporation is responsible for debts and the shareholders personal assets are free of risk. “Perpetual existence” is another advantage of the corporation (Rogers, 2012, p. 275). Corporations can live for as long as the current shareholders want it to live. The corporate can also raise capital through the sale of stocks. The disadvantages of a corporation are that it takes a lot of time and money to start and operate. The double taxation may not be beneficial to shareholders. Finally, the recordkeeping that is required of a corporation makes it unappealing.

The Best Organizational Form

After analyzing the various business entities, it appear as though the limited liability company (LLC) is the best option for a business owner to take up. Every business owner wants his business to succeed and in order for a business to succeed it must have a plan to grow itself accordingly. The sole proprietorship is a wonderful option if the business is small and has little to no plans of expanding. An example of this would be a business man with a local corner market that wants to earn enough income to satisfy his personal finances and no more. The partnership entity is a very risky business format that allows two or more partners to come together and share their ideas. If one of the partners has a slight disagreement with the other partner as to how to tackle a certain task, the partnership may dissolve quickly. The Corporation offers the best limited liability, but the cost of running such an entity is big. Not to mention the double taxation imposed on the earnings at the corporation and shareholder level. Plus who would want to go through so much paperwork in today’s times. The LLC offers the limited liability that protects the owner’s personal assets, requires less recordkeeping, and offers the ability of decide who earned a certain percentage of the profits and losses.

Business owners must analyze each business entity to have a good understanding of how to structure their business, they must consider the personal liability, taxation, the advantages and disadvantages that come with each entity so that the business can be most successful. A sole proprietorship is good for an owner that want to have total control of operations. A partnership allows two partners to share their ideas and become successful if they manage to stay together for the long haul. An LLC, seems to be the best option that offers a business the opportunity to be successful even after long after the original founders have left. A corporation is good for those organizations that are large in size and have many employees, but it requires a lot of maintenance. Business owners must take proper steps to strategically analyze each business entity to understand what the best option is.

Demand Estimation – With Sample Answer

Assignment Instructions

Imagine that you work for the maker of a leading brand of low-calorie microwavable food that estimates the following demand equation for its product using data from 26 supermarkets around the country for the month of April.

For a refresher on independent and dependent variables, please go to Sophia’s Website and review the Independent and Dependent Variables tutorial, located at–3.


Note: Your professor will provide you with the equation and data necessary for you to complete this assignment. You will find this information attached to Assignment 1 within the course shell.

Write a four to six (4-6) page paper in which you:

  1. Compute the elasticities for each independent variable. Note: Write down all of your calculations.
  2. Determine the implications for each of the computed elasticities for the business in terms of short-term and long-term pricing strategies. Provide a rationale in which you cite your results.
  3. Recommend whether you believe that this firm should or should not cut its price to increase its market share. Provide support for your recommendation.
  4. Assume that all the factors affecting demand in this model remain the same, but that the price has changed. Further assume that the price changes are 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 dollars.
    1. Plot the demand curve for the firm.
    2. Plot the corresponding supply curve on the same graph using the supply function Q = 5200 + 45P with the same prices.
    3. Determine the equilibrium price and quantity.
    4. Outline the significant factors that could cause changes in supply and demand for the product. Determine the primary manner in which both the short-term and the long-term changes in market conditions could impact the demand for, and the supply, of the product.
  5. Indicate the crucial factors that could cause rightward shifts and leftward shifts of the demand and supply curves.
  6. Use at least three (3) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia does not qualify as an academic resource.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Analyze how production and cost functions in the short run and long run affect the strategy of individual firms.
  • Apply the concepts of supply and demand to determine the impact of changes in market conditions in the short run and long run, and the economic impact on a company’s operations.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in managerial economics and globalization.
  • Write clearly and concisely about managerial economics and globalization using proper writing mechanics.

Your supervisor has asked you to compute the elasticities for each independent variable. Assume the following values for the independent variables:

Q = Quantity demanded
P (in cents) = Price of the product = 8,000
PX (in cents) = Price of leading competitor’s product = 9,000
I (in dollars) = Per capita income of the standard metropolitan statistical area
(SMSA) in which the supermarkets are located = 5,000
A (in dollars) = Monthly advertising expenditures = 64


Sample Answer – Demand Estimation

Variable Elasticity

Elasticity = change in quantity / change in price. To calculate the elasticity for every variable, change in variable quantity divided by change of variable. This results to variable coefficients (Viton, 2012).

QD = -5200 -42P + 20PX + 5.2I + 0.20A + 0.25M

= -5200 – 42 * 500 + 20 * 600 + 5.2 * 5500 + 0.2 * 10000 + 0.25 * 5000

= -5200 – 21000 + 12000 + 28600 + 2000 + 1250


PED = variable initial value x variable coefficient

PEDP = -42 * 500/ 17650 = -21000/17650 = -1.19

PEDPX = 20 * 600/17650 = 12000/17650 = 0.68

PEDI = 5.2 * 5500/17650 = 28600/17650 = 1.62

PEDA = 0.2 * 10000/17650 = 2000/17650 = 0.11

PEDM = 0.25 * 5000/17650 = 1250/17650 = 0.07

Implication of the of Computed Elasticity

PEDP = -42 * 500/ 17650 = -21000/17650 = -1.19

The demand elasticity of price demonstrate a negative value of -1.19. This value is close to the unity elasticity which demonstrate equal change of demand to the change of prices. This means that change in the product prices for a certain percentage, influences the change of demand for almost similar percentage. This demonstrates that in the short-run, increase in the prices of frozen, product with low calorie will reduce the demand with a similar magnitude and similarly, decrease of their prices for a certain will increase their demand for a similar magnitude. However, the situation may change in the future as more people are giving extra importance to healthy feeding. This implies that increase in knowledge regarding healthy feeding may increase the products demand due to their important feature of low calorie. This may change the situation such that change in price will not receive similar magnitude in demand change. The demand may change slightly with change of prices or may not be affected at all in the future (Nitisha, 2015).

PEDPX = 20 * 600/17650 = 12000/17650 = 0.68

The value in this case is less than one which can be interpreted as relatively inelastic. This implies that change in the price of the competitor for a certain percentage result to change of the company’s product demand decrease but in a less magnitude. This implies that, competitor prices can influence the company’s product demand in the short-run. This may continue to happen in the long-run, unless the company employ measures to ensure that their products are highly competitive, particularly in health related matters to reduce the impact created by the cost of substitutable goods in the market.

PEDI = 5.2 * 5500/17650 = 28600/17650 = 1.62

The per capita income elasticity provide a value greater than one. This can be interpreted as relative elastic demand. This implies that a small change in prices create a huge change in the amount demand. Thus, change in the per capita income has a very great influence in the amount demanded. In the short-run, increase in the per capita income of individuals in the region will result to a huge increase in the amount demanded, while a decrease in per-capita will results to a huge decline in the amount demanded. The situation may remain constant in the future. Change of individual per capita may have the same influence in the demand even in the future, since people’s spending is always determined by their earnings (Nitisha, 2015).

PEDA = 0.2 * 10000/17650 = 2000/17650 = 0.11

Advertisement expenditure provides elastic value of less than one. This regarded as relatively inelastic demand, where by the level of demand created by advertisement is less than the amount invested in the same. This implies that, advertisement will not make great change to the company’s demand in the short-run and thus, the company will incur losses from advertisement investment. This will change in the future as more and more customers are aware of the company’s product and their health benefits. Thus, advertisement is anticipated to increase the level of products demand in the long-run, since less will be invested in advertisement as people become aware of the product.

PEDM = 0.25 * 5000/17650 = 1250/17650 = 0.07

Number of microwave sold affect the level of demand very slightly. The elasticity value tends to zero. This demonstrate inelastic situation where the level of oven sold hardly impact the demand of the company’s product. The situation is tending to almost inelastic s. In this regard, oven purchased may not impact the level of demand even in the future and hence, its significance to the company’s business in almost negligible (Nitisha, 2015).

Recommendation on Firm Prices

The analysis demonstrates an almost unitary elastic demand situation, where change of price causes an equal change on demand. This implies that decrease in the product prices by 10% will cause a demand increase by only 10%. This may not be very profitable to the company since the demand increase will only be enough to cover the losses incurred as a result of price decrease. Thus, the situation may remain the same forever. In this regard, the company should not consider reducing its prices to enhance the level of demand. This should only happen in the future, in case the analysis will demonstrate that a small change in prices will attract high increase in demand (Hofstrand, 2007).

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Solving Mind-Body Problem Presented by Dualism and its Relationship to Cognitive Science

Understanding reality and all the intricacies surrounding it has long been the quest of sophisticated sages. The mysterious nature of our environment together with all its components has been the subject of extended discussions within philosophical circles, with the primary aim being the improvement of its comprehension. One of the most common examples of this quest is in the development of dualism as a system to aid in the understanding of reality and all other related components in our environment. In essence, the view contends that there are two distinct parts that, when joined together, constitute reality in its purest form. Philosophy generally agrees with the proposition that the mind differs greatly from the physical even though they may interact in one way or another. It is a time-honored position that has been explored by some of the most famous philosophers in history; Descartes exemplified it in his mind/matter difference, Hume in fact/value dissimilarity, pre-Socratics in their appearance/reality dichotomy, Kant in his transcendental/empirical phenomena and Russell’s existence/subsistence question (Friedenberg & Silverman, 2016, p. 57).  Nevertheless, interest in this particular disposition and contemporary cognitive science has always led aficionados to the mind/matter distinction that was popularized by Descartes. Commonly referred to as Cartesian interactionist dualism, Descartes’ perspective was emphatic in suggesting that the mind and matter were two distinct entities that existed independently. Mind substances, however, wielded a considerable amount of power that would enable it to influence material objects. Active thinking was what defined the mind in this case while its counterpart was defined by the spatial dimensions that in which it was located. The assumption made during this period in history was that matter could exist without matter and vice versa. It is worth noting that the question of dualism is not solely of historical interest but also has considerable implications on cognitive science. The purpose of this research paper is, thus to solve the mind-body problem presented by dualism and its relationship to cognitive science.

We currently live in a contemporary world that is driven by numerous technological advancements and scientific developments. An area of special concern for leading scientists is the cognitive faculties that human beings possess and their ability to subsequently make out their environment. There has been a special interest by scientists seeking to trace the roots of this ancient concept since there is a high likelihood that demystifying it would greatly influence modern science and the debate surrounding consciousness. A convincing argument from the scientific community rejecting dualism has often been thought as the only sure way of solving the age-old mind-body debacle. Proponents of this viewpoint argue that it is key in enabling cognitive scientists to vindicate the materialist approach and conclusively holding a disposition that can be proven empirically.  Understanding the mind and how it functions has been at the center of most research projects that have been carried out over the past five decades. The problem presented by cognitive scientists has been one that sought to understand dualism and brain function as a whole. From the onset, it was clear that there was a huge difference between the brain and individuals mind. While habits entrenched in the basal ganglia of the mammalian brain, the reality is a construct that solely represents the minds perception of its environment and all other elements surrounding it. Dualism, presented in its raw form, therefore, seeks to explore how mind interacts with matter at any given point. An interaction between these two entities, from a cognitive science perspective, presents a special circumstance where the mental finally manifest into the physical. Unlike the route was taken by occasionalism on the issue, causal efficacy is espoused in cognitive science with the causal agent, in this case, being consciousness(Garvey, 2011). The mental and physical states interact to synchronize a dualistic appearance that is in harmony with its surroundings.

Cognitive scientist keen on solving the mind-body problem have claimed, time and again, claimed that the notion of causation may be the reason why controversy surrounds this subject. Initially, most experts were of the misguided opinion that the problem lay in the dualist ontology that had been adopted by most of the predecessors that seemingly contradicted any standard notion ever held on the issue. It is for this particular reason that scientists now claim that our mental lives are subsequently reflected in the physical lives that we are currently leading. Questions as to whether cognitive science has the ability to close this particular gap often stem from the vast differences that exist between the mind and brain. The reasoning capacity that enables human beings to function is a product of the mind while the brain acts as the matter that only behaves as a conduit. Moreover, cognitive scientists are in agreement that there are stark differences between these two phenomena, which can also be separated according to function and importance. Aristotle and Plato were among the first philosophers to attempt to solve this problem by suggesting that there were multiple souls within us that were arranged in a hierarchical manner (Margolis, Samuels, & Stich, 2012, p. 56). Their functioning was a matter of distinctive functions served, with the most important ones taking precedence. Out of all other qualities found in other animals, reason amongst human beings stands out. This reasoning capacity is said to be as a result of the soul that every individual possesses, which ultimately defines them. Accepting the mind as a non-physical entity is, therefore, the first step in realizing the non-spatial nature of the mind. With this ability, they are able to become self-aware, revealing their intelligence even when compared to other beings. Cognitive science does not dispute the existence of a metaphysical state where consciousness is said to reside, which is why extra effort is put into seeking practical ways to help establish the forces behind this reality. Substance duality has been used by cognitive scientists as a starting point when proving that both entities have different origins and foundations. This opinion is further bolstered by property dualism that proposes the existence of ontological differences when exploring mind and body. Predicate dualism is another popular school of thought that revolves around the irreducibility of mental predicates, thus agreeing with the widely held cognitive science view that the two are distinct.

One of the most important points to note is the existence of the said entities and their location at any given point. A view that has been widely accepted is that which suggests that consciousness exists outside the body. This, therefore, means that it is virtually impossible to destroy consciousness, in the same manner, one destroys the body. A common axiom explaining the existence of the mind and consciousness suggests that consciousness can be likened to space in an open field with a house built in its midst. The house represents the human body which takes shape on the open field representing consciousness. Even though it is possible to destroy the building, rendering it uninhabitable, the space representing consciousness still remains and is impossible to destroy. Understanding the mind-body connection, therefore, begins from this precept which also acts as a guiding principle in cognitive science. The body serves as a channel through which the mind presents itself to the world and cannot think for itself. In recognition of this supreme reality, the mind takes full control of the faculties and making important decisions regarding the person’s well-being (Vicari & Searle, 2013, p. 92). Moreover, consciousness exists in a realm different from the physical one which is why it is irreducible when it comes to its general neurobiology. Cognitive science also asserts that the intelligent design behind the body’s make up is the primary reason why consciousness exists in it in the first place. Appropriate organization is a typical feature of the human body, which is why scientists unanimously agree that it was created to adapt to these changes. Mental states are a common feature in dualism, with the experience of consciousness varying from one individual to the next. The mental states are unique to particular individuals and cannot always be the same for all those experiencing consciousness at any given moment.

Human beings have, for centuries, been baffled by consciousness and how best to explain it using layman’s language. This is because the mind has no physical manifestations, therefore making it an uphill task for anyone seeking to compare the experience to anything in existence.  Consciousness does not have a physical equivalent, which is why experts such as Jerry Fodor and Donald Davidson had to use reduced predicates to describe it. Cognitive science seeks to explore an unchartered territory since quanta have always been a scientific hot seat in the past five decades. There has never been any empirical evidence to suggest that consciousness exists, yet we all know that it does. Each individual experiences consciousness at any given time and are fully aware of its existence and the influence that it has on their lives. A school teacher wakes up in the morning and follows a strict regimen. All meetings and activities of the day are performed with exceptional ease and attention to detail, suggesting that the individual is in complete control. But without consciousness, all this would not be possible. Consciousness enables the said individual to become fully aware of their position in society and what exactly it is that they need to do for them to successfully wade through these murky waters. The meticulous nature of their demeanor and attention to detail suggests that there is a particular order to the manner in which human beings carry out their day to day activities. Consciousness seems to be at the heart of all the said functions, with the mind acting as the sole driver of individual. The teacher’s sense of self is located in their mind, making certain that they wake up every morning, acknowledging the role they play in the society and the expectations held by people.  Cognitive science explores mind as a motivation for the body, pushing it beyond any perceived limits, before ultimately achieving the set objectives.

Even though the mind and body are two dual states that appear independently, the interaction between them becomes inevitable. Initially, the commonly held view was that these two states were independent of each other and functioned without any aid. The perception was that consciousness represented a higher reality, one which differed greatly from the one mere mortals were used to.  Philosophers were of the opinion that there was more to it than what met the eye and even went ahead to suggest that these two states interacted with each other to effect the changes that were present in life at any given moment. The advent of cognitive science meant that experts now had a chance to explore the validity of these claims and ultimately reach an informed conclusion on whether or not this was actually true. Similarly, interactionism was beginning to serve as a common bottom line for a majority of scientists who were convinced that there was truth to these claims (Wheeler, 2010). The rule of cause and effect has been widely applied in exploring the mind-body connection, challenging previously held views about the nature of consciousness. It is now widely accepted view in the scientific community that these two states are in constant interaction with each other, with the mind’s influence extending to the body. Mental states, for instance, have been of particular interest to scientists over the years. This is because beliefs and desires have often been found to manifest into their physical equivalent. An individual who ends up owning their dream apartment achieves this through this quantum interaction that cognitive scientists have often been put to task to explain. An affirmation is first made in the subconscious, allowing the said individual to immerse the desire before acting upon it. Common-sense intuitions also come into play, allowing an individual to tackle that which is practical and appropriate for a particular scenario. Logical arguments may commence, with the person in question trying to make sense of the auto-suggestions made to their subconscious in an attempt to allow the body to fully grasp the concept. An event that begins in the mental faculties, therefore, becomes empirical once an individual has been able to focus on it for the appropriate amount of time, allowing changes to take place cumulatively.

There is no doubt that there is a close interface between contemporary cognitive sciences and dualism. The turn of the 20th century introduced a wide array of changes in individuals and the views that they held concerning various common-sense intuitive actions. In essence, dualism has had an immense effect on Eastern and Western cultures owing to its widespread use in spiritual texts. Mind and body become commonplace, which partly explains why the culture has been able to endure. Nevertheless, cognitive science has emerged as a staunch critic of this particular disposition, since there is a noticeable gap that it reveals when attempting to prove its feasibility. Psychological analysis procedures often involve a close observation of the mind and bodies reaction, as opposed to expanding it essentially. The reconciliation of neuroscience and psychology, therefore, serves as a process that seeks to explain the existence of the brain and the main as a single entity. Behind this idea is an attempt to establish the true nature of the mind while basically explaining its relation to the physical self. Cognitive science, in particular, has been put to task when debunking dualism to explain the occurrence of free will in the society. Any functionalist explaining the occurrence of particular national myth, experts in cognitive science ultimately end up coming to the conclusion that free will is, therefore, nothing more than an elaborate illusion.  In the case of the Founding Fathers of America, the general conclusion would, therefore, be that they were not seekers of liberty of free thinkers but ordinary individuals in positions of influence reacting to external stimuli. Simply put, they were at the right place, at the right time and had to react in a manner suggesting that they would be following the course of history and destiny.

Subjective elements also appear as common elements in dualism, especially when trying to understand reality. Epiphenomenalism takes this task to heart and seeks to explain the mechanics of the universe and how every single event takes place. Cognitive science takes these attempts a notch higher by attempting to make a scientific inquiry into how the human mind works in an attempt to explain life events (Kitamura, 2015, p. 78). Emotions play a major role in how the human mind functions, which is why cognitive science is as the preferred option when explaining the inner workings of this particular system. Any advancement that may emerge will not affect a society in any way imaginable since the psyche of the larger segment of society often happens to be on the same wavelength. Incremental changes that were brought forth by cognitive science through the introduction of Freudian discoveries were an instance where genuine attempts were made by persons in positions of influence. Following this method of deduction will lead one to question common truths that are usually held by a majority of individuals in a particular population. Freedom, for example, is adored by a large segment of society with most people viewing it as the icing on the cake. This attractive option, nonetheless, means that individuals will have to follow a popular ideology to avert suspicion of their activities and live their lives away from any type of scrutiny. One common example is that of White rural communities that dwell in the American South. A large majority of them still vote their age-old preferred political divide. Additionally, subtle forms of discrimination and segregation are still present, affecting persons from minority communities. The downside of this particular tendency is that persons may rally behind a group that does not have the whole community’s interests at heart, therefore forcing particular members of the society to be pushed to the fringes. This is because the mammalian response system may have been programmed to perceive individuals from particular segments of society as threats. The immediate response would be one resulting in disunity, which is why cognitive science seeks to ensure that equality becomes a reality. The average American will have an easier time empathizing with illegal migrants since their mind does not register them as threats.

In conclusion, dualism presents a new challenge to cognitive science, with experts painstakingly seeking to explain the dichotomy that exists between the mind and the body. Both are in existence, though in different planes and play a huge role in influencing human behavior. Understanding cognitive science is the key to solving the mind-body problem and exposing the relationship that they share.

Social Expectations between 1450 and 1800

Social expectations and all other ideas tied to it have existed for centuries among world civilizations. These expectations were therefore an integral part of society since they determined the image that one would portray while settling into their adaptive function. Behaviors of whole populations were therefore decided by such expectations, even going as far as altering perceptions either directly or indirectly.  I opine that the main factor shaping nascent social expectations between 1450 and the 1800s was knowledge that was being disseminated between persons at an industrial scale. The developments that were to be made in society now depended on this crucial facet of society that would even go ahead to shape the most iconic periods in history. The Age of Enlightenment was a historical event that took place during this era and was punctuated by radical reorientation in the field of science, politics and philosophy (Walzer, 2003). It was during this period that thinkers emerged across Europe with radical views that they expected adherents to embrace. Thomas Hobbes was a notable figure during this period remembered for his best work, Leviathan, in which he espoused the absolute monarchy as the most ideal form of government. The general expectation was that individuals would become monarchists, even though this view proved quite divisive.

Nonetheless, it is vital to acknowledge that this was a tumultuous period in the political affairs of a majority of European powers. Leading thinkers such as John Locke were critical of the divine right of kings to rule over their subject and was quite critical of this form of government. The most dominant political philosophy was that of liberty to all while questioning traditional authority. It was these same notions that were embraced by the American settlers in the 13 British colonies who fought in the Revolutionary War (1776) and in the French Revolution (1779) (Starkey, 2013, p. 56).  On the economic front, capitalism emerged as the most dominant system.  Tools of production were in the hands of the bourgeoisie while the proletariats were expected to provide their labor for this particular cause.   On the other hand, established religions were on a rough patch particularly due to the permeation of scientific knowledge that now allowed people to question their own long-held beliefs. Persons therefore ascribed to what was popularly referred to as “scrutiny by reason” which allowed them to poke holes at miracles and transmutation.  They were therefore bold enough to question the church, demanding empirical evidence which would be the only way to prove claims that had been made by religious leaders.

Sex Trafficking in the Native American Community

Over the past decade, numerous interest groups have made it their life’s work to expose sex trafficking and its permeation across the entire globe. The primary objective of such pundits has always been to shed light on a modern-day existential debacle that still remains ignored by a wider section of society. In reality, sex trafficking has mushroomed into an endemic problem. The International Labor Organization (ILO) estimates that there are roughly 21 million people across the globe subjected to this form of human trafficking (Aronowitz, 2009, p. 89). It is for this very reason that sex trafficking has been named the most lucrative criminal business, posting proceeds that far exceed those of any legal enterprise. Contrary to popular belief, sex trafficking also has a firm foothold in the United States with Native American women accounting for a majority of the victims. Preliminary studies into this phenomenon have gone to reveal that the disproportionate rates of sex trafficking cases in the Native American community stem from its vulnerability. Higher rates of native women are trafficked per capita, in comparison to their non-native counterparts, a source of concern for many interested parties.  This research paper, therefore, seeks to explore sex trafficking amongst the Native American community with a specific focus on its historical context, major effects, the role of social workers and intervention strategies to curb the vice.

Historical Context

Trafficking amongst Native communities has existed from the first point of contact with explorers in the New World. In fact, journal entries by Cristoforo Colombo (1451-1506) reveal that Europeans frequently engaged in the exploitation of indigenous peoples of the Americas with women and young girls falling victims. It was this behavior that would soon set the tone for the abuse of Native American communities in the centuries that soon followed. Historical attitudes, such as the normalization of eroticized and hyper-sexualized images of Native American women are now commonplace in contemporary society. This form of degradation has largely been blamed for the high number of sex trafficking victims amongst members of this community, with most of them ending up in prostitution rings. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy to acknowledge that little empirical data exists on the exact number of Native women that are currently living in bondage in continental America. The reason for this peculiar state of affairs stems from the fact that most victims fail to identify themselves fearing shame while also openly distrusting law enforcement agencies (Brooks & Omohundro Institute of Early American History & Culture, 2012). As a result, members of this particular segment of American society have continued to suffer in silence with no one to turn to. The high demand for fetishized ethnic groups has made the situation even worse with Native women being in danger of abduction at any given point. Indigenous women hence remain vulnerable to this form of exploitation with racism, socio-economic inequality, and inadequate social serving as predisposing factors.

Major Effects of Sex Trafficking in the Native American Communities

The United States has always been at the forefront in terms of exposing cases of sex trafficking around the globe and the adverse impact that it has had on its victims. It is for this reason that January was named the National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention month, bringing to light the impact of this illegal trade on Native American Communities. Even with the scanty statistics, testimonies from tribal leaders, lobbyists, and independent investigators have gone revealed a grim reality. 41 % of women that have been rescued from sex traffickers in the United States identified as Native Americans (Deer, 2015, p. 67). This is rather surprising, especially considering that Native women represent 10% of the general population. One major effect of this state of affairs is the violent victimization of Native women. Rape has often been used by traffickers as a tool for control and dominance that would ensure sheer obedience. These women are then forced into prostitution for an unspecified period, with the trade soon taking its toll. Secondly, aggressive crimes have heavily impacted the Native American community, with human trafficking being solely to blame. Physical assaults are commonplace in such circumstances, with traffickers often murdering women who make repeated attempts to escape the yoke of bondage. Thirdly victims from far-flung localities such as Minnesota, North and South Dakota are soon inebriated with intoxicants. Traffickers use highly addictive psychotropic substances such as opioids, cocaine, and heroin to control their victims, making them toe the line. This, however, has negative effects on the victims since they soon develop a dependency that may end in an overdose. The fourth major effect of sex trafficking amongst members of this population involves psychological scars left on the victims and their families.  Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has been a hallmark of survivors who often have a hard time shaking off the trauma of what they had to live through. It is hence no wonder that suicide rates are highest amongst this group, since the burden of their psychological wounds often becomes too heavy for them to bear.

Role of Social Workers In Tackling Sex Trafficking

Although sex trafficking in the Native American communities has proved a hard nut to crack, social workers can play an active role in putting an end to this abhorrent trade. This is because they are first in line, when it comes to contact with Native communities across the United States. By acting as a conduit between the Federal Government and the Native Americans, social workers are uniquely positioned to help end the inequalities that have so often made these individuals susceptible to traffickers. Monetary inducements for a better life away from the reservations lead many desperate young girls into the vicious jaws of sex traffickers hell-bent on exploiting them. Social workers have an obligation to petition the Federal Government and all its agencies to make a concerted effort to provide more opportunities for Native communities. Programs encouraging fiscal emancipation are instrumental in making certain that Native American women become self-reliant, significantly reducing the risk of them being trafficked (“Human Trafficking in Native American Communities – ACAMS Today,” n.d.). Moreover, social workers have a responsibility to ensure that an elaborate child welfare service is established in Indian Reservations. This is because most victims of sex trafficking have been through the system at a particular point in their lives. Minimal social support amongst the youth means that they are easily targeted by marauding traffickers who often seek out such opportunities to trap their victims. Additionally, social workers have a responsibility to look out for at-risk children before instituting measures to protect them. These children are usually from poor families, orphaned or with limited education. A history of sexual abuse, truancy and substance abuse also magnifies the risk of sex trafficking, all signs which need to be looked out for by social workers.

Current Intervention Strategies

Human trafficking within the Native American community has received a heightened level of attention from federal and tribal governments.  This has prompted the implementation of legislation that would go a long way in curbing the permeation of this practice. For instance, the Navajo Nation has begun by implementing a set of laws meant to protect vulnerable members of the community. Individuals found culpable of collaborating with traffickers to kidnap these women are treated as criminals and tried before a court of law. The State Department has also made a commitment to ending sex trafficking in the Native American nations by increasing its annual funding to social welfare programs. Social workers working amongst Native peoples are therefore better placed to combating sex trafficking by empowering those at risk.  Raising awareness on the plight of Native Communities has also shed light on the issue and its dire state (Reséndez, 2017). More and more people are now cognizant of this reality and are working hard to ensure that resources are secured to combat this problem. The expansion of the Tribal Access Program has also been used as an intervention strategy. Training is offered as a contingency measure that makes certain all community members are aware of those who might be in mortal danger and steps that can be taken to assist them.

Significant Events that Took Place During The Roaring Twenties

The Roaring Twenties was an epoch in and around the 1920s that was punctuated by sustained prosperity in various spheres of Western society. For this assignment, a list of significant events that took place during this age will be listed and categorized as Economic, Social or Political. Furthermore, each incident will be connected to what was happening in American History at the time while paying attention to the specific details.

  1. Prosperity (Economic)

During the 1920s, the United States experienced extraordinary economic success. The end of the Great War (1914-18) brought with it factors necessary for sound economic growth. Financial capital was available and was combined with new technologies to transform American industries. Cheap labor was provided by refugees fleeing persecution in Europe, although this also led to the “Red Scare” during which the American public was living in fear of infiltration by Russian operatives keen on spreading communism.

  1. Organized Crime (Social)

Systematic and unlawful activities carried out for the sole purpose of making a profit soon became a noticeable hallmark of the Roaring Twenties. By now, it had surpassed the regional scale and was keen on becoming a national plague. Labor racketeering, the rise of the Mafia and crime syndicates soon became the norm in a majority of American cities as a response to the Prohibition Era (1919-33). Bartolomeo Vanzetti, Ferdinando Nicola Sacco and Al-Capone were notable figures during this period and were viewed by the Federal government as hazards to civility.

  1. Consumer Goods (Economic)

The unprecedented prosperity that was evident in the United States during the Roaring Twenties led to an increase in middle-class Americans with nascent patterns of consumption. Consumer goods such as clothing, beauty products and cars now became commonplace. Access to credit also made it possible for the average American to purchase these goods that were now quite affordable(Moore 67). In particular Henry Ford’s T- Model car brought ripple effects through the growth of the restaurants, oil, rubber and hotel industry. It was also during this period that radio waves were used for communication while the commercialization of air transport improved transportation.

  1. Freedom (Political)

The United States was founded on a foundation of freedom and liberty for all its citizenry. Under this premise, political changes were effected in the 1920s to realize this dream. The 19th Amendment was introduced which guaranteed women of the right to vote. In addition to this, there was an increase in initiatives to educate women on political matters since the Equal Rights Amendments had been introduced in 1923. It was also during this period that women started donning the flapper and used it as a symbol of their womanhood and independence.

  1. New Music and Dance (Social)

A shift in the American psyche meant that they could now focus more on the arts. Original music and dance became popular during this era with artists incorporating integration in their works. Phenomenon such as the Harlem Renaissances occurred during the Roaring Twenties were African American dancers, poets, authors and musicians demonstrated a level of solidarity and support for one another. Jazz was viewed as a tool that would be used to break down racial barriers and was expertly exploited by Duke Ellington, Bessie Smith and Duke Ellington.

  1. Prohibition (Social)

The ban on the manufacture, conveyance and sale of alcoholic liquors came into effect through the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution and marked the beginning of the Prohibition Era. Historical pundits trace its origin to the temperance movement, disappointed by the ineffectiveness of the Volstead Act. Both federal and local governments made concerted efforts to enforce it while using agencies such as the Internal Revenue Authority (IRS) as allies. Bootlegging and the rise in illegal bars (“speakeasies”) soon dealt a blow to these efforts and led to an increase in organized crime.

  1. Republicanism (Political)

Conservatism was also quite common during the Roaring Twenties. At its center were small governments that based their success on the sainthood of a chosen leader and the economic policies that they passed.  Three Republican presidents were elected to office during the 1920s and, even though controversial, won with a majority landslide. Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover all had conservative backgrounds and promised to bring economic recovery after the ravages of the First World War (1914-18).

  1. Political Scandals (Political)

Public concern also grew during the Roaring Twenties and was as a result of the Scandals that rocked President Warren G. Harding’s administration. Cronyism had crept into the highest echelons of power where senior associates of the president were accused of underhand dealings and corruption. The infamous “Teapot Dome” event marked the climax of these scandals with many of the indicted tied to illegal schemes to fleece the government. Nevertheless, the election of President Calvin Coolidge was meant to change this state of affairs and restore the federal government’s respect and credibility.

Research Proposal on Optimizing Customer Feedback

Research Background and Aim

The onset of the 20th presented new opportunities for business savvy persons across the globe to establish their enterprises while using new strategies to ensure that they thrived. Keeping these businesses afloat was a primary objective for most entrepreneurs with most of these individuals painstakingly seeking ingenious methods to outmaneuver their competitors.  It soon became apparent that the customer was the most integral cog that ultimately set these businesses in motion. Without their presence, many of these companies would fail and were soon back to the drawing board (Anderson & Dubinsky, 2004, p. 78). Successful conglomerates were famous for staying in touch with their customers in a bid to establish whether or not they had a worthwhile experience dealing with the company. The thinking behind these follow-ups was that additional information would be gathered from the clientele in a bid to determine whether the services they obtained were to their liking and the changes that needed to be instituted (Barlow & Møller, 1999). It’s from this epoch that we trace customer experience as an integral construct for the success of any commercial enterprise. Popular belief had it that customer satisfaction only involved the purchasing action of a potential customer. However, it’s evident that this assumption was erroneous as other intricacies have to be taken into account to conclusively cover customer experience (Bolton, 2016, p. 58). In contemporary times, customer experience has become the subject of concern for small enterprises and large corporations alike due to its importance whenever a customer comes into contact with the brand (Bergman & Klefsjo, 2010, p. 67). Customer experience, therefore, encapsulates the feelings that the target clientele has towards a particular brand and how they perceive it. Opinions do matter, and hence strategies by world-renowned brands to create an image that will be readily accepted by their target market together with all those who choose to purchase their wares.

Optimizing customer feedback, therefore, seeks to use a holistic approach in dealing with the experiences of all those who come into contact with a firm’s products. The brand message is consequently unified with its identity to ensure that there is consistency in the quality of the goods and services provided at every step of the way (Charantimath, 2011). The aim is to ensure that the customers are always happy with the products and services that they get while feeling like they do matter. The primary reason for carrying this study has to do with the fact that I have personally experienced the difficulties that can plague an enterprise in the absence of proper customer experience. My business associates and I own a business language school that serves various companies. The business model that we have embraced involves contracting teachers and trainers who are then sent to specific business sites to train individuals from multiple departments on how to use the English language when conducting business. The purpose of these training programs is to ensure that our clients are well-versed in all aspects of using English in business, which may range from general communication, presentation skills, teleconferencing, delivering negative news to making orders and requests. The debacle facing the company stems from a lack of customer service skills amongst the employees which is having adverse effects on output together with the shared relationship that is meant to exist with the trainees.  Nevertheless, it’s vital to acknowledge that the firm receives feedback from our clients. The problem lies in the fact that no proper mechanism exists to deal with the feedback, resulting in volumes of paper with comments that are never acted upon. Moreover, it has been noted with great concern that trainees intentionally avoid participating in these programs, making little or no progress. Most of these individuals are coerced into participating making them loathe the experience, with absconding being the only option. It’s also vital to acknowledge that progress has been slow with most of these individuals blaming the situation on the current state of affairs. The primary aim of this research paper is to find the most viable way to introduce change to the company and enable it to gain relative success in ensuring that the trainees have an easier time making progress. In essence, this research proposal seeks to solve this particular issue by presenting the best ways I which the company can optimize customer feedback, therefore improving their experience.

Research Questions

The following research questions have been identified in this study:

  1. Why is customer feedback optimization of the utmost importance to the business in question?
  2. How does the business in question miss the customer requests made?
  3. How has the lack of action on a customer request affected the interviewees?

Literature Review

Customer experience has always been an area of interest for previous studies. Fortune 500 corporations would go out of their way to fund numerous studies seeking to have a better understanding of customer experience and all the dynamics that surround it. In reality, the customer is the most critical person in transactions involving the firm and the reason why particular attention has to be paid to their satisfaction (Cook & Kogan Page, 2008, p. 34).  It’s therefore vital for companies to have developed customer service skills that are ideal and those that foster good relations between the two parties involved in the transaction. Once in a while, customers will have issues with some of the services provided by a company and their integrals that their feedback is considered and looked into whenever concerns are raised (Films Media Group, & Video Arts (Firm), 2016, p. 32). These strategies are lacking in our language department with the main worry being a lack of satisfaction by our customers who provide us with vital feedback. Receiving such information and acting on it is one of the essential actions that need to be undertaken to improve the success rate.  Optimizing a customer’s experience and feedback is vital to any brand because their satisfaction level is the main reason why they would choose to use a product again (Garber, 2005, p. 98). Therefore, optimizing feedback is a crucial differentiator of various brands offering the same services or product. Correctly implementing this strategy would increase a firm’s revenue due to an increase in the number of happy customers who are willing to use the product again (Gupta & Lehmann, 2008, p. 43). Moreover, optimizing customer feedback is an essential step for any firm with the intention of boosting its sales since it will, in the long run, ensures that loyal customers are retained. Hemorrhaging of sales is an expected effect of any firm that fails to receive comments from their customers with the urgency that they require.

According to Kaufmann (2012), businesses and the improvements made after that create a symbiotic relationship between the two entities involved. A business seeks to understand what it can do to for its clients to ensure that they enjoy their experience while obtaining the product or service. The client seeks the satisfaction of receiving the highest quality of service during their quest to obtain a product. In such a scenario, both the business and the customer are dependent upon each other to fulfill each other’s needs. Any company doing business seeks to make the highest amount of profit from any transaction (Harrell, 2010, p. 97). The objective is to improve the yearly projections to a point where it makes noticeable gains that will ensure that it remains buoyant in an ever-changing market. The customer, on the other hand, seeks to provide that they make the most out of the money they will be spending on a particular product or service. In such a scenario, the goal out of such a situation is to ensure that they get value for the money they will be spending while appreciating the whole experience. Additionally, a study by Dobrusskin (2015) reveals that optimizing customer feedback can be an essential problem-solving tool that businesses need to embrace (p. 222). Firms and companies need to acknowledge that at any given moment, even when they have used all their resources to improve their brand, lapses always seem to occur. These debacles may be brought about by human errors in the provision of the required service with the best option being to confront them (Hayes, 2008, p. 3). Businesses that spend most of their time focusing on correcting any obvious operational difficulties end up benefitting it in the long run. Customers develop a sense of appreciation for the brand and the manner in which the staff goes out of their way to ensure that any anomalies that had been noted are corrected swiftly.

Similarly, Binsar &Panjaitan (2014) opine that customer service is one of the most critical aspects of a company and is responsible for maintaining customer loyalty. In every single occasion, companies seek to ensure that they retain those first customers that tried their services. By so doing, they remain loyal to the brand in all situations and subscribe to the services provided. Even in adversity, they would brave the weather and make numerous sacrifices to ensure that they purchase the said products due to the top-notch services that they obtain from such an entity (Hickman & Wicks, 2006, p. 37). Loyalty is built on the first impression that an individual gets once they decide that the product being offered is worth their time and money. Under normal circumstances, these individuals wouldn’t want to move from one brand to another and would instead provide their opinion on changes they would love to see instituted to improve their experience. Companies which take this feedback seriously often indicate that they value their clients and are ready to make the necessary changes that would benefit them shortly. Such customers are highly likely to stick to a single brand that has proven beyond any reasonable doubt that they care about the opinion provided. Firms that often apply empathy in their operations are likely to act quickly whenever a customer raises any pertinent issue that is of concern to the customers. In some cases, the clients are encouraged to make any formal complaints whenever the company doesn’t deliver on its promise to provide them with the service that they require. Customers, therefore, end up feeling as though they have a say in the manner in which a particular company conducts its business as it is a clear indication that their opinion is valued by the top executives. Numerous benefits accrue whenever such a state emerges since most of these individuals would choose to stick with a brand that listens to them.

Tan (2012) suggests that there is a direct relationship between the level of customer satisfaction that exists and customer care skills (p. 67). Optimizing feedback is one among the many customer care skills that are necessary for a business to thrive. These powers are inherent in some of the employees, but not all; hence the urgent need to ensure that they are provided with necessary directions on how to handle the customers.  Developing these skills might involve costly extended sessions that might introduce new expenses to the company. In the long-run, however, it’s a worthwhile investment since the company will benefit directly from the skills that their staff will have gathered throughout the years. A business enterprise with a workforce that is well-versed in tending to their customers ensures that any complaints and feedback is recorded an acted upon with the urgency that is required. The whole idea is to deal with the issues raised within the shortest time possible which would ensure that the customers get a better experience the next time they seek these services. There are moments when customers request to be treated as equals, and this often happens when customer care representatives act on the grievances that they had presented. Over the years, numerous companies have made use of this technique to ensure that they attract more clients in a competitive market. Instead of focusing on their marketing strategies, companies would invest heavily in their customer care services and capability to respond appropriately to any issues raised. Kaufmann (2012) is particular about the focus that entities should put on customer care skills and the urgency with which they should respond to the questions posed. In most situations, companies are usually too busy delivering their service or wares that they are oblivious to the challenges customers may be facing when handling their products. Opening feedback as a line of communication ensures that they are aware of their flaws and are subsequently poised on responding to the feedback gathered.

Harrell (2013) opines that feedback is a litmus test for most business entities (p.43). The general expectation is that the responses received on the product and services provided are meant to improve the company’s standing and its outcomes. These entities are intended to produce goods that will be of value to their customers. It would be pointless for a business entity to be operational when it is apparent that the opinions of those they serve are always ignored. Capitalizing on the feedback provided is a precondition for growth especially when entities decide to treat it as constructive criticism.  The feedback provided can be used as a platform for the company to catapult itself to greatness (Hill, Allen, & Roche, 2007, p. 76). Companies have an opportunity to learn from any of their mistakes when they decide to take capitalize on the feedback provided and seek viable solutions that would improve the company’s standing. A customer’s response is a unique chance for a firm to come to terms with all the issues of concern that the business might have missed (Inc. (Firm), 2014, p. 54). Correcting these mishaps ensures that a company deals appropriately with any of its short-comings that will enable it to make small but noticeable changes. Optimizing customer feedback, nonetheless, serves as a keystone habit that a firm can capitalize on to ensure that all the employees have a better chance at dealing with issues raised by customers (Jansen, 2008, p.  78). From time immemorial, it has been proven through extensive studies that massive overhauls in the manner in which entities operate had little to no bearing on their success rate. In most cases, these knee-jerk reactions end up as total fiascos that leave the whole company reeling from the massive losses incurred during this difficult period (Moreira, 2017, p. 21). Optimizing the feedback provided by the customers enables allows a workforce to confront each case with the urgency that it requires while ensuring that every issue of concern is dealt with immediately. In such an event, customers are now able to appreciate the services they obtain and enjoy each experience, benefitting the company in the process.

In optimizing customer’s feedback, Di Pietro, Mugrion & Renzi (2013) suppose that proper identification of the specific requests made is vital if headway is to be made. Customer care representatives need to ensure that they fully comprehend the offer made to ensure that it’s dealt with as per the customer’s request (Johns, 2015, p. 23). Customers are usually particular in making a request. In most scenarios, there are particular things that they do not fully appreciate when seeking services from the company and their quest usually involves having these issues dealt with. A company needs to ensure that these particular requests are understood and identified to avoid a situation where there is a mix up that would lead to negative consequences. The assumptions made by the customer are that these issues will be dealt with and they should be able to realign them with the requests made earlier (Odden, 2012, p. 90). If the same customer experiences the same difficulty, the assumption made will be that the firm decided to ignore the requests made intentionally. Such a misunderstanding might be detrimental to the company’s standing since the customer might assume that their applications were intentionally ignored (Saleh & Shukairy, 2011, p. 56). The ripple effect in such a situation might lead to adverse effects on a company’s standing, especially if the customer in question would decide to go public with information on how the company makes responses. History is littered with occasions during which firms ended up making massive losses that were as a result of a misunderstanding from the requests provided by the customer and their subsequent appeals. Customers require feedback that is precise while seeking to respond appropriately to the requests that had been made earlier (Shaw, 2011, p. 57). The general idea in such a situation is to ensure that a customer’s desires are met and every request that they had made dealt with appropriately. Uniformity ensures the company is in good standing with its customers and meeting all their needs while solving any issue that may be of concern.

Research Plan

Overall Strategy

            The objective of conducting this research is to delve into customer services and the how instrumental they are in any firm. Over the years, it has come to our attention that customer service skills are lacking in our business, which impedes our ability to carry out our mandate. The problem extends to the relationship that we share with our trainees as the feedback provided is not dealt with by our team. The overall strategy in this research study is make an overall assessment of all the factors surrounding all the customer requests made and impediments to the feedback process. An overall assessment of where the business might be going wrong is vital in ensuring that all issues that are of concern are brought to the limelight to enable a speedy resolution to the matter (Szwarc, 2005, p. 77). Generally, the strategy used in this study will be one seeking to find the actual cause of the problem faced to ensure that there is a practical solution to the issue at hand. In essence, the study aims to come up with the best option regarding responding to this their requests and optimizing feedback to improve output.

Underlying Assumptions

The following are some of the underlying assumptions made in this study:

  1. The instruments that will be used in collecting data will elicit responses that can only be termed as reliable
  2. All respondent will have fully understood all the questions asked before responding to any of them.
  3. The respondents will be honest when providing their answers and will do so within their scope of knowledge.
  4. The questions posed by the researcher will be provided in a consistent manner



            In this research, quantitative methods will be used in assessing the best optimization technique. This will ensure that there is a standardized system capable of handling the feedback that the study seeks to delve into. It will be imperative to look into the feedback forms that had been received from the clients which would then allow for a detailed response as to why issues raised were never dealt with (Timm, 2011). In this particular case the study will involve 100 feedback forms that will be picked randomly and no more than 3 years old. This is to ensure that only recent matters are dealt with to establish the primary reason why the output was being affected. These methods provide that there is a conclusive analysis of select requests made and the reason why feedback was either delayed or non-existent. By using this technique, the study will present the reasons behind the prevailing state of affairs while interrogating the observer’s viewpoint. Quantitative methods ensure that the study is inter-subjective especially with the number checking technique to provide that the data collected from the interviewees is consistent with the general situation in the firm (Texas, 2001). This method aims to ensure that there is a correlation between the information provided and to ensure that statements collected are not misunderstood.

Origin of Samples to be studied

            The samples that will be put under this study’s scope will be obtained from the company’s logs. They include customer requests made to the company in the past three years and will only include those which were not addressed. These samples will be vital in assessing the strength of the customer service skills that the firm is lacking in and the ripple effect that this state of affairs has on the business (Thomas & Applegate, 2013, p. 59). Most of the trainees attending the program have complained of being forced to attend most of these sessions. The study will assess these responses with the requests made to establish whether it was the Human Resource departments in these companies also had a role to play by incorrectly grouping the trainees.

Data Collection Methods and Analysis of Results

            The data in this study will be collected using a combination of interviews and the filling of questionnaires. Participants will be selected based on the 100 customer requests that had been obtained awaiting responses. Interviews will first be conducted on the trainees to assess the damage that lack of appropriate response from the firm will have. This will establish the level of distraught that most of them feel when seeking to answers concerning issues that are of grave concern to them. Similarly, questionnaires are important in such a study to gauge the adverse effects that this delay in response is having on the trainees and the company in general. It’s possible to make use of a Pareto analysis model to make a precise classification of the factors that might be directly affecting the customer relationship (United States & United States, 2002, p. 56). Using its 80/20 principle, it will be possible to establish the origin of the problem and the most appropriate way to solve it. Moreover, it will be possible to use the cause and effect analysis in seeking the actual questions being encountered and how to solve them.


Ethical Review

All participants will receive sufficient information on the nature of the study beforehand to ensure that they understand what it entails. The purpose of this standard operating procedure is a measure to ascertain that they were aware of what the study required and was not coerced to participate in the study (Wellington, 2010). It’s also essential to ensure that all participants fully comprehend the study’s threshold to ensure that they were not coerced into participating in the research and did it on their volition.

Race Relations and Freedom in Of Love and Dust By Ernest Gaine

Race relations and the resultant effect that they have had on individuals living in the United States has always been a thorny issue to broach. In a society where a majority of the population descends from Caucasian European pioneers, minorities rarely get an equal share of the national cake and in most cases treated without any parity (Rodriguez, 2011, p. 43). African Americans, in particular, have had a long standing fight against a system that was often viewed as working against their interest. Here they were, in an unknown continent as descendants of slaves who had been brought across the Atlantic to work as manual laborers on plantations owned by wealthy white men with no pay. Ernest Gaines grew up in such an environment, as a descendant of slaves in the state of Louisiana who had been freed after the emancipation of his people and still witnesses the suffering that they have to endure. As a sharecropper family, they lead a wretched existence trying to make ends meet and place food on the table in a society that was built to favor a particular side of the divide and while leaving the other dispossessed. In Of Love and Dust, he seeks to explore the life of a black man living in the United States under a system that was explicitly setting them up for failure. Using Marcus as the protagonist, this masterfully crafted masterpiece is a sneak preview of what life was like for black folk during an epoch when all odds were against them. It is through this story that we get to understand the complexities of race relations and how artificial constructs that created a nascent superiority complex was responsible for the woes that befell many such people. The purpose of this essay is therefore to explore race relations and the façade that was freedom in a land full of contradictions.

It is apparent from Of Love and Dust that the system that was in place had not yet accepted African Americans as citizens of the United States, hence the oppressive nature of the justice system. African Americans are a people with a rich history filled with tales of sadness, trauma, and hope. Having been brought over as slaves to work on plantations, they were inadvertently made beasts of burden that were to be worked to the death. Many of those who had arrived in this New World had their life expectance significantly reduced due to the brutal nature of the work that awaited them. Historians point out that, on average, a slave in the American South could only endure about 8years of manual labor in the fields before they died out of exhaustion or wounds suffered during this particular ordeal (Perkinson, 2010). The experience was notably worse for women and children since they would have to get used to poor treatment by their overlords. Women would be systematically raped by their masters who viewed them as nothing more than property that could be purchased or sold at a whim. It is therefore shocking that the justice system would recommend bonded labor as the best form of punishment for a young black man. To “work off” his sentence, Marcus is forced to work as a laborer in a white man’s farm, a situation that is meant to assure him of his freedom ultimately. It is shocking that this is a most fitting form of punishment, especially considering the trauma that slavery had inflicted on African Americans. In reality, Marcus realizes that no black man is free but at the mercy of the white man who would do anything to ensure that they were put back to their shackles. Before this encounter, he had thought that life for him would be different; having been born during a different era, but still finds him trapped in a vicious cycle that was meant to ensure that people like him remained in the lower strata of society.

Black people are treated as second class citizens who are nothing more than a means to an end. The abolition of slavery and emancipation of all enslaved people has often been hailed as the beginning of freedom for African Americans, but nothing could be further from the truth. Although it is true that legendary leaders such as Abraham Lincoln were committed to ending slavery, others were not adequately prepared to see an end to this abominable institution (Blackmon, 2012, p. 32). The fact of the matter is that the prosperity of the United States was built on the backs of Africa slaves. These individuals worked all their lives on the farms of enterprising white men who did not want to see them acquire their freedom. They were meant to accept the situation as it was and in other cases, even told that the Bible had stated that their duty was to serve their master. It was this type of brain washing that made certain that these persons would not resist and willingly submit to their masters. It is apparent that their primary goal was to make the most out of the labor that could be provided by the black man and aid him in making more money. Marcus finds himself in such a situation when he is transported to Herbert plantation under the guise that he is working to ensure that he corrects his demeanor. In truth, the white establishment that was had settled on such an irrational system had done this to once again provide that they could make the most out of the black man. Their primary interest was not on correct these individual’s demeanor, but in ensuring that they benefit from them in a manner that would not be frowned upon immediately. To many who saw Marcus and his compatriots working, this seemed a reasonable scenario that was perfectly okay since they had committed heinous crimes that they needed to atone to sooner or later. The only person who was benefitting the most from this arrangement was the white land owner who was receiving free labor from the convicts.

It is also through Ernest Gaines and his tale that the average reader gets to acknowledge the conditions that slaves had to endure. Many often hear the tales of the sheer horror that slavery had brought upon those transported across the Atlantic. It was no wonder that some even chose to drown in the seas as opposed to spending the rest of their lives under the control of another individual. Slaves were the first to wake up, and the last to resign to their quarters. They labored day and night so that their masters could enjoy an earthly kingdom while they waited for a heavenly one (Gleissner, 2010). Those who had a difficult time working under such brutal conditions were severely punished and others sold at a lower price to other plantations where conditions were even much worse. Floggings were a common sight, with slaves routinely experiencing it under their overseers.  The situation that Marcus finds himself in is genuinely reminiscent of the dark days of slavery when the overseers were ready to kill a black man out of contempt. They could do this by publicly flogging them in front of other slaves or by dramatically increasing their work load to a point where death was the only thing coming their way. The Cajun overseer put in charge of Marcus, and the other convicts represent modern day slavery and a representation of what slaves went through while in servitude. A personal difference between him and Marcus sees him hell-bent on revenge to ensure that he teaches the young convict a lesson. As a white man, he feels superior and with the power to do as he pleased even if it meant mistreating another human being. He works Marcus under grueling conditions to break his will and to ensure that he kills him out of spite and also due to his position in society.

Race relations are also brought into perspective in Of Love and Dust when observing the relationship that exists between the landowner and his black lover. From time immemorial, the race has always been a thorny subject in the United States. So much so that many would avoid broaching this subject due to the can of worms that it might open. Those who now identify as “black” walk around with faces that are a clear reminder of their origin. Their shade of black and fair complexion is evidence of race mixing which probably took place many generations back when their ancestors were still slaves. Women often became the victims of sexual violence in an environment where rape had been normalized. Many of these women ended up pregnant and what is surprising is that their masters viewed this from an economic perspective (Smithers, 2012, p. 57). Their children were still considered slaves and therefore enjoyed no privileges. They would be sold as high value slaves or put to work inside the house as butlers who were more presentable in the eyes of white visitors. In other occasions, black women could not turn down the advances of these white men since they viewed it as a way in which they could gain sure favors from their overlords. The main reason why this was the case stems from the fact that these plantation owners could decide the fate of slave women and their children. They could choose to sell them and separate them from their families or send them to work in the fields like any other ordinary slave. In Of Love and Dust, the landowner is no different as he develops one such relationship with a woman living on his farm. Even though the woman loves her, he does not reciprocate this affection and puts her at arm’s length. He extends this cold treatment further by denying the two children that result from the relationship any privilege that would assure them of social advancement.

From Of Love and Dust, it is evident that Marcus is the face of perseverance even during the hardest of times. Marcus has suffered a great deal. He has been imprisoned by a racist society that seeks to see him relegated to the periphery. Like any black man during this period, the threat of violent death is never far way. In the South, white supremacists are looking for every bit of excuse to lynch any black man they can get their hands on while those who are lucky enough to escape them find themselves in the hands of the justice system. Simply put, life is not pleasant for a black man living in te United States. But Marcus is no ordinary black man. He shocks the narrator by exhibiting blatant defiance of authority and makes rebellion his life’s work. He is aware of his present situation but refuses to capitulate or let it define him. Moreover, he is determined to make the most of his time at the farm and even manages to seduce the landowner’s wife (Gaines, 2012). Marcus does this even with the risk of death hanging over his head but is fearless in his approach. He, therefore, represents hope for all black people who still experience oppression in the United States. Being aware of his situation makes him cherish every moment and avoid letting anything hold him back.  In a country still plagued by the ghosts of racism, Marcus represents optimism in the face of persecution.

In finality, Ernest Gaine’s Of Love and Dust delves into institutionalized racism and the effects that this system had on those caught up in this maze. Through Marcus’s story, it is possible to deduce the oppressive nature of this system, how it affected those caught up in it and how others managed to cope. It also represents hope for those still experiencing racism in this new age and serves as an inspirational piece of literature.

BUS 6420 – Need for Sustainability Manager – Assignment And Sample Answer

Assignment Instructions – Need for Sustainability Manager

A Sustainability Manager provides a specific focus on the environmental and social concerns of the company. In this assignment you will explore the importance of this position and the incorporated responsibilities.

Review what happens next at Top Shelf from the Top Shelf Scenario :

Top Shelf has a fairly typical ratio of managers to employees. However, your team knows that having a dedicated staff to focus on sustainability has worked well at other companies. Research sustainable management. Identify and research companies that have a sustainability manager (SM) or a similar position. Select three companies for use in this assignment. At least one of the three selected companies should also be in the retail industry.

Prepare a report making a case for Top Shelf to hire an SM. Cover the following in your report:

  • Explain the role and importance of an SM within a company.
  • Analyze the approach of your selected three companies toward sustainable management.
  • Provide rationale for Top Shelf to have a management focus on sustainability.
  • Explain the specific responsibilities the SM will take up at Top Shelf and the benefits and costs associated with the hire.

Sample Answer –  Report on the Vitality of Hiring a Sustainability Manager (SM) at Top Shelf

Role and Importance of a Sustainability Manager within a Company  

We currently live in an era where the society is acutely aware of all activities carried out by humanity and how some of them may eventually affect the environment. It is for this very reason that prominent conglomerates the world over increasingly hire sustainability managers (SM) to fill their ranks. These individuals are integral in these modern organizations since they play a pivotal role in ensuring that the firms commit to an agenda that espouses posterity. Resources are scarce commodities, which is why sustainability managers (SMs) are at the forefront of ensuring that they are not depleted and, in the process, securing them for future generations (Andreas, 2011, p. 67). Moreover, companies that hire these professionals have an edge over their business rivals since they are now able to evaluate the economic viability of their undertakings. It is through this multifaceted role that all environmental standards are upheld, allowing the company to produce its consumer good without threatening a green future. Sustainable managers (SMs) are assets companies since they play an active role in formulating strategies that will ultimately reduce any possible ecological damage. They also play a crucial role in liaising with local authorities, agencies and other bodies related to the national government in an effort to promote ecological sustainability. General Electric Multinational Conglomerate Company, Siemens, and the retailer H&M have taken a keen interest in this approach and have made concerted efforts to hire sustainable managers (SM) as part of their management team.

An Evaluation of the Approaches Employed General Electric Co, Siemens, and H&M Toward Sustainable Management

Sustainable management has been adopted wholly by leading brands across the world that seeking to leave a lasting legacy with regard to a green future. General Electric, Siemens, and H&M have committed to this particular cause and have, for a while now, been leading voices in sustainable management. Siemens was one of the first business entities to embrace this move, particularly because it dabbled in the production of imaging machines and, in some cases, even power plants. The nature of the business that it engaged in meant that the companies had to first figure out a way of becoming more energy-efficient and in turn score high in Corporate Knight’s metric ranking. A typical approach adopted in this particular case involved the creation of infrastructure that was, in essence, environmentally friendly thus living up to their ideals. Additionally, the company also makes use of products such as air conditioning structures and green heating. Through joint initiatives, Siemens has been successful in bringing the society, like-minded politicians, and international organizations together to acknowledge the need for partnership at various levels for a better future.  On the other hand, General Electric takes its sustainability efforts a notch higher by aligning its business strategy in a way that it eventually ends up minimizing its environmental impact. These efforts are carried out while meeting societal needs and advancing the development of communities. Healthy-imagination and eco-imagination are examples of efforts that the firm has adopted, making sure that they are in line with the Environment, Health, and Safety (EHS) requirements. H&M adopts a more proactive approach when dealing with matters of sustainability. Their circular strategy aims to produce high-end pieces that also promote sustainability through the use of the organic material. It is noteworthy to acknowledge that these strategies were formulated by seasoned sustainability managers.

The rationale for Top Shelf Having a Management Team focused on Sustainability

From the aforementioned cases, it is fundamental for any well-meaning firm to make a concerted effort towards sustainability owing to the benefits that would accrue from a conscientious integration of this approach. A management team at Top Shelf that is focused on sustainability will provide the company with a competitive advantage that would go a long way in improving its image. Such employees, therefore, take a personal interest in ensuring that they raise the public’s awareness while introducing them to their sustainable habits. Productivity in the firm will also increase while the cost of production would reduce considerably (Hitchcock & Willard, 2015). This is because all employees will now pay close attention to efficient operation, all geared towards conserving the resources that are at their disposal. They are therefore better placed to comply with all relevant regulations in addition to attracting potential investors.

Responsibilities of a Sustainable Manager (SM) coupled with Costs and Benefits Associated with the Hire

A sustainable manager (SM) is at the forefront of ensuring that the company in question is steadily working towards staying green. This is done by developing action plans and policies that are to be adopted as the de facto modus operandi in all operational capacities. A sustainable manager (SM) is also responsible for disseminating information on the strategies that have been developed and an appropriate budget to fund such activities. Another key responsibility is ensuring that they keep track of the firm’s sustainability performance. Keeping track of these KPIs makes certain that the metrics are provided using a context-based system that reveals the sustainability efforts. The average annual salary for professionals filling this position hovers around $40,000 and $50,000 annually. With such an individual, the company is now assured of a firm environmental standing with an expert capable of analyzing and managing all sustainable plans.

BUS 6420 Argosy- Course Project Scenario : Top Shelf Shoes

Top Shelf was found in 1990 by Tie Woodward. Within five years, Top Shelf had established a solid presence in the global shoe business with production facilities in Asia and sales throughout the world. By 2000, Top Shelf had a share of 45 percent of the global market in shoe sales. In 2001, Top Shelf made the Fortune 500 list of privately held companies and Tie was awarded the coveted International Business Award. However, Tie claimed the real success of his firm could be seen in the stylish Top Shelf shoes being worn by everyone from villagers in Africa to rock stars in Hollywood.

In 2003, a major competitor of Top Shelf began a green marketing campaign to highlight its efforts to reduce its environmental footprint with its new “Green Shoe.” A simultaneous, growing concern for environmental issues helped spur the sales of Top Shelf’s competitor—it gained market share. As the competitor’s sales increased, news stories began to question the implications of Top Shelf’s business practices, especially as they related to low cost labor and environmental concerns. Within a fiscal quarter, Top Shelf sales were down by 10 percent. Tie responded by exclaiming on the Nightly Business Report that everyone had to wear shoes and Top Shelf made the best looking and most affordable foot fixtures on the planet. Sales fell another 5 percent the following quarter. Tie’s management team attributed this to the competition’s green efforts and the bad publicity received by Top Shelf.

Tie’s firm hired a middle manager for environmental affairs and launched a green campaign that touted a Top Shelf shoe-recycling program with the slogan “We make them, you wear them, we’ll recycle them. It’s good for your feet and good for the earth.” Sales climbed back up 7 percent over the next quarter, and the boss gave out bonuses to his management team.

While initial reaction to the marketing was positive, especially among longtime Top Shelf shoe wearers, two reporters, Burnstone and Woodwoe, broke a story about the impact of air and water pollution at Top Shelf’s shoe-recycling facility on the outskirts of a major city in Asia. Apparently, some of the shoes were recycled to produce energy. According to the report by Burnstone and Woodwoe, the shoes were being burned by low-wage workers without any precautions for the workers’ health. An increasing number of children and elderly in the region began showing up at clinics and hospitals with breathing problems, dizziness, and toxic blood poisoning. Then, a worker at the plant collapsed and died in front of the large kiln.

Global news organizations, bloggers, and YouTube broadcasters quickly picked up the story. The sales of Top Shelf began to plummet. By the end of the fiscal year, the company saw a 50 percent reduction in revenue as compared to the previous year. Growth was no longer the issue. Instead the company was faced with the problem of how to stay afloat despite the significant losses and depleting capital. This time, Tie made no public pronouncements. He laid off the manager of the recycling plant, shut down the kiln at the plant, and, on the advice of long-time friend Gifford Pinchot III, hired a reputable sustainable business consulting firm, Sustainable Growth Strategies, to advise Top Shelf on everything from public relations to substantive changes in the company’s labor and environmental policies.

Assume you are leading the consulting team for Sustainable Growth Strategies. You are responsible for the analysis leading to a report with a set of recommendations to put Top Shelf on the path to sustainability. Your first task is to prepare a brief paper for Top Shelf that explains the meaning and use of sustainability within a business context. Your team reports directly to Tie Woodward. He is a sharp, hardworking, and open-minded leader with a sense of humor. Tie realizes that every day without a genuine sustainability plan is bad for business. Therefore, he wants to show as soon as possible that the company is committed to sustainability. He realizes that there may be advantages in positioning Top Shelf as a sustainability leader in the long run.