The Developments of Industrialization That Positively and Negatively Affected American lives and United States in General

The Developments of Industrialization That Positively Affected American lives or the United States in General

            The fierce competition among the European countries in the 17th century, led to competition for land, since the more land a country had, the more raw materials it had for its factories (Unyimadu, 1989). Consequently, Britain colonized America for its industrial raw materials and this made the United States their chief source of raw materials. However, the lack of local industrial productions led Britain to import majority of its goods from their country. Although Industrial revolution had begun in Britain in mid 18th century, the attainment of independence in America intensified competition between the two countries.  The Americans began to feel the pressure to industrialize in order to keep up with the pace of the industrial revolution. Industrial revolution would begin in America late, but later overtook the Great Britain. Many developments that took place during the industrial revolution in the United States had positive and negative impacts on American life and the United States in general.

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            The increased need to need to improve the transportation of the products that were being produced in America necessitated the development of an efficient and faster mode of transport. The developments during the “Transportation Revolution” in the early 19th century saw the innovations of multiple modes of transportation (Long & Shpotov, 1995). The railroads, steamboats and canals were developed to help farmers, who by 1815, were struggling to cope up with expensive costs of transportation of their goods. Towards the end of the “Transportation Revolution” in 1850, most of the farmers were making more profit since transportation costs had been cut considerably. Although the financing of the roadways would later become an issue between the federal government and the states, their development was important in ensuring faster transport of raw materials to the manufacturing units and markets.

Read also Urbanization, Migration, and Industrialization in America between 1900 and 1950

            The developments in the transport sector and the industrial innovations led to an increase in the value of goods of the American industry. Between 1870 and 1916, there were improvements in the production methods (Rosenbloom, 1998). After the American civil war, there was widespread use of machinery in manufacturing units. The use of machines created production efficiency and many could be produced than before, when hands were used. Farming became mechanized and cotton machines were used extensively. Large manufacturing farms were developed and new products became available in the markets.

Read also Industrialization After the Civil War – Essay

            The developments and use of machines in the industrial production led to creation of jobs in the factories. Large manufacturing firms employed workers to work in various categories in the factories (Rosenbloom, 1998). Every worker was assigned a specific part in the production process, creating division of labour, which sped up production. The factory workers were paid wages, and this led to improvement in the standards of living. Consequently, huge businesses sprung up in support of the large manufacturing companies. This business boom opened up financial opportunities, from which wealth was created.

            In addition, the development of the manufacturing plants led to a shift in the population, which became predominantly urbanized. Majority of the business people became wealthy leading to a growth of millionaires from twenty in 1850 to 3000 in early 1900 (Rosenbloom, 1998). The emergence of wealthy individuals led to the developments of classes. The factory workers and managers, small business owners and the wealthy owners of huge enterprises lived comfortable lives compared to the predominantly rural populations. This group later became the American middle class. This period impacted positively on the lives of the American factory laborers and the American economy.

The Industrialization Developments That Negatively Affected American Lives or the United States

            Although industrial revolution brought unprecedented growth in economy and improvement in the living standards, it also brought some negative impacts on the American lives. According to (Blumin, 2006), industrialization and urbanization have had a negative impact on the social stability, environment and the economy. The developments of machines and large manufacturing units in the 19th century created urbanization phenomena in the United States. As industries developed, many people moved from their rural homes to seek for employment in the cities. The influx of the rural people in search of factory jobs created an oversupply of workforce, increasing unemployment rates.

            The massive immigrations from Europe to the American cities in the 19th and 20th centuries caused overcrowding due to low housing supply (Blumin, 2006). Moreover, the huge labour supply coupled with the high rural to urban influx of people within United States created an oversupply of the workforce. Although the factory workers experienced long working hours, low pay and unsafe conditions, the influx of immigrants and the rural-urban migration limited the bargaining power of the industrial workers. As a result, many workers were paid poorly and is created economic inequalities.

            Moreover, the overcrowding due to immigrants and rural to urban migration, led to rapid spread of deadly diseases. According to (Rosenbloom, 1998), 1918-1919 saw many people in the American cities affected by the Spanish influenza. In addition, urbanization and industrialization of the 19th century led to environmental deterioration. Most of the industries during the 19th century industrial revolution used mainly coal powered plants. The combustion of coal released carbon dioxide, which combined with rain releasing acid rain, which was discovered in the middle of the 19th century. Moreover, the use of coal polluted working environment and factories reported deaths due to asphyxiation. By mid 19th century, Donora, Pennsylvania had lost twenty residents to asphyxiation and over thousands of residents were reportedly sick. 

Analysis on Whether Industrialization Was Generally Beneficial or Detrimental To the Lives of Americans and the History of United States

            Although industrial revolution caused some negative impacts, the huge positive impacts that were achieved throughput the industrial revolution were beneficial to the lives and economy of the United States (Weiss & Burns, 1977). The industrial revolution is credited for other benefits like the recognition and improvements of rights of women, who were allowed to work on factories. Moreover, it improved the living standards of the people, created business boom and thus improved the United States economic growth. The industrial revolution was so rapid in the United States that the country overtook Great Britain to become world economic superpower.          

Although there were some negative impacts that were associated with the industrial revolution in the United States, perhaps if proper research was available it could have been minimized. Industrial pollution can be observed in the modern world, albeit at minimal levels compared to the industrial revolution, owing to research that has created more efficient and environment friendly machines. It is hard to blame industrial revolution based on its negative impacts without regard to its huge positive impacts that improved lives, created wealth, led to development of social amenities and mass production of products to satisfy the increased demands. Therefore, the benefits of industrial revolution outweighs its negative, hence it was beneficial for the lives of Americans and America in general.

The Perceptions towards Addiction in My Culture

Although there have been great developments in research towards the problem of addictions and the possible clinical and psychological therapies, there remain unique perceptions towards the problem in many cultures (Gunzerath, Hewitt, Li, & Warren, 2011). In my culture, many people still believe that the addicts lack self-control and that their inability to exercise choice makes addicts vulnerable to drug abuse. People believe that being a drug addict is a matter of exercise of personal free will, since they belief that addiction occurs when an individual completely surrenders his/her free will and thus giving up his choices. This is why most drug addicts in my culture face stigmatization, because of the believe that the problem is rather a personal choice.

Read also Why Therapy is Essential for Treating Addiction

            However, the developments in the fields of psychology and medicine have seen the developments of various models of addictions. The knowledge gained through the course materials and class has changed my view regarding the problem of addiction. I think addicts have no moral defect. Being an addict is a psychological, social and biological problem that can be treated with appropriate diagnosis and therapeutic procedures, thus restoring an individual to a normal life.

Read also Demystifying MDMA Addiction          

Addictions can be caused by a combination of many factors as explained in the biopsychosocial model (Dodes, 2009). The biopsychosocial model asserts that addiction is attributed to the biological causes, such as genetics and the interaction of an individual with the surrounding. The environmental influences include the social interactions, early life experiences and culture. Through the model, it is evident that it is the combination of factors that cause addiction and no a matter of moral defect among the individuals.

Read also Steps of Addictions Assessment Processes Assignment And Sample Answer

Taino Indians – Native Indians Of Puerto Rico

Taino Indians are a subgroup of the lager group of Indians known as Arawakan who lived in the north eastern part of North America. The Taino Indians settled in Puerto Rico as well as the Greater Antilles during the period of Christopher Columbus’ arrival (Crosby, 47). The settlement of Taino Indians in Puerto Rico was as a result of their desire to depart from other groups forming the larger Arakawan Indians in North Eastern part of South America and venture into the new lands of Puerto Rico. There Choice to settle in Puerto Rico led them to encounter several other communities with diverse cultural background, economic activities as well as religious beliefs. Their settlement in Puerto Rico, therefore, had a general influence on the economic, Socio cultural and religious way of life of the people they resided with in Puerto Rico. Moreover they had things to learn from the locals of Puerto Rico. This led to a cross cultural exchange of beliefs and ideologies among the various communities (Córdova, 1990).

The Reawakens, who initially included the Taino Indians, are believed to have their origin from a village called Saladero located in Venezuela. They migrated, passing through the Caribbean at around 900 BC and settled within the Greater Antilles (Schimmer, 65). With the passage of time, a section of the Reawakens developed a distinct culture that was different in all aspects from the original culture of the Arawakan people as well as the Lesser Antilles and the Fierce Caribs. This group of the Reawakens later came to be known as the Tainos. The Taino Indians then moved into Puerto Rico as well as the Greater Antilles during the period of Christopher Columbus’ arrival (Saunders, 2005).

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The Taino Indians did not live in isolation but encountered other neighboring communities in Puerto Rico such as the Carib tribes as well as the immigrant Spaniards who came in later on to colonize them (Miguel, 171). The Carib tribes were, for a long time, enemies of Taino Indians. During their stay in Puerto Rico, they also encountered the Spaniards who came in an attempt to colonize them. They were faced with great intimidation from the Spaniards who wanted to colonize them against their wish. These intimidations went as far as sexually molesting the Taino Indians’ women. In addition, they were required to pay tax to the Spaniards in form of gold or spun cotton. Those who failed to comply had their hands cut off and they bled to death. Moreover, the Taino encountered infections in Puerto Rico to which they had neither immunity nor capacity to cure. Smallpox outbreak in 1518, for instance, led to the death of about 90% of the population (Madrigal, 121). They further encountered colonialism from the Spaniards in Puerto Rico.   

This notwithstanding, the Taino Indians made several exchanges with the neighboring communities as well as the immigrant Spaniards. The Spaniards, for instance, took their women as wives. These inter marriages led to cultural exchanges among the two communities. The Christianity for instance started being appreciated by some of the Taino Indians as a result as a result of such intermarriages. It is worth noting that the Taino Indians were originally ancestral worshippers (Traboulay, 47). Moreover a new interbreeds between the Taino Indians and the Spaniards arose. Mesta’s children arose from this cross cultural marriages. Substantial cultural exchange was also witnessed in Cuba (Watts, 2003).

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The Tiano language was also copied by several other neighboring communities. Many carrib women, for instance started speaking Tiano having leant the language from the Tiano Women who had been taken as captives by the neighboring Carib tribes who constantly raided them.

It is worth noting as well that Taino Indians culture and way of life become the most prominent in Puerto Rico. Most of the other communities learnt hunting skills as well as agriculture from Taino Indians. Foods such as potatoes, cassavas, mamey, garlic, Onan and quava that were originally eaten by the Taino Indians become common among all the communities in Puerto Rico. Places were further named in Tiano. Towns such as Mayanguez, Humacoa, Caguas as well as Utuado still use Tiani names to date (Sale, 2014).

European settlers also copied Tiano techniques and implements such as hamaca (hammock), Bohio (straw house) as well as Maracas (a Tiano musical instrument). They further learnt how to prepare and eat Tiano meals such as Cassava bread. Taino Indians influenced the Puerto Rican language and vocabulary to a large extends and many of their words have remained in Puerto Rican vocabulary to date (Aikhenvald, 7). In addition many Tiani superstition were adopted by all the communities in the Puerto Rica and influenced their way of life to a large extend. In conclusion, the separation of the Tiano from the rest of the Reawakens and their subsequent settlement in Puerto Rica had a great impact not only to them but also to the neighboring community in Puerto Rico.  Their desire to explore new lands landed them in Puerto Rica. They however, encountered both positive and negative effects from the neighboring communities. Negative effects included diseases, colonization among other. Positive effects included cross cultural interactions and benefits that come with such interactions.

Types of Misconduct by Community Corrections Professionals

The correctional system in the United States has evolved over the years. In the contemporary America, the correctional setting has seen the development of a number of policies and laws to protect the rights of prisoners serving prison terms in community service. However, there are misconducts, which community corrections professionals commit in the course of the execution of their duties (Pollock, 2012). One of the misconduct by community corrections professionals is the act of selling of paroles to prison convicts before the completion of their prison term.

Read also Role of Intermediate Sanctions in Corrections

 According to (Pollock, 2012, p. 416) some of the professional officers in charge of the community corrections fail to keep track of the individuals serving paroles. Moreover, such officers in charge of the community corrections have been accused of rushing into giving out paroles into non-disserving prisoners. According to the author, most of the paroles issued to the prisoners in the community corrections are done haphazardly in short time without proper considerations of the prisoner’s behavior and past offences recorded in public.

Read also Codes of Ethics for the Corrections Officer

The other misconduct by community correction professionals is the hiring of their relatives to work in the centers. Some of the relatives hired have little knowledge and training to serve in correctional facilities. This often leads to ethical problems such as inappropriate determination of punishments. For example, if a junior employee in a correctional center is related or married to a senior officer in charge of the community correctional center, the officer may not be in a capacity to report sexual misconduct to a prisoner by such a senior employee.

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Some community correctional professionals have been accused of having sexual relations with the prisoners (Simonian & Smith, 2006). This amounts to misconduct and is against the federal law of criminal justice. Such community correctional officers engage in sexual relationships as a form of giving favorable treatment to the prisoners. In addition, such relationships hamper the administration of justice, since the officers may not be in positions to administer punishments (Worley, Marquart, & Mullings, 2003). Other misconducts include the excessive use of force while offering punishments to the inmates, which may cause injury. Some community professionals also accept crimes in return to protecting the inmates against charges related to crimes such as drug abuse and sale. Similarly, correctional officers may abuse their authorities by forgetting an appointment or forgetting to let them out when their prison term is over and ignoring their necessities.

Read also Final Paper ECE303 – Issues Regarding Corrections System

Some of the Explanations for the Misconducts

            According to (Pollock, 2012), most correctional officers fail to observe their professional ethics of conduct and end up developing close relationships with the prisoners. Such relationships may develop more and lead to sexual relations. The other explanation for the misconduct of correctional officers in community correctional centers is excessive pressure that results from the workload. Most of the correctional officers have huge workloads and this often gives them pressure, which leads them into hiring their relatives in order to relieve them of their workloads. Moreover, the failure of state departments to offer adequate training and enough funding to hire qualified staff is attributed to the misconduct of the community correctional officers.          

Read also Misconducts in Policing, Their Causal Factors and Strategies Used to Prevent Such Occurrences

The other explanations related to misconduct of the community correctional officers is the organizational explanations (Pollock, 2012). There is a general feeling that the prison environment is like a jungle, which creates hopelessness and frustration among the prisoners and the inmates. Although few of the community correctional officers engage in abuse, the institutional culture shields them since there is a general believe that the prisoners are always wrong and the correctional officers are right. These have been pointed as some of the explanations for the misconduct of the community correctional professionals.

Learner Background Factors and Learning of the Second Language Pragmatics

The authors of the article “Learner background factors and learning of the second language pragmatics” seek to explain the extent to which several factors affect the ease with which an individual learns a new language. The article reports the findings of an investigative research that sought to establish the effect of factors such as the length of time an individual has resided among the people who speak the foreign language, proficiency, gender, ability to recognize routine formulae as well as speech act production in English.  

According to the authors Proficiency in second language can not only be limited to the learner’s grammatical knowledge of the target language but includes the learner’s linguistic ability to analyze and present ideas in a manner that is appreciated in the target language. The length of time that a learner resides among the target community, on the other hand, gives the learner an opportunity to exercise the target language in different roles of speech. The article however points out that mere physical presence among the target group does not guarantee the learners quick learning of the target language. Other factors such as the willingness and ability of the learner to contact and interact with the target community are crucial in the learning process (Rover C, Wang S & Brophy S, 2014)

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Whereas the article acknowledges that there is little research that has been done on the effect of gender on the ease of learning a second language, the authors still acknowledge that female learners have exhibited a greater ability to learn as compared to their male counterparts from the few researches that have been carried out.

The article further highlights that routine expressions help the learner to socialize with the target community and hence learn faster.

In summary, the research carried out find out that proficiency played a greater role in learning a second language as compared to time of residence. The effect of gender was found to be much smaller than was expected.

The main problem that the article addresses is the extent to which factor such as gender and time of residence affect learning and performance of pragmatics. The article seeks to clear the uncertainty surrounding the level of impact of various factors affecting pragmatic competence. 

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The major argument presented by this article is the fact that several factors affect the rate at which an individual learns a second language with varying degrees. The author seeks to prove that proficiency have a greater impact on an individual’s ability to learn a new language as compared to the other factors. The authors also identify gender as a factor with the least but noticeable influence on the learner’s ability to learn a new language. According to the author, proficiency plays a greater role in implicature comprehension. The article further argues that proficiency as well as length of residence affects to a greater extent the level of routine formulae recognition.

One of the assumptions that the authors of this article makes is that group membership is equivalent to proficiency. The article therefore assumes that 4th year learners are more proficient as compared to their counterparts in 3rd year, 2nd year and 1st year (Rover C, Wang S & Brophy S, 2014)

. Read also Standards Impacting English Language Learners

In defending their arguments, authors of this article have presented a structured research project and subsequent statistical data that demonstrate their point of view. The research involves formulation of a questionnaire that seeks to establish the effect of length of residence, gender, proficiency level as well as multilingualism on the ability of learners to recognize routine formulae in the target language comprehend implicature and create speech acts.

The regression estimates obtained in the initial set of data indicated that the multilingual coefficient had no significant impact over the three regression series. The research indicated that every additional month of residence led to 0.1% in the score of the learner’s implicature. The article therefore argues that residence is an insignificant contributor the learner’s implicature score. The findings of the research further indicate that female learners are able to learn at a rate 10% higher than their male counterparts (Rover C, Wang S & Brophy S, 2014)

Read also Helping Students Maintain and Extend Their Pride in Their First Languages and Cultures in Classroom Settings

. This, according to the authors, is an insignificant contributor to the learner’s implicature score. The research interprets group membership as proficiency. Going by this interpretation, the research found out that 4th year learners had double implicature scores compared to their 3rd year counterparts. Proficiency therefore bears the greatest impact on the learners implicature score and hence ability to learn a new language. The findings further indicate that time of residence has a greater impact on routine phrases as compared to implicature. Every additional month of residence led to a 0.3% improvement in routine.

One of the major strengths of the article is that, in proving their point, the authors have used poison Regression as a tool of study and have generated statistical data to prove their point. This has given the article factual authenticity as opposed to an otherwise plain argument without statistics to back up the claims. On the study however, the sample size is too small and may not necessarily reflex the reality on the ground. This is therefore a major weakness in the presentation of the argument in this passage. The counter argument would be that time of residence should have a greater contribution individual’s ability to learn a new language as compared to the other factor.

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In conclusion the authors of the articles have tried their best to prove their point of argument that proficiency has a greater impact on an individual’s ability to learn a new language as compared to the other factors.

Two Fundamental Reasons Why the American Civil War Occurred

One major reason that led to American Civil War was the economic differences between the North and the South (Trueman, 2015). The introduction of the cotton machine in the North led to a reliance on wage laborers and not slaves. However, the Southern farmers and planters relied mainly on slaves for cheap labor. The South made huge profits due to the low cost of producing cotton that resulted from cheap slave labor. The South fought the war in order to retain slaves, while the Northerners fought in order to free slaves. However, the cause of war goes beyond the agricultural economics and is attributed to other factors.

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            The other major cause of the American Civil war was the political differences between the North and the South (Trueman, 2015). There were turbulent politics in US that occurred after the 1850 compromise. Political, legal and physical confrontations ensued between the North and the South on whether to admit Kansas as a slave state, even though it had no cotton. The formation of the Republican Party in 1855 intensified the containment of slavery and political corruption in the administration of Buchanan. All these political differences led to the civil war. Given the circumstances of the conflict, I think the war could have been avoided had the South ceded to the abolition of the slavery, which was against the American dream as a leader in the protection of human rights. The North viewed slavery as against the human rights and that it was wrong on religious and ethical grounds. However, the south maintained that slaves were their properties and these differences caused the conflict between North and South.

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How the Historical Regional Differences Affected the Development of Political Structures in the United States

The United States was a primarily agricultural nation, before, during and immediately after the civil war of the 19th century (Civil War Trust, n.d.). However, the industrial revolution that had started in the England soon expanded to its colonies including the US. However, the North was more industrialized than the South. Historically, the south was relied on slaves for its agricultural production, while development of the cotton machine resulted in mechanization of farming in the north. As a result, the north developed more cities than the south and this created regional differences in the United States, between the north and the south.

According to (Schulman, n.d.), the Northern economy was primarily manufacturing oriented while the South, which depended on cheap labor from slaves, was primarily import-oriented. Most of the people from South preferred lower tariffs as they viewed it as important for their economy, which depended on importation of finished products from North and other European countries. However, the Northern part of the US preferred higher tariffs as they deemed important in protecting their economy. They saw high tariffs as a way of encouraging the Americans to purchase local products since high tariffs would increase costs of imported items. Consequently, the Northern people persuaded their congressional representatives to increase trade tariffs, while the Southern people persuaded them to lower the tariffs.          

During the 1850s, the rift between the North and the South widened as the Southern slaves began to move to the North (Schulman, n.d.). Most of the Congress representatives and senators from the South feared that the industrialized North would drawn their voices in the Congress and this was evidence with the development of the Nullification crisis of the 1830s and their protests against the “Tariffs of Abominations”. The Southern opposed the abolitionist rule and were majorly democrats, while the North remained anti-slave and were republicans. These social, economic and political lives of the Northerners and the Southerners can still be observed today. Majority of the people of the South still live rural agricultural life and are mainly democrats, while the North is majorly industrial and urban, and mainly republicans.

A Memo to Recommend a Plan for Change

To: Vice President Pontiff

From: General Manager

RE: PLAN FOR CHANGE

In the last one year I have had the opportunity to understand the operations of the company and the employees’ way of working. I have also recruited three managers in the hope of streamlining operations, increasing profits and achieving the company’s goals. Despite this, there is a lot of employee resistance especially from those who have been with the company since inception. This has affected the effectiveness of the new Managers to work with existing in employees. It is in this regard that I propose a plan for change to deal with the resistance. This will ensure that profits do not continue to drop and that all employees are working together towards the vision of the company. The following is the plan for change and rationale behind it  (Cameron, 1994). 

Read also Positional Power for Change

The most important thing we must keep in mind when facing management of organizational change is to ensure that change is a priority. We as Senior Management must demonstrate commitment. Change requires a clear vision and must involve all the employees in the organization for it to be effective. All employees must understand the benefits of change. We must also ensure that there is the capacity for change in terms of the provision of resources relating to time and finances required to implement change.

The first step is to have a structured management approach. The management will engage senior management as the sponsors of change. This structure will include middle level managers and supervisors as the advocates of change. Management will communicate the need for change, the impact on employees and benefits to employees. This will directly address some of the sources of the resistance to change (Kotter & Schlesinger, 2008).

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Secondly, we must expect resistance especially from those who have been with the company for a long time. The project teams that will be created will have the responsibility of working together to address the resistance to change. The teams must be proactive and specific about where the resistance is coming from, and the reasons for resistance. In this case the resistance may come from those who have invested in the current way of working, and those who created the current way of working that need changing.

Thirdly resistance must be addressed and managed formally. The following are the ways the change will be managed. One is to create a change management strategy that includes the anticipated resistance and tactics to manage. Two, the change management plan will focus on moving individual employees through their own change process, and address the barriers for making change successful. It will also include the specific action plan. Third, we must reinforce change through the collection of feedback. This will ensure that management understands how employees are adopting and complying with the new work processes. The feedback will identify gaps to manage resistance when it recurs. Addressing resistance will go on throughout the change management cycle. Changes should be addressed formally so that employees can understand the reasons for change. This ensures that managing change is proactive and not reactive to ensure that resistance does not recur (Kotter & Schlesinger, 2008). 

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The fourth step is to identify the root causes. Managing change must focus on the root cause of the resistance and not the symptoms. Focusing on symptoms will not yield any positive results. The company must look deeper into what is causing the resistance. Research shows that the primary reasons why employees resist change is; lack of awareness why the change was being made, impact of their current job role, the organization’s past performance with change, and lack of visible support and commitment from Senior management. With this knowledge our company will narrow down to the specific root causes of the current resistance to change. Once the root causes are understood, the management will communicate the need for change. It is also important to address the root causes of resistance at the individual level of the employees.

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Finally the management must engage the “Right” Resistance managers. These will be drawn from senior, middle level and front line supervisors. It is important to note that the resistance managers cannot come from human resources, organizational development, and project team members as they will not be effective resistance managers. Managers and front line supervisors are the most effective resistance managers as they are the closest to the front line employees. Change for any company is not a problem; resistance to change is the biggest problem. If we implement the above plan of change and deal with the resistance to change, the company will successfully implement any changes it requires to be successful.       Communication is critical in providing a clear understanding of the goals and objectives of change. Managing organizational change includes action and performance. We must ensure that there is an action plan for implementation and review to check on performance. Managing means keeping open lines of communication for all staff in order to get feedback. Feedback is critical in identifying any problems or obstacles that may arise during the implementation of change (Kotter & Schlesinger, 2008).

Ethical Dilemmas that an Assistant District Attorney is Likely to Face While Serving his Prison Term and Probation

Ethical Conflicts in Correction

            The United States prides itself as the home of the free and has been an enormous influence in the international stage for many years. Through its constitution and other documents like the Declaration of Independence, the country strives to protect the rights of its citizens. However, domestically, the United States remains the country with the highest number of incarcerated individuals in the world. Most of the prisoners in the United States’ prison still face a number of ethical dilemmas while serving their prison sentences or while in probation (Dolovich et al., 2006). An Assistant District Attorney found guilty of child molestation and sexual exploitations of children is likely to face a number of challenges during his prison years and probation.

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Ethical Dilemmas that an Assistant District Attorney is Likely to Face While Serving his Prison Term and Probation

            The contemporary United States prison has moved from the stereotypical forms, where the prison officers were depicted as uneducated and brutal. Despite these improvements, the prisoners in the United States still face a lot of ethical dilemmas while serving their prison terms and during their probation (De Amicis, 2006).  An Assistant District Attorney found guilty of child molestation and sexual exploitation of children is likely to face discrimination, sexual misconduct by the correctional officers and from fellow prisoners, stigmatization and general poor health.

            According to (Vanchieri, Gostin, & Pope, 2007) the state of the confinements in the US prisons today still resemble the ones in thirty years. While the population of prisoners increase with limited changes in the state of prison conditions, the US prisons has become a breeding ground for communicable diseases, mental illnesses, chronic illnesses such as hepatitis and diabetes (Restellini & Restellini, 2014). Such state of US prisons is likely to pose great ethical dilemmas to an incarcerated Assistant District Attorney. Such ethical dilemmas include lack of access to proper healthcare, which infringes on his rights.

The other ethical dilemma that an Assistant District Attorney is likely to face is harsh treatment from the prison officers. Although many correctional officers undergo general and in-service training and certification, most of these officers assume more power and they exercise such powers to the disadvantage of the prisoners. The (Vanchieri, Gostin, & Pope, 2007) asserts that most prison officers face injury and violence with the US correctional settings. An Assistant District Attorney found guilty of child molestation and sexual exploitation of children is likely to face injury from the fellow prisoners. Moreover, such an officer is likely to face discrimination and sexual molestation from fellow prisoners. There are many reported cases where other male prisoners sodomize other prisoners. Given that the Assistant District Attorney was found guilty of child molestation and sexual abuse, he is likely to face stigmatization form fellow inmates.

Assistant District Attorney found guilty of child molestation and sexual exploitation of children and undergoing probation is likely to face discrimination from the correction officers and the population. Most of the prisoners often face the challenge of their acceptance in the society even after the completion of their prison terms (De Amicis, 2006). The populations often do not feel that prisoners have reformed during their prison terms. Most prisoners are likely to be stigmatized by the public for the offences they were convicted. The prisoner will find it hard being accepted in the society, as people will still associate him with the crime he did and for which he was convicted, served prison sentence and was released upon completion of probation. Therefore, the ethical dilemmas range from prison discrimination, injury, poor health, stigmatization from the society.

Somali Gangs and Juggalos Gangs – Traditional Vs. Neo-Traditional Gangs

Introduction

            Pike (1873) was the first to report about active gangs in Western civilization in widely acknowledged chronicler of British crime. The history of existence of gangs in United States indicated that perhaps gang may have existed as early as 12th century(Papachristos, Braga, & Hureau, 2012). However, studies indicated that more structured gangs appear in the 1783 when American Revolution ended. The structure of a gang is related to its function because the structure defines the functional outcome of gang. By understanding gang’s structure, it enables the law enforcers to intervene the functions intended by the gangs. Researchers have used different typologies to document organizational structure among the gangs.

            Klein & Maxson(2006) developed the most recent gang structure typologies based on the survey data from law enforcement agencies. Nonetheless, more flexible typology which group gangs into five categories: traditional, neo-traditional, compressed, collective and specialty. These typologies were differentiated based on crime versatility, territory, duration, members’ age range, number of members and whether the gang have subgroups. According Klein and Maxson (2006), the five gang type are described as follows:

  • Traditional gangs: These gang type have been existing for more than 20 years and the age range of the members is from 20 to 30 years. Traditional gangs are typically have subgroups and are large with membership of more than 100. This gang type engages in variety of criminal activities in different territories.
  • Neo-traditional gangs: The gang type have been in existence less than 10 years. The age range of members have no distinct pattern. Similarly, this gang type have subgroups, engages in various criminal activities in different territories, but members are more than 50.
  • Compressed gangs:The membership of this type of gang is less than 50 with age range of 10 years of one another. Compressed gang are less than years in existence and do not have subgroups. This gang type engages in a variety of criminal activities, but may or may not be territorial.

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  • Collective gangs:The gang type has been in existence between 10 to 15 years and age range of the members typically span more than 10 years. The membership of this type of gang is more than 50 and do not have subgroups. Similar to compressed gangs, this type of gang engages in variety of criminal activities and may or may not be territorial.
  • Specialty gangs:The existence of this type of gang is less than 10 years and age range of the member span less than 10 years. The membership of specialty gangs is less than 50 and do not have subgroups. Unlike the other types of gangs, this type of gang specializes in one type criminal activity and are not generally territorial.

This paper focuses on comparing and contrasting one traditional gang and one neo-traditional gang which encompass the analysis of gang structure, factors in gang membership, group dynamics, and aggression. Scholars have categorized traditional gangs operating in United States based on continental affiliations(Bouchard, & Spindler, 2010). Similarly, law enforcements uses this criteria to map the jurisdictions in which these traditional gangs operates.

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The report from National Gang Intelligences Center (NGIC) indicated that Middle Eastern gangs, Caribbean, Eurasian, Asian and African traditional gangs operate in different jurisdiction within the United States of America. In addition, each of the continental traditional gangs are further subdivided based on ethnic affiliation. For example, the African traditional gangs have been categorized into Somali gangs and Sudanese gangs(Vigil, 2002). As stated in the first sentence of this paragraph, this paper analyses Somali gangs as one of the traditional gangs, whereas in neo-traditional gangs, the paper will focuses on the analysis of Juggalos gangs.

Somali Gangs

            According to law enforcement, NGIC and ICE reports, Somali gang are distributed throughout several cities in United States, but they concentrated in cities that nears Canadian and Mexican border such as Washington areas, Seattle, California, San Diego, Minnesota and Minneapolis-St. Paul. Nonetheless, the activities of Somali gang has been witnessed in other several cities such as Arizona, Tucson, New Jersey, East Brunswick, Ohio, Columbus, Georgia, Clarkston, Tennessee and Nashville(National Gang Intelligence Center, 2011). Somali gang is unique from other traditional gangs based on naming the gangs. Studies have indicated that the Somali gang tend to adopt and align gang names based on tribe or clan. However, there was an indication that few of Somali gang have joined national gangs such as the Bloods and Crips. This sentiment was based on the report released by NGIC which indicated that East African gangs especially Somali gangs are existing in at least 30 jurisdictions in the United States of American, including those within Washington, Virginia, Texas, Ohio, Minnesota, Georgia and California.

The Structure of Somali Gangs

            According to Shukri (2006), three primary organized Somali gangs carried out their criminal activities in Minneapolis: The Rough Tough Somalis (RTS), The Hot Boyz Gang and The Somali Mafia. Studies indicated that these Somali gangs comprised less than 1 % of all persons identified as gang member in Minnesota jurisdiction alone(Shukri, 2006). Generally, most of the Somali gang consist of loose connected members who have adopted the gang culture such as symbols and signs to be identified to be affiliated to specific gang. Further studies indicated that Somali gangs do not have particular leader as such there is no established hierarchy in most of Somali gangs. Nonetheless, older members are typically treated with respect and deference over the new members. In fact, older members decides whether a new member is welcome to join the gang or not.

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The dynamics of the Somali gangs

            Reports indicated that Somali gangs were becoming more sophisticated at collaboration and networking. Apart strong working relationship among the members, Somali gangs hardly engage in narcotics trade, thus making it unique from other traditional gangs. Reports from justice department indicated that for a gang to be successfully prosecuted it requires evidence of narcotics(Monti, 1993). In addition, Somali gangs carries out their criminal activities in away from the area they often congregate. Therefore, their activities are not based on specific turf or geographical area. This suggested that their criminal activities are committed in a wider geographic area that stretches from one jurisdiction to another. Their morbidity makes it difficult for the law enforcement difficult to track and apprehend.

            Somali gangs engages in witness intimidation, remittance payment and tampering which is supported by Somali culture. Remittance payment involves the process whereby victims’ families are paid some money in order to settle down the case by circumventing judicial prosecution. These factors directly relate with the Somali culture which was refugees and Somali immigrants carried with them to the United States(Curry, Ball. & Fox, 1994). In addition, gang member are ready to bail each other out of jail and where the judgment has been passed, the provide support by visiting those incarceration. This serves as means of communicating and collecting intelligence in and out of prison. Another emerging trend among the Somali gang is that younger member in the gang are given the more responsibilities of committing crimes as sign of loyalty to the group and also because younger people caught committing crime would be sent to juvenile detention center where they spend less time in prison. The younger gang members learn more skills that enhance their criminal activities such as street recognition and credibility.

Aggression of the Somali gang

            The aggressiveness of the gang groups is analyzed based on the three Somali gangs; The Rough Tough Somalis, The Hot Boyz Gang and the Somali Mafia. Studies indicated that RTS were less aggressive because they formed as non-violent gang. Whereas The Hot Boyz Gang and Somali Mafia are very violent and aggressive because they carry weapons(Decker, & Pyrooz, 2012). Nonetheless, law enforcement report indicated that Somali Mafia are very sophisticated and well organized thus have functioned under law enforcement radar. They engaged in active recruitment of Somali youth to join the gang group. Somali gangs generally engages in violent crimes, prostitution, credit card fraud, human trafficking, weapon and drug trafficking.

Membership of Somali gang

            Despite the studies indicating that some Somali gang adopt Crips and Bloods gang moniker, they generally do not affiliated with other African gangs. Membership of Somali gangs consist of mostly refugees displaced by the war in Somalia and surrounding countries. Since they migrated to specific law-income communities, which are generally controlled by Crips and Bloods street gangs, they are forced by the surrounding environment to adopt the culture and activities of these gangs(Burk, Kerr, & Stattin, 2008).Nonetheless, Somali youth sometimes emulates the culture of local gangs which leads to conflicts with other gangs in the area such as Ethiopian gangs as well as Blood and Crips gangs

Juggalos Gangs

            This is a loosely-organized hybrid gang, which is expanding rapidly into many United States jurisdiction. Although studies have indicated that Juggalos gangs concentrated in four states, NGIC report have indicated that Juggalos gang have subset groups in several cities especially those bordering New Mexico because they are attracted by traditions, cultural and tribal activities of the Native Americans inhabiting these area(Decker, 1996). These subsets involves in violence and criminal activity. According to NGIC report, Juggalo subsets have been identified and their criminal activities reported in at least 21 states. In addition to the four states: Washington, Utah, Pennsylvania, California and Arizona that Juggalos gangs carries out their criminal activities very often, states such as Virginia, Texas, Tennessee, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Oklahoma, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Michigan, Massachusetts, Kansas, Iowa, Illinois, Florida, Delaware and Colorado.

The structure of Juggalos gangs

            Unlike Somali gangs which have structures, organized and carry out their criminal activities systematically, Juggalos gangs are disorganized, sporadic in their criminal activities and lack structures. Since the Juggalos gangs is more individualistic and most often engages in petty and simple criminal activities, they do not have a particular leadership as well as established hierarchal system(National Gang Intelligence Center, 2011). Nonetheless, the emerging trend indicated that Juggalos gangs taking advantage of nebulous structure to engage in more gang-like criminal activity. The more organized subsets uses social networking website to communicate and plan their criminal activities. Also, through social networking website Juggalos sub-culture gangs have been able to expand rapidly into other jurisdiction within United States. As a result, NGIC and law enforcement report indicated that juvenile gang membership is increasing in many jurisdiction.

Membership of Juggalos gangs

            Unlike Somali traditional gang which consists mainly male members from Somalia community living in a low income communities, Juggalos neo-traditional gang consists of multiple affiliations, ethnicities and mixed gender. Most of its members are homeless, as such they give on migrating from one city to another. The likely similarity between Somali gangs and Juggalos hybrid gangs is the high number of Hispanic membership in the gang that was arrested in November 2010 in Pontiac, Michigan(National Gang Intelligence Center, 2011). The Hybrid gangs were charged along with the members of Almighty Latin King Nation (ALKN). This was a unique scenario considering that most of the criminal activities identified with Juggalos indicated that membership is multi-ethnic and mixed gender. Also, studies have indicated that the membership of Juggalos gangs is challenging to identify because members are at liberty to crossover from one gang to another.

            Further, studies have suggested that Juggalos gangs are formed because clique of members in the neighborhood failed to show loyalty to the nationally recognized gangs in the area of jurisdiction. For example, two to five member of the nationally recognized gangs move out of the larger gang and formed their small gang which engages in the same criminal activities but in a different locality in order to avoid conflict with the larger gangs(Monti, 1993). This explain why Juggalos is described by the law enforcement as fluid in size, structure and membership.

Dynamics of the Juggalos gangs

            The dynamics of Juggalos gangs are more pronounced that those of Somali gangs because of their nature of operations. According to NGIC (2011), admitted that Juggalos gang have been a concern to law enforcement because of their disorganization, lack of structure within the group and transient nature(National Gang Intelligence Center, 2011). These factors makes it difficult for law enforcement to identify migration patterns, identify and classified their members. In addition, NGIC report indicated that the criminal activities associated with Juggalos gangs has been increasing and expanding to other several states in the United States. This tactics indicated that Juggalos gangs are evolving and needs a more sophisticated equipment and time to track their movements and identify their member ship. Emerging trend further indicated that criminal activities and transient nature of Juggalos gangs pose threats to the communities because they are capable of carrying out destructions, use drugs/sale and violent nature.

The aggressiveness of Juggalos gangs           

Reports from NGIC (2011) indicated thatJuggalos subset gangs carries weapons such as guns and engages in robberies with violence and felony assault. In addition, the report indicated that Juggalos subset execute their criminal activities sporadically. This means that they can be very violent and aggressive as well(National Gang Intelligence Center, 2011). Studies further indicated that when gang group is establishing, they tend to be very aggressive in order to instill fear in the general community and make the existing gang groups in the area of jurisdiction to be aware of their presence. Also, considering that Juggalos gangs are individualistic, their criminal activities can be fierce as means of achieving their objectives. Nonetheless, the aggressiveness of Juggalos gang depends on their functions and size.