How did Greece influence the Culture of Rome

The early Rome development was highly influenced a great deal by Greeks and Etruscans who were its surrounding neighbors. The Romans copied many skills and ideas from Greece, especially the building culture. Romans assimilated Greek culture during Greek colonist development of towns on the Sicily Island and in Southern Italy. They also learned about ways of Greek from traders among other Greeks who migrated to Rome. The Rome borrowed Greek public buildings designs where they learnt to utilize concrete to develop larger structures. Initially Romans built using columns. Romans also admired Greek sculpture, painting, and pottery. Although they had art ideas of their own, they integrated it with Greek art to make it more appealing and sophisticated. They also adopted Greek mythology which influenced their ideas of gods (Greek Europe Reporter, 2013). Although early Romans had their own rituals and gods, they changed their ideas regarding gods as they interacted with other cultures. They blended the characteristics of similar gods from other culture. The adoption included adopting a new god but naming them with Roman’s titles. They also adopted related rituals increasing their number of gods and ritual celebration they had to perform for the same.

However, the main difference was that Roman did not like narrating about their gods as Greek did, despite observing all needed forms of worship. Roman also borrowed the democracy form of government from Greece an idea that Romans adopted and reinterpreted and expanded and went on using it as their own (Greek Europe Reporter, 2013).  Roman was considerably younger than Greece, and hence they had a lot to learn from it. This made them borrow a lot from them. They were also colonized by Greeks meaning that some of the changes were directly imposed on them. Rome admired Greek greatness which they tried to achieve by copying things they liked most about them. In most cases, Roman borrowed Greek idea and advanced it meaning that they were aspiring to use borrowed ideas and integrate them with theirs for better results.

Military and Political Structures of the Hittites and the Assyrians – Compare and Contrast Essay

The army of Hittite was systematized around the decimal system mutual to armies of the area during that time. The Archers, chariots, and infantry also shared the same organizational design, with ten squads, ten companies’ battalions, ten squads companies. The infantry army was deployed for battle in a group of 10 men wide and ten men deep, and a battalions parading with 100 men in the front and ten deep. The Hittite infantry basic weapons were the medium-length spear, sickle sword, and axe (Angelfire, n.d).  The Assyrian ancient military command structure on contrary to Hittites began with the Assyrian king being the high commander in the whole military. An acting commander would be appointed by the king in case the king is unwilling or unable to take part in the battle. Unlike in Hittites standing military division in Assyrian would be distributed based on the state from where the soldiers lived. The forces would be led by the regional government based on orders received from the commander in the military. The military of ancient Assyrian was the first one to utilize a backup in Mesopotamia (Gale Groups, 2009).

The Hittite government was the initial constitutional monarchy. The activities of the King were monitored by noblemen assembly in association to their laws. The noblemen assembly was believed to have power to install or remove kings as required. Since they lacked succession law till circa 1500 BC, the king death before then initiated power struggle. The Hittites ruler in empire years was regarded as the Great King. Every year the vassal states rulers brought Hattusas gifts and promised their loyalty in exchange for military protection and trade favors (Angelfire, n.d.). Similar to Hittites, Assyrian Empire was governed by a king who acted as Ashur; gods, earthly deputy. Hittites also honored the King initially as a god and believed that kings became gods after their death. Similar to Hittites where the king determines who to receive the military support, Assyrian king acted senior military commander. Unlike Hittites kings, Assyrians kings had a number of assistance who adopted various specialties that included administration, the military, or foreign policy. They were also provincial governors, scribes, tax collectors and palace administrators. The Kings also desired to indirectly rule more distant territories via puppet kings and client states. Assyrian kings also did not have noblemen assembly to monitor their actions (Gale Groups, 2009).

Ancient Greek Writers, Philosophers and Scientists

Writers

Ancient Greek had a lot of writers, with Herodotus and Homer being among the most famous writers. Herodotus lived from 484 to 425 BC. He is regarded as the father of history since he was the first person to give history a scientific approach. Actually the term history originated from his book entitled Histories which is a Greek name for stories. Homer lived in the 8th century BC and he is known mainly for Odyssey and Iliad, which are the most popular epic poems. His work is the oldest western literature work. People in ancient Greece regarded themselves as uneducated without having read the Odyssey and Iliad (Mamakouka, 2014).

Philosophers

There were various philosophers in ancient Greece. Among them included the Aristotle and Pythagoras. Pythagoras was a popular mathematician and philosopher who lived from 570 to 495 BC. He used a good part of his life as a teacher having established his own school. His students were strictly based on rules and secrecy. He is attributed to the invention of Pythagoras theorem which dictates the size of hypotenuse of the triangle, which carries his legacy even today. Aristotle was a popular philosopher and a teacher to the Alexander the Great who lived from 384 to 322 BC. He was also Plato student. He was highly popular for his writings on zoology, physics, biology, metaphysics, ethics, poetry, ethics, theater, government, music, politics, logic, linguistics, and rhetoric. This system ended up being the supporting pillar for Christian and Islamic scholastic thought. He recorded great attainments in formulating complete Aristotelian syllogistic system. He also made a great contribution in the development of today’s zoology (The Famous People, n.d.).

Scientists

Ancient Greek contributed a great deal to the invention and development of science. Among the most famous scientists include Archimedes and Euclid. Archimedes was an astronomer, mathematician, an inventor and an engineer, who lived from 287 to212 BC. He invented Archimedes’ screw, which was a moving water mechanism that is still used to date. He is attributed to invention of Eureka phrase and computation of the value of Pi. Euclid was a mathematician and founder of geometry who lived around 300 BC. Some of his popular work includes “The Elements” and mathematical proofs system which is still being used currently as basis of mathematics (The Famous People, n.d.).

Do You Agree With The U-shaped Curve of Marital Satisfaction

Assignment Instructions

Sociologists sometimes talk about the U-shaped curve of marital satisfaction. Supposedly, married couples are the happiest before they have children and after their children have grown up and left home. Do you agree with this finding—it is not a theory but is based on numerous surveys—and can you explain why you think that this curve is accurate or not accurate?

 

Sample Answer

Early research demonstrates the transition to parentage as a crisis resulting to marital satisfaction and quality decline. Sociologists have actually come up with a U shaped curve that demonstrates the change of marriage satisfaction after the children arrival and after they have grown and left. This may be true to some families and untrue to others. Children as a matter of fact come with extra responsibilities which may shake parents’ relationship, especially when the pregnancy is unplanned. The child’s gender which determines the father’s participation in raising the child may also determine the couple’s relationship. When one of the parents feel overwhelmed than the other, there tend to be a problem (Strong& Cohen, 2013). According to the research, the quality of parents’ relationship may also be influenced by the child’s behavior, where parents whose children are badly behaved tend to conflict or to feel drained.

It can also be influence by parents’ situation such as finances, and children health (Strong& Cohen, 2013). These factors determine the kind of struggle these parents are likely to experience,and the damage they may cause in their relationship. Thus quite number of partners experiences more conflict, declining love feelings, and less communication in their relationship when children arrive. However, the magnitude to which their relationship is affected may vary from one couple to another. Thus, the U shape finding can be said to be true to some families but untrue to others. The research has found some couples whose relationship is never changed by children arrival. There are also other couples whose relationship becomes better with children arrival (Strong& Cohen, 2013). This implies that it is not right to generalize the situation. Each family has a different experience which varies based on a number of factors.

Will the Earth run out of Clean Water?

Water accounts for 75 percent of the earth surface, with the Earth water volume remaining almost the same for years. This is because the Earth water exists in a cycle which involves water circulation between the atmosphere, land and oceans in a precipitation and evaporation cycle. The hydrological cycle is essential to the operational of recycling water on Earth and it contains the duty of regulating and modifying the Earth climate. This simply means that the planet has enough water to support its needs. However, it is important to note that about 98% of the water in the Earth is found in the Oceans with freshwater accounting for only 3% of earth water. About two-third of this freshwater is trapped in the glaciers and polar ice caps. The freshwater rivers and lake accounts for about 0.009 percent of the Earth water, with ground water accounting for 0.28 percent. This demonstrates the scarcity of clean water in the planet. The water cycle makes it possible for the world to keep on surviving with the small amount of available freshwater (National Geographic Society, n.d.).

The available percentage of freshwater has been able to support the world population since, with enhanced water cycle sustainability. However, the world population is increasing at a high rate, implying that the available freshwater may be required to sustain more life. This creates a danger of straining this essential resource that is very basic to human life. Increase in the demand of freshwater may reduce the amount of water that infiltrate in the ground or that runoff to the rivers and lakes in the future. This may continue to reduce the water table and the ocean content and hence the amount held in the water cycle. Although complete run out is almost impossible, there may be reduction of the available freshwater per person, based on the future world population (Smedley, 2017).

Important Contributions by Galileo in the History of Physics – A Personal View

Galileo Galilei was regarded as the father of modern science, especially due to his great involvement in the fields of philosophy, physics, mathematics, astronomy, and cosmology. In his major physics contribution, Galileo invited an enhanced telescope which allowed him to see and describe the solar system and most of its elements. Galileo created his telescope in 1610, which was a modification of the Dutch telescope that was magnifying object three times. This telescope acted as a prototype of the contemporary day refractor telescope. It involved simple lenses arrangement which initially started with glass fixed by optician in one end of a hollow cylinder. This telescope used objective convex objective lens and the concave eye lens, allowing object magnification by 20 times. He made it using trial and error method and eventually came up with a device that was used as a prototype for the development of the modern Telescope. The telescope is regarded as Galileo’s greatest contribution to physics since it provided the blue print to the modern telescope which has been widely used in investigating small aspects of the universe. Moreover, the modern telescope has received a very minute modification from Galileo original telescope by replacing the convex mirror with another concave mirror. The telescope does not have any direct impact to individual’s daily life. However, it has highly enhanced people understanding of the universe. With the new discovered telescope, Galileo was able to observe various characteristics of the moon, planets and stars, increasing human discovery of the universe and its beauty.

Why Kingdoms of Ancient Mesopotamia Were Unable to Maintain Supremacy for Long

Fall of Mesopotamia Kingdom

Historians attribute the fall of Mesopotamian ancient empire fall to a number of reasons. Some cite the overcrowding that was said to result to pollution together with other reasons that include environmental changes and war. Cities of Mesopotamia were said to experience great pollution issues, inefficient collection of garbage and lack of indoor toilets which resulted to supplies of contaminated water and common epidemics. A significant observation denoted that the adopted irrigation methods were among the major reasons why the Mesopotamia Empire declined. According to Ancient Mesopotamians (2017) when irrigation water is permitted to vaporizein the field it leaves mineral salts behind. The mineral salts turned to be highly poisonous for the existence of the plants. When the irrigation water was drained the city also experienced erosion. The Region Rivers were situated higher compared to the surrounding plan due to silt built-up in the river beds. In this regard irrigation water flowed into the through gravity into the field. This water could not drain away easily once in the field since the field were lower compared to the river. The evaporation of this water resulted to mineral salts residue. The salt was drawn upward from the lower soil levels. This made the soil poor to support plant growth and by 2300 BC, the Mesopotamia agricultural economy started to shatter, since the soil could not support plants. This meant that the city could not support human life and hence there was fall of that empire.

Historian also discourse that wars were an essential attribute of the collapse. Sumerian was known to inhabitant the area initially.  Sumerian dynasty was invaded in 2400 BC by external forces; Akkad which managed to conquer it after being in the land for a very long period of time. This new empire only lasted for 200 years and it was conquered by another external power. There was Sumerian comeback (Guisepi, 1998). However, its last empire was destroyed in 2000 BC, and for about ten years, Mesopotamia was abode of confusion and chaos. Amorites in the 1900 BC captured the region and created a centralized government in a number of city states in the county. This was followed by Hittites inversion that signified the end of Mesopotamia old Babylonian Empire in the 1900 BC all the way to 1600 BC.  The city of Babylon was also said to have been conquered by Samu-abum following the collapsing of the Ur-based Empire in 1894 BC. He made Babylon a pretty city. His kingdom lasted until 1792 when Hammurabi took over. Hammurabi made Babylon a great empire, but his kingdom only lasted for as long as he was alive. The city was captured by Hittite ruler Mursili I in n1595 BC, who conquered the Hammurabi successor. Hittites also seized Marduk statue that represented the Babylonians principal god. From this time, the kingdom lasted without war for the longest time; 500 years. However, in 1200-600 BC the kingdom started its previous trends of war. The city got to war with Assyria and the city ruler was captured and Marduk statue stolen. However Elam was defeated by the new ruler Nebuchadnezzar who restored the god’s statue. A complex religious ritual was conducted was to safeguard the city and its gods. However, the city experienced various intrusions by Assyrians in the following years. This period experienced capturing by Assyrians for some years, rebellion, and destruction of their god’s statute. This happened in the midst of floods which made the fight a bit complex. The ruling was taken over by Nabopolassar who freed the Babylon and managed to conquer Assyrian (Jarus, 2017).

How Family’s Traditional Division of Responsibilities Has Changed

Women were traditionally known of taking care of household chores and children at all times. During this time, men were anticipated to be the income earners in the family. Only men cared on where the family money should come from and only women cared on how the household chores should be completed. The situation has however changed greatly in the modern world. Women roles in the society started to change during the industrial revolution. This is when women started formal employment, employment of house help, and family planning to get more time to work. However, only a few women took the initiative of taking formal employment. The situation has changed greatly since then. Today, parents are educating girls to get top jobs in the market. Women are getting promotions and climbing up the professional ladder just like men. This has resulted to the change of situation at homes, where financial duties are currently being shared by both husband and wife. This is changing the tradition division of labor in families. Earning made women more superior than they were in the traditional world. However, this has not automatically earned them an equal position as their husbands in their homes. According to feminist scholars, major features of contemporary families and households areas show that women frequently subordinate for instance in children rearing and in making major decisions regarding how to take care of children (Strong& Cohen,2013).

Although there have been changes on the women’s position in a household, there have not been much changes on women’s roles and contribution, compared to traditional families. Time may have changed but the feeling that a man should be the head and the woman should subordinate is still exercised in various families. According to the results of a research conducted by Veronica Tichenor; a sociologists, women prefer being dominated by their husbands (Strong& Cohen, 2013). This especially happens in families where women earnhigher salary than that their husbands. This mostly happens as a precaution to ensure that the husbands do not feel dominated by their wives due to higher financial power. Women according a qualitative study conducted on African American couples tend to give their men a chance to exercise their power at home, especially when they feel that their men lack status and recognition in the society (Strong& Cohen, 2013). This means that despite the notion of change, women are still willing to be dominated by men as a way of restoring or maintaining men’s self-confidence and self-esteem. This is also said to maintain peace in a marriage or to reduce marital conflicts. It also demonstrates that most women would not want to feel that they are married to weak men and hence they would hardly want to dominate them. This is mostly done as a way of preserving men’s ego.

There has been change in the women economic status in the modern families. However, the change in the division of roles and duties has not been highly felt. Women are currently being involved in making financial decisions. However, the final decision on what should be done depends on the many factors. According to the critiques of resource theory of powers, women participation in financial decisions making does not guarantee them an upper hand in the process. Men always use their influence to ensure that their wives comply with their decisions by making them consider different consequences (Strong& Cohen, 2013). Nevertheless, most men have left the role on household financial decision making to their wives, despite of whether they are employed or not. Thus, the notion that the change of women status in the society has enhanced equal division of work, in their family is not exactly true. Men have remained to dominate in their households, such that women have to compromise in most cases than men would ever do.

3 Labor Relations Process Phases

The process of labor relation contains three phases that include administration, negotiation, and recognition. The recognition phase defines the responsibilities and legal rights of management and labor union representatives. This stage defines the labor law that defines the behaviors, and responsibilities of managers and union representatives. The phase also defines the workers right to join or not to join a union at free will. The negotiation phase entails labor agreement negotiation and determining a process of dispute resolution (Antonellis, 2012).

The negotiation includes suitable tactics, strategies and deadlock resolution methods.Negotiation of contract entails jointly determination of work rules controlling the parties’ responsibilities and rights impacting working hours, wages, or other employment condition by the management and union representative. The results of the negotiation of this kind contain significant effect on the living standard of the covered employee, their management’s right and company’s labor cost. Most disputes on interest are voluntarily resolved by the negotiation between management and union in the bargaining process (Holley, Ross& Wolters, 2016).

The administration phase involves enforcing and applying the conditions and terms as delineated in the conveyed labor agreement. Once the phase two contract terms are settled, there is a requirement to apply the terms on daily bases as per the agreement. Administration phase ensure that all agreement are implements, and in case this is not possible, the management has to work with the union to resolve the disputes (Antonellis, 2012).

The process of labor relation engages labor organization and managers designated by workers as their special negotiating agent to represent their interests. Union representative and managers work jointly to administer and determine work rules. It is therefore important for human resource to understand labor relation so that they may be able to table their side of bargain to have a fair agreement. Their understanding also assists in reducing the level of disputes, strikes and other extreme cases of disagreement. It also assists the human resource to avoid losses through litigation or to be intimidated to compromise more than the organization can take. With clear understanding of the labor relation, the human resource can be able to predict what any of action may receive as a counter action from the labor union and prepare to handle it adequately based on the law for the benefit of the organization (Holley, Ross& Wolters, 2016).

Crime Mapping

Crime mapping refers to a process of utilizing a geographic information system to carry out spatial crime problems analysis as well as other related police issues. Crime mapping facilitates statistical and visual analysis of the spatial crime nature and other forms of events. It permits analysts to connect different sources of data together, as per geographical variables and offers maps which assist in communicating results of the analysis.  Crime mapping is harmonizing to all kinds of crime analysis since it plays an essential role in about all analysis. Crime mapping is important since it assist in enhancing administration, evaluation, and dissemination of information (Us.crowin, 2005). Mapping is used to inform investigators and police officers of incidents of crime in different locations. It also assists in making decision regarding allocation of resources and evaluation of intervention measures. It also assist the patrol officers on the areas to watch based on the crime rates and the areas that are likely to make emergency calls. It also assists officers in informing residents about the criminal activities in the area (Mamalian & LaVigne, 1999).