Cost-Benefit Analysis of Fire Code Compliance

Fire Prevention and Code Enforcement Assignment Instructions

Fire code violations have increased in your area over the past two years. Local business owners are complaining to city officials about the fines and costs to mitigate the code violations. The chief has asked you to conduct a cost–benefit analysis of fire code compliance. This analysis should provide an overview of non-enforcement versus enforcement of the fire code.Try to research the number of commercial fires that occur within your jurisdiction, and determine if the fires could have been prevented if fire codes were enforced.

Cost Benefit Analysis for Adhering to Fire Code

Cost benefit analysis need evaluating the costs of maintenance, running, and installing features defined by the fire code system in preventing cases of fire incidences or reducing their impact, compared to the cost of handling fire related injuries, properties destructions, and fatalities. Adherence to fire codes increase the construction cost by dictating on the materials that should be used during construction. For instance, if one needs to use wood interior, he or she may be required to use logs that burn slowly compared to thin wood. There is also cost of setting up fire prevention system such as smoke or heat detector. This also includes the cost of setting up effective fire intervention system such as sprinkler system among other fire distinguishing mechanisms. This could be considerably expensive and in a way, it can all to the construction cost in a great way. However, the cost incurred in putting fire prevention measures is not comparable to the cost of losing the entire building or good part of the building to fire (Hasofer & Thomas, 2008).

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The cost adhering to the fire code is by far less than the cost of losing life or treating a number of individuals that are severely injured by the fire. When fire codes are adhered to, the structure owner reduces the chances of experiencing severe damages from any fire incident. The prevention measures ensure that the fire management authority is notified of any incident of fire before it is severe and hence it is able to contain the fire before serious damages are incurred. The employment of fire intervention measures ensure that the fire is contained before it becomes unmanageable. This generally means that there could never be serious losses from fire incidents in the building.

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In the worst case, lack of adherence to fire code may result to complete burning of the structure and collapsing of some parts due to fire destruction. This means, one may need to rebuild the entire structure to restore it. The fire can cause death which is hard to compensate as it is hard to value life in monetary form. There is also the cost of treating the injured individual, the value of suffering and pain, reduction of quality of life after the injury, the social cost and the value of lost time. The rate of injuries, fatalities, and properties destruction without the right fire intervention and fire prevention measures over ten times more compared to where suitable measures were these measures are installed (Hasofer & Thomas, 2008).   

Fire Incidences in Kentucky

According to the 2016 statistics, there has been a total of over 500 fire incidences reported in Kentucky that year. The incidences recorded 70.8% of death and 85.4% of injuries. The commercial building resulted to 4.1% of fire deaths and 7.6% injuries. The rest was contributed by residential building (U.S. Fire Administration, 2016). In most cases, these fire incidences could have been prevented if the building owners had adhered with fore code, especially the intervention measures.

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Although most had smoke alarm system, majority did not have any early fire intervention system that would reduce the chances of fire spreading. This means that adherence to the set fire could would prevent severe cases of fire incidences in Kentucky.

Application of Culturally Safety to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ Health and Well-being Context

Cultural Safety Essay Instructions

The vision of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-2023 reads:

“The Australian health system is free of racism and inequality and all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have access to health services that are effective, high quality, appropriate and affordable” (Australian Government, 2013, p. 7).

Racism is a significant inhibitor to ‘closing the gap’ in health outcomes between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and other Australians (Murrie, 2017). For health professionals to be effective agents in realising the national vision, we are required to be culturally safe practitioners, who are literate in the dynamics of race and racism and importantly their impacts on the well-being of people we care for. Cultural safety must be realised at both the individual practice level and at the institutional level. Health professionals must also be knowledgeable of the historical and political factors that created and continue to maintain poor health outcomes experienced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. In this assessment you will be required to discuss the application of culturally safety to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ health and well-being context. You are also required to utilise the 5Rs Reflection Framework to reflect on your learning experience throughout the initial weeks of this unit.

Application of Culturally Safety to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ Health and Well-being Context

Personal Racism vs. System/Institutional Racism

Individual racism denotes the actions, attitudes, and beliefs of individual, which perpetuate or support racism in unconscious and conscious ways.  Individual racism mostly happens during interpersonal interaction where an individual is able to bring personal beliefs, attitudes, assumption and behaviours in personal interaction. Institutional racism is general or specific instances of racial domination, discrimination, exploitation, and inequality in institution or organizational contexts such as the nation-state or labour market (Pearson, 2016).

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Institutional racism specifically refers to the manners in which practices and policies of an institution create varying result for various ratio groups intentionally or unintentionally (Kelaher, Ferdinand & Paradies, 2014). The main difference between individual racism and institutional racism is that individual racism displays what is in a person, while institutional racism portrays rules made to govern an institution which end up creating results or benefits disparity among people of different races. The main similarity between the two is that they both result to discrimination of the minority groups in the society.

The Power of Dynamics Associated with the Concept of Whiteness

Australia has been experiencing white supremacy since the colonial time where the indigenous community was massacred and highly reduced in population. The whiteness was then propagated in many ways including development of policies that favoured white people over indigenous communities, especially with regard to access of public services (Walton et al., 2018). White dominance is still deep-rooted in Australian culture, though it has been made extra invisible via its dominant position denial.

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However, according to Wills (2012) whiteness as non-normative, subjective racialised class is only generally invisible to those that dwell in this power space. This simply means that indigenous people in the Australia do always feel the white supremacy while trying to go about their normal life routines, especially with relation to access to public services or facilities.  There is white dominance in all sectors in the county and limiting chances for the indigenous people and aspects of racism, while interacting with whites in those sectors (Smith, 2015).    

Concepts Cultural Safety vs. Cultural Competency

Cultural safety refers to an environment that is safe for individuals despite of who they are. It is an environment with no assault, denial or challenge of people identity, of who people are and what they require. Cultural safety is about shared knowledge, shared meaning, shared respect and experience of listening truly and learning with dignity as a group. Cultural competence is perceived as a set of corresponding policies, attitudes, and behaviours which come together in an agency, system, or amongst professionals and allows them to efficiently work in cross-cultural situations (Freeman et al., 2014).

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Cultural competence is regarded as the systems’ ability to offer care to patients with different behaviours, beliefs and values, including modifying delivery to meet the linguistic, cultural and social needs of patients. A cultural competent care system incorporates and acknowledges the cross-cultural relations assessment, the culture importance, and vigilance to the dynamics, which yield from cultural differences, the cultural knowledge expansions and the services adaption to meet unique cultural needs (Kingsley et al., 2013). The level of cultural competence in an organization can be measures by the level of cultural safety experienced in that organization. This means, cultural safety is an outcome of a cultural competency in any organization. The two concepts are said to complete one another (Laverty, McDermott & Calma, 2017).

5Rs of Reflection Framework

The course prescribes two main reading one by Marrie (2017) and the other by Australian Government (2013). The reading that grabs my attention between the two is the Australian Government (2013) which is a health plan for the minority groups in the country. The two Australian indigenous groups; Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander have been experiencing a high level of discrimination with regard to access to quality and affordable health care services. This has resulted to high level of health disparity between the two groups and the rest of the population in the country. This article acts as a ray of hope for the two groups. The article appeals to me more because it demonstrates the government recognition of its past mistakes and their effects and desire for change.

Enactment and Perpetuation of Institutional Racism throughout Australian’s History

The Australian indigenous groups have experienced a long history of institutional inequality, which includes educational inequality, healthcare inequality and employment inequality (Durey & Thompson, 2012). There is a clear documentation of disparity between Australian indigenous people mortality rates and that of other Australians. Indigenous Australians are disadvantages across a range of health, economic and social indicator (Cronin, 2017). They have been experiencing physical or verbal abuse or discrimination in the housing, education, employment or health sectors resulting to poor general health among the indigenous people (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2015). Institutional racism in Australia was reported to take part in all sectors with indigenous Australians getting less benefit from the countries laws and policies, compared to other Australians (Craven, 2016). They have also been conditional on disparaging comments in both social and health contexts. As a result, Aboriginal people experienced increasing problems accessing mainstream healthcare as a result of racial attitudes of health practitioners, discriminative health practices and policies and high cost of services. This was highly witnessed until recently when health programs are structured targeting indigenous people. Indigenous Australian regions have been experiencing poor distribution of healthcare facilities and professionals, which affects healthcare accessibility. There is also cultural challenge where healthcare professionals are unable or refuse to integrate indigenous people cultural aspects in treatment plan (Freeman et al., 2014).

            According to Bodkin and Carlson (2016), the history of educational attitudes, programs and policies targeting indigenous populaces has for most part been very negative in its results and orientation. This history has created a tragic legacy to educational opportunities and outcome of Aboriginal youths. Racist-inspired generational policies resulted to intergenerational alienation and underachievement (Lee, 2017). Actually, educational trends from the historical glance are that the quality and aims of education has drastically differed for non-indigenous and indigenous students (Jeffreys & Dogan, 2012). The entrenched implication of these varying standards was directly associated with the negative insolences of the non-indigenous education providers and the early scientific, social and political attitude directed to the entire indigenous culture. Although people may think that these approaches are not practiced today, indigenous Australians has been experiencing continual resistance to teaching about their traditional cultural identities, learning and values in different indigenous education era in Australia. The historical policies overarching theme in indigenous education were structured with intention of erasing the visibility or/and existence of indigenous Australians (Mansell, 2016). Other than this, there has been education coverage and quality disparity between aboriginal people and the rest (Pearson, 2016).  This makes it hard for most Aboriginal youths to secure credible jobs in the government and well established private sectors. White dominance in employment sectors results to high tendency of development of employment policies favouring white Australians than indigenous ones during recruitment (Cronin, 2015; Australian Human Rights Commission, 2015).

How Culturally Safe Nursing Practice Addresses Personal and Institutional Racism

The model of cultural safety was created in the context of an indigenous health care and has been adopted within the wider framework of culturally diverse health care. Cultural safety focuses on directly addressing the impacts of colonialism in the principal health system, by centring on the degree of cultural safety experienced by the person seeking health care (Rowan et al., 2013). Culturally, safe health care setting is an environment that is safe to all patients. In this case, it is environments where Indigenous Australians are served without assault, denial or challenge of their identity, of what they need or who they are. It regards, shared meaning, shared respect, shared experience and knowledge of listening truly and learning collectively with dignity. This means that healthcare institutions adopt operation practices and policies that respect individual culture, that promote high level of equity, that ensure patient needs are prioritized and that ensure high level of accountability in provision of care. Nurses get to be more aware of their own identity and culture and how it influences their practices. This helps in recognition of similar and unique qualities of different cultural groups (Doutrich et al., 2012).

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Engagement with indigenous Australian cultural groups is domineering in the process of enhancing cultural consciousness and developing collaborative healthcare programs. Cultural safety thus initiates both individual and systemic change with the objective of assessing processes of formation of identity. It also promotes awareness of personal identity among health workers and effect on care they offer to indigenous Australians (Freeman et al., 2014). Measures like training nurses on cultural safety enhance them in development of cultural of suitable communication strategies, attitudes and behaviours, which lower the inequality gaps in healthcare outcomes. Cultural safety in nursing also ensures culturally suitable care that centres on cultural requirements of the patient, increasing patient satisfaction and outcome (Bainbridge, McCalman, Clifford & Tsey, 2015).

5R of Reflection Framework


Different engagement in this course has improved my understanding of the life of Australian indigenous communities and the challenges that they have been facing over other communities due to discrimination. The recommended readings, videos and lectures have made me learn that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people has been experiencing health disparity compared to other Australians, mostly due to racial discrimination. There has been individual and institutional racism enacted against the aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia. This includes discriminative policies and practices that undermine their access to quality care. Individual professional attitudes and behaviours have also added to their misery. In this regard, the indigenous Australians have been experience poor general health for quite a long time, among other social and economic discrimination. I have also learnt that growing level of discrimination and its negative effect on indigenous community health prompted the need for cultural intervention in healthcare provision.


Going through this course I have come to learn that cultural safety is the best intervention measure to improve the health situation of indigenous people in Australia. Cultural safety involve being aware of my own culture and how it influence my nursing practices especially among patients of different culture. This makes me aware of cultural sensitive things. Things that I would have wished my nurse considered while handling my case, despite not being of my culture. Being cultural sensitive is likely to change my attitude and behaviours toward indigenous patients by ensuring that I treat them with respect, love and care. There has been other intervention in the past. However, they were not highly effective simply because they did not pay much attention to cultural safety. I have realized that cultural safety influence individual and institutional behaviour towards indigenous community and hence producing better results. 


The reading materials have given me relevant knowledge on how to improve the health situation of Aboriginal and Torres groups in Australia. The video has made me realize how destructive my cultural insensitive and discriminative acts and attitude has been to indigenous group. This make me see the need to learn more about cultural competence and safety in promoting equal treatment to all my patients in the future.


Basically, my behaviour in handling indigenous people was highly influenced by my upbringing. There was white supremacy in my upbringing making it hard to realize where I have applied negative attitude or destructive behaviour. I also lacked knowledge on how my behaviour negatively impacted indigenous people wellbeing.


I have realized the importance of having cultural knowledge in nursing. This is the only way to ensure cultural safety among the aboriginal people. This course has taught me the importance of being cultural sensitive especially while handling indigenous people. I have learnt that the system has been considerably unfair to aboriginals, making them suffer unnecessarily. More need to be done to promote aboriginal and Torres healthcare access.  

Laser Fence Business Plan

Executive Summary

There has been immense growth in the fencing industry from the traditional timber fence to the modern laser fence. There are numerous benefits derivable from the installation of a laser fence around Australia’s Broadacres farms. Such benefits include improved crop production resulting in augmented income, increased wool and other sheep products, diminished time and labor costs, and diminished human-wildlife conflict.

The main customers will be farms, commercial premises, industrial sites, and government properties with the pioneer market being Broadacres farm in Australia the pilot region being Western Australia. The main competitors of Lite Fence PLC will include: Invisible Fence PLC, Senstar, and Optex Pinnacle. The first market will be Broadacres farm in Australia the pilot region being Western Australia.

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The capital set-up and flow of Lite Fence will majorly be made up of loans, savings, and shareholding.  The company’s capital structure will entail: 45% venture capital, 30% partner contributions, and 25% unsecured debt. The estimated initial cost is $292,120 broken down into numerous cost components: licenses and permits- $1,800, pick-up truck for material delivery- $15,000, computer software apps – $8,000, office space rent- $22,400, working tools and equipment- $27,300, three months’ operational costs- 120,000, sales and marketing expenditure-$6,400, research and development- $4,600, among other costs.

Company Summary

Lite Fence PLC is an emerging company launched in May 2018 as a partnership among three individuals with interests in the field of security systems. The three individuals are Davies Hurdley, Bruce Wilkins, and Amina Iverson. Fencing companies belong to the fence construction industry that comprises of companies that install a wide variety of fences that range from security fences to residential fences, and niche fences. The three partners who were classmates in a class on security systems, came together in a brainstorming session to underline the concerns property owners raise regarding the use of other types of fences. The location of the business will be along 785 Dandenong Valley Highway, Dandenong South, Australia.

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The utmost gain derived from mixing ‘levels of defense’ is its ability in enabling individuals to sense an intrusion before its full culmination. It is completely unfair that one should have to remain in the dark while an intrusion occurs in the sanctity of their properties before their knowledge of the invasion. The initial line of defense that can be established is at the perimeter, and there is no better way to achieve a remarkable outcome than by utilizing emergent technologies to attain a security system that is almost full proof. Despite the limited knowledge on the notion of laser fencing in Australia, among the most critical steps to guarantee maximum security is the installation of a laser fence.

Detailed Product Features

Zwayen (2015) defines a laser as a recognition gadget for offering a cautionary pointer in reaction to an invasion by an intruder in a restricted property. The fence entails a laser generator for producing a laser beam. Additionally, the first mirror is set in line with the laser beam and reflects it to a second mirror which is aligned with a third mirror that eventually redirects the ray to the visual detector.

The features of the fence include: unique detection algorithm, 30m radius for 190 degrees array (Vanderwerf, 2017), a function for automatic area setting, environmental disqualification circuit, horizontal and vertical mounting, Form C master alarm output, anti-rotation utility, scene selection (indoor wall/ceiling protection, outdoor, vehicle, and indoor), anti-masking function, adjustment of non-detection area, tamper output, IP connection and analog (Dry contact), built-in heater, trouble output, alarm duration function, fog cancellation algorithm (with listed Patent), anti-rotation function, and non-detection area adjustment.

The laser fences range from one beam to four beams. Laser Fence PLC will be offering the XD-B50D 4 beam laser fence with a laser wavelength of 808nm, 650nm, and 980nm (Romaniuk, 2018).  Also, the product has an alert distance of 50m, and additional features include blocking beam alarm.

Competitive Comparison

Lite Fence PLC faces intense competition from numerous other fence manufacturing companies within Australia. Invisible Fence PLC and DogWatch Inc. have developed electric dog fence solutions that are full service within all the regions in Australia (Invisible Fence, 2019). However, this company does not pose substantial competition because the technology entails a digital signal passed between a transmitter and an FM receiver collar. It is practically untenable to fix the collars on all the sheep in the Broadacres farms due to the cost component.

Furthermore, the product can only prevent the animals from going outside the farm, but not intruders or wild animals from entering the farm (Invisible Fence, 2019). Moreover, DogWatch Inc. has merely produced a product for dogs only and not animals like sheep. Lastly, Dogwatch’s products are based on electronic as opposed to laser technology.

Another competitor is Senstar is another Australian-based security installations company specializing in intrusion detection sensors combined with video management systems. The company has over 35 years’ experience in manufacturing different types of sensors that range from gate, fence, and wall-mounted sensors, to microwave, fiber-optic, barrier, buried, and electrostatic sensors, coupled with intelligent lighting solution (Senstar, 2019). Nonetheless, the company is not a direct threat as it does not manufacture and sell laser fences.

The biggest competition, however, may come from foreign companies such as Indian-based OPTEX Pinnacle India Private Limited. OPTEX offers detection systems with the capacity of guarding the range surrounding the outer boundary, proximal area to the perimeter and the building, as well as the interior space and roof (Optex Pinnacle India Limited, 2019). The company also prides itself in the range of products on offer from Photo Beam, to Fiber Sensys, Motion Detector, and Redwall. Though the company seems to be a pronounced threat to Lite Fence PLC, OPTEX is based in India and is yet to establish an Australian subsidiary hence Lite Fence has the opportunity to penetrate the market as market leaders before OPTEX makes a move.

Laser fence PLC is aware that Australia’s fencing industry faces cut-throat competition. However, the rival firms majorly deal in other forms of fences such as steel fence sheets, tubular fencing, aluminum slat screening, and colorbond fencing. These fences are not applicable for use in large tracts of land. Fortunately for Laser Fence PLC, the rival companies only offer other types of fences and not laser fences. Laser fences are not stand-alone and can only function together with extra types of fences such as barbed wire, woven wire, chain link, and agricultural fences. So rather than competing, Laser Fence PLC will collaborate with rival firms such as Auswest Fencing & Wrought Iron Inc. and Our Town Fencing Inc. to offer the best fencing outcomes.

Market Analysis Summary

Market Trends

The market trends in the security systems industry are such that no fixed profit projections exist when taking part in fence installations contracts. Slater et al. (2005) highlight that the profit that is due to Laser Fence PLC, therefore, is influenced by several variables for instance: the company’s ability to obtain quality and fairly-priced fencing materials, preciseness during installation, and the support services offered after installation. The ability to gain all the mentioned variables will increase the company’s market share and profits to a large extent.

Another apparent trend that is wide-spread among fence construction firms is the fact that a majority of them are inventing new ways of making money. In this regard, most companies are engaging in certain types of building renovations works (Mohr, Jakki, Sengupta, Sanjit and Slater, 2005). Since laser fencing is still a new concept in the fencing industry, Laser Fence PLC can generate additional income by undertaking periodical systems upgrades and support services at subsidized fees.

Remarkably, Australia’s Fence Construction Industry has been stimulated by the increased rates of human-wildlife conflict. Wild animal predators have been indiscriminately pouncing on domestic animals such as sheep that are being reared in large number across the numerous Australian Broadacres farms (Thomas, 2017). Furthermore, there have been instances of human intrusions into these farms that have gone undetected and have resulted in losses to the owners as a result of theft.

Also, since the laser technology is still a new idea in Australia’s Fence Construction Industry, there are high prospects in the Australian market. We expect the transformative Laser Fencing Technology to endear to a majority of electric fence users (Romaniuk, 2018). I, therefore, foresee the increased awareness on the benefits of laser fences triggering a switch to the new technology among farmers. Laser fencing is only not cost-effective but also more efficient compared to electric fencing.

Finally, Australia’s Fence Construction Industry will undoubtedly be influenced by external variables. Australian government policies supporting the growth of Broadacres farms such as tax breaks and reductions aimed at promoting large-scale farming and food security will bolster the laser fencing business (Thomas, 2017). Undoubtedly, for every fencing company with creative, hardworking, and proactive management and workers, they will continuously make enough revenues to cater for their operational and overhead costs, sustain their commercials comfortably, and generate sensible profits from the businesses.

Target Market

Lite Fence PLC’s market varies widely from home to facilities owned by different classes of people. The company has adopted a business concept that is directed at converting the users of other types of users in dissimilar settings to embrace the new transformative technology.

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The target market of the company will entail entire Australia for starters, before spreading to other countries within the Oceania continent. To this effect, the company has already initiated plans to recruit freelance sales and marketing agents to drive the firm’s business interests in diverse parts of Australia (Slater et al., 2005). Lite Fence products have been designed for different individuals and companies as listed below:

  • Corporate firms with the intent of fencing their establishments.
  • The Australian Government through tenders.
  • Families interested in setting up home security systems.
  • Farmers interested in mounting perimeter fences around their farms.
  • Public facility managers aimed at hiring fence construction companies to safeguard their facilities.

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The initial market for Lite Fence PLC will be Broadacre farm in Australia the pilot region being Western Australia. Broadacre farms are parcels of land whose size exceeds 4,000 meters squared that meet specific land-use criteria, majorly farming operations on a large-scale. The farmers cultivate crops such as oilseeds, pulses, rice, winter and summer cereals, and sugar cane. Also, the farmers rare cows for milk and beef as well as sheep for lamb and wool.

Competitive Advantage

Undoubtedly, the fence construction industry is an extremely productive industry. Clients will only hire a company based on its capacity to install fences that will successfully safeguard their property (Slater, Hult, Tomas, and Olson, 2005). Despite Laser Fence PLC being a relatively young company, the firm boasts of having close-neat links with vendors, capacity to enlarge and limit operations promptly depending on market demand and entree to position markets, and having the best qualified, creative, and experienced minds at the helm of management.

Setting aside all the above-mentioned attributes, the main competitive advantage that Laser Fence PLC enjoys is being among the pioneer laser fence manufacturing and installation companies in Australia. The company can easily use this advantage to dislodge rival fence companies in the market by just selling the advantages of laser fences compared to other types of fences to potential customers (Walker & John, 2018). So long as they convince them to try the new fencing technology, they are almost guaranteed of being the automatic suppliers of the fences. 

Lastly, employee welfare will be at the top of the company’s strategic management goals. Laser Fence PLC will offer among the best salaries, allowances, and retirement benefits in the entire industry to its staff. The move is aimed at establishing a sense of loyalty among the employees to increase their willingness and zeal to build the business with the founders and deliver their set mission and vision.

Marketing Strategy

Marketing Mix (Four Ps)


Talking about laser fences does not imply crisscrossing laser lines that create some form of a hurdle course rather than a security apparatus. In our context, laser fences generally denote scanners that are attached to the boundaries of a property to provide an additional surveillance element (Zwayen, 2015). The fence will make use of both precise and innovative scan detectors that sense the speed, size, and proximity of a moving object from the sensor. The next step involves the processing of the information by employing a unique algorithm, culminating in an extremely dependable detection system with marginal false alarms.

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There is extensive flexibility of products being offered for laser fence in Australia in terms of their settings. Nonetheless, the property owner is still required to select ones that fit their specific requirements from the set of products (Romaniuk, 2018). After making of the decision, Lite Fence PLC Australia sends a team at minimal time and cost to undertake the installation. The company’s efficiency increases by the fact that the company has various business partnerships with Security Systems and Information Technology (IT) firms that it has trained to offer installation and support services of their products on their behalf.


A set of the laser beam sensor intrusion detection will cost between $100 and $900 depending on whether it is one beam or four beams. For the Broadacre farm, we intend to use the three beam sensor which will cost the company $400. Finding a balance between affordable pricing and maintaining a reasonable profit margin to progress business is critical for any start-up venture (Damodaran & Toro, 2010). In this regard, the retail price of the product will be $600 per set, inclusive of installations costs. However, we can make any necessary adjustments to consider the two beam sensor if the owner decides to go for lower prices.


The company will majorly aim at conducting marketing through online distribution. Since Australia’s Broadacre farms will be our first customers, we intend to undertake an exceptionally remarkable job on the first farm that will earn us recommendations for other installations in other farms. Furthermore, we shall offer free fitting and support services for the first six months. Also, our products will have one year’s warranty.


Laser Fence PLC will undertake thorough recruitments procedures for their sales and marketing team. Freelance brokers will also be recruited across the country (Ferrell, 2016). Moreover, the company will offer training aimed at equipping the team with the necessary skills to attain organizational goals and objectives. Better yet, the training will not be limited to our in-house sales staff, but will also be offered to our freelance brokers. 

Laser Fence PLC will employ several innovative sales and marketing strategies. First, we will introduce our business to potential clients by attaching introductory notes to our brochure (Walker & John, 2018). The leaflets will be disseminated to various stakeholders in the construction and real estate’s sectors such as property developers and farmers across Australia. Secondly, Laser Fence PLC will publish advertisements in real estate websites and magazines. Also, the business will enroll in the local directories (yellow pages).

Real estate seminars, expos, and business fares will also provide a good ground for the company’s sales and marketing staff to gain valuable insights on potential markets. Furthermore, the company will capitalize on the internet frenzy to promote the company’s product offerings through its official website as well as social media platforms (Chaffey, 2011). Besides, Laser Fence PLC will develop personalized packages for different clients based on their distinct features. Lastly, the company will deliver high-quality products and services and request satisfied customers to spread the word to their mates and kin.

Sales Forecast

It is undisputed that property owners in Australia and globally deem it necessary to construct or re-construct time and again. This need is driven by factors such as the desire to keep up with emerging trends in the vicinity or town. In the context of the fencing industry, there another consideration is the advancement in technology to enhance security (Chaffey, 2011). Robbers and burglars are managing to crack and outmaneuver security systems at almost the same rate that security systems are being modified. This ingenuity necessitates property owners to constantly upgrade their security systems. Since laser technology is currently the epitome of modern security systems, this implies booming business for Laser Fence PLC.

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Also, the company is strategically capable of overcoming the challenges existing in Australia’s fence construction sector. We take pride in having three brilliant and tech-savvy minds as the proprietors of the business. The company values R&D and has invested adequate resources for the same (Slater, Hult, Tomas, and Olson, 2005). Additionally, our employees are thoroughly trained to maintain service quality. Most importantly, the principal venture capitalist in the firm has been operating a thriving security systems business for the past eight years hence has immense expertise in the field. There is no better person than him to mentor the mushrooming company to prosperity.

Besides, Laser Fence PLC is the first security systems firm specializing in laser technology to venture into providing laser fencing solutions to Australia’s Broadacre Farms. This pioneering move is advantageous to our company since we have already attained a niche market with great potential (Mohr et al., 2005). The technical staff of Lacer Fence PLC can also profit from the expertise it will have obtained from on-job-learning and trial-and-error during the installations. This knowledge will give the company a competitive advantage over rival firms when they start exploiting the niche market of Broadacre Farms. The advantage gained in the market further translates to increased sales and profits resulting from enhanced competencies.

In undertaking our sales analysis, we engaged the help of market trends analysis data from credible financial sites such as Bloomberg. From the assessment of our company’s probabilities of success in the real estate and fence building industry, we fancy our chances. Our analysis derived the following quarterly sales projections.

Period Sales Cumulative Sales
Quarter 1 Year 1 60000 60000
Quarter 2 Year 1 70800 130800
Quarter 3 Year 1 92040 162840
Quarter 4 Year 1 119652 211692
Quarter 1 Year 2 153154.56 349192.3968
Quarter 2 Year 2 196037.8368 446966.2679
Quarter 3 Year 2 250928.4311 572116.8229
Quarter 4 Year 2 321188.3918 770852.1404
Quarter 1 Year 3 449663.7485 1079192.996
Quarter 2 Year 3 629529.248 1510870.195
Quarter 3 Year 3 881340.9471 2115218.273
Quarter 4 Year 3 1233877.326 1233877.326

N.B: This forecast was grounded on the industry averages with an assumption that the economic conditions will remain relatively constant and that no other security systems firms will be constructing laser fences in the Broadacres within the duration. Also, it is worth noting that a margin of error exists; hence the figures may be a little bit higher or lower.

Finance Plan


The total estimated initial capital for Laser Fence PLC is $292,120. The business will source for a $ 131,454 million financing from interested venture capitalists in exchange for 45% stake in the company. The partners will raise the remaining 30%, which is $87,636 equating to $29,212 each. The sources of the partners’ contributions will come from personal savings, fundraising from friends and family members, and obtaining personal loans (Damodaran & Toro, 2010). Since Laser Fence PLC is still a company in its inception, it lacks assets that can be used as collateral for secured loans from financial institutions. In this regard, the company will seek for the remaining 25% equivalent to $73,030 unsecured loan from a construction SACCO or bank. The two types of institutions were selected since they charge lower interest rates compared to the traditional banks by 2 to 3 percentage points. Besides, lenders only need to act as each other’s guarantors.


The money raised would be used in covering different costs of the company that range from initial set-up, to fixed, and operational costs (recurrent expenditure).

Cost Item Amount
Incorporating the business in the U.S. $720
Consultation fee for Business Development $2,400
Licenses and Permits $1,800
Insurance fee (staff compensation, general liability, surety bond, and property casualty) $5,800
Computer software apps (Accounting, CRM, Payroll, Microsoft Office software) $8,000
Office space rent at 785 Dandenong Valley Highway, Dandenong South, Australia for one year @$ 1.12 per square feet x 20,000 square feet    $22,400
Office furniture and fittings (partitioning, furniture, filing cabinets, computers, printers, telephones, internet installation, safety equipment, and electronics) $38,500
Working tools and equipment (drills, saws, ladders, hammers, welding machine) $27,300
Purchase of pick-up track $15,000
Additional start-up expenses such as stationery and utility deposits (phone, electricity, internet, water) $3,400
Three months’ operational costs (staff salaries and allowances, utility bills) $120,000
Official company website launch $800
Sales and marketing expenditure (signage, promotions, business cards, adverts) $6,400
Initial stock (sensors, adapters, microcontrollers, and speakers) $32,600
Research and Development (R&D) $4,600
Contingency fund $2,400
Total Expenditure $292,120

Payment Options

Laser Fence PLC has formulated a flexible and accommodative payment policy to cater to all classes of customers. Nonetheless, for purposes of enhancing accountability and easing the book-keeping process, the only mode of payment that is prohibited is cash transactions (Zielinski, 2019). The available modes of payment include bank transfer, cheque, bank overdraft (credit cards), and online payment platforms (PayPal, Alipay, and Skrill Moneybookers). The company is also swimming the wave of digital transformation and technological evolution. As such, the company will consider including cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Litecoin as future modes of payment (Zielinski, 2019). The company’s bank accounts and other payment details will be noticeably displayed on the official website among other promotional materials such as flyers and brochures. A disclaimer shall be issued that any cash transactions undertaken between a Laser Fence employee and the client will be at the risk of either or both the parties.

Read-Only Participants: A Case for Student Communication in Online Classes – Article Summary

In this paper, Nagel, Blignaut and Cronje (2007) investigate on the significant of ‘visibility’ for online students, apparent in the quality and quantity of participation. The research is based on the past research findings that indicated that successful completion of online courses is considerably low compared to traditional course by about 50%. This situation was highly blamed on lack of students’ participation in online course or due to what is regarded as read-only form of learning. The research is based on a case study that explores the successful completion of online postgraduate course at the University of Pretoria. The research question focused on establishing how online participation associated with successful completion of the course and learning, and how student participation in online classes swayed the learning community.

The researchers employed mixed research methods to collect data. The qualitative research method permitted the researcher to investigate the non-participating students’ context, as well as the reactions and perception of the class. The quantitative research method helped in tracking student activity view in the course. According to the research findings, students with high rate of participation performed much better compared to those who did not participate. It was also established that only students who interacted with the lecturer or contributed in the class succeed in completing the course. The researchers’ calculation affirmed that students who contribute less and with low quality kind of contribution, and those that demonstrate low interaction with their colleagues and lecturer are at high danger of not completing their online course.

According to the researchers, students with low participation demonstrated low log-ins frequency, and this made them missed out on important support required for success. Nagel, Blignaut and Cronje (2007) concluded that formation of virtual community can only be formed through participation where the community benefits from tutoring, facilitation or feedback from the peer and the tutor. Active participation was thus determined as the main aspect that determines the rate of successful completion of online courses.

Persuasive Letter Focused on Persuading the Reader to change his or her Stance or Opinion

Assignment Instructions

Personal Letter – Construct a letter focused on persuading the reader to change his or her stance or opinion. Think about a personal opinion you hold in which someone close to you (friend, family member, etc.) disagrees. Appeal to your reader in an emotional manner using appropriate language and strategies such as motivation, inspiration, etc., to write a personal, passionate letter in an effort to get your reader to agree with your perspective. Kindly play off the reader’s emotions to draw him or her into your argument. Make sure your appeals are legitimate and straightforward so that you avoid using logical fallacies in your efforts.

Begin with an introduction that explains your topic. Make a fluid transition into the thesis where you issue your opinion as well as three reasons that support your claim. Present and argue each of the three reasons in three separate body paragraphs. Finish with a conclusion that summarizes your appeals and makes one final effort to sway your reader.

Sample Persuasive Letter

Dear Friend,

I must say that I am quite disappointed by how you reacted after failing to secure admission slot in your favorite college in town. I have information that you are very devastated and you currently believe that you will never make it in life. You have now taken into binge drinking as a way of soothing your sorrow and life disappointments. What angers me most is the fact that you now consider yourself a failure just because you could not manage to be admitted to the college. You know I hate this mentality. I do not believe that one must have a college degree to be successful in life. To be honest, I believe that this mentality was generated to force students to work hard in class. However, there is nothing more to it than a motivational factor. Having a college degree does not guarantee individual success in life.

I know that our parents have a great respect to education, and they have made most of us believe that college degree is a key to success. However, I highly disagree with this way of thinking. Actually in my opinion, college degree limits individual success, by creating the mentality of being employed. I am sure you wanted to join college so that you may graduate someday and a get a salaried job. This would guarantee you a few thousand dollars per month if you are lucky to be employed. However, what can those few thousand dollars do for you? Have you ever considered that other than paying normal bills there is nothing more to life of college graduates after employment? My friend you need to wake up and dust your coat, there is more to life than just being a college graduates.

John I have lived longer than you, travelled wide, and met many successful people in life. Based on my experience, I can tell you with a lot of confidence that you do not need a college degree to be successful in life. Actually, most successful college graduates are those individuals who kept their certificate aside and venture into other diverse ways of making money. There are so many channels that one can venture into and be successful in life. They include talents, hobbies, own inventions, and affiliate marketing among other things. I can assure you that you only need to identify a problem that you can solve in the society, and you will have all that it takes to be successful.

I agree that education is important in life; however, it does not in any way guarantee success in life. I am sure you know that there is a high rate of unemployment in the country. I am also sure that you know what globalization has done to our job market. We are today competing with outsourced workers and immigrants in the job market. This has resulted to decline in workers’ salaries due to availability of cheap labor. I have seen people struggling to make ends meet despite having college degree and being employed. So you should stop thinking that college degree will in any way solve all your problems and make you a famous tycoon in your community. You need to take life positively and work with what you have. There is no limitation in life. If you look keenly, you will realize some of the people who made serious inventions and became highly successful in life did not have college degree. However, they had a great passion of solving pressing problems in their community, during their existence. This happened when it was considerably hard to gather the required information. However, today we have internet and other technologies that have made research life much easier. This means you can easily build your own knowledge in any idea that you may wish to grow and make unimaginable invention. Moreover, with the current rate growth of internet usage, you can reach an extensive range of people to sell your idea or product. This is why you should stop crying about your lost opportunities and consider the opportunities that this rejection has opened to you.

I know it is considerably hard to change your life and mind after having the dream of joining college for years. However, it is important to accept the new normal and open up your mind to explore new areas of life. Start focusing on other things that can make your life complete and that you will enjoy doing. By devising your own ways of defining success and how to achieve it, you will have the opportunity of working without limitation. This will open up a path that will always have room for new discoveries and new levels of success. This way, you will manage to experience the real success, not just by having enough for all your needs, but also by opening new employment opportunities for future college graduates.

Yours Sincerely

Student’s Name  

Characteristics of Qualitative Research Studies and When it is Appropriate or Not


Qualitative research is a kind of inquiry which information communicated via behavior and language in a natural environment. It is used to explore human behaviors. This form of research is referred so by different terms reflecting different research approaches. Qualitative research is structured to investigate the human elements of a provided topic, where unique methods are utilized to evaluate how individuals experience and see the world. Qualitative researchers are concerned about understanding the meaning constructed by people; people’s experiences of the world and how individuals make sense of their world.

Read also Two Major Ways in Which Qualitative Research Differs From Quantitative Research

Qualitative research thus seeks to offer understanding of human behaviors, experiences, intentions, perceptions, and motivations based on observation and description and using a naturalistic explanatory approach to a subject and its circumstantial setting. Qualitative research is refers to a positioned activity which traces the observer in the world. It comprises of a set of explanatory, material practices which enhance the visibility of the world. These practices change the world into a sequence of representations that include memo, field notes, recordings, interviews, photographs, and conversations to the self. At this degree, qualitative research entails naturalistic, interpretive approach to the world (Islam & Faruque, 2016).

Characteristics of Qualitative Research

Qualitative Research Sample

Qualitative research characteristically a smaller sample size compared to the sample size required in quantitative research. However, the qualitative research sample size needs to be large enough to acquire enough data to effectively describe the interested phenomenon and handle the research question. The qualitative researchers’ goal should be to attain saturation, which happens when adding extra participants in a research does not yield to extra information or perspectives. This saturation point can vary from one form of qualitative research to another. For instance, the ethnography participants should range from 30 to 50, grounded theory should use 30 to 50 interviews, while phenomenological studies need to have 6 to 25 participants (Sandelowski, 1995). 

Read also Sources of Bias for Quantitative and Qualitative Research

In addition, there is no any specific formula used to determine the right sample size in qualitative research. However, there are factors that can be considered while determining the sample size. Some of these factors include the nature of the study topic, then quality of information required by the researcher, and the design of the study (Morse, 2000). An adequate sample size in qualitative research is proposed to be the one which allows deep, case-based evaluation which is seal of qualitative inquiry, and that the outcome is a richly and new coarse understanding of experience.

Type of Data Collected

Qualitative research normally involves the collection of descriptive data from interviews, and observations. The data can be collected verbally or in a written form, especially when unstructured or semi-structured questionnaires are used to collect data. The collected data in qualitative research can range from personal experience in form of a narrative, individual opinion, feelings, or thoughts regarding a certain event or situation, and artifacts. Artifacts in this case include past events material evidence which include personal information demographics or historical information about people, society or culture. 

Data Collection

There are various ways of collecting the required data in qualitative research. Some of these methods include focus groups, observation, interviews, field notes, analysis of materials and documents, and reflective journals. Qualitative research involves the use of semi-structured or unstructured interviews rather than structured interviews. These interviewed can either happen face-to-face or through phone. The interviews are mostly tape recorded to be analyzed later. The researcher may also consider using focus groups interview where six to ten people in a group are interviewed. This form of data collection can either be semi-structured, structured or unstructured. Written narratives mostly offer reflections with regard to a prompt or question.

Read also Qualitative Vs Quantitative Research And Their Strengths And Weaknesses

They have different structures. Questionnaires mostly involve written replies to open-ended questions either in computer or written surveys. General topics are highly controlled, and responses are in brief comments which might lack the required depth for analysis. Observations are normally done by the researcher and they are specifically helpful in understanding the participants’ behavior in a natural environment. Notes are documented immediately after or during observations. Observations are normally done secretly without participant consent to ensure that they behave in the most natural way. Document review may involve assessment of official and unofficial materials related to the topic of study. This may include minutes, letters, memos, websites, or program description among others (Sullivan & Sargeant, 2011).    

Data Analysis

The qualitative data analysis methods are founded on three strategies of qualitative data analysis which include organizing and preparing data, coding and data presentation in the figure, tables or text form. There are different forms of qualitative data analysis and their use relies on the framework within which qualitative research was adopted. .The research questions are utilized as a guide for carrying out the analysis. Qualitative data analysis has common characteristic of inductive analytical process which involves reduction of data, display of the data and drawing conclusion verification. The main process of data analysis in qualitative research involves the identification of common patterns and themes emerging with relation to the research objective. The researcher then determines how the patterns and themes associate to the research focus. Codes are then developed based on the identified themes.  Codes are labels or tags for helping analysis units to the inferential or descriptive information compiled in a study. Codes are used to move data to a higher abstraction level.

Read also Designing Qualitative Research

The computer programs are then used process the qualitative data further based on how data is codified into paragraphs, words, sentences or phrases (Ngulube, 2015). For instance in an actual qualitative research involving interview, observation or questionnaire survey, the researcher assesses the observation and report the created impressions using a structured format. The recorded interviews are transcribed and also reported in a structured format. Questionnaires are also reviewed and the result recorded in a structured format.  The data is interpreted after recording mostly by developing themes identified based on the research and from all data sources. Computer software such as STATA or SPSS is then used to process the data further for easy interpretation.  

Results Presentation

Qualitative data presentation depends on the method used to collect the data.  For instance interview data result can be presented by selecting quotes which are most representative or/and poignant of the research findings. Qualitative data can also be presented in percentage form, especially is situation where coding, and theming was easy and hence finer data processing was achieved through computer programs processing. In this case, data can be further presented in graphical forms including charts, tables, and graphs (Verdinelli & Scagnoli, 2013).

Geological Tourism of Fiji


Fiji has a number of volcanoes that are scattered across the countries. While some have not erupted in about 500 years others are still active. Taveuni Island which is the third largest island in Fiji has a huge shield volcano with over 100 cones. Taveuni summit is 4071 feet high. Other volcano mountains in the country include Koro and Nabukelevu. Koro volcano refers to a 1713 feet high, basaltic cinder cone volcano mountain that is situated between Viti Levu and Vanua Levu islands on 16 x 9 km wide Koro Island. Some of the koro volcano cones are probably below 10000 years old. The Koro youngest lava erupted from its cinder cone chain in NNE-SSW-trending, from a flat field of lava normally limited to the central plateau.

Read also Factors To Condsider When Examining Geology of a Region for Potential Useable Aquifiers

Nabukelevu is an andesitic-dacitic complex lava domes that are located at south western end of Kaduva Island (Begg and Gray 4). The Nabukelevu erupted last at around 1660 and its highest point is 2641 feet. The volcano summit is regarded as Mt. Washington, where presence of flat flows of lave can be seen at Cape Washington located at the North Eastern cost Talauli Bay and on the west coast. The trending NNE faults cut the complex dome of Nabukelevu in various locations, outlining its eastern boundary. Native legends and geological records demonstrate that various eruptions have taken place at Nabukelevu in the past centuries. Ash flows and block deposits demonstrate that there was active growth of the dome in the past few 100 years (Cronin and Neall 417).

Cone Shaped Mountains

Fiji has a number of cone shaped mountains. They include Mount Uluigalau which is the highest mountain on the Taveuni Island and the second highest in the Fiji group. Uluigalay is 4072 feet high. There is also Mount Manuka whih is located at Vanua Levu and it is 3917 feet high. Other mountains in Fiji include Mount Buke Levu which is Kadavu Island’s highest mountain with a height of 3800 feet, and Mount Delaitho that is situated on Gau and it is 242 feet high. There is also Mount Delaiovalau that is located on Ovalau and it is 2053 feet and Mount Manuka that is situated on Vanua Levu and it is 3917 feet high (Miller 1).

Different Islands in Fiji

There are over 300 islands in Fiji. Some of these islands include Pacific Harbor Island, Wakaya Island, The Coral Coast Island, the Mamanuca Island Group, Taveuni Island and the Yasawa Island group among others (Neall and Trewick 3295).  Among all these islands, biggest of all is Vita Levu which is comprises of denarau, Coral Coast and Pacific Harbor among other surrounding islands. The Vita Levu Island measures 4042 square miles, where about 70% of the Fiji residents reside. The second largest island in Fiji is Vanua Levu which measures 2160 square miles and where the second largest number of people in Fiji resides. These islands act as the habitat for various unique plants and animals’ species, which are only found in Fiji. Fiji Island acts as the home for the capital city of the country, the Suva coastal city. The interior of Fiji Island contains dramatic landscapes of mountain terrain, waterfalls, and tropical forests (Foye 305).  

Rocks Found in the Island

The eldest rocks in Fiji are island-circular segment volcanic of Late Eocene age framed by westwards subduction of the Pacific plate underneath the Australian plate along the Vitiaz curv. In addition, Fiji Island is made of volcanoes and thus, the half of the western part of Viti Levu island, is extensively made of intermediate and basic volcanic rocks, arenites and rudites composed of volcano argillites, mudstones and detritus. There are also acid plutonic rocks that have intruded different points of the island especially the south-western parts of the island. In addition, most of the areas in the island have organic rich limestone especially at Cuvu around Sigatoka. Other rocks include peat bogs that stand for the initial stage of formation of coal (Crook 681).

Want to Learn More About Makes Fiji Unique

Crook, A. C. Keith. Burial Metamorphic Rocks from Fiji. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, vol.6, no.5, 1968, pp. 681-704.

This article analyses rocks found in Fiji especially due volcanic activities. The article analyses the metamorphism of the rock buried in the island and the kind of secondary minerals formed in the sediment rocks and tertiary volcanic rocks especially from the western parts of Viti Levu, Fiji. This article will be used to expand more on the kinds of rocks found in the island and how they are formed.

Miller, Lauren. “What Landforms Make Fiji Unique?” USA Today, 2018,

The article discusses all landforms found in Fiji Island including islands, mountains, volcanoes, and coral reef. The article discussed the main aspects of each of the above identified landform and the most unique features that make the landform distinguishable from others in the world. This article will be used to add more information on different geological features found in Fiji Island and noting some of their unique features that make them distinguishable.

Cronin, J. Shane and Neall Vincent. Holocene Volcanic Geology, Volcanic Hazard, and Risk on Taveuni, Fiji. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, vol.44, no.3, 2001, pp. 417-437.

This article features Taveuni which is the third-biggest island of the Fuji groups. The article reviews the physical details of the island into details include physical features, rocks found in the area and how they were formed, the island geographical settings and some of the risks that some of the features in the island pose to people living in the area. This article will play a great role in informing the research about Taveuni Island and some of other geographic features in it.

Neall, E. Vincent and Trewick A Steven. The Age and Origin of the Pacific Islands: a Geological Overview. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, vol. 363, no.1508, 2008, 3293-3308.

This article reviews about the pacific island formation process, Fiji being part of pacific islands. The article discusses forces that were involved in the formation of various features in the pacific oceans which made every created island unique. The article provides rich information on history of pacific island and forces that were involved in their formation.

 Foye G. Wilbur. The Geology of the Fiji Islands. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.3, no.4, 1917, pp. 305-310.

This article features different geological features of Fiji Island focusing more on the largest islands in Fiji. The article features different islands, the rock found there, volcanoes, and vegetation among other things. This article will be used to expand knowledge on various geological features found in island in Fiji.

Begg, Graham and Gray R. David. Arc Dynamics and Tectonic History of Fiji Based on Stress and Kinematic Analysis of Dikes and Faults of the Tavua Volcano, Viti Levu Island, Fiji. Tectonics, vol.21, no.4, 2002, pp. 1-14.

This article features the formation of Fiji Island through tectonic and arc dynamic movements. The article gives detail information of forces involved in the formation of Fiji and other oceanic islands and features that resulted from these forces including faults, dikes, and volcanos in Fiji. This article will be contribute by adding rich history of Fiji geology and featuring history of some of geological features that are relevant in tourist attraction today in Fiji.

Role of Safety Professionals and How They Should be held Accountable

What is the role of safety professionals? How should they be held accountable? What has been your observation or experience in this regard as a safety professional or while dealing with safety professionals? 

Safety professionals are very important in any organization that aspires to embrace safety culture in its operation. It is true that all individuals in an organization including employees, supervisors and managers have individual responsibility for safety and require to be held accountable. However, none of them can replace safety professionals since other than following rules to ensure they uphold the safety measures, safety professional define the safety rules. They are responsible of assessing different work station and determine whether the company has met the safety standards.

Read also Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) Discipline Overview – PowerPoint Presentation

They also offer recommendation on what can be changed or adjusted to eliminate safety loopholes in a workstation design. Other than following rules set to enhance safety, safety professionals are deeper involved in the safety matters.  They participate in reviewing designs to determine their adherence to safety measures or to identify things that may cause harm to the users. They also assist in making suitable recommendation on the best measures to take to promote safety in developed equipment and those that are in the process of development. Safety professionals also play the major role of training other workers, supervisors and managers on safety measures related to their work area, and the measures workers should take in case of an accident.

Read also Where Should Health and Safety Programs be Placed in the Organizational Structure?

Safety Professional should be held accountable of any accident that happens as a result of unidentified fault during purchase or before use or any unidentified ergonomic or workstation hazard that was unidentified during their inspection. They should be able to give safety assurance to workers using devices that they do not understand well or operating in workstations that they had assessed earlier. They should also be held accountable for workers inability to employ safety measures effectively, either due to lack of training or poor training. In my experience, safety professionals are very resourceful in training workers, identifying hazards and in defining measures to address them. An organization with safety professionals has low chances of experiencing serious safety issues.

Read also GHS – Compliant Hazard Warning Labels and Safety Data Sheets

Cataracts of the Eye Diagnoses Reliability

Cataracts of the Eye Diagnoses Reliability Discussion Instructions

Cataracts of the eye may be difficult to diagnose in the early stages. In a study to evaluate the reliability of their diagnoses, two physicians each examined the same 1,000 eyes, without knowing the other’s diagnoses. Each physician found 100 eyes with cataracts.

  • Does this mean that the diagnoses are reliable?
    • Explain your position.
  • How does reliability affect screening and treatment programs for a condition?
  • What are the socio-political ramifications of understanding reliability prior to implementing a screening program?

Sample Discussion


Cataracts refers to eye disease where by clear lens of the eye becomes clouded impairing the eye vision. Cataract caused visual impairment can lower individual wellbeing and functional status to a level to those with serious medical condition. The acuity of visual decline is insidious and patient may fail to notice for a period of time. In most cases, patients report sudden visual acuity loss despite the likelihood of the condition deteriorating for years. In this regard early detection of cataracts is highly important to ensure early intervention before total and sudden blindness takes place.

Read also Eye Infections Research Paper

However, cataracts development is painless and may develop with recognition of its symptoms. It is therefore regarded to be hard to diagnose especially at early age1. This paper analysis a case study to determine whether the results disapproves the statement that cataracts of the eye is hard to diagnose at early stages of development. The study focused on assessing the reliability of cataracts diagnosis where by, two physicians were appointed to conduct 1000 eyes examination. Each physician examined same 1000 eyes without knowing of the diagnosis of the other physician. According to the study result, each of them identified 100 eyes with cataracts.

Does this mean that the diagnoses are reliable?

Although the each of the physician identified 100 eyes with cataract, this does not mean that the diagnosis is reliable. Reliability is measured with the consistency of the results. However, the provided results are quite general since it does not state that the eyes identified by one physician were the same eyes identified by the other physician. This is the only statement that can guarantee consistency.

Explain your position.

The results provided results are considerably general to be used to test the diagnosis reliability. Although each physician independently identified 100 eyes with cataract, the result does not say whether they both identified similar eyes. It could be, each physician identified 100 eyes not identified by the other, or some were identified by both while each physician had a number not identified by the other physician. The diagnosis could only be termed reliable if the eyes identified by one physician are identical to eyes identified by the second physician. However, if all or some of specific identified eyes are not the same, then the reliability of the diagnosis would be questionable.

How does reliability affect screening and treatment programs for a condition?

Reliability can be used to measure level of accuracy. This means a reliable screening will demonstrate high level of accuracy and hence it will effectively guide the treatment plan. However, where reliability is low, it can demonstrate wrong or incorrect diagnosis where the results show negative while in actual case are positive or a wrong diagnosis where a different condition is identified from the one a person is suffering from. It can also mean identification of a condition where it does not exist. In all these cases, the resulting medical plan will be wrong and harmful to the patient. Thus, reliability is very important in enhancing.

What are the socio-political ramifications of understanding reliability prior to implementing a screening program?

Understanding reliability makes it possible to understand accuracy of screening program before it is implemented. This will help in saving cost associated with inaccurate screening and negative social consequences associated with wrong diagnosis. Implementing unreliable screening is likely to cause harm to the population through false medical alarms and sometimes lack of early recognition of a condition resulting to future complications or death.  This can be quite destructive to the society, since it will affect the psychological and physical health of many in the society3. Unreliable screening is also likely to demonstrate political governance failure in ensuring public health and safety.  Understanding reliability before program implementation will save the population from negative effects of implementing unreliable screening program.

Business Formation – Donna Rinaldi, Rich Evans, and Tammy Booth Scenario

Assignment Instructions : Business Formation

Three (3) personal trainers at an upscale health spa / resort in Sedona, Arizona, want to start a health club that specializes in health plans for people in the 50+ age range. The trainers Donna Rinaldi, Rich Evans, and Tammy Booth are convinced that they can profitably operate their own club. They believe that the growing population in this age range, combined with strong consumer interest in the health benefits of physical activity, would support the new venture. In addition to many other decisions, they need to determine the type of business organization that they want to form: incorporate as a corporation or form a partnership. Rich believes there are more advantages to the corporate form than a partnership, but he has not convinced Donna and Tammy of this. The three (3) have come to you, a small-business consulting specialist, seeking information and advice regarding the appropriate choice of formation for their business. They are considering both the partnership and corporation formation options.

Assume the trainers determine that forming a corporation is the best option. Next, Donna, Rich, and Tammy need to decide on strategies geared toward obtaining financing for renovation and equipment. They have a grasp of the difference between equity securities and debt securities, but do not understand the tax, net income, and earnings per share consequences of equity versus debt financing on the future of their business. They have asked you, the CPA, for your opinion.

Write a two to three (2-3) page paper in which you:

  1. Provide a summary to the partners, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of forming the business as a partnership and the advantages and disadvantages of forming as a corporation.  Recommend which option they should pursue. Justify your response. 
  2. Explain the major differences between equity and debt financing, and discuss the primary ways in which each would affect the future of the partners’ business.
  3. Use at least two (2) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources.

Sample Answer

Advantages and Disadvantages of Forming the Business as a Partnership

According to the provide case study, Donna, Tammy and Rich can opt for a general partnership form of business that contain two or more individuals organized to take part in business with intention of making profit. In this case, the partners live as co-owners with equal rights in business liability, management and operation (Miller, 2, p. 71). General partnership is said to have a great advantage over sole-proprietorship. Some of these advantages include higher borrowing capacity compared to sole-proprietorship and also partnership has more availability of capital for the business. In addition, there is a chance for splitting income, which is an advantage of specific significance due to subsequent tax savings. Business affairs of partnership are private unlike in corporation where business experience restricted external regulation, and it is considerably easy to change the business legal structure with change of circumstances later (Bevans, 1, p.72).

Read also Important Element in Driving Business Success In A Partnership

Business partnership also has a number of disadvantages. One of the main disadvantages include that the partners liability for the business debt is unlimited.  This means that one can lose personal properties for a business debt. Every partner in partnership business is severally and jointly liable for the debt of the partnership such that, every partner is liable for personal share of the debts of the partnership and also on the debts of all. This means personal properties of one partner can be taken to settle debt share of the other partner in business Partnership also experiences a risk of friction and disagreement in management and among partners. In addition, every partner is a partnership agent and is liable for other partners’ actions, and in case a partner leaves or joins the partnership, valuing of all partnership assets may be needed which can be considerably expensive (Bevans, 1, p.72). 

Read also Financial Benefits And Limitations Of Global Partnerships

Advantages and Disadvantages of Forming as a Corporation

Donna, Tammy and Rich can also opt for corporation form of business. Corporation refers to an intangible, artificial being and only existing in the law contemplation. The corporation evolution is a direct outcome of business growth. Demands for accountability, capital, owners’ liability protection, and order prompt the growth and recognition of corporate formation (Miller, 2, p.76). The main advantage offered by a corporation over partnership is the liability protection. Corporation owners do not risk losing private assets due to the debts of the company since corporations are regarded as separate legal entities from individuals who own them. Another advantage is that corporations can raise business capital or funds more easily through sell of stocks. Their business can be funded by equity, debt or both, though funding by equity is considered easier and safer.

Read also Analysis of an Organization Vision Statement -Microsoft Corporation

Corporation does not have life limit since the ownership transfer is considerably easy and thus the company can be easily passed to future generations (Miller, 2, p.77). Corporations also enjoy more tax benefits compared to partnerships since corporations are required to separately file taxes from the shareholders. Corporation owners pay taxes on any dividends, bonuses and salaries they make from the corporation. However, there are loopholes to ease weight of paying taxes as individual shareholders and as a corporation. A corporation is not needed to pay tax on revenues paid as shareholders or employees compensation, and it can subtract the payment as expense of a business. In addition, the tax rate of a corporate is normally lower compared to the tax rate of personal income. The partnership business owners pay income taxes using regular rates on the earned business profits (Bevans, 1, p.6).

The main disadvantages experienced by corporations include excessive paper work when it comes to taxation filing and financial reporting as dictated by the laws, especially in the USA. Corporation also works independent management such that with no clear majority interest the corporation management team can run the business without owners’ real oversight (Bevans, 1, p.6).

Recommendation on the Best Option

The presented business option for Donna, Tammy and Rich include corporation and partnership. The best option between the two is adopting a corporation form of business. This is because it is easy to raise capital for a corporation through equity or shares to other members of the public, thus taking debts would be necessary in this case. Moreover, corporation has limited liability, meaning shareholders can manage to protect their personal properties from business liabilities. In addition, the business can get independent management, working under the supervision of a board and hence limiting conflicts of interest and management conflicts. With this option, the shareholders can opt to employ qualified management personnel who ensure effective operation of business at ease. Corporation is also a recommended option since it has a long life and it is unlikely to be impacted by withdrawal of any of the three co-founders since one is just required to sell his shares to willing buyers to maintain the company foundation. Thus, this is the best option to consider.

The Major Differences between Equity and Debt Financing and How they Affect Future of the Partners’ Business

Corporation gives the business founder a chance to finance a business through equity, while partnership external source of funding can only be debt. The main difference is that equity is acquired by selling shares where buyers offer the company capital and the company gives them ownership worth their money. This makes it possible for the company to acquire capital without large cost of debt interest or owing others. The company also gets to share profit and liability with shareholders and hence making it easy for the company to survive in times of financial crisis.

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However, where debt is the main source of financing a business, the business owners get to incur extra cost of debt interest. In addition, in case of financial crisis, the business assets are dissolved to pay the debt and sometimes even partners personal properties. Debt financing thus holds a higher business liability than equity. A business financed through debt is likely to fail during hard time compared with a business financed through equity.