Role of International Non-Governmental Organizations in Combating Terrorism – Sample Research Paper

Introduction

Since the United States terrorist attack of 2001, international non-governmental organizations have had a significant impact on the fight against terrorism globally. After recognizing the crucial role that international, non-governmental organizations play in fighting terrorism, the United Nations General Assembly agreed to support a global strategy that permits different stakeholders, including international non-governmental organizations, to work in collaboration to counter terrorism . Since 2006, the United Nations General Assembly in particular has been encouraging international, non-governmental organizations to join hands with governments of different nations in combating terrorism. A number of authors have documented the importance of involving international non-governmental organizations in addressing terrorism threats. While working together with governments to counter terrorist activities, international, non-governmental organizations are advised to observe the rule of law and human rights. International, non-governmental organizations play a significant role in combating terrorism which has become a common threat in many countries today2 . This research paper explores the role of international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism. The research method that has been applied in this research is theoretical study through a comprehensive review of available literature.

Research Questions and Hypotheses

The research questions and hypotheses that guide this study are listed below;

  1. To what extent are international, non-governmental organizations involved in combating terrorism?
    • H1: International, non-governmental organizations are extensively involved in combating terrorism
    • H0: International, non-governmental organizations are not involved in combating terrorism
  2. Do international, non-governmental organizations play any important roles in combating terrorism?
    • H1: International, non-governmental organizations play very important roles in combating terrorism
    • H0: International, non-governmental organizations do not play any important roles in combating terrorism

Review Of Literature

In March 2007, the Office for Democratic Institution and Human Right identified specific roles that international, non-governmental organizations play in countering terrorism. Some of the identified roles include legal roles, community roles, advisory and educational roles, as well as advocacy and research roles3 . International, non-governmental organizations provide advice and educate institutions on how they can prevent terrorism.The expertise and policy that international, non-governmental organizations give to institutions cannot be provided by the government. In certain instances, individuals may find it difficult to combat terrorism due to lack of proper language that they can use to address the problem. International, non-governmental organizations provide public officials with appropriate terminology and language that they can use address issues related to terrorism.

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International, non-governmental organizations normally encourage public officers to stick to the law as they attempt to counter terrorism. As they do so, these organizations always understand that they must comply with the government laws of countries within which they operate. Similarly, public officers should obey laws of different nations as they continue to engage in activities that are aimed at combating terrorism. International, non-governmental organizations also provide advisory roles by guiding public officers and individuals to avoid supporting policies and measures that terrorists may use for their own benefits. It is important to remember that non-state actors should obtain detailed information concerning the extent of terrorism threat for them to provide sufficient and effective response.

Furthermore, international, non-governmental organizations play very crucial community functions which are related to combating terrorism. They push for the development of strong groups in the community where people can share ideas and opinions on how they can effectively deal with terrorism threat. Furthermore, international, non-governmental organizations create forms where communities can meet to discuss their differences at a personal level. This helps to minimize tensions that may fuel terrorism activities.These organizations take quick and appropriate actions that are aimed at addressing the root cause of tensions among different communities. In this manner, they play a crucial role in creating strong societies who will resort to solve their differences peacefully by not through acts of terrorism .

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As far as educational role is concerned, international, non-governmental organizations often recognize human rights as a very important factor when it comes to section of the most appropriate counter-terrorism strategies. These organizations take their time to explain to school children, law-enforcement officers, and the police about the importance of human rights in implementation of counter-terrorism strategies. International, non-governmental organizations enter into partnerships with law enforcement agencies with the aim of increasing awareness concerning effective diversity management strategies. For instance, to promote an understanding of understanding cultural diversity among law enforcement officers, the Arab-American AntiDiscrimination Committee worked in collaboration with the Office of Civil Liberties in the United States.

Additional examples that demonstrate how international, non-governmental organizations fight to counter terrorism by advocating for human rights are the partnerships that have been formed between governments and non-governmental organizations which have been extremely effective in countering terrorism. The IGAD Capacity Building Program against Terrorism (ICPAT), works closely with partners to help counter terrorism at both local and global levels. Many countries become victims of terrorism because they lack adequate resources to effectively counter such activities before they can cause serious harm. ICPAT strives to ensure that relevant resources are supplied to various countries across the world where terrorism poses the biggest threat. International, non-governmental organizations appreciate the role they play in providing technical support to nations that face serious terrorism threats .

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The advocacy role of international, non-governmental organizations is evidenced in the manner these organizations engage with the media as they try to influence the public’s perception concerning terrorism concept. As the media and the entertainment industry may spread information that encourages terrorism activities, they can as well be utilized to inform the public about the negative consequences of terrorism and to encourage people not to engage in such inhumane act. International, non-governmental organizations work in collaboration with the media and the entertainment industry in general with the aim of influencing them to spread information that support respect for human rights and that encourage the public to promote national security10. Of the most importance as far as advocacy role is concerned is the effort that international, non-governmental organizations have put in supporting the media to encourage minority groups to always remain on the forefront in connection with fighting terrorism. These organizations work with the media to help minority groups understand their responsibility in avoiding stereotypes and prejudices that may heighten terrorism activities.

Moreover, international, non-governmental organizations carry out meaningful research in order to identify factors that encourage terrorism activities as well as the most appropriate ways to address them. High quality research is very important when fighting terrorism because it provides vital information that that can positively influence prevention efforts. These organizations extensively conduct surveys and studies which generate results that have brought about significant impacts on counter-terrorism measures. International, non-governmental organizations also engage in dialogues with governments in order to monitor the effectiveness of counter-terrorism measures that have already been implemented. This may include an evaluation of funds have been spent as well as how tangible resources have been utilized.

One counter-terrorism role that has for a long time been performed better by international, non-governmental organizations is engaging in dialogue with groups or individuals who are believed to perpetuate acts of terrorism. It is always more difficult for the government to engage in dialogue with such groups than it is for international, non-governmental organizations. When trying to influence groups and individuals to avoid terrorism activities, international, nongovernmental organizations should use human rights-based approach which involves maintenance of high levels of neutrality. This is because taking sides when engaging in such dialogue may encourage even more harsh terrorism activities instead of minimizing them. A valuable example that shows how international, non-governmental organizations have successful utilized dialogue to counter terrorism is the peace process that took place in Northern Ireland. In Northern Ireland, international, non-governmental organizations engaged the government in dialogue to condemn all forms of terrorism acts irrespective of their motivation.

These organizations work very hard to minimize psychological and emotional effects of terrorism by encouraging victims of unlawful counter-terrorism and terrorism activities to report address their concerns through human rights agencies . International, non-governmental organizations are actively involved in activities which are aimed at addressing conditions that encourage the spread of terrorism. For instance, the United Nations works with Civil Society Organizations to prevent and manage conflicts among communities, fight for human rights, provide humanitarian relief to terrorism victims, and to expand group and individual participation on countering terrorism . In a specific example, IGAD Capacity Building Program against Terrorism recently worked with an Indonesian artist to create an album that supports are promotes Islamic religion. This works contributes greatly towards minimization of terrorist activities by attempting to counter the negative thoughts that tend to associate all Muslims with terrorism acts. Although some people may view this work as a way of branding Islamic religion with terrorism, it is important to acknowledge its relevance in minimization of terrorism activities. Basically, international, non-governmental organizations work to stabilize warring communities especially in situations where the government is not providing any relevant support.

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International, non-governmental organizations also promote good governance across nations in order to increase the ease with which various nations can handle terrorism threats. This is because these organizations believe that nations that are properly governed are always united and top leaders can easily come up with solutions that can help them to curb terrorism threats.This role is built upon the premise that lack of good governance provides a very conducive environment that encourages the spread of terrorism. Notable examples concerning how lack of good governance can lead to the spread of terrorism include; the rise of Hamas in Palestine, the growth of Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, and the popularity of the terrorist groups in Somalia. This explains why international, non-governmental organizations are focused on promotion of democracy. They also demand accountability from politicians as a strategy towards promotion of stable governments.

Terrorism threat compels nations to make changes on their security policies to allow them to effectively prevent deadly attacks. International, non-governmental organizations assist different nations in making meaningful and relevant security reforms that can enable to properly combat terrorism. These organizations guide governments to make security reforms based on their abilities and with reference to other successful counter-terrorism measures which have successfully been utilized in the past. Some international, non-governmental organizations often foster cooperative initiatives that are aimed at stakeholder involvement in order to improve awareness of terrorism threat as well as the specific actions that can be taken to address vulnerabilities.

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These initiatives are chosen and implemented as per the opinions and views of the United Kingdom Department for International Development. According to the United Kingdom Department for International Development, the initial point for improving a country’s security forces in order to effectively address terrorism threat is improvement of civic awareness of security issues. International, non-governmental organizations play a very crucial role in expressing their opinions regarding the status and strengths of national security policies. These opinions are extremely useful when the government lacks the capacity to effectively analyze its security issues and to make appropriate changes on security policy to help curb terrorism threat.

International, non-governmental organizations provide technical expertise that help with the implementation of counter-terrorism initiatives. For a long period of time, international, nongovernmental organizations have provided counterterrorism related assistance to nations that want to implement strategies to combat terrorism threat. The implementation and capacity building assistance that it offered by international, non-governmental organizations have more advantageous as compared to those offered by government institutions. For instance, when international, non-governmental organizations push for implementation of security initiatives to curb terrorism, their efforts are rarely thwarted by political sensitivities which are very common when such implementations are supported by national governments.

Another reason that makes international, non-governmental institutions better than national governments as far as implementation of counter-terrorism initiatives is concerned is the presence of a diverse pool of individuals with good knowledge and linguistic expertise. As compared to state organizations, international, non-government organizations are better suited to manage language and cultural barrier that may hamper successful implementation of counterterrorism initiatives.

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Although majority of international, non-governmental organizations play roles that are directly involved in combating terrorism, some of them are engaged in activities that indirectly influence terrorism but which are of great importance in combating terrorism. For example, the Terrorism Prevention Branch enhances international cooperation as well as a coordinated government approach both of which enhance response to terrorism. The Terrorism Prevention Branch establishes links with national and international governments to come up with a law enforcement framework that can help them to handle terrorism threat. This agency teaches governments to how they can detect and do away with money laundering activities which is widely used by organizations and individuals to finance terrorism activities. The practice of advising governments to cut financial support for terrorism activities is a good example of an indirect role played by international, non-governmental organizations to combat terrorism.

The roles of international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism which have been discussed in this section are well demonstrated in Afghanistan terrorism case. According to the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Strategy documented in 2006, nongovernmental organizations have a positive influence on how nations respond to terrorism threats. As part of implementation of the 2006 United Nations strategy, the World Health Organization, the United Nations Development Program, the World Bank, and UNESCO, all joined hands to help address the terrorism problem in Afghanistan. Other Afghan-based nongovernmental organizations worked together with these international agencies to provide counter-terrorism services in the region.

In the Afghanistan case, international, non-governmental organizations worked in collaboration with the United Nations to educate public officers, monitor human rights issues, and to improve governance. The strength of the relationship between the United Nations and international, non-governmental organizations helped to control the Afghanistan situation. The performance of international, non-governmental organizations was enhanced by counterterrorism-related subsidiary bodies of the Security Council. International, non-governmental organizations require detailed information from state governments for them to effectively combat terrorism. The United Nations provided the agencies involved with relevant information that remained helpful during their entire period of struggle against terrorism in Afghanistan.

International, non-governmental organizations require more space to interact independently without any interference from the national government. At the same time, they need to acknowledge the fact that good governance will determine the nature of information they can receive from state governments which will also determine the outcome of the actions in combating terrorism. To some extent, international, non-governmental organizations must be cautious about how they associate with national governments to prevent the governments from undermining their own legitimacy.

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When developing the 2006 strategy, the United Nations decided to create a boundary between international, non-governmental organizations to give states an opportunity to view these organizations as extremely relevant. In Afghanistan, international, non-governmental organizations are working in an extremely difficult environment which is characterized by lack of sufficient information from the government.This is happening because the Afghanistan’s security situation is highly dangerous and complicated. This has greatly interfered with good governance which makes exchange of relevant information between the international, non-governmental organizations and the government difficult.

To a large extent, numerous international, non-governmental organizations have worked together to control the Afghanistan situation. They are working by delivering healthcare and counseling services, offering basic community needs, and providing women’s education. The United States as a country has greatly acknowledged the important role that international, nongovernmental organizations are playing to reduce terrorism-related violence in Afghanistan. For this reason, the United States government is always interested in giving support to international, non-governmental organizations with the aim of strengthening their capabilities and to help them establish self-sufficiency at the community level. This support has highly encouraged the development of several pathways that the international agencies can use to resist Taliban and other forces which are trying to destabilize Afghanistan. The United States however has a new plan to allow local populations to work together with international, non-governmental organizations. The biggest challenge that this will bring to the international agencies is how they can organize their activities without being compromised by intimidation and violence

Findings And Discussion

A large volume of international documents have stressed on the important roles that are played by international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism. The need to involve international, non-governmental organizations by states in the fight against terrorism was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2006 and was documented in the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy. The main reason for involving international, non-governmental organizations in fighting terrorism threat is because the United Nations believed that these organizations will bring about great contributions in finding common political grounds and in addressing human rights issues, which would eventually result into prevention of terrorism.

Out of the articles reviewed, the authors support that international, non-governmental organizations have very crucial and meaningful roles to play on combating terrorism. It is widely agreed that international, non-governmental organizations have valuable expertise and experience that work best to address issues that encourage the spread of terrorism. Many authors have given specific examples concerning how international, non-governmental organizations work in collaboration to strengthen respect for the rule of law and the human rights. In addition, many documents support that the response initiated towards terrorism threat depends on genuine partnerships between the state governments and international, non-governmental organizations. They have further stressed on the effort that international, non-governmental organizations are putting in promoting diversity inclusion and democratic accountability. Although the existing literature has documented numerous roles played by international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism, this paper has summarized the roles into broad categories to enhance clarity.The possible roles of international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism include; research roles, advocacy roles, advisory roles, legal roles, community roles, educative roles, and advisory roles.

Roles of international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism

Research roles

From the literature review, it has been revealed that international, non-governmental organizations perform research roles that enable them to come up with appropriate strategies that they can use to best counter terrorism. These organizations often conduct high quality research in several areas including the political situation, the root-cause of violence, the motive of terrorism attack, and the most appropriate prevention strategies that can be applied to generate positive results . Additional research that international, non-governmental organizations always concerns factors that may result into spread of terrorism, the impact of possible counter-terrorism measures on the current situation, and how the adversaries involved in the violence would respond following successful implementation of counter-terrorism measures. By conducting comprehensive research when faced with a terrorism-related violence, international, nongovernmental organizations find an opportunity to utilize a practical approach to counter terrorism. A practical approach has been found to be more effective than a theoretical approach in generating meaningful results that can be used by international, non-governmental organizations to execute the best counter-terrorism approach.

By conducting empirical and statistical research, international, non-governmental organizations are able to examine the effectiveness of counter-terrorism measures in generating the desired results. These organizations can use the information gathered through research to know the type of data that they should request from governments. When requesting for this data from the government, international, non-governmental organizations often recognize the fact that public security issues are a matter of concern and should not only be left to the security experts alone. For this reason, it is important to treat the government and any other security agencies that may be interested in joining hands to fight terrorism. Consequently, international, non-governmental organizations perform research roles that determine the effectiveness with which a counterterrorism response is executed.

Advocacy roles

International, non-governmental organizations strive to condemn all forms of violence that go against human rights irrespective of its root cause. These organizations act as advocates for human rights by writing letters addressed to terrorist groups informing them about how their activities are a violation of human rights. International, non-governmental organizations normally communicate the correct human rights standards to the armed terrorists groups while stressing on the applicability of those standards. Another advocacy role performed by international, non-governmental organizations is engaging in activities that allow terrorism victims to report any acts that go against human rights, either by terrorists or agencies that pretend to be engaged in combating terrorism. In this manner, these organizations help to reduce the psychological and emotional effects of terrorism activities on citizens.

Another issue related to advocacy roles that have been discussed in the reviewed articles is working in collaboration with the media to help reduce terrorism. International, nongovernmental organizations work to shape the public’s perception around terrorism. By forming constructive relationships with the media, these organizations play a crucial role in creating a balance in a community that had a negative perception about terrorism and in initiating a public debate to address matters that pertain to human rights and public security. Debate that is encouraged through media sources is extensively used by international, non-governmental organizations to encourage minority groups not to spread violence but to spread a message of peace. By playing their advocacy roles effectively, international, non-governmental organizations have managed to successfully implement counter-terrorism activities.

Advisory roles

The choice of the best response depends on knowledge of the right approach that will help address a given terrorism situation. International, non-governmental organizations provide expertise and policy advice that can help nations to determine the most appropriate counterterrorism response. In order to perform meaningful advisory roles to properly counter terrorism, international, non-governmental organizations must be allowed to have a sense of ownership of the situation at hand. Furthermore, addressing a security issue should be a common concern to both international, non-governmental organizations and the government. For this reason, these organizations are not allowed to take sides as this may interfere with the process of violence reduction. Majority of reviewed literature have documented how governments can interfere with the role of international, non-governmental organizations in providing valuable assistance. For instance, pressure from the government demanding for a quick response from international organizations may make it difficult for these organizations to offer meaningful counter-terrorism response.

Legal roles

International, non-governmental organizations extensively work on the legal issues related to counter-terrorism. In this manner, these organizations contribute greatly to the strengthening of legal frameworks which are concerned with counter-terrorism particularly those laws related to strengthening the rule of law and human rights. The main challenge that international, non-governmental organizations face as they attempt to perform their legal roles is the actual act that qualifies to be referred to as “terrorist act.” Additionally, international, nongovernmental organizations have formulated international human rights standards that are used as a reference when prosecuting terrorists and other criminals who have been arrested for getting involved in violence related to terrorism activities.

Although criminal investigation institutions have the power to perform their roles independently without interference from external organizations, international, non-governmental organizations often require courts to adhere to internationally set human rights laws to conduct criminal proceedings involving perpetrator of terrorism-related activities. Furthermore, substantial volume of literature have documented the role that international, non-governmental organizations play in setting laws that are used to reduce and even prevent youth radicalization.In order to allow international, non-governmental organizations to effectively perform their legal roles related to reduction of terrorism-related violence, criminal justice systems have sufficient provisions that define how it should work with these organizations in fighting terrorism. This demonstrates the degree of commitment that the criminal justice has in working with nongovernmental organizations to create productive laws that are aimed at addressing terrorism threat.

Community roles

Various authors of reviewed literature support that international, non-governmental organizations take part in providing opinions and ideas that are used to build strong communities. Fighting terrorisms can be very difficult in a community that is filled with fear all the time. International, non-governmental organizations try to create safe space for citizens and organize discussion programs where community members can share their experiences at a personal level . Therefore, these organizations play a very important role in reducing tensions that occur in the community as a result of terrorism activities. Furthermore, existing literature has documented that international, non-governmental organizations take active steps to determine community factors that might result into terrorism-related violence. They also carry out outreach activities in the community which are aimed at strengthening the rule of law and human rights. From the research, it has been discovered that when international, non-governmental organizations fight for the support of the rule of law and human rights, they contribute to building of a stable democratic society which allows citizens to actively participate in social and democratic activities.

As part of their community roles, international, non-governmental organizations organize dialogue sessions with victims and perpetrators of terrorism. When compared with the response received from dialogue sessions conducted by international, non-governmental organizations, those conducted by the government do very little in reducing terrorism-related violence. International, non-governmental organizations utilize rights-based approach when interacting with people in the community as this is extremely essential for development of positive relationships.

Educative roles

Another important role played by international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism as per the literature review is educative role. These organizations adequately recognize the significance of using proper language to address communities which are involved in terrorism-related violence. For this reason, international, non-governmental organizations take an active part in educating public officials on the right language that they should use to address communities that are involved in terrorism-related violence. Furthermore, international, nongovernmental organizations offer guidance to governments on how they should approach different terrorism situations without spreading the violence.

International, non-governmental organizations also take their time to explain to armed bodies and citizens about the importance of demonstrating respect for human rights in all their activities. They also inform warring communities about the negative impacts of choosing war instead of peaceful negotiations as a method of resolving disputes. The specific activities obtained from the reviewed literature and that define the educative roles of international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism include; teaching students, youths, and police officers about the negative impacts of terrorism-related violence; informing public officers about the importance of involving people from diverse cultural in decision making to combat terrorism; and working in collaboration with warring communities to explain to them the positive impacts of resolving their conflicts using available methods of alternative conflict resolution.

Challenges faced by international, non-governmental organizations when combating terrorism

Implementation of counter-terrorism strategies is not such an easy task, and international, non-governmental organizations have to be prepared to mitigate a number of challenges that they are likely to encounter as they perform their roles. Challenges that international, nongovernmental organizations face as they attempt to combat terrorism tend to interfere with their capacity to effectively prevent terrorism-related violence. This is because international, nongovernmental organizations require relevant information from the government in order to execute their terrorism-prevention roles effectively. This information is always difficult to obtain in countries with broken government or political structures. One of the major challenges faced by international, non-governmental organizations is poor governance. Poor governance in a country results into disintegrated civil organization structures that create room for tremendous terrorism recruitment.

Another big challenge that faced by international, non-governmental organizations as they perform their counter-terrorism roles is convincing governments and public officials about the effectiveness of their strategies in combating terrorism. Public officers in the community may fail to understand the significance of the counter-terrorism activities being implemented due to limited knowledge and lack of access to information sources. When they come across such communities, international, non-governmental organizations are compelled to find a way through which they can disseminate relevant information before they can proceed with their counterterrorism initiatives. This presents a very big challenge to international, non-governmental organizations especially when there are limited resources available for implementation of counter-terrorism strategies.

Although criminal justice organizations have found human rights standards formulated by international, non-governmental organization useful in prosecuting criminals of terrorism-related crimes, these organizations are faced with the challenge of coming up with common standards that would be applicable for all nations globally. This is due to the variations in the way people define terrorisms and terrorist acts that qualify as crimes. With the absence of a common standard from which counter-terrorism policies can be formed, international, non-governmental organizations find it difficult to come up with relevant universal policies that can guide implementation on counter-terrorism strategies.

The claim that some countries feel that international, non-governmental organizations prevent governments from successfully combating terrorism acts as an obstacle to organizations that may want to fight terrorism.As international, non-governmental organizations strive to play its role of fighting for human rights and the rule of law, some governments argue that they are supporting terrorists. In certain countries, international, non-governments institutions are not paid their salaries in full because they believe that these organizations are offering financial support to terrorism groups. It is quite a big challenge for international, non-governmental organizations to work with governments which are opposing their activities, especially if these organizations feel that the rights of citizens are being violated.

International, non-governmental organizations that operate in countries where a large percentage of the population belongs to one ethnic group mostly face harassment in the hands of governments which do not support their activities. These are countries where minority groups are being mistreated due to terrorism-related violence. As they perform their roles of combating terrorism in these countries, international, non-governmental organizations are often chased away by governments that do not see the significance of their in these countries. Furthermore, international, non-governmental organizations face the challenge of implementing counterterrorism policies in countries whose governments do not have clear provisions communication their involvement in activities that are aimed at fighting terrorism.

Assumptions

There are three different assumptions which have been made when developing this research paper. The first assumption is that all international, non-governmental organizations that are being referred to in this paper have got the same motive which is to combat terrorism in different nations of the world. This assumption helps to eliminate questions that may arise concerning the variations that may exist in the missions and visions of international, nongovernmental organization.

The second assumption that has been made in this paper is that the counter-terrorism approaches implemented by international, non-governmental organizations are aimed at achieving similar goals. This assumption makes it easy for the researcher to focus on the same problem with is combating terrorism threat. Third, it has been assumed that all terrorists utilize the same approaches to execute an attack on their adversaries, and these terrorist approaches can be addressed using similar counter-terrorism strategies. This assumption makes it easy to relate the roles of international, non-governmental organizations with terrorism activities and to create a big picture concerning the roles of these organizations in combating terrorism

Study Limitations

This study has only one limitation that may affect validity of information given in this paper. This research has relied solely on information contained in already available literature. Some of the data contained in secondary sources reviewed may not be relevant today due to changes in techniques that are applied by terrorisms and in strategies utilized by contemporary international, non-governmental organizations to combat terrorism. The validity of conclusions made would have been enhanced had the researcher used statistical and empirical research methods to collect data. Unfortunately, these two approaches could not be used due to limited time and resources that were available for the research.

Recommendations For Governments

Governments should embrace the roles played by international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism due to the effectiveness of these roles in reducing terrorism-related violence in the society. It is recommended that governments should give organizations that are interested in combating terrorisms an opportunity to do so and avoid assigning counter-terrorism roles to criminal justice organizations. Moreover, in order to gain positive benefits from international, non-governmental organizations, governments should not politicize the roles of these institutions to avoid interfering with intelligence gathering process.

Furthermore, nations should refrain from portraying international non-governmental organizations as supporters of terrorists and terrorism activities as this may prevent them from engaging in important counter-terrorism activities that may help to reduce impacts of terrorism. Additionally, governments should support international, non-governmental organizations by helping them to investigate the root-cause of terrorism-related violence, and refrain from interfering with their operations to help bring back peace in the community. Governments of various nations will benefit greatly from international, non-governmental organizations by putting these recommendations into consideration because they will easily combat terrorism.

Recommendations For International, Non-Governmental Organizations

International, non-governmental organizations should consider a number of recommendations in order to enhance their effectiveness in combating terrorism. First, international, non-governmental organizations should not have any fear in approaching communities that are affected by terrorism-related violence, but they should gather courage and join hands in combating terrorism in those communities. Second, international, nongovernmental organizations should allow a large number of minority groups to become part of their workforce to limit cultural barriers that they may face in nations where minority groups are the most affected part of the community .

Third, in order to establish the best counter-terrorism strategies, international, nongovernmental organizations should take appropriate steps to identify specific causes of terrorismrelated violence. Fourth, international, non-governmental organizations should take their time to understand how different governments define the terms “security” and “terrorism” to avoid conflicts that may arise whenever they are performing their counter-terrorism roles in different nations of the world

Conclusion

Rapid rise in the rate of terrorism attacks in various countries of the world today has increased the involvement of international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism. Although it is possible to know the roles that international, non-governmental organizations play in combating terrorism through statistical empirical studies, similar information can be obtained by conducting a comprehensive review of available literature. A comprehensive analysis of secondary sources reveals that international, non-governmental organizations play six distinct roles in combating terrorism. These roles include research roles, advocacy roles, advisory roles, legal roles, community roles, and educative roles. It can therefore be concluded that international, non-governmental organizations are involved in combating terrorism to a large extent. In addition, from the study, it is evident that international, nongovernmental organizations play very crucial roles in combating terrorism. These roles are extremely effective in reducing terrorism-related violence in different communities. International, non-governmental organizations should be ready to overcome a number of challenges that they are likely to face in the field as they perform their roles of combating terrorism. In order to gain positive benefits from international, non-governmental organizations, governments with terrorism reduction, governments should not politicize the roles of these institutions to avoid interfering with intelligence gathering process.

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