Source of Wealth Disparity and What can be Done to Cover It – Annotated Bibliography

Introduction

The change of technology has highly influenced both governmental and private organization’s operation in the world. It has resulted to the development of digital technology which has brought change in the communication industry and enhanced the development of computers and internet. Different countries, especially those in the western have highly embraced this technology to facilitate their operations and to increase efficiency. However, other countries in the developing nations are lagging behind in embracing the new technology. This has made them to be left out in various global developments. This paper focuses no determining the best strategies that the countries lagging behind in digital technology embracement can cover for the gap. The world is also experiencing a huge gap between the rich and poor. This gap has been contributed by a number of factors in the United States. This paper will also review articles that explain the source of wealth disparity and what can be done to cover it.

 Thesis Statement

This paper focuses on determining measures that can be taken to overcome digital divide in the world and to determine the main cause of disparity between the rich and the poor in  the US and how this gap can be covered.

Shuva, N. Z., & Akter, R. (2011). Bridging digital divide through public, school and college libraries: A case study of Bangladesh. Journal of the Bangladesh Association of Young Researchers (JBAYR), 1(1), 49-77.

This is a case study research paper which focuses on determining measures that can be taken to eliminate digital divide in Bangladesh. The article identifies digital divide existence in Bangladesh, analyses the ICT situation in Bangladesh, government effort in reducing digital divide and to show that improvement off ICT status in public schools and colleges can work better than the current measures employed by the government. The paper structure include abstract, introduction, research objective, methodology, work scope, limitation, literature review, case study of use of ICT in Bangladesh, country initiatives to handle the gap and evaluation of possible result if school based approach is used to bridge the digital divide gap. The article uses extensive primary data as the evidence. Primary data is collected during the case study to demonstrate the level of digital divide in the country. The article also cites other credible sources which strengths its arguments.  The article answers the question on effective measures that can be employed to bridge the digital divide gap in any country, with Bangladesh as the reference country.

Ohemeng, F. L. K., & Ofosu-Adarkwa, K. (2014). Overcoming the digital divide in developing countries: An examination of Ghana’s strategies to promote universal access to information communication technologies (ICTs). Journal of Developing Societies, 30(3), 297-322.

This is article focuses on determining the measures the Ghanaian government has employed to fight digital divide in the country. According to the author, the use of ICT in various governmental operations can assist in enhancing the government functionality.However, its success depends on how it is applied by the government to overcome various challenges that can highly influence its operation. The paper provides an abstract, introduction to digital divide, analysis of digital divide including its description, characteristics, and significance, ICT and digital divide issues in Ghana, government effort to handle the digital divide issue, and challenges faced in addressing it. The article has an extensive range of credible references that include peer reviewed journals, and text books that it uses to justify its arguments. Other evidences include data, and governmental laws, which are used as evidence. Similar to other articles considered on covering digital divide topic, this paper points out how universal ICT access by the government has been employed in Ghana to eliminate digital divide in the country, which contributes to means that can be employed to eliminate digital divide.

Schlozman, K. L., Brady, H. E., & Verba, S. (2017). Growing economic inequality and its (partially) political roots. Religious, 8(97), 1-17.

The article points out on how technological, economic and political development in the country contributes to the wealth inequality in the U.S. According to the author, the politician of the country play the major role in defining policies that determine distribution of education and income based on how the government will benefit through taxes or based on the functionality of the market resulting inequality. The paper structure includes abstract, review on increasing economic inequality and how it has been propagated by politics. The paper provides data, and mostly financial data as evidence to the claim other include tracking the taxes trend since 1979 to 2011. It also cites various credible academic sources to increase the credibility of its argument. Similar to other wealth disparity sources, this article evaluates politics as one aspect that has attributed to wealth disparity in the country. The article answers the question regarding the sources of wealth disparity in US and what can be done to handle it.

Flores, R. L., & Halsall, J. (2017). The rising gap between rich and poor: A look at the persistence of educational disparities in the state and why we should worry. Cogent Social Sciences,3, 1-11.

This article reflects on how persisting educational disparities contribute to the widening gap between the rich and the poor in the US. According to the author, there has been variation on the level of education and quality of education between white and disadvantaged children or minorities in the county. The article structure include introduction to education disparity in the U.S., review of public education in the U.S., review of the corporatization and neoliberalism of public education, public education dismantling, U.S. charter school movement, education disparities persistence, and the requirements for investing in public schools. The author cites credible sources including research papers as evidence to his claims. This paper is similar to other sources on wealth disparity since it also points out another major cause of disparity in the country. The sourceanswers the research question by pointing out education disparity as another major contributor of wealth disparity in the U.S.

Choi, L. (2011). Addressing widening income inequality community development. Community Investment Fall, 23(2), 1-40.

The source provides extensive information regarding wealth inequality in the USA and how the government can manage it. The article gives intensive analysis of the variation between median yearly household income and the annual earning of top CEOs in the U.S. to demonstrate diversity between the two. It then analyses the great divergence in the country, its cause and how community development can be used to manage it. The article uses graphs to demonstrate the wealth disparity between rich and poor in the U.S. The research has used various data that include wages changes from 1973 to 2007, decile income share data from 1917 to 2008, and the U.S. households Gini index from 1967 to 2009. The article argument is also based on a wide range of credible sources which include government statistics, peer reviewed journals and organizational reports. Similar to other wealth inequality sources, this source points out on the level of inequality in the U.S., its cause and what can be done to bridge the gap. The source answers the research question by pointing out extensive wage variation as the main source of wealth disparity in the country.


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