Tag: Annotated Bibliography

Real Communication Barriers Created by Technology in the Workplace – Annotated Bibliography

Cho, H-K., Trier, M & Kim, E. 2006. “The use of instant messaging in working relationship development: A case study.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, vol.10, no.4, doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2005.tb00280.x

This is a research article that focuses on assessing how systems of instant messaging (IM) assist in improving workers working relationship within organizational boundaries which include outside the organization, across departments, and within departments. The research was conduct in a Korean tire manufacturing company where survey questions were issued and interview conducted to 150 respondents in the company. The results indicated that majority of workers used instant messaging to communicate among themselves. This improved working relationships between departments, within departments, and between companies in the provided order. This research demonstrated the effectiveness of using instant messaging in improving and developing working relationships within the organization and across the border.

Sharma, N. 2010. “Communication at work place.” International Journal of Educational Research and Technology, vol.1, no.2, pp. 5-8.

This article discusses the importance of effective communication in a work environment. In the introduction, the article acknowledges different forms of communication and their contribution in promoting interpersonal relationship. The article then reviews on different forms of communication, communication barriers that can influence their effectiveness, and what can be done to enhance communication efficiency while using these methods of communication, especially when communication is fostered between the management and workers. The article guides managers and how they can better their work environment by promoting effective communication. Managers should ensure that they develop trust from workers though effective communication and they improve their skills as communicators.

Mokashi, S. n.d., “Impact of information technology in business communication.”Scibd. Retrieved from https://www.scribd.com/document/111677644/Impact-of-Information-Technology-in-Business-Communication

The article features communication as the third major human civilization revolution after industrial and agricultural evolutions.  It clearly reflect on how the communication technology has been advancing in the last 100 years, and the advancements that have been recorded since then to date in terms of physical technology. The article then discusses information technology and how it is being utilized today to enhance business operations.  It also explains the functionality of Information Communication and Technology (ICT) in terms of storing, processing, converting, retrieving and transmitting information. It explains the hardware and software needed to enhance these roles and aspects that information technology concentrates on to enhance effective communication and data processing.

McKenzie, C. L & Qazi, C. J. 1983, “Communication barriers in the workplace.”  Business Horizons, pp. 1-1.

This article discusses how communication breakdown between non-native speaking workers and Native American supervisors influence the work performance and companies’ productivity in various American firms. According to the author, the language barrier makes it hard for workers to understand instructions or to follow them. Although they would not act like they do not understand, supervisors find them standing next to their desks after they are done giving instruction and expecting them to walk out and execute them. This becomes considerably costly as many workers end up losing their jobs, receiving penalties and denied promotion due to errors that cannot be tolerated or job confusion as a result of communication breakdown. 

Perez, C & Soete, L.  “21. Catching up in technology: entry barriers and windows of opportunity.” pp. 458-479.

This is a chapter that focuses on technological advancement in developing nations compared to developed nations. The article analysis some of the unique conditions in which technological imitation and catching up could happen. This discussion is founded on diffusion theory, which gives relevance to industrial development theory. The article starts with a static perspective of technology so as to understand how the actual buying, imitating and developing cost of production technology are impacted by the features of the acquiring company and by those of place.  The article then introduces dynamism of technology and assesses how different elements of the above mentioned costs reduce or increase as evolution of technology takes place to maturity from introduction.

Shachaf, P. “Cultural diversity and information and communication technology impacts on global virtual teams: An exploratory study.” Information & Management, vol.45, no. 2, pp. 131-142.

The article focuses on analysing challenges that are faced by modern organizations in a competitive international economy and turbulence environment. Thisis done by conducting explanatory study paper that enters on determining the ICT and cultural diversity effects on effectiveness of a team. This is done by conducting interviews with 41 members of a team from nine different companies, employed by 500 Fortune corporations. The analysis outcome demonstrated that cultural diversity had a negative impact on communication and positive impact on decision making. It was also established that ICT alleviate the intercultural communication negative impact and support decision making positive impacts.

Source of Wealth Disparity and What can be Done to Cover It – Annotated Bibliography


The change of technology has highly influenced both governmental and private organization’s operation in the world. It has resulted to the development of digital technology which has brought change in the communication industry and enhanced the development of computers and internet. Different countries, especially those in the western have highly embraced this technology to facilitate their operations and to increase efficiency. However, other countries in the developing nations are lagging behind in embracing the new technology. This has made them to be left out in various global developments. This paper focuses no determining the best strategies that the countries lagging behind in digital technology embracement can cover for the gap. The world is also experiencing a huge gap between the rich and poor. This gap has been contributed by a number of factors in the United States. This paper will also review articles that explain the source of wealth disparity and what can be done to cover it.

 Thesis Statement

This paper focuses on determining measures that can be taken to overcome digital divide in the world and to determine the main cause of disparity between the rich and the poor in  the US and how this gap can be covered.

Annotated Bibliography

Shuva, N. Z., & Akter, R. (2011). Bridging digital divide through public, school and college libraries: A case study of Bangladesh. Journal of the Bangladesh Association of Young Researchers (JBAYR), 1(1), 49-77.

This is a case study research paper which focuses on determining measures that can be taken to eliminate digital divide in Bangladesh. The article identifies digital divide existence in Bangladesh, analyses the ICT situation in Bangladesh, government effort in reducing digital divide and to show that improvement off ICT status in public schools and colleges can work better than the current measures employed by the government. The paper structure include abstract, introduction, research objective, methodology, work scope, limitation, literature review, case study of use of ICT in Bangladesh, country initiatives to handle the gap and evaluation of possible result if school based approach is used to bridge the digital divide gap. The article uses extensive primary data as the evidence. Primary data is collected during the case study to demonstrate the level of digital divide in the country. The article also cites other credible sources which strengths its arguments.  The article answers the question on effective measures that can be employed to bridge the digital divide gap in any country, with Bangladesh as the reference country.

Ohemeng, F. L. K., & Ofosu-Adarkwa, K. (2014). Overcoming the digital divide in developing countries: An examination of Ghana’s strategies to promote universal access to information communication technologies (ICTs). Journal of Developing Societies, 30(3), 297-322.

This is article focuses on determining the measures the Ghanaian government has employed to fight digital divide in the country. According to the author, the use of ICT in various governmental operations can assist in enhancing the government functionality.However, its success depends on how it is applied by the government to overcome various challenges that can highly influence its operation. The paper provides an abstract, introduction to digital divide, analysis of digital divide including its description, characteristics, and significance, ICT and digital divide issues in Ghana, government effort to handle the digital divide issue, and challenges faced in addressing it. The article has an extensive range of credible references that include peer reviewed journals, and text books that it uses to justify its arguments. Other evidences include data, and governmental laws, which are used as evidence. Similar to other articles considered on covering digital divide topic, this paper points out how universal ICT access by the government has been employed in Ghana to eliminate digital divide in the country, which contributes to means that can be employed to eliminate digital divide.

Schlozman, K. L., Brady, H. E., & Verba, S. (2017). Growing economic inequality and its (partially) political roots. Religious, 8(97), 1-17.

The article points out on how technological, economic and political development in the country contributes to the wealth inequality in the U.S. According to the author, the politician of the country play the major role in defining policies that determine distribution of education and income based on how the government will benefit through taxes or based on the functionality of the market resulting inequality. The paper structure includes abstract, review on increasing economic inequality and how it has been propagated by politics. The paper provides data, and mostly financial data as evidence to the claim other include tracking the taxes trend since 1979 to 2011. It also cites various credible academic sources to increase the credibility of its argument. Similar to other wealth disparity sources, this article evaluates politics as one aspect that has attributed to wealth disparity in the country. The article answers the question regarding the sources of wealth disparity in US and what can be done to handle it.

Flores, R. L., & Halsall, J. (2017). The rising gap between rich and poor: A look at the persistence of educational disparities in the state and why we should worry. Cogent Social Sciences,3, 1-11.

This article reflects on how persisting educational disparities contribute to the widening gap between the rich and the poor in the US. According to the author, there has been variation on the level of education and quality of education between white and disadvantaged children or minorities in the county. The article structure include introduction to education disparity in the U.S., review of public education in the U.S., review of the corporatization and neoliberalism of public education, public education dismantling, U.S. charter school movement, education disparities persistence, and the requirements for investing in public schools. The author cites credible sources including research papers as evidence to his claims. This paper is similar to other sources on wealth disparity since it also points out another major cause of disparity in the country. The sourceanswers the research question by pointing out education disparity as another major contributor of wealth disparity in the U.S.

Choi, L. (2011). Addressing widening income inequality community development. Community Investment Fall, 23(2), 1-40.

The source provides extensive information regarding wealth inequality in the USA and how the government can manage it. The article gives intensive analysis of the variation between median yearly household income and the annual earning of top CEOs in the U.S. to demonstrate diversity between the two. It then analyses the great divergence in the country, its cause and how community development can be used to manage it. The article uses graphs to demonstrate the wealth disparity between rich and poor in the U.S. The research has used various data that include wages changes from 1973 to 2007, decile income share data from 1917 to 2008, and the U.S. households Gini index from 1967 to 2009. The article argument is also based on a wide range of credible sources which include government statistics, peer reviewed journals and organizational reports. Similar to other wealth inequality sources, this source points out on the level of inequality in the U.S., its cause and what can be done to bridge the gap. The source answers the research question by pointing out extensive wage variation as the main source of wealth disparity in the country.

Obesity – Annotated Bibliography

Kessler, D. A. (2016). The end of overeating: Taking control of the insatiable American appetite. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Dr Kessler is still remembered by many for the central role he played as an FDA commissioner and policymaker. A medical doctor by profession, he seeks to explain the intricacies of obesity and how thousands find themselves in this abyss. Using his wealth of knowledge on the inner workings of the food industry, Dr Kessler provides his readers with an expose that seeks to uncover tactics used to ensure consumers are always hooked on junk foods. He even goes as far as comparing fat, sugar and salt to other addictive substances such as nicotine, ultimately concluding that they are similar in their potential harm. Nonetheless, the only qualm I have with this book is the author’s sudden manoeuvre halfway through his assessment where he now starts providing proposed weight-loss solutions to his readers. The book is comprehensible to any lay person and functions as an appropriate guide to taking control of one’s appetite and avoiding obesity.

Petersen, G., & Sim, A. (2014). Eat bacon, don’t jog.

A common challenge faced by a majority of obese individuals seeking to lose weight is in choosing the best physical activity to incorporate into their lives. Membership at a local gym does not always work for everyone which is why Petersen suggests bike riding as a viable solution. As an expert in manufacturing custom bikes, Petersen is an authority on the subject since he cycles on a regular basis to keep his weight in check. What is interesting about the book is the fact that the author does not drift away from scientific arguments and makes his case using the widely acclaimed “carbs are bad” paradigm. Moreover, each page is full of humorous presentations that are readable while providing recommendations on the best strategy to employ when biking to lose weight.

Simpson, S. J., & Raubenheimer, D. (2012). The nature of nutrition: A unifying framework from animal adaptation to human obesity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

It is a widely known fact that a large number of those afflicted by obesity would like to gain a deeper understanding of this particular phenomenon. Professors Stephen Simpson and David Raubenheimer seek to help the average person understand this but through a unique approach. As experts in Nutritional Ecology, these two scientists use monkeys and slime moulds in a bid to explain the intake of nutrients and control. It is remarkable how the authors use a combination of statistical methods and graphs to explain how creatures strike a healthy balance when consuming protein and energy giving foods. It is somewhat fascinating how this same reasoning is used to explain why obesity is currently commonplace. A scientific understanding of the issue is one of the best approaches to making better nutritional choices.

Taubes, G. (2008). Good calories, bad calories: Fats, carbs, and the controversial science of diet and health. New York: Anchor Books.

Managing or avoiding obesity often begins with having a deeper understanding of its causative agents and how to subsequently avoid them. Taubes has made this his life’s work, giving an accurate and succinct explanation of specific foods that cause obesity and how to avoid them.  A typical problem faced by morbidly obese persons is their inability to comprehend foods which are directly responsible for their condition fully. Dietary fat is mentioned as one of the primary culprits responsible for weight gain and ultimately leading to obesity. Tubes do a thorough job at providing a well-researched evaluation of the subjects, which is beneficial, especially in convincing his readers to choose their foods wisely. In finality, he sounds a warning by concluding that carbohydrates do indeed cause cancer and should be avoided at all cost.

Wansink, B. (2006). Mindless eating: Why we eat more than we think. New York: Bantam Books.

Dr Wansink is a seasoned researcher who has spent decades trying to understand obesity and the reasons behind its permeation. In this particular book, he delves into the mindless eating to explain how manufacturers can play a huge role in managing obesity. He introduces what he calls “portion control” as a feasible technique to curb overeating and therefore manage obesity across populations. His findings are enumerated using experiments carried out in colleges to assess eating habits using playful tricks. Dr Wansink finally concludes that the size of the plate or bag were key in guiding individuals into overeating, a scenario that could be reversed by manufacturers. It was intriguing to become aware of this fact since weight loss plans for obese people can now be formulated using the “portion control” with remarkable results.

Schizopheria in Today’s Youth – Annotated Bibliography

Chan, V. (2017). Schizophrenia and psychosis: Diagnosis, current research trends, and model treatment approaches with implications for transitional age youth. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 26(2), 341-366.

This paper is a review of schizophrenia among the young people. The paper investigates more on the onset symptoms, diagnosis and chances for accurate diagnosis, and the measures employed in managing and treating the condition. The paper reviews on individuals with high risk of acquiring the diseases and the challenges experienced in its diagnosis in the onset of the symptoms at young age, especially due to matching symptoms with other co-curing conditions, and lack of some conspicuous symptoms of schizophrenia in the first episode at young age. Thus, there is always case of misdiagnosis which delays treatment. The paper also encourages the use of evidence-based intervention methods for youths as a way of reducing risks of mortality and increasing chances of living close to normal life in adulthood. The paper will be used to inform the research on schizophrenia diagnosis challenges among the youth and the best intervention methods that can be used.

Hollis, C. (2000). Adolescent schizophrenia.Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 6, 83-92.

This paper was among the first papers to focus on schizophrenia among adolescence and young people. The paper focused more on etiological and clinical significance unusual early schizophrenia onset in adolescence and children. The main focus was to determine if the children and adolescent experienced similar symptoms as adults who suffered from schizophrenia. The paper also determines whether their reaction to treatment was similar to that of adults. This article mainly focuses on understanding schizophrenia among young people and children, with intention of determining whether the discovered methods of diagnosing and managing schizophrenia are good enough to handle the condition among young people. The paper will be used to inform the research more on diagnosis and management of schizophrenia among young people.

Schwartz, C., Waddell, C., Barican, J., Garland, O., Nightingale, L., Gray-Grant, D., &Pauls, N. (2009).Understanding and treating psychosis in young people.Children’s Mental Health Research, 3(3), 1-29. 

This paper provides a review of previous studies on schizophrenia. The paper gives detailed information on the condition. It includes statistics on the number of children and young people diagnosed with the condition in Canada, determining when the first episode occurred. The paper discusses the causes of schizophrenia and how it affects the life of the patient, as well as the diagnosis challenges and the importance of accurate diagnosis. The paper also determines how others can intervene to assist and support youths diagnosed with this condition especially with financial challenges associated with schizophrenia treatment. The paper also touches on the best method to treat schizophrenia by reviewing the previous evidence based researches. The identified techniques include therapy and pharmacology. Other methods of promoting their quality of life like training them to be independent and to overcome the mental symptoms are discussed. This paper will be used to inform the research on the best measures that can be employed to minimize the negative impact of schizophrenia on life of young people.

Thara, R. (2005). Schizophrenia: Disabling today’s youth. Harvard Health Policy Review, 6(2), 81-88.

This paper gives a general overview of schizophrenia and demonstrates how it affects life of young people across the globe. The paper describe both the indirect and direct costs of schizophrenia, and the challenges that still exist of understanding the disease especially among the young people. It touches on biological and genetic factors and how they influence the disease occurrence across the globe. The paper discusses incidence and prevalence of schizophrenia, its symptoms and signs, outcome and cause, and care methods that can be applied to improve the quality of life of young people diagnosed with the condition. The paper will be used to inform the research especially on the spread of the disease across the world and its preference among other things.

Winklbaur, B., Ebner, N., Sachs, G., Thau, K., & Fischer, G. (2006).Substance abuse in patients with schizophrenia.Dialogues ClinNeurosci, 8(1), 37-43.

Drug abuse is considered as one of the major comorbidity among schizophrenia patients. According to the article, majority of schizophrenia patient are drug or alcohol users, especially male patients and those with low education level. The paper discusses schizophrenia and drug abuse comorbidity and how it affects the life of young people. The paper discusses the use of cannabis, cocaine and nicotine among schizophrenia patients and how these drugs act as a relapse risk factor. The paper also demonstrates how the use of drugs interferes with schizophrenia treatment plan and how they add to the psychotic symptoms among these patients. This paper will contribute in demonstrating the risk of drug abuse comorbidity among schizophrenia youths and how it can worsen their condition and quality of life.

Al-Qaeda – Annotated Bibliography

Terrorism is one of the major challenges facing governments in the world. The world is currently experiencing global and local terrorisms which have highly been strengthened by Muslims radicalization and formation of terrorist networks.  Al-Qaeda is one of radicalized Muslim groups whose mission is to promote terrorism against the western nations. The group has managed to develop a wide international network that eases their central terrorism activities. Al-Qaeda has been connected with various major attacks in the world which include the 9/11 American attack which was the worse in the American soil in history. This and other terrorism threats and attacks have highly impacted life of people in the society. This paper provide annotated bibliography of materials that assist in discussing how Al-Qaeda hasorganized terribly violent acts to induce terror on American soil  and how radical Islamic terrorist attacks causes social climate of distrust and fear to arise amongst the citizens of the United States.

Hoffam, B. (2003). Al-Qaeda, trends in terrorism, and future potentialities: An assessment. Washington, DC: The Rand Corporation.

The article evaluates current terrorism trends and its future abilities. It assesses the presumed al-Qaeda states today with specific reference to its probable agenda in a post-Iraq war. The paper also more extensively centers on some main modern terrorist trends so as to better comprehend how terrorism is transitioning and what the changes of these implications are with regard to probable future patterns and attacks. The paper evaluates the al-Qaeda status today and the effect of the Iraq war has on it. It also evaluates how the future potentiality of al-Qaeda is communicated by the extensive trends of terrorism today and how we should perceive terrorism today and in the future. This paper gives more information on what al-Qaeda, its network in the world, and their actions at international levels and how they propagate them. This article will be used to expand more information on al-Qaeda and how they operate in accomplishing their terrorism objectives.

Huddy, L., Feldman, S., Capelos, T., & Provost, C. (2002). The consequences of terrorism: Disentangling the effects of personal and national threat. PoliticalPsychology, 23(3), 485-509.

This article discusses how the 9/11 incident changed American perception of terrorism and the impact the act created on the life of the American people. The incident is normally described as the most horrific terrorism attack on American soil. It success changed the aspect of perceived national and individual risk to terrorist threat. It also increased the need for individuals to always assess the national threats, how these threats can impact their lives and measures the government has employed to minimize the threats. According to the paper, the 9/11 incident brought about social and economic consequences, which resulted to change of behaviors among the citizens while going about their normal business. The attack increased individuals’ fear of sudden attacks in the future, economic and social losses. According to the people American terrorism fear varies based on the security climate in the country which is measured based on by the number of reported threats, attacks or attempt on American in foreign lands, or attack of other neighboring countries. This paper will inform the research paper on the impact that terrorism have on American life both socially and economically. It will also contribute more information on and how their continuous actions in and outside American influence individual social life.

Ioana, I. (2015). The terrorism and its psychological effects.National Defense University, Bucharest: Romania.

This paper discusses how terrorism which is highly propagated by al-Qaeda instills fear in people and how constant reporting of terrorist incidents by the media promotes their acts by creating panic. According to the article terrorism is importantly a weapon which relies on threat transmission to general public, as opinion of public is the main factor which can push political actors to meet the power demand of terrorists. The article also demonstrates that terrorism is not just a threat to international and national security but also an attack on people’s psychological welfare. The paper focuses more on demonstrating how terrorism impact people’s psychological wellbeing by creating anxiety, fear, and distrust in the public. Their constant attacks in different parts of the world are meant to attract the media as a way of propagating this fear always. This paper will be used to demonstrate how al-Qaeda terrorist actions impact public psychological welfare, interfering with their normal social, and economic live by forcing them limit their movement and investments due to fear of losses and other damages.

Jenkins, B. M., &Godges, J. P. (2011).The long shadow of 9/11: American’s response to terrorism. Rand Cooperation.Retrieved from <http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2011/RAND_MG1107.pdf>

This is a book that revisits the 9/11 incident where the United States experienced the worst terrorism hit in its soil. The incident was quite shocking and it subjected the citizens into great fear and distrusts of Muslims especially those from Arabic nationality. The US got to understand that Osama Bin Laden’s war declaration on American in 1996 was not just empty words. The book clearly describes how this major incident created fear and feeling of vulnerability among American citizen who were previously very confident on their security system. The book reflect on the damages this particular attack had on American people especially on their entrustment of the country security system in guaranteeing them maximum and reliable security. It also gives measure the United States took and has been taking to restore the public trust on security issues which include an attempt to completely destroy the al-Qaeda network. This book will make a great contribution in informing the research on the major terrorist act in the US and how it influence the life of its residents socially, and psychologically among other aspects.

Lee, K. (2015). Does Al Qaeda central still matter? UNISCI Journal, 37, 15-48.

This article focuses more on discussing the al-Qaeda giving a deep history about the group formation and its mission in both domestic and international terrorism. The article gives systematic review of major changes and events that have taken place in the group and how the United States government has been fighting hard to sabotage its main terrorism efforts especially in American soil. The main aim of the paper is to determine its central activities especially in propagating the US attacks and how the turn of events have changed their cause of action or slowed them down. The paper also explains the concept of jihadism and Muslim radicalization and how they have contributed to the growth and expansion of al-Qaeda group. The concept of the employment of affiliate groups in propagating attacks, and how the affiliation has played a great part in helping the group achieve its international missions is also discussed. This paper will be used to expand the knowledge on al-Qaeda and its operations and action in different parts of the world. It will also assist in informing the research on what aided the group to conduct successful attack of its kind in America in 2001

Stibli, F. (2010).Terrorism in the context of globalization.AARMS, 9(1), 1-7.

This article gives a clear overview of how terrorism has been influencing life of people in different parts of the world. In this article the writer give the international and local view of terrorism. The paper also gives detailed information of the main propagators of terrorism who are al-Qaeda group. The writer provides the definition of al-Qaeda, their network internationally,   and their effort in destroying America among other countries in the world. It also digs deep into the powers that derive terrorists into performing their action and how they use these powers to ensure that they get the public reaction they anticipate when imposing such reactions. The article also focuses on how the expansion of terrorist attacks and the constant fear of sudden attacks in American soil impose negative energy among the public. This results to development of public panic, and fear. This paper will be used to add to information about al-Qaeda, their terrorism actions and plans, and the impact those actions have on the life of American population.

Human Resource Management Annotated Bibliography

Beil-Hildebrand, M. B. (January 01, 2010). Re-Theorizing Human Resource Management and Human Resource Management in Context.

In this article, Beil-Hildebrand focusses on the strategic human resource management, human capital management, high-performance management, and high commitment management themes under the broad HR department. The article particularly emphasizes on academic and managerial claims that concern HRM, along with acknowledging the impact of past literature on HR from the healthcare sector perspective. The foci go to organizational changes and HR responsibilities, the HRM rhetoric, modern-day practices, and how people react to the disparities that occur with time. I will use this source to research on how organizations try to maximize their capabilities through HR practices and overall diversity in management to create organizational effectiveness.

Buyens, D., & De, V. A. (July 01, 2001). Perceptions of the value of the HR function. Human Resource Management Journal, 11, 3, 70-89.

In the article, Buyens and De explore the value of the Human Resource function as viewed by three types of managers namely HR managers, top managers, and line managers. They review evidence from existing literature and additionally explore the degree of strategic involvement of the HR function along with the added value it brings to the organization. Their findings point out that the role and value of the HR function extend beyond the fulfillment of its responsibility as a strategic partner. I will use their work to research the overview of the HR management and its role in the organization.

Gableta, M., & Król-Jasińska, A. (January 01, 2014). Development of HR department tasks with respect to the implementation of the employees’ interests. Przegląd Organizacji, 2014, 42-47.

Gableta and Król-Jasińska’s article focuses on interests that constitute a multifaceted set of human wishes and objectives in a firm, proving itself through expectations that provide the actions with a specific direction. Particularly, the authors attempt to explore the role played by the HR department in regard to respecting the employees’ interests. They try to verify if it is indeed empirically accurate that a changing company generates a need for the study of the processes occurring in it from an angle that caters for the employee’s interests and their corresponding compliance to the employer. My essay will use this source to fetch empirically-proven data on subjects modelled on the employee-perspective.

Jamrog, J. J., & Overholt, M. H. (January 01, 2004). Building a Strategic HR Function: Continuing the Evolution. Human Resource Planning, 27, 51-63.

In their article, Jamrog and Overholt attempt to trace every evidence of the evolution of the HR profession in a span of the last 100 years, and then examine the current role. Their research connects several components of the HR as well as how it influences them in various dimensions. The results of their investigation focus on the perfect model for measuring organizational effectiveness. However, the article contains substantial information and facts regarding the HR department. I will particularly use it as a source of reference to what constitutes organizational effectiveness, and the measurement tools that the HR department uses to build a strategic function.

John, S., & Björkman, I. (November 01, 2015). In the eyes of the beholder: the HRM capabilities of the HR function as perceived by managers and professionals. Human Resource Management Journal, 25, 4, 424-442.

The article investigates factors that influence the line manager’s perception of the capacity of the HR function by using 913 managers in the subsidiaries of 11 Nordic international corporations. They successfully test the extent to which attitudes of the unit’s general manager, characteristics of the HR, and features of the unit’s HRM system manager helps in explaining HRM capabilities. The authors find out that perceived practice visibility coupled with HRM inducements can be perceived as strong predictors of the perceptions of the HR function’s role. My essay will use the article to delve into the capabilities of HRM and to highlight its role in improving organizational performance.

Rafat, M., Mahboobeh, S., & Amir, J. (2012). Analysis of the human resource management role in hospitals using Ulrich model. African Journal of Business Management, 6(50), 11943.

The authors of this article carry out a study to evaluate human resource’s role in various types of hospitals in Iran via the Ulrich model. The results of the research showed positive relationships between human resources and service qualities. By using this as a source, my essay will focus on the relevant data with regard to the positive impacts of strengthening HR management, planning, and training of workers. Notably, the authors come to a conclusive evidence suggesting that the human resource management is capable of enhancing service quality in hospitals. My essay will, in light of this, explore the capabilities of the organization and how they can be maximized through appropriate human resource practices.

Shammot, M. M. (2014). The role of human resources management practices represented by employee’s recruitment and training and motivation for therealization of competitive advantage. African Journal of Business Management8(1), 35.

In his article, Shammot presents evidence relating to the role the human resources department along with its management plays in realizing the competitiveness of industrial organizations. The article has, however, highlighted on issues related to the human resources management practices intraining, motivating, attracting, and selecting, employing, and evaluating employees,as well as matters pertaining to the setting of salaries, fees, and rewards. This article will serve as a source for extracting undisputable information regarding the role of the HR management in fulfilling employees’ expectations with an end goal of giving the organization a competitive advantage.

Shephard, P. (January 01, 2005). The role of HRD and knowledge management: HR in the Epoch of the knowledge-based economy: towards continuous learning and building a learning organization.

The article concentrates attention on the role of Human Resource management in learning organizations. The author tries to show that the HRM plays a crucial role in transforming traditional firms to modern organizations that possess characteristics of a learning organization. He shows the importance of proper planning, performance management, and succession planning in forming a solid strategic management that caters for the future of the company. The article is helpful to my research in that it will guide me in laying out facts concerning the HR function in a continually-changing organization.

Truss, C. (2008). Continuity and change: the role of the HR function in the modern public sector. Public Administration86(4), 1071-1088.

This article tries to present empirical evidence relating to the evaluation of HR roles and if they have changed into a model more akin to that of the private sector by using six matched-pair organizations in UK’s public sector. Using the results, the author highlights the complex and contradictory nature of the functional roles of the HR department. My essay will use the article to draw facts on the strategic roles of the HR in general, as well as the trends on the same. I will also pay attention to how modern organizations are evolving towards cost-effectiveness and effective management through by the help of the HR department.

Zehra Alakoç Burma, (2014). Human Resource Management and Its Importance for Today’s Organizations, International Journal of Education and Social Science, 2(1). Retrieved from http://www.ijessnet.com/wpcontent/uploads/2014/09/9.pdf

By placing emphasis on the subjects of management, Human Resources management, organizational effectiveness, and management functions, Zehra informs the reader about the relationship between the human resources management and organizational effectiveness. This serves as pertinent information for my essay in relation to the overall effectiveness of the HR manager’s function in the organization. I will also use the source to fetch facts on the general role of the HR department, management of strategic decisions, and the factors at play in the same context.

Singapore – Annotated Bibliography

Department of Statistics, Ministry of Trade & Industry, & Republic of Singapore. (2014). Singapore. (2014). Report on the household expenditure survey 2012/2013. Retrieved from < https://www.singstat.gov.sg/docs/default-source/default-document-library/publications/publications_and_papers/household_income_and_expenditure/hes1213.pdf>

This is a governmental document providing survey results on household expenditure in Singapore for year 2012/2013. This report provides an over of how the country’s population spends on various aspects that include food, health, transport, communication, recreation and culture, education services, clothing and footwear, and housing and related expenditure among others. The report also gives analysis on the household income for different individuals including those that are employed and who are in business. The report will contribute on providing actual statistical information on the Singapore people expenditure which can be used to determine whether one can afford living in Singapore or not.

Mewr.gov.sg. (2015). Our home, our environment, our future. Sustainable Singapore Blueprint 2015. Retrieved from < http://www.mewr.gov.sg/ssb/files/ssb2015.pdf>

This is a governmental report on measures that are taken to ensure environmental conservation and sustainability. The report gives details on measures that each individual is playing to enhance sustainability. It also gives update on rules that have been imposed to enhance environment conservation in the country. This includes information on how people should use resources such as water, energy and also how they should dispose their waste product to enhance conservation. This report will be vital in my project since it will provide information on living standards that the new dwellers should maintain to meet the conservation and sustainability standards of a country.

HSBC.com.tw. (2013). Country and education guide: Singapore. HSBC Premier. Retrieved from < http://www.hsbc.com.tw/1/PA_ES_Content_Mgmt/content/taiwan_51/download_form/premier/overseas_edu_Singapore_guide.pdf>

This is a guide developed by HSBC group to aid new immigrant in Singapore to understand the country. The guide gives more information on the country’s population, spoken languages, currency, time zone, climate, telecommunication, cost of living, transportation, health and medical, and education. However, the guide emphasizes more on education system adopted in the country, and the services offered in different schools. This information includes cost of education in different schools and the procedure for applying to be enrolled in Singapore schools. This paper will contribute to my project by providing extensive details on Singapore education system to new settlers.

St Joseph’s Institution International. (2015). Living in Singapore. Information for Staff. Retrieved from < https://www.sji-international.com.sg/ckeditor_assets/About%20us%20files/Living%20in%20Singapore_May%202015.pdf>

This is a research paper that gives a general information regarding living in Singapore. The paper gives brief history of the country, brief information culture and other information on the country safety, languages spoken in the country, the climate and the weather conditions, renting property and their distance to various landmarks as well as their rental cost. It also gives more information on transportation and the phone applications available to help one go around the town.  The paper also gives general information on education and more information on social amenities available in the country and where they are located. It also gives more information on financial matters and health care information. The paper gives general information that would help visitors or new dwellers familiarize themselves with the country. This paper will contribute to by projecting by giving specific information that may need to be known for one to easily live in Singapore.

Tambyah, S. K., Tan, S. J., & Kau, A. K. (2009). The quality of life in Singapore. Soc Indic Res, 92, 337-376.

This is a research journal article that investigates the Singaporeans quality of life. The journal conducts a survey research were 1038 respondents were involved. It provides a general overview of life in Singapore including the history of the country, demographic composition of Singapore and human development, government, economic development and stability, global connection, as well as civil liberties and political lights. It also investigates on other life aspects that include people lifestyles, life priorities, and the general quality of life in the country. This journal provides crucial information about life in Singapore that can be used to add background information in my project about Singapore and living in Singapore.

Automation and its Effects on Industry : An Annotated Bibliography

Fortunati, Leopoldina, Anna Esposito, and Giuseppe Lugano. “Introduction to the Special Issue “Beyond Industrial Robotics: Social Robots Entering Public and Domestic Spheres”.” Information Society 31.3 (2015): 229-36. Education Research Complete. Web. 11 June 2017.

Fortunati in this article talks about Industrial and domestic robotics. He provides an interesting and insightful perspective into current and the possible future of automation in society. Fortunati goes on to compare the rise in industrial automation from the 1960’s to today. Moreover, he explains how domestic automation is still uncharted. He also gives a good overview on how social automation is changing the world and explains how industry has changed due to automation. This article is a great resource for people who wants to discuss how automation has changed the world in domestic and industrial terms.

This will be a great resource to use for the presentation because it gives a good overview of domestic and industrial automation and its impact on the world. It is a good source for information pertaining to how automation got its start in the 1960’s and how it is used today. Overall, this article pertains to the scope of the course and will provide answers to the required questions for the presentation. It will help answer how this technology is a solution to the workforce and how it can influence economic power.

Frank, Morgan R., et al. “Small Cities Face Greater Impact from Automation.” 16 May 2017. EBSCOhost, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsarx&AN=1705.05875&site=eds-live&scope=site.

Morgan explains in this article how automation is affecting small cities. Morgan provides a comparative picture of the impact of automation across U.S. urban areas and how these areas will have to undertake greater adjustments as far as worker employment and job displacements. Morgan does a good job of providing statistics and figures to help explain the impact of automation in small cities compared to major employment hubs such as state capitals or major population centers. This article is a good source for people interested in exploring how automation is affecting small cities specifically.

This resource will provide a good amount of useful material for the presentation. Morgan provides answers to some of the required questions that will be answered. More specifically Morgan helps explain how automation is creating new problems and how it is affecting people in small cities in terms of employment. Moreover, this article will provide a good source of additional information to add into the presentation. More specifically it will provide information on a small city outlook on automation compared to major employment hubs.

Tyagi, Amit. “Artificial Intelligence: Boon or Bane?.” IUP Journal of Computer Sciences, vol. 11, no. 2, Apr. 2017, pp. 43-56. EBSCOhost, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=iih&AN=123267781&site=eds-live&scope=site.

Tyagi provides good research on how automation is transforming the nature of almost everything that is connected to human life. Furthermore, Tyagi talks about both the advantages and disadvantages of using automation. He also talks about how it is changing the world around us and the impacts on the workforce. Moreover, Tyagi explains how he feels that automation will help shape the world in the future and what he sees as the outcome of the workforce in many years after automation is further developed. This article in is a great source for general audiences looking for information on the definition of automation.

This article will be useful in providing general information on automation and will help answer most of the questions required for the presentation. Tyagi uses his point of view to explain the advantages and disadvantages of automation which will be incredibly useful to the project. Moreover, it will help give a good definition of automation and how it is changing the world around us. Overall this article is a great resource for the presentation and also a great resource for the overall scope of the course itself.

Ebel, Karl-H. “The Impact of Industrial Robots on the World of Work.” International Labour Review, vol. 125, no. 1, Jan. 1986, p. 39. EBSCOhost, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edb&AN=5344937&site=eds-live&scope=site.

Ebel makes great points in this article which talks about the impact of industrial robots on work environment in manufacturing industries. To add on to that, Ebel goes on to talk about the barriers of automation in industries and how it will impact employment overall. Ebel uses reliable sources and talks about how is impacting other countries as well. Furthermore, Ebel explains the robot to human ratio in the industrial workforce which will be crucial information to know for the presentation. This article is a great resource for students or people interested in researching the statistics involving human to robot employment and how automation as a whole is affecting employment for humans.

Overall this article will be a great resource for the presentation. Ebel makes good comparisons between the human to robot ratio when talking about industries. This article will be great in explaining how humans will have to adapt to the automated workforce. The article specifically provides useful figures and research that will help explain the new problems that can arise from the use of automation. Ebel also uses trusted sources for his research.

Davis, Keith. “Individual Needs and Automation.” Academy of Management Journal, vol. 6, no. 4, Dec. 1963, pp. 278-283. EBSCOhost, doi:10.2307/255153.

The article discusses the impact of automation on the fulfillment of human dignity, creativity and potential of a free man. Davis also defines what automation means and talks about how important it is for skilled human workers to maintain the automated systems. Davis also talks about the expanded role of humans when working with automated systems. Furthermore, Davis talks about the relationship between automation and unemployment, and the moral and ethical aspects of implementing automation into an industrial organization. The article is a good source of information for engineers and students learning how to interact with automated machines.

This article will be helpful in discussing how automation is impacting the work force as a whole and how humans will play an expanded role in maintaining the automated systems. This will be helpful when answering the required questions for the project presentation. More specifically this article will help answer the question about whose problem it is and what people might be harmed by this technology. Overall Davis makes great points and this article contains many great points that will be used in my presentation.

Winthrop, Henry. “Some Psychological and Economic Assumptions Underlying Automation, I.” American Journal of Economics & Sociology, vol. 17, no. 4, July 1958, pp. 399-412. EBSCOhost, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=15380324&site=eds-live&scope=site.

The article focuses on psychological and economic aspects of automation. First and perhaps the most potent of the current beliefs used to allay the fears of industrial workers that automation threatens their job security and future, is the emphasis on the opportunity for upgrading. Winthrop goes on to explain how automation will impact the use of humans in technological societies. Furthermore, Winthrop goes on to discuss how automation will positively affect the work force by requiring upgraded labor needs that are performed by industrial engineers and managers. The author shows bias toward automation, but overall is a great resource for students interested in learning about the future of the world with automation and how jobs will be impacted.

This article will be very useful for the upcoming project as it contains a wealth of research and information that pertain to the required questions. The article also contains information that can help facilitate possible discussion or any follow on questions regarding the project. The author also does a great job comparing the negative effects of automation on low-skilled workers to the likes of industrial engineers and managers.

Innovation and Strategic Management Annotated Bibliography

Assignment Instructions

Write an annotated bibliography of three references on innovation and strategic management. Your annotated bibliography must complete the following:

  • Include three APA-formatted references that are not from the same author.
  • Contain an abstract of at least 200 words for each reference.

Focus on the relationship between innovation and strategic management, specifically on the way innovation is shaping traditional strategic management.

Sample Answer

Casadesus-Masanell, R. (2010), Open Versus Closed Innovation: A model of Discovery and Divergence. Academy of Management Review; Vol. 35 Issue 1, p27-47. Retrieved from Ebscohost

This article by Casadesus-Masanell examines the difference between open innovation and closed innovation in terms of superiority. The researchers carried out some very detailed research that sought to find out the importance of having new ideas in a growing organization. They developed a model that depicts how fresh ideas in relation to open innovation can initiate the growth of any business and the approach to which such ideas can be implemented. Additionally, the study showed the importance of executives working in line with the new ideas and the drawbacks that may occur when executives overlook the new ideas. Another fundamental issue that the researchers found out from their studies is that when a business is run by individuals whose ideas are divergent, open innovation paralyses growth as well as profitability. This is because open innovation usually attempts to restrict and upward technological trajectory. In essence, the study focused on the importance of open innovation in comparison to closed innovation and the results showed that open innovation brings on board several new ideas that can be implemented to improve a business as opposed to closed innovation that is restricted.


Barsh, J., Capozzi, M., & Davidson, J. (2008), Leadership and Innovation. McKinsey Quarterly; 2008, Issue 1, p36-47. Retrieved from Ebscohost

These researchers carried out a study with an objective to determine the impact of new ideas on the development of any business. This study attempted to focus on other factors such as dividends, profits, revenues, etc. that a new business idea would bring on board. More often than not, researchers have always limited their studies to profits, revenues and dividends to determine the suitability of adopting a new business idea. These researchers, however, looked past the ordinary and researched into the adaptability of business to the dynamic local and international markets. There studies show that for any business to foster, trust, develop more links and clearly understand the standard principles of operations there is need to incorporate fresh ideas into such a business. Additionally, there is need for companies to embrace technology by innovating management practices so that they can successfully compete in the dynamic business landscape that is improving and advancing day by day. The authors of this article talks about the shortcomings of traditional management practices in the current business world and how they cannot cope with the today’s demands. In a developed environment that places emphasis on talents and collaboration, the traditional ways of managing businesses are just but obstructions to innovation and creative strategy.


Sánchez, A., Lago, A., Ferràs, X., & Ribera, J (2011) Innovation Management Practices, Strategic Adaptation, and Business Results: Evidence from the Electronics Industry. Journal of Technology Management & Innovation; 2011, Vol. 6 Issue 2, p14-39. Retrieved from Ebscohost

This research contributes to the general understanding of how various innovation management practices relate to the mid and long-term growth and development of a business. Similar studies have previously showed that government and regional development agencies have always supported small and medium scale enterprises to embrace innovation. The idea has always been to offer the small and medium scale enterprise the opportunity to advance and improve their management practices so that they can successfully compete in the market. This research by Alba Sanchez alongside his colleagues have proposed a model that is primarily meant to audit and classify innovation management practices and assess the impact of these practices to the overall financial performance of firms. In developing this course, the researchers studied various types of companies and employed the model. The companies were found to have a lot in common. For example, size, position in the value chain as well as the ownership structure. The results of the study however showed that a systematic approach to innovation is critical because it leads to growth in revenue despite insignificant growth in profits and productivity.

Today organizations are becoming not only spatially distributed but also organizationally distributed. The trend is such that work is no longer concentrated in an individual. Instead, workspaces are not confined anymore as collaborative activities gain significance. Additionally, businesses are more concerned at lowering costs and in that effect dispersion is taking center stage where functions are outsourced and businesses are relocating to areas where production cost are low. Technological aspects of innovation play a significant role in shaping strategic management. Today, information technology has completely transformed the data management processes in businesses and organizations as well.

Leadership is another critical aspect that equally plays a significant role in shaping strategic management. While manager and senior executives cite the importance of innovation as a pointer to growth, very few of them take responsibility to manage and drive innovation. It is therefore important for managers and senior executives to put innovation a priority in case they want to transform and improve their businesses. The current world, given the global requirements and standards of practice demands that businesses and organizations should focus on innovation as far as improving management practices is concerned. Additionally, businesses should also embrace flexibility in adapting to the ever changing technology (McKinsey, 2008).

You can order a custom and unique annotated bibliography on any topic at an affordable price. 

WRTG 391: The Political Debate of Stem Cell Research – Critical Annotated Bibliography

Agha, F. & Hayani, A. (2008). Muslim perspectives on stem cell research and cloning.

Zygon, 4(43), 783-795.

The article projects Muslims as acquiring knowledge as a worship practice. Muslims hold the opinion that human attainments should be in line with the will of God. Ideally, the attainments should remain within the limits set out by God’s confines and laws. Given the dread of disregarding the equilibrium set out by God and arrogance, all the new discoveries and knowledge should be applied cautiously not to destroy the creation’s balance. Knowledge ought to be applied to establish the political senses of justice and equity for everyone. Such senses should be linked to the wide-ranging ethical foundation that the Sunnah and the Quran set forth. The article would be rather helpful in the upcoming study since it presents very significant insights into the religious basis of the political considerations that Muslims have regarding stem-cell technologies, including cloning. As well, the article presents very significant insights into the ethical basis of the political considerations that Muslims have regarding stem-cell technologies, including cloning.

Baertschi, B. & Alexandre, M. (2010). Moral Status Revisited: The Challenge Of Reversed

Potency. Bioethics, 24(2), 96-103.

The article presents moral status is a troublesome subject. The subject is intricately connected to continuing political contentions regarding abortion’s morality and ensoulment. In recent days, the subject has become quite closely associated with the controversies that define embryonic stem cell research presently. In the latest context, the subject draws benefits from the fresh insights stemming from the latest scientific progress in the research. The researchers indicate that the freshly seen somatic cells’ ability to come back to pluripotential statuses in regulated environments necessitates the modification of the classical moral status concepts and its reconsideration as referring to both intrinsic and relational, or extrinsic, properties. The article would be rather helpful in the upcoming study since it presents very noteworthy insights into the political considerations that color thoughts regarding the classical moral status concepts. In an energizing way, the article projects the concepts, which by themselves constitute a troublesome subject, as intricately connected to the enduring political contentions on abortion’s morality as well as ensoulment.

Dresser, R. (2010). Stem Cell Research as Innovation: Expanding the Ethical and Policy

Conversation. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 38(2), 332-341.

Dresser (2010) seeks to . The article would be rather useful in informing research on the political considerations that should guide the research in the days ahead especially regarding scientific integrity, resource allocation, and the relevant civic bioethical debates.

States, H. (2013). Foundations Lead the Way After Bush Vetoes Stem Cell Bill. Science,

313(5786), 420-421.

States (2006) seek to report on and discuss a period in the US’ history in which there were pronounced political efforts geared towards legally obligating stakeholders to increase the number of lines of human embryonic stem cells to researchers benefiting from federal funds through the H.R. 810 bill. The bill was carried by the Senate after a marked political push and pull, but President Bush vetoed it. Critics of the president’s veto argued that it signaled the stepping into a period in which state governments along with private establishments would take up increased responsibility for biomedical research funding. The veto made advocates of stem cell research, including Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger of California, feel pumped up. States (2006) reports that Schwarzenegger thought of the veto as having invigorated the CIRM (California Institute of Regenerative Medicine) program. States (2006) presents rather helpful insights into how varied political interests continue to shape and drive stem cell research.

Kao, C., Chuang, C., Chen, C. & Kuo, H. (2008). Human pluripotent stem cells: Current

status and future perspectives. The Chinese Journal of Physiology, 51(4), 214-225.

The article seeks to demonstrate that from when human embryonic stem cells e the introduction of factors, which have been defined genetically, into mature somatic cells and the production of human embryonic stem cells out of lone blastomeres. The different ways have helped in resolving the principal problems intrinsic in typical human embryonic stem cells. The article would be rather useful in informing research on how political considerations persuade the development of new stem research methods and technologies such as the GWCIPST (Genome-Wide Chromatin Immuno-Precipitation-Sequencing Technology).

Varnee, M. (2009). Embryonic Stem Cell Research: A Decade of Debate from Bush to

Obama. The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 82(3), 101-103.

Varnee (2009) is keen on reporting and demonstrating that there have varied differences in how different US presidencies have handled stem cell research issues in the past. Varnee (2009) demonstrates that the research intensely discussed and considered by US presidents. There is a marked likelihood that the research will continue being intensely discussed and considered by US presidents.

Okie, S. (2006). Stem-Cell Politics. New England Journal of Medicine, 355(16), 1633-1637.

Okie (2006) Around the same time, Senator John Danforth from Missouri was quoting the bible in support of human embryonic stem-cell research. Okie (2006) as well examines the political developments that happened around the same time in various other areas, including Wisconsin. Okie (2006) presents rather helpful insights into how varied political interests continue to shape and drive stem cell research.

Robertson, J. A. (2010). Embryo Stem Cell Research: Ten Years of Controversy. Journal

of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 38(2), 191-203.

Roberts (2010) seeks to present an appraisal of a decade of the debates regarding stem cell research and explore the ethical conflicts that have added to the controversies relating to embryonic stem cells. As well, Roberts (2010) seeks to show how the controversies have played themselves out in legal, as well as political, circles. There have been varied political efforts geared towards making the research and the related therapies unconstitutional. Roberts (2010)

Shannon, T. (2001). From the Micro to the Macro. In S. Holland, K. Lebacqz & L. Zoloth

(eds.), The Human Embryonic Stem Cell Debate (pp.177-184).Cambridge: MIT Press.

Shannon (2001) seeks to discuss the macro, as well as micro, ethical issues or concerns that have defined stem cell research in the past. As well, Shannon (2001) seeks to demonstrate that the related therapies are typified by varied macro, as well as micro, ethical issues or concerns. The micro concerns relate to the conditions of the specific organisms that produce the extracted stem cells. The macro concerns relate to dedication to specific high-tech therapies and medicine that are meant for use by the well off by and large but are commonly neglected. The author contends that there are moral justifications, or reasons, for extracting the cells from the embryonic tissues of human beings. Even then, there are significant social concerns that urge caution in the extraction of the cells and the research as a whole. The article would be rather useful in informing research on how specific political, ethical, as well as social, considerations persuade the development of new stem research methods.

Solter, D. (2006). Politically Correct Human Embryonic Stem Cells? New England Journal

of Medicine, 354(11), 1209.

Solter (2006) seeks to prove the Altered Nuclear Transfer principle and support cloning for the production of patient-particular embryonic stem cells. Solter (2006) seeks to show that the Altered Nuclear Transfer mice experiment was of inconsequential since the transfer’s validity was incapable of being verified in given human embryos. He expresses reservation about the possible establishment of the CDX2 role in placentation in human beings, consequently leaving unaddressed the efficacy of the approach defined by the Altered Nuclear Transfer. Solter (2006) presents an appraisal of past debates regarding stem cell research and explore the ethical conflicts that have added to the controversies relating to embryonic stem cells. As well, Solter (2006) shows how the debates and the related conflicts have played themselves out in legal, as well as political, circles. Solter (2006) presents rather supportive insights into how varied political interests continue to shape and drive stem cell research.

Sulmasy, D. P. (2009). Deliberative Democracy and Stem Cell Research in New York State:

The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 19(1), 63-78.

Sulmasy (2009) seeks to demonstrate the dynamics that have colored the adoption of human embryonic stem cell research policies in recent times. Some states have come up with the policies via political, legislative processes. Other states have come up with the policies via political referenda. Other states have come up with the policies via political executive orders. Sulmasy (2009) demonstrates that they are varied strengths, as well as downsides, associated with the various ways used to coming up with such policies. The varied strengths, as well as downsides, relate to accountability, publicity, and reciprocity, which are deliberative democracy concepts and ideals. Sulmasy (2009) as well shows how the debates and the related conflicts have played themselves out in legal, as well as political, circles. Sulmasy (2009) presents rather supportive insights into how varied political interests continue to shape and drive stem cell research. Besides, the article would be rather useful in informing research on how specific democracy considerations persuade the development of new stem research methods.

Wiedemann, P., Simon, J., Schicktanz, S. & Tannert, C. (2004). The future of stem-cell

research in Germany. EMBO Reports, 5(10), 927-931.

The researchers are keen on assessing the social, therapeutic, as well as scientific, prospects of adult along with embryonic stem cell research in Germany. They establish that varied ethical challenges are typifying the research. As well, they establish that there are varied expectations regarding the social, therapeutic, as well as scientific, prospects of adult along with embryonic stem cell research in the country. The state prefers stem-cell research based on adult cells over the one based on embryonic cells. Even then, most German experts expect that the country will become more and more accommodating regarding stem-cell research based on embryonic cells in future. In addition to expecting that the country will become more and more accommodating regarding stem-cell research based on embryonic cells in future, most German experts expect the country to continue relaxing the related legal restrictions. The article would be useful in the upcoming research since it would help explain how various political dynamics define how state power is exercised with respect to the research.


Boston Marathon bombings, 2013 – Annotated Bibliography

Holman, E. A., Garfin, D. R., & Silver, R. C. (2014). Media’s role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(1), 93-98.

The study investigated the media coverage of Boston and distress it increased or prompted near the bombing. The central issue was whether the repetitive exposure contributed to acute stress in the vicinity and the further comparison between direct exposure and media exposure among the residents near and at a distance from the bombing. The study found that the repeated media exposure contributed more to acute stress than direct exposure.

The article provides valuable information on the impact of exposure both direct and indirect through the media and, therefore, had its focus on the impact the explosion had on the people in term of increasing acute stress. As such, it is a reliable and useful article in gauging the aftermath effects of the bombing on the people in terms of acute stress. Acute stress as put forth in the article shoes the various undesirable effects of the bombing and is useful in research.


Simon, J. D. (2013). Lone wolf terrorism: Understanding the growing threat.

The article further looks at lone wolf terrorism with specific interest in the use of the internet in propagating the vice. It discusses the motivations and background of the lone terrorists and why few women have been lone terrorists while organized groups have many women. Furthermore, the paper looks at the why the lone terrorists have been son innovative and creative together with the impact of the internet in forming such groups. More information is given on the issue of lone terrorism and the background of the individuals, which further helps examine the Boston Marathon terrorism.

Learning from the study helps understand the individuals who were involved in the Boston Marathon bombings since they were not related to any terrorist groups. In addition, the articles gives more information on how they have been propagating and trained on how to carry out such terrorist acts together with their motivation.

Kaplan, J., Lööw, H., & Malkki, L. (2014). Introduction to the Special Issue on Lone Wolf and Autonomous Cell Terrorism. Terrorism and Political Violence, 26(1), 1-12.

The article looks at the issue of lone wolf terrorism concerning to the various terrorists who act alone in committing terrorism. The lone wolves are usually part of cells and, thus, act alone and ensure that their activities are distinct from the cell. The article is important in that it helps bring forth the issue of individuals who act as cells and propagate terrorist acts like the bombings that are planned over time before they are carried out. The one wolf terrorism thus helps greatly in determining how the Boston Marathon was initiated and further showing the individuals who were linked to the terrorist acts.


Marvel, J. D. (2014). The Boston Marathon Bombings: Who’s to Blame and Why It Matters for Public Administration. Public Administration Review, 74(6), 713-725.

The article looks at the governing authority’s especially senior administrators and politicians on how they handled the Boston Marathon and who should have been blamed for the failure in preventing the attack. Administrators have a sway on the public opinion and trust especially about determining who failed in presenting the attack. It shows how democrats and republicans view the whole situations and who is to blame.

Public administration, as the article puts it, forms an important part of dealing with the debacle. The article points out faults and various blames to specific security agencies including the FBI, who should have acted and prevented the bombing. Therefore, the influential administrators help in determining how the public should view the bombings. As such, the administrators should ensure that they do not carry out a blaming process that will increase public panic and, therefore, the article is important in showing various views in the public domain associated with the bombing.


Becker, M. (2014). Explaining lone wolf target selection in the United States. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 37(11), 959-978.

The paper investigates the various lone wolf attacks that have happened in the United States. It looks at 84 incidents involving lone terrorists and finds out their patterns. The study focusses on the various locations and targets where the attacks have happened. The study has found out that most of the lone wolf attacks happen among civilians in common areas. The article provides valuable information on the patterns of the targets. It is thus beneficial in providing more information that can help in creating solution for discovering likely target. The article is further important in providing more information on related bombings to the Boston Marathon especially those that occurred in common civilian surroundings related to the Boston Marathon bombing.

Nuclear Waste – Annotated Bibliography

Write a 250–300 word summary of Richard A. Muller’s “Nuclear Waste” They Say/I Say(p. 206)

  • Your goal for this assignment is to summarize the article’s main ideas and important points clearly, concisely, and accurately
  • Use the templates in They Say/I Say for representing the words of others and for introducing quotations
  • Review the points for writing a summary provided in the Week 1 Discussion
  • Write an APA Style annotated bibliography with at least four sources on the topic you have chosen
  • Each entry in your annotated bibliography should be composed of two parts
    • A citation of one source
    • A 200-word annotation placed beneath the citation summarizing the content of the source (thesis, evidence, supports, main points, etc.), evaluatingthe usefulness and reliability of the source, and indicating how you might use the source in your research paper
  • Be sure to sufficiently summarize and paraphrase each source — no direct quotations
  • The annotated bibliography should be written and formatted in scrupulous adherence to all APA style guidelines for its genre

Academic Dishonesty – Annotated Bibliography

Adam, L. R. (2015). Understanding the connection among impulsiveness, personal efficacy, and academic motivation to college cheating. College Student Journal, 50(5), 110-139.

The paper elaborates on a study that involved undergraduate students that aimed at discovering personal features that would have a potential correlation with cheating. The investigation attempted to evaluate self-control vs. impulsiveness among people as they accomplished their goals. The results of the study indicated that the more students engaged in behaviors of academic dishonesty, the more they were likely to view it as a normal and positive behavior.

Chapman, N. (2013). Practical approaches to decrease dishonesty in online courses. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 11(7), 188-215.

The author aimed at elaborating on the methods that can help in reducing cases of student cheating especially in online courses. The four practical approaches that were suggested are: a) modify the process that students use to turn in their written assignments; b) ensure distant students get the information; c) establishment of non-consecutive chapter assortment of queries; and d) change the process of administering exams.

Collins, S., & Byron, J. (2015). Academic integrity in web based distance education. TechTrends, 29(9), 39-51.

The article elaborates on the cheating frequencies both in traditional as well as online classes and presents suggestions for preventing academic dishonesty. Some of the suggested strategies include open book assessments, and use of essay questions instead of multiple choice formats. The author, also, suggested the use of project as a form assessment to help students relate the subject with their life experiences.

Dan, S. (2012). Turnitin: the student perspective on using plagiarism detection software. Active Learning in Higher Education, 10(9), 165-191.

The authors examined the views of postgraduate students about the use of a plagiarism software known as Turnitin. According to the study, the students showed positive views in regard to their experiences with Turnitin. Besides, 80% of them preferred getting their feedback via Turnitin.

Daniel S., & Kennedy, K. (2012). Academic dishonesty and distance learning: students and faculty views. College Student Journal, 30(3), 200-215.

The researchers examined the views of faculties and students regarding the relationship that exists between distance learning and cheating. In the study, various issues were highlighted such as methodology, rate and form of cheating. A few questionnaires were availed to both the faculty and the students. The findings of the study indicated that female and male members of the faculty who had been actively involved in teaching online courses gave 50-50% opinion regarding whether delivery of courses via electronic means was the reason for the increased academic dishonesty. The results indicate that there was little variation in the perception of the faculty and students. However, both agree that students can cheat with much ease in online classes.


David, D., & Kenneth, C. (2013). Plagiarism by adult learners online: a case study in detection and remediation. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 9(3), 11-19.

This research particularly focused on the degree of internet plagiarism as considered in five provinces of virtual or distance learning in the period starting from July 2003 to June to 2004. The authors were interested in presenting the results about survey of the prevalence, detection and remediation of plagiarism among adult online students. The main focus was on word-for-word copying of the work of another author, and plagiarism that arises from copy-and-paste scenarios. According to the findings of the study, coping from internet resources is the main plagiarism type that many students could have the tendency of involvement.

Frank, A. (2013). New systems keep a close eye on online students at home. The Education Digest, 79(9), 59-80.

This article elaborates on the new technologies that a few colleges and universities have tried to implement as ways of preventing the likelihood of cheating in online setting. Some of the measures being implemented include advanced technologies such as web cameras for recording students as they take exams, devices for identifying fingerprints to identify the identity of the user, and typing speed recognition software. The study indicates that most of these colleges and universities have reluctant to embrace these technologies of their high cost.

Gabriel, B. J., & Braumoeller, B. (2013). Actions do speak louder than words: deterring plagiarism with the use of plagiarism detection software: Political Science and Politics, 29(9), 830-853.

The article was presented by two university professors teaching in different universities who jointly undertook a plagiarism study that involved political science students. During their investigation, the researchers used Essay Verification Engine (EVE) to detect plagiarism instances. Their experience with the software indicated that EVE was not accurate at identifying the percentage of plagiarism present in a paper.

Harrison, S., Wiseley, P., & Stuber-McEwen, D. (2014). Point, click, and cheat: frequency and type of academic dishonesty in the virtual classroom. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 11(2).

In this article, the author aimed at exploring the regularity of academic dishonesty that were self-reported in a virtual classroom environment. Besides, the study, also, examined the various forms of cheating in traditional and online classes in order to compare the situation in both environments. The findings indicated that students learning in traditional classes were more attempted to cheating than those involved in online courses.

Kenneth, J., Nowell, C., & Grijalva, T. (2012). Academic honesty and online courses. College Student Journal, 45(6), 145-155.

The authors utilized a random response information methodological approach to test the similarity between the college students’ attributes who like cheating in the traditional classroom environment and college students’ attributes who have a liking for cheating in online classes. The findings of the study indicated that the both settings of learning lacked significant difference as pertains cheating prevalence in traditional vs. online classes.

Lawrence J., & Harmon, O. (2012). Are online exams and invitation to cheat? The Journal of Economic Education, 41(7), 99-111.

The data that the authors used in this study came from two distance learning or online courses in economic field to approximate an approach that can help in predicting examination scores from student characteristics’ independent variables. The researchers did not proctor the final exam in one course while in the other course, they proctored the final exam. The results of the study generally indicated that administering online exams in an environment that is proctored may assist in addressing issues surrounding academic dishonesty in the case of online courses.

Lupton, R., Bronson, E., Apgar, C. (2012). Creating a campus culture of integrity: comparing the perspective of full and part-time faculty. Journal of Higher Education, 77(6), 123-150.

Authors in this study were interested in investigating the roles that part-time and full faculty have in establishing a culture of integrity in the campus. Post-hoc Chi-square analysis was combined with analysis of variance (ANOVA) to investigate relationship between students, both faculty, part-time and full-time. The findings of the study indicated that both faculties were less likely than students to exercise lenience in their views towards certain behaviors.


Malcolm, J., & Muhammad, S. (2012). Embedding plagiarism detection in the assessment process. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 12(10), 30-49.

The article was interested in examining the application of program for plagiarism detection technology as a formative assessment and evaluation to minimize plagiarism instances in students’ written assignments. The study conclusively indicates that software tools are essential tools for formative assessments especially where students are able to obtain feedback.

Martin, A., & Mian, S. (2013). Internet plagiarism: A teacher’s combat guide. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education 1(3), 49-86.

This article elaborates on the meaning of plagiarism, pinpoints the major indications of plagiarism and many essential approaches that can be embraced to prevent plagiarism. The authors identify various steps to follow while evaluating the work of a student for plagiarism such as paper writing using paste approach, alterations in formatting styles and writing patterns. The authors, also, elaborate on some of the services for plagiarism detection, which are available for commercial use although they do not provide much details about challenges that arise from using such services.

Peter, A. (2013). Student dishonesty and faculty responsibility. Teaching in Higher Education, 14(5), 255-265.

This article focusses on the mechanisms and causes that allow existence of academic dishonesty in an academic environment. The arguments that the author considers encompass deliberate ignorance of academic dishonesty as it occurs, normative expectations, consequentialism position, and unavoidable action. The arguments of the author collectively indicate that the faculty that permits dishonesty should take moral responsibility for the actions of the students.

Robert, N. (2014). Cheating in online student assessment: beyond plagiarism. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 9(5), 22-33.

The article particularly focusses on ways of preventing plagiarism while less consideration was given to various other issues that associate with academic dishonesty in regard to online assessment. The author dwelled on the forms of problems that are likely to occur and the strategies that educators should embrace to avoid them.

Samuel, J., & Watson, G. (2011). Cheating in a digital age: do students cheat more in online courses? Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 12(1).

In this article, investigators studied the academic dishonesty level that prevails both in online and live course. The study involved 635 graduate and undergraduate students studying in Appalachia who provided the information. The instrument that was used in the study (Academic Dishonesty Assessment) aimed at determining the particular behaviors of dishonesty students knew about in reference to online and face-to-face courses. The most interesting outcome in the study was that most students admitted to having found cheating in usual classroom environment as compared to online situations.

Simon, M. (2012). Perceptions of academic honesty in online vs. face-to-face classrooms. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 7(5), 180-186.

The article focused on two main research questions: 1) are there any differences in perceptions of other student’ behavior regarding the course type between traditional classroom and online approach? ; and 2) are there any variations in the views of students’ integrity regarding their personal behavior in reference to course type? The findings for the two research questions; however, did not to show any substantial variation between learners registered in traditional vs. online courses in regard to academic dishonesty.

Stephen, A. (2014). Confronting plagiarism: how conventional cheating invites cyber-cheating. Change, 35(3), 11-20.

The article discusses the significance of a paradigm shift regarding teaching and learning as a way of preventing plagiarism in the current world. The author emphasizes the need for a guided, interactive and hands-on process that involves the instructor taking an active role of guiding students through research. Furthermore, the author highlights plagiarism prevention strategies, which are essentially developing the writing and research skills of students and diminish most of the incentives that lure students into teaching. The article, also, advocates for adoption of conventional teaching methods by instructors as a way of sealing loopholes that encourage plagiarism.

Wycliffe, S. (2013). Contemporary strategies of teaching. International Journal of Educational management 12(1), 215-238.

In this article, the researcher points out various fundamental approaches of teaching that can assist in encouraging academic honesty in a learning environment: 1) continuously observing the work of students; 2) creating a culture of honesty; 3) one-on-one discussion with leaners about their work; and 4) continuous review of their work. The article is essential in the sense that it provides information about pedagogical approaches in a classroom environment to prevent the likelihood of cheating by students. The guidelines enable creation of an environment that will have students less motivated to cheat.

Issues of Quality and Corporate Social Responsibility in Supply Chain Management – Annotated Bibliography

Alderson, W. (1957). Marketing behavior and executive action.  Irwin: Homewood, IL, 1957.

The author of Marketing behavior and executive action article, Alderson, defines the management of a supply chain as the measures and approaches that help harmonize suppliers, manufacturers, warehouses and retailers to actualize specified qualities and quantities of goods, their distribution to the right location at the right time, ensuring minimization of costs and achievement of required service levels. According to Anderson, the development and application of the standard of postponement can greatly promote a system’s marketing efficiency.He also suggested that for this to effectively take place, the distribution system in question must be a complete.Alderson concluded that postponement couldbe used to reduce the expenses associated withcarrying inventory as well as reducing the level of marketing related risks. Alderson argue that marketing efficiency is a major analytical tool, which can be used in supply management since it deals with an important aspect of the supply management process, inventory management.

Chaabane, A., Ramudhin, A., &Paquet, M. (2012). Design of sustainable supply chains under the emission trading scheme. International Journal of Production Economics135(1), 37-49.

Companies are fully responsible for the production process of the products they offer their customers. This means that they are liable for not only what happens during production but also during the process of delivering those products to the distributing warehouses, and the process of distributing the goods to different retailers who are responsible for the delivery of those goods to the consumers or users. Chaabane, Ramudhin and Paquet, (2012) explain how the concerns on the environment and legislation are moving organizations to new evaluations of the effects on environment by the supply chains they have in place. According to the authors, management of supply chains tries to actualize supply chains models that put organizations in a better position towards long-term economic performance maximization. To cope with the current robust supply chain changes, organizations are relying on responsiveness, robustness and flexibility strategies. The authors attribute the dragging in global economy to managerial decision-making chanced by focus on short-term profitability. They pose that organizations have been forced to hatch different strategies and approaches to actualize sustainable operations in the bid to cope with the hardships resulting from the depletion of non-renewable resources such as oil and metal.

Hsu, C. W., Kuo, T. C., Chen, S. H., & Hu, A. H. (2013). Using DEMATEL to develop a carbon management model of supplier selection in green supply chain management. Journal of Cleaner Production56, 164-172.

Hsu, Kuo, Chen and Hu, (2013) utilized DEMATEL (Decision-making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory) technique to research the best method for managing carbon in green supply chain with the aim of enhancing management of carbon by suppliers. The authors came up with thirteen techniques that could be effective in managing carbon. They had three scopes from literature review and interview information from there experts working in the manufacture of electronics. Their research proposes that carbon information management systems and education on carbon management are two key contributors to selection of competent suppliers in carbon management. The authors further suggest that structures and relationships identification would be very helpful to managers in getting a glimpse of cause-effort relationships and provide room for selection of suppliers with better knowledge of carbon management as well as improvement of their performance.

Prajogo, D., Chowdhury, M., Yeung, A. C., & Cheng, T. C. E. (2012). The relationship between supplier management and firm’s operational performance: A multi-dimensional perspective. International journal of production economics,136(1), 123-130.

Prajogo, et al., (2012) in their book recognize the impact of social compliance on operational performance in clothing manufacture more specifically fashion products for import deeming it as the main influence. According to the authors, proper study of vital supplier management practices is paramount to achievement of improved performance of firms operations. They note how diverse management practices will contribute to diverse performance results therefore confirming the vitality of reliance on specific supplier management practices that contribute to aimed at or better performance.

SupplyChainBrain (n.d.). “Ethics Issues Are at the Heart of Supply-Chain Management”. Supply Chain Brain. u.d. Retreived on November 11, 2015 from: http://www.supplychainbrain.com/content/research-analysis/chainlink-research/single-article-page/article/ethics-issues-are-at-the-heart-of-supply-chain-management-1/

The competitive inclination among companies often leads to lack of ethics in most companies’ operations. Companies outsourcing policies have been changed by laws and policies that have been enforced with the aim of ensuring that the prevailing issues relating to outsourcing are solved effectively. The author uses the article to examine the relationship between outsourcing practices and unethical behavior portrayed by companies. The author continues to argue that with more and more customers becoming interested in companies’ overseas operations, including the working conditions of their employees, unfair treatment of workers could harm a company’s reputation, reduce its sales and destroy its brand identity. The author concludes by suggesting that companies that wish to maintain their competitiveness in this age of increased consumer awareness must strive to build and sustain more appropriate supply chains.

Sarkis, J., Zhu, Q., & Lai, K. H. (2011). An organizational theoretic review of green supply chain management literature. International Journal of Production Economics130(1), 1-15.

Sarkis, Zhu, and Lai, (2011) reckon the popularity Green supply chain management (GSCM) has achieved within academia and industry. In their research, Sarkis et al. used theories in organization. The literature offers channels for addressing the aims of understanding the current position of the field and opportunities of future research and its direction. The book puts recent GSCM literature into nine extensive organization theories undertaking profound investigation of adoption, spread and GSCM practices outcome. The authors make various observations. The theory is a reliable source of directions for future investigation and research in green supply chain management. It recognizes availability plenty of opportunities for furthering investigation and research based on theories that have already been implemented (Sarkis,  Zhu, & Lai and 2011). The text identifies various vital questions that require evaluation. The book further reckons availability of more space for new themes on review of GSCM that are yet to receive proper attention in terms of investigation. The book also finds that literature detailing the application of GSCM study is very recent a statement that indicates how that GSCM and organizational theory application are at the growth level. A fifth observation made by the research is that there are more organizational theories emerging that are critical to addressing of un-tackled blossoming issues in GSCM. As a final observation, the book acknowledges that even with developing theories in GSCM researches need to develop theories on organizational phenomena.

Hochman, Steve. “Green Supply Chains.” Forbes. Forbes, 4 Apr. 2007. Web. 18 Sep. 2014.

When a company makes the decision to go green, it takes on a Corporate SocialResponsibility (CSR). In his article, Hochmanexpresses how various firmsthat implementedthis form corporate social responsibility of have reported gaining a competitive advantage over its competitors as a result. The author mentions Starbucks and Hewlett-Packard as an example of how adopting green supply chains can help a company gain a competitive edge. Hochman continues to state that over the last decade, more and more companies have been seen to advance in theiruse of green supply chains and corporate social responsibility and he uses the article to support this observation through presenting relevant examples.

Stadtler, H., &Kilger, C. (2000). Supply chain management and advanced planning. Berlin et al.

In their book, Stadtler and Kilger try to explain what supply chain management entails and how it affects a firm’s planning processes. They argue that Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Supply Chain Management and Advanced Planning Systems (APS) are vital to proper organization and optimization of funds, materials, information and product flow. This fourth edition of the books is mainly centered on fundamental concepts in Advanced Planning Systems. It concentrates its analysis on successful structuring of supply chains and Advanced Planning Systems. To provide better clarification, the book presents case studies analyzing different business sectors. Stadtler and Kilger (2015) opinionate that Supply Chain Management encompasses any aspect of organization in firms and the flow of information and materials within manufacturing and distribution of a product. Currently, firms are strengthening ERP systems concerned with order handling and execution with APS to achieve better flows, counter challenges and ensure timely delivery. The author is more concerned with structuring of successful supply chains and Advanced Planning Systems implementation using case studies and solution algorithms introduction for better understanding.

Wenzhong, Zhu. “Research on Offshore Service Outsourcing and the Related Issue of Corporate Social Responsibility.” Journal of Applied Sciences 13.8 (2013): 1220-6. Print.

With most companies resorting to outsourcing, there have been more and more ethical issues arising from outsourcing jobs related issues. Wenzhongexpresses key terminologies such as outsourcing, subcontracting, and off shoring. He also describes corporatesocial responsibility and its impact on planning. He discusses about the history of outsourcing as well as stakeholders’ theory. He also examines different outlooks and theories from different researchers’ that support or contradict on how outsourcingaffects different types of stakeholders. The author resolves that It is advisable for companies that wish to outsource to ensure that they understand international standards that govern social responsibility, as well as confer with their stake holders, especially those in the company’s host country so as to know their apprehensions in regards tocorporate social responsibility issues. The author concludes by suggesting that companies that wish to maintain their competitiveness in today’s market must adopt appropriate corporate social responsibility practices including effective and ethical supply chain management.

Beske, P., &Seuring, S. (2014). Putting sustainability into supply chain management. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal19(3), 322-331.

The author uses the book to study and describe supply management and its effects on a firm’s stakeholders. A conclusion can be drawn from both of them that supply management comprises of any measure or aspect that contributes to the determination of cost of goods and service production and the their meeting of the needs of the customer. They also support the argument that management of the supply chain tries to achieve efficiency at all levels in the chain. Levi et al. explain that management of a supply chain is difficult. They reason that this is due to the fact that different aspects of the chain get carried out at different places and therefore designing and managing the chain from one location, which is usually the case, becomes difficult. They conclude that uncertainty fills all levels of the supply chain, which hardens the management further. The aim of this report is to perform a critical evaluation of supply chain management.

Human Dignity Annotated Bibliography

Lee, Patrick, & George, Robert P. (2008). The Nature and Basis of Human Dignity. Ratio Juris. 97. Retrieved from http://www.patrickleebioethics.com/dignity–ratio_juris.pdf

The paper profoundly explains the nature of human dignity. The authors attempted in this paper to provide justification for the view that, all human beings have some kind of worth just because of being “human beings,” and opposes the claim that man become higher or lower on the basis of the additional position they achieve. They go on to explain the moral question of how men are to be distinguished from other living creatures. Patrick Lee is a professor at the Institute of Bioethics, Franciscan University of Steubenville; and Robert P. George is a professor of Jurisprudence at Princeton University. The paper they presented provides a handful of resource for a human dignity researcher.

McCrudden, Christopher (2008). Human Dignity and Judicial Interpretation of Human Rights. The European Journal of International Law. 19. Retrieved from http://www.ejil.org/pdfs/19/4/1658.pdf

In this paper, the author presents an overall analytical description of human dignity. The paper begins with a brief historical overview of how the concept of human dignity emerged in human intellect and how it gradually developed throughout the long lineage of philosophical and political debate. The following chapter includes a summary of the charters, declarations and national constitutions that include the ideology of human dignity as core value. The writer’s main intention with this paper was to analyze the application of the concept of human dignity in judicial system worldwide. Christopher McCrudden is a practicing barrister-at-law at Blackstone Chambers and a professor of human rights and equality law at Queens University Belfast. A specialized law professional, he authored several famed human right oriented books from Oxford University Press. His proficiency may be well understood by carefully examining the cited paper. This paper is precious resource for the researchers on human dignity.

Novak, Michael (1999). Human Dignity, Human Rights. First Things. 97. Retrieved from https://www.firstthings.com/article/1999/11/human-dignity-human-rights

The article gives a critical analysis about the relationship of the principle of human dignity with the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. During and after the Second World War, the world was divided primarily into two segments; communist block and capitalist block. The unification of human race under some common, universally accepted values was a crying need. The paper explains this process of unification in a critical and analytical way.The paper was presented by the author, Michael Novak, on the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Beirut, Lebanon. He holds the George Frederick Jewett Chair in Religion and Public Policy at the American Enterprise Institute. It is an extremely useful material for human dignity-oriented researches.

Riley, Stephen, & Bos, Gerhard (n.d.). Human Dignity. In Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/hum-dign/

The article explores the concept of human dignity in a distinctive way. Beginning with a brief introduction to the idea of human dignity, the article goes on to explain how the perspective of study differs the meaning of human dignity. It explains human dignity from ethical, jurisdictional and political points of view and shows the way through which these perspectives can be intermingled. Both authors, Riley and Bos, are professors at Utrecht University, Netherlands. This article is a useful resource for understanding the concept of human dignity from a comparative perspective.

United Nations. (1948). Universal Declaration of Human Rights

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is one of the most important documents of today’s international system. The declaration includes basic principles related to fundamental rights of human beings in almost all aspects of life. Incorporating the idea of human dignity as basic principle, the declaration has been designed. It is a significant document to understanding the incorporation of the philosophical idea of human dignity into legal and practical ethics.The drafting of the declaration was headed by John Humphrey, the Director of the UN Secretariat’s Division for the Human Rights, with the assistance of the UN Secretariat. This document is a must-read for understanding how human dignity functions in our lives.

Annotated Bibliography Example – Employee Motivation And Retention

Ramlall, S. (2004).  A Review of Employee Motivation Theories and Their Implications For Employee Retention Within Organizations.  Journal of American Academy of Business.  5: 52-63

Ramlall provides an amalgamation of employee motivation paradigms and illustrates how worker motivation affects behaviors within a firm and employee retention. On top of illustrating why it is critical to retain key workers, the author describes the relevant motivation paradigms and illustrates the impact of the motivation theories in developing and deploying practices aimed at worker retention. Lastly, Ramlall provides an explanation on how practices aimed at employee retention can be illustrated by the motivation theories and how these attempts facilitate a framework for increasing the performance of an organization.

On account of the large investments in efforts to retain employees with a company, it is reasonable to illustrate, examine and critique the motivation paradigms that are fundamental to employee retention in firms. Low levels of unemployment can oblige many companies to re-examine strategies for employee retention as part of the wider effort to enhance and preserve their competitiveness; however, organizations rarely come up with strategies based on prevailing theories. In this regard, Ralmall illustrated the importance of retaining key employees and described how practices aimed at employee retention can be made effective by illustrating, examining, and critiquing the employee motivation paradigms and showing the association between worker retention and worker motivation.

To conduct this study, Ramlall engaged in a literature review of past studies that examined the employee motivation theories. He provides a synthesis of these articles and illustrates how effective they are in enabling employee retention within companies. The application of this methodology enables Ramllal to seek the guidance of past studies to come up with the motivational theories that are applicable in a modern business setting. He is able to identify the strengths and weaknesses of each paradigm so that he can determine their relevance in today’s dynamic organizations.

The results of the study reveal that knowledge management is critical to organizations since the loss of knowledge after the departure of an employee results in significant direct and indirect losses; on top of the financial losses, a company’s secrets and methods may be shared with the competitor. Ramlall describes knowledge management as the process of developing, capturing, and utilizing knowledge to enhance the performance of a firm. On this account, it is key that a company retains its key employees; these are the workers that have extensive knowledge on a firm’s processes. To retain employees, a firm must base its strategy on the motivational paradigms. Ramlall asserts that maintaining the key employees can be a source of competitive advantage for a company.

The greatest limitation of the study is that it does not explore the applicability of the motivational theories in different industries. Ramlall takes a general view; this can be troublesome when applying a given paradigm in a novel industry. It means that further research should focus on the applicability of the motivational theories in different industrial settings.

Passmore, J. (2016). Coaching Psychology– Applied practice in safety critical environments. Business Psychology in Action: Creating flourishing organizations through evidenced based and emerging practice. Matador: Leicestershire.

Passmore explores the development of coaching psychology, which is a discipline that has been distinguished as a branch of psychology in recent decades. Its latest application is in safety key environments. The author begins with a short review of coaching studies to understand how previous studies have created a platform for the application of the discipline in modern environments. Second, Passmore uses the results of this studies to illustrate the usefulness of coaching to safety key environments like the mining and manufacturing sectors.

To engage in this study, Passmore reviewed four previous studies that examined the applicability of coaching as a learning tool for behavior. The articles applied a qualitative methodology to examine the use of coaching in industrial environments. These coaching sessions included the application of key skills like active listening, affirmations, questioning, reflection and summaries, and other coaching techniques. The review of past studies enabled Passmore to identify the coaching techniques that are most applicable and effective in safety key environments. He was able to identify the methods that workers would adopt with less friction.

The results of the study reveal that safety coaching has a part to play as a constituent of a wider health and safety framework that facilitates a safety culture in industries. In particular, Passmore states that coaching seems to be a useful method to reinforce learning by decreasing the duration of learning and enhancing conformance to behavioral skills acquired during training. Passmore notes that coaching as intervention seems to be endorsed by both managers and workers, who prefer to be given space to think for themselves.

The greatest limitation of this study was that it explored a limited set of articles that address psychological coaching at the workplace. Due to this, Passmore could not clearly illustrate the coaching techniques that are not applicable in an industrial setting. In addition, the author failed to mention the industries whereby the studies were conducted. It means that the methods endorsed by Passmore may be useful in one industry but not relevant in another. Future research needs to examine the long-term impact of different coaching techniques and their impact on employee behavior.

Trépanier, S. G., Fernet, C., & Austin, S. (2015). A longitudinal investigation of workplace bullying, basic need satisfaction, and employee functioning. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology20(1), 105-116

Trepainer et al use the self-determination paradigm to suggest and test a model that examines the role of primary psychological need satisfaction in regards to bullying at the workplace and how it affects the functioning of workers. The aspects that were studied include worker engagement, intention to quit, and burnout. The authors believe that bullying at the workplace has become a common occurrence and this is negatively affecting the performance of the employees.

The authors engaged nurses working in a public healthcare institution in a two-wave study. Data was gathered at two-time points over a period of 12 months. For the data sets, the nurses were delivered with a letter at home that illustrated the purpose of the research and requested them to fill an online questionnaire. The questionnaires measured the nurses on the basis of worker engagement, intention to quit, and burnout on a scale of 1 to 10. Trepanier engaged in a quantitative study to get a reliable indication of the effect of bullying at the workplace. Consequently, this helped them to prove their thesis, that is, bullying at the workplace has damaging effects on workers and the organization as a whole since it reduces the functioning and satisfaction of workers.

The results of the study imply the constant exposure to bullying at the workplace decreases the satisfaction of the primary psychological needs of employees and facilitates burn out after one year. Findings also suggest that when the impacts of bullying at the workplace at regulated, the satisfaction of basic needs facilitate greater employee engagement and restrict the intention to quit for an extended duration. These results illustrate the importance of satisfying the needs of employees so that they can function in spite of bullying at the workplace.

A weakness of the study can be found in the application of cross-lagged examination through the use of two-time points. Even though the method facilities numerous advantages in relation to cross-sectional methods, the application of a multi-wave design would enable a complete understanding of the association between workplace bullying, the functioning of employees and satisfaction of needs. The technique would also enable a direct analysis of the role of need satisfaction in the association between workplace bullying and the functioning of employees. Future studies should focus on the psychological factors that lead to bullying at the workplace and how they can be intervened.

Timming, A. R., & Johnstone, S. (2015). Employee silence and the authoritarian personality: A political psychology of workplace democracy. International Journal of Organizational Analysis23(1), 154-171.

Timming and Johnstone applied The Authoritarian Personality ideology as proposed by Ardonet et al to illustrate why some employees do not participate in decision making. These employees prefer to leave the role to management and stay quiet about issues that affect them. The exact reason why some workers chose silence rather than voice even when the framework for participation has been developed has never been understood. Through this study, Timming and Johnstone make a new contribution to the studies that examine worker voice and silence since they analyze the political psychology of oppression in the context of the workplace.

To conduct the study, the researchers conducted a literature review on studies that illustrates worker voice and silence. Upon this review, they develop a conceptual framework to illustrate employee silence in accordance with the structure of personality. These studies measure the characters of employees on the F-scale. Application of this method enables Timming and Johnstone to drawn upon notions of Authoritarian Personality and worker voice and silence to construct an ideology that can apply at the micro-level.

The findings of the study reveal that some workers have structures of personality that make them more vulnerable to thoughts that are anti-democratic. Personalities that are potentially oppressive, in accordance to the F-scale, are anticipated to find pleasure in submission to the desires of management. Timmings and Johnstone believe that such workers suffer from the authoritarian personality syndrome. They favor absolute and total submission to the authority of management and are offended by the notion that workers should be part of the decision-making process. This dislike of democracy at the workplace is constant even in the face of proof that associates employee voice to numerous benefits for the worker.

The study is limited since it needs further empirical examination and inquiry for it to be regarded as a theoretical foundation. The researchers should have conducted an empirical examination to test the integrity of the paradigm they propose in this study. Such a research would shed light on the range of authoritarian personality and its impacts. A further area of research is to examine the effect of the authoritarian personality on proposals for a more diverse workplace. This study will help to determine the effect of discrimination on employee silence.

Inceoglu, I., & Warr, P. (2011). Personality and job engagement. Journal of Personnel Psychology.

Inceoglu and Warr engaged in this study to establish the link between the personal attributes of workers and the motivational state of work engagement in accordance with the characteristics of the job. The authors believe that theoretical frameworks should stretch to personality characteristics on top of covering the characteristics of a job. If done so, the practical advantages can build from the engagement of relevant staff development and selection, along with job designs that are appropriate.

To conduct the quantitative study, Inceoglu and Warr tested the predictions via three research on an international website that offers free advice to people regarding the examination processes for staff enrollment and development. The subjects were from several countries with the largest population originating from India, the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom. To ensure a uniform comprehension of the questionnaire responses and items, the examination was limited to the employees who stated that English was their first language.  The responses were measured on a 6-item scale of work engagement that analyzed subjective engagement by interweaving absorption and energy that is related to the job. This method was used since the scale has a clear concept and validity of content that is similar to other instruments of engagement. Past studies have indicated that the method has positive criterion validities and construct in regards to job motivation, self-assessed performance, and work satisfaction.

The results of the study reveal that shorter-term work engagement is, in fact, a substantial factor of longer-term characteristics of personality, and highlight certain factors and traits related to personality that either more or less important on that account. Out of the main factors, conscientiousness and emotional stability account for the most pf the differences in work engagement. Additionally, the most important subfactor could found within conscientiousness and extraversion. Employees who are engaged in their work tend to be socially proactive, geared towards achievement, and emotionally stable. This pattern was showcased in several hundred employees and this has significant implications for organizational practice and research. Inceoglu and Warr emphasize that engagement within a firm is partly a function of the traits of the workers chosen for membership.

The greatest weakness of the study the large population of subjects used in the research. Inceoglu and Warr used hundreds of thousands of subjects spread over different continents. This means that the results may not realistically indicate the personality of a worker and its relation to the work setting since different regions have different organizational practices. Further research should explore the effect of personality traits and the level of job engagement, satisfaction, and retention.

Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1991). The big five personality dimensions and job performance: a metaanalysis. Personnel Psychology44(1), 1-26.

Barrick and Mount conducted this study to investigate the association between the “Big Five” personality traits (Emotional Stability, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness) to three criteria of job performance (proficiency of training, proficiency of job, and personnel data). They applied this examination to five groups of occupation (police, managers, professionals, sales, managers, and skilled/semi-skilled). The authors believe that the findings of such a research have several implications for practice and research in personnel psychology, particularly in the sub-sections of personnel recruitment, training, and development, appraisal of performance.

The methodology involved a literature review in establishing the studies of personality for the period ranging from 1952 to 1988. Barrick and Mount applied three strategies to achieve this. First, the conducted a computer search of databases to locate all references to personality in regards to the occupation. Second, they conducted a manual search to check the sources listed in the reference section of the literature. Lastly, they used the assistance of professionals to find validation studies. The search yielded a total of 117 studies that were applicable; 162 samples were obtained from these studies. The sizes of the sample varied from 13 to 1401, and the total sample size was 23,994. These were categorized into the occupational groups. After this, categorization the researchers applied meta-analysis to arrive at the results. The methodology applied by Barrick and Mount is suitable since its comprehensive nature enables them to identify past studies that examine the Big Five personality traits. Through meta-analysis, they are able to quantify the results of the past studies for statistical examination.

The most important finding of the study is related to the dimension of conscientiousness. Barrick and Mount found that it was a consistent and valid predictor for all groups of occupation. Therefore, this personality trait appears to contain characteristics that are key to the accomplishment of tasks in all occupations. As such, people who showcase traits related to obligation, a strong sense of purpose, and endurance generally register better performance than those who do not. The same findings have been recorded in the educational setting whereby the aforementioned traits drive educational achievement.

The main weakness of the study is the methodology since it resulted in lower correlations. It means that the findings for each of the five criteria are based on the average of correlations between the job performance criteria and scales of personality. Future studies should examine how the different traits of conscientiousness contribute to job satisfaction and performance.

Seaman, Claire, McQuaid, R., and Pearson, M. (2014). Networks in the family business: a multi-rational approach. (Seaman, Claire, and McQuaid, R and Pearson, M (2014) Networks in the family business: a multi-rational approach. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal. ISSN 15547191 (In Press).

Seaman and her colleagues conducted this study to assert that multi-rational techniques, which consider the overlap and interaction of the three groups of the network, facilitates an informative alternate viewpoint. The authors believe that present research on networks related to family business has tackled the topic from non-rational viewpoint where business, social networks, and the family are examined discreetly. The authors acknowledge the association between the different networks in a family business. They present evidence from past studies as a foundation for further examination through the use of empirical techniques.

To come up with the multi-rational technique, Seaman et al examined past studies related to family business. In particular, they investigate the studies related to the three network groups in family business. They conduct a separate analysis of articles related business, social networks, and the family so as to locate the associations between the categories. Upon finding the associations, the researchers expand on them to develop the multi-rational technique of evaluating a family business. Seaman et al used this method so that they could come up with a comprehensive method of analyzing the networks that feature in family-run businesses. This comprehensive approach enables further insight into this type of organizations.

Upon application of the multi-rational technique, Seaman et al is able to come up with several useful findings. Friendship and business networks play a critical role in family businesses but facilitate different rationales, knowledge, and perspectives. In addition, the members of the family within the firm will probably network with different individuals at different periods using different methods and for different purposes. The authors assert that these different conditions may have an influence in the way the networks develop and thus influence the availability of network capital to the business. This is key since networks have a profound impact on the development of ideas, strategies and, the actual business. From a multi-rational perspective, if the networks of a family business act for the benefit of the firm, then future studies could facilitate a greater comprehension of processes and the chance to develop specific strategies that support family businesses. The knowledge from this study can help to distinguish research related to family business and that associated with the general business. This would enable researchers to unveil new findings regarding the aspects of the family business.

The greatest weakness of the study is that the researchers did not apply the findings in an actual setting. In this regard, the multi-rationale approach is not empirically proven. Future studies should use the multi-rationale approach to distinguish between the traits of networks found in family businesses and those of general businesses.

`                       Schulze, W. S., Lubatkin, M. H., Dino, R. N., and Buchholtz, A. K. (2001). Agency Relationships in Family Firms: Theory and Evidence. Organization Science, 12, 2, 99-116.

Schulze et al build upon the economic paradigm of the household and agency studies to prove that owner management and private ownership expose private businesses that are managed by the owner to agency threats that were ignored in a previous study by Jensen and Meckling (1976). They assert that owner management and private ownership not only decrease the success of external control techniques, they also expose a business to the conundrum of self-control. The problem is created by motivations that make owners take actions that harm every stakeholder of the business. They apply this thesis in the family business setting.

To test their hypothesis, Schulze et al used data from a 1995 survey that examined family businesses in the United States. The survey, conducted by The Arthur Andersen Center for Family Business is one of the most comprehensive and largest conducted on family-run firms. The data from the survey suited this study since the survey was developed to obtain consistent benchmarks regarding American family businesses. The method selected by the researchers is suitable since reliable data on family businesses is hard to obtain. Public information is not reliable since most family companies are privately held thus have no legal obligation to reveal information. Further, government data is not useful since family businesses are not listed as a spate group of business.

The results of the study reveal that conflicts of interests among and within the owners of family businesses, along with the impact of external market failures threaten the performance of privately held firms that is managed by the owner. Schulz et al assert that it is necessary for a family business to incur agency costs; that is, they have to invest in the varieties of internal control techniques that are determined to be necessary for firms with multiple owners.

Since all of the companies were under private ownership and the data are proprietary, the scholars were unable to establish the reliability of the data. Therefore, the results may not realistically depict the agency relationship in family businesses. Further study should be conducted to investigate the performance of family businesses that take into account agency costs.

Hülsheger, U. R., Alberts, H. J., Feinholdt, A., & Lang, J. W. (2013). Benefits of mindfulness at work: The role of mindfulness in emotion regulation, emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology98(2), 310.

The authors define mindfulness as a state o consciousness where people consider ongoing experiences and events in a non-judgmental and receptive manner. On this account, they conduct this study to investigate the notion that mindfulness decreases exhaustion in the emotional sense and enhances job satisfaction. They conduct two studies in an organizational setting.

The methodology applied in the first study involved the distribution of diary booklets to workers in the service sector. The participants filled the diary twice a day or five consecutive working days. Following this, statistical measures were used to examine the data on the different criteria. The second study was conducted so as to measure the results of the first experiment with a control group. It applied the same methodology as the first, the only difference being the study stretched over ten working days rather than five. The methodology applied by the authors is suitable for the use of a control group facilitates baseline data that is reliable that can be used to compare results; this is necessary since a researcher can only investigate one variable at a time.

The results of the studies suggest that people employed in jobs that are emotionally demanding, mindfulness enhances job satisfaction and assists to prevent emotional exhaustion. Findings illustrate that trait and state mindfulness are indirectly related to emotional exhaustion of workers and positively associated with job satisfaction. Therefore, mindfulness may reduce emotional exhaustion and enhance job satisfaction. In turn, this will create a positive environment in an organization.

The weakness of the study was that the results were limited to workers employed in the service sector. The subjects were considered since they held jobs that were emotionally demanding. Future research should focus on the effect of mindfulness on jobs that are emotionally intensive using the same parameters applied in this study.

Mathieu, C., Neumann, C. S., Hare, R. D., & Babiak, P. (2014). A dark side of leadership: Corporate psychopathy and its influence on employee well-being and job satisfaction. Personality and Individual Differences59, 83-88. 

Mathieu et al conducted this research to determine the role of psychopathy in organizational leadership. They sate that even though psychopathy is typically regarded as the most toxic variety of the dark personality traits (the others are Machiavellianism and narcissism), it has rarely been explored in a business setting. Through the use of the B-Scan 360, Mathieu was able to measure corporate psychopathy. In particular, they examined the associations between viewpoints of employees on psychopathic characteristics in their supervisors, family-work conflict, job satisfaction and psychological distress of the workers.

The researchers engaged two separate studies for the purpose of comparison. Their subjects were all of the employees from a subsidiary of a large Canadian financial company. The subjects completed a series of examinations that determined their level of education, the hours they worked per week, and duration with the firm. A second sample was collected using the same constructs, the only difference being the employees were from a public organization. The results were examined with the B-Scan 360 to determine the level of corporate psychopathy. Mathieu et al applied this method to determine the prevalence of psychopathy in different types of organization, that is, public and private. The use of a single form of measurement enabled the researchers to come up with reliable data for inferencing.

The study’s findings reveal that there was a substantial positive association between the ratings of workers of the psychopathy characteristics in their managers and the worker’s self-reported psychological agony and job satisfaction. Mathieu et al imply that the perceived psychopathic traits in managers had a minimal impact on the psychological distress of workers in the private sector in comparison to the public sector. Their results are in-line with the findings of past studies.

The weakness of the study can be found in the sample sizes that were used. Sample 1 was much smaller than sample 2 and this might affect the statistical analysis. Further studies should focus on the discrete effect of corporate psychopathy on men and women.

Reminiscing with Lightening – Annotated Bibliography

                        A Storm as the Symbol for the Passionate Encounter                      

Chopin, Kate. “The Storm”. A Collection of Kate Chopin’s Short Stories. Heraklion Place, 2013.

    Chopin`s story was first published in 1969 after her death because of the controversial and explicit theme about the woman`s sexuality from the feminists` perspective. The story is divided into three chapters; the central theme is the sensual encounter between the two formal lovers. Their passion begins together with the lightening when Calixta staggers into Alcee`s arms. Their love affair is over when the storm ends and the sun shows up in the sky. They do not even feel guilty about the immoral act they have done. After the passionate encounter, they continue with the daily routines. Calixta is waiting for her husband and son to return from the store and Alcee writes a loving letter to his wife Clarissa and suggests her to enjoy the time at Biloxi and not to hurry back. 


Beer, Janet.  Kate Chopin, Edith Wharton and Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Studies in Short Fiction. MacMillan Press LTD, Great Britain, 1997.

Beer gives analyses of all the Chopin`s stories and novels ever published in the leading magazines. She follows Chopin`s struggle for women`s rights and emancipation and writes that the reading of this short story brings excitement and expectation. She also points to the fact that the simplicity in Chopin`s stories lays in the “appearance and reappearance of the same roles all over again.”


Berkove, Lawrence I.” ‘Acting Like Fools’: The Ill-Fated Romances of ‘At the ‘Cadian Ball’ and ‘The Storm.’” Critical Essays on Kate Chopin. New York: Prentice Hall, 1996.

Berkove gives us a deep analysis of the short story “The Storm” which is actually a sequel to the Chopin`s story “Cadian Ball.” Hence, we could see the background of “The Storm” and reveal the truth about Calixta and Alcee who are former lovers that are now married to other people.


Fluck, Winfried.  ” Tentative Transgressions, Kate Chopin`s Fiction as a Mode of Symbolic Action”, Johns Hopkins University Press, Vol. 10, 2 Nov 1982. pp 151-171.

The author writes about the symbolism in Chopin`s novels and short stories, especially about her feminist’s ideas. He characterizes the story as the encounter of two separate individuals who cannot run away from the desire they feel for each other. Especially, when the storm will bring them together. Fluck considers that Calixta and Alcee are two pieces of the puzzle, entirely independent parts looking for the inevitable reunion.


Seyersted, Per. Kate Chopin: A Critical Biography, LSU Press, 1980.

 The book describes Chopin`s life and the analyses of her novels and short stories. Seyersted focused his attention on the sexual nature of “The Storm” showing the meaning of this adultery as strong and inevitable tension between the main characters. He sees Chopin as a detached observer who brings an erotic surrounding in the story where the central theme is a controversial adultery affair. Since the story is written in the 19th Century, Seyersted argues that Chopin must be a very brave woman because she decided to write about such an explicit topic in the time when no one mentions women sexuality.


Stein, Allen. F. Women and Autonomy in Kate Chopin`s Short Fiction. Petar Lang Publishing: New York, 2005.

Stein writes the summary of the story paying attention to the characterization of the married woman that pursuit her desire for sexual fulfillment and risks her marriage in the process. She felt no uneasiness and never thought about morality while she was consuming the forbidden love. According to this analysis, the happiness at the end is just an ironic remark that the adultery went unpunished and unnoticed. 


Toth, Emily. “Kate Chopin Remembered.” Kate Chopin Newsletter, 1975. pp 21–27. 

    In her wide literature opus about Chopin, Toth describes the fictional story “The Storm” as a divine glorification of the guilty and forbidden romance. She portrays the affair as one brief moment that doesn`t last long enough, so the main characters are not aware of the moral consequences. She compares the theme of the story with the personal life of Chopin, related to the end of her affair with Albert Sampite. Toth thinks that Chopin is intentionally giving Albert`s characteristic to her male characters.

Annotated Bibliography – Internet Addiction

Bishop, Jonathan. Psychological and social implications surrounding internet and gaming addiction. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, an imprint of IGI Global, 2015. Print.

Summary: The book is very keen on highlighting and discussing the various implications which people who are addicted to internet and gaming activities experience. The book has widely covered the areas of psychopathology, addiction, and human-computer interaction. The book states that “internet addiction affects the current generation which will definitely affect the future society”

Introduction:  The book tries to tackle how to manage computer human interaction in the modern world. It also focuses on the dark side of the internet. It helps to tackle internet and gaming addiction. Information is sourced from various research’s thus it contains facts. The author analyses evidence concerning internet and gaming addiction.

            Evaluation: The book was edited by Bishop and Jonathan and published in the year 2015 by IGI Global. Considering the credibility of the information, the author who is Jonathan Bishop is an information technology executive, researcher, and writer. His research is mainly in human-computer interaction. This indicates that the information contained in the book is based on facts from various research studies and this also indicates that the book type of analysis is evidence based. The target audience is mainly the youth and the teenagers since they are mainly addicted by gaming. The book is a primary secondary where the writer is not directly involved. One of the ways a computer is used is through internet use where a computer is used to access the internet. The book, therefore, indicates the various implications of gaming and internet addiction. The writing is experience based hence the conclusions are objective.

Conclusion: The book indicates that human computer interaction is very necessary “if it is managed and controlled effectively”. However, there is a tendency for human beings to be addicted and to want to use their computers more often. The book is therefore very useful in research paper when discussing effects of internet addiction.


Montag, Christian, and Martin Reuter. Internet addiction: neuroscientific approaches and therapeutically interventions. Cham: Springer, 2015. Print.

Summary: The book examines the broad topic of internet addiction and how it developed. The book also indicates an in-depth review of the neuroscientific findings regarding internet addiction and the possible interventions. The book is very detail and science related.

Introduction: The author focuses on neuro-scientific approach in examining internet addiction. It shows how people are introduced to the internet for the first time and how their problem of addiction increases with time.

Evaluation: The main target audience of the information contained in the book are the scientists, students, and even practitioners. All these groups can apply the information in the book. The book considers Internet addiction as a disorder hence a person who has been diagnosed with Internet addiction is supposed to seek help. There are various studies and reviews which have been cited in the book which shows that scientific facts have been applied hence its fact based and the type of analysis is therefore evidence based. Also the authors of the book are Montag, Christian, and Martin Reuter who have been involved in scientific and human behavior research for a very long time. The authors have also written many research papers related to internet addiction. This shows that the credibility of the source is not in question. The authors were motivated by the rising rate of health effects on internet addicted people. The book also derives its materials from other books which mean that the information is diverse which also means that it’s not a primary source.

Conclusion: The book has offered various ways which internet can be treated. It has focused on therapeutic methods of intervention and pharmacological treatment. There are also various relationships which have been discussed which are related to molecular genetics personality, brain responses to internet addiction and even the autonomic nervous system response to internet addiction. It has provided a critical review on research findings about internet addictions. The author has also made recommendations on advancing neuro-scientific research on internet addiction. This means that it will be used in research paper when we want to show the scientific and psychological perspective of internet addiction.


Price, Hannah O. Internet addiction. Hauppauge, N.Y: Nova Science Publisher’s, Inc., 2011. Print.

Summary: This book examines the topic in a wide manner. One of the main areas of the book is the social impact of internet addiction. The book indicates that the society has been highly affected by the increased use of the internet.

Introduction:  The book focuses on internet addiction on adolescents and emerging youth. It talks about the motivation, actions and emotions of addicts. It tries to compare different youths from different countries on how they are affected and to which extent.

Evaluation: One of the target audience is the society and also the teenagers. The author states that “young people and mostly teenagers have been highly affected by internet addiction due to social media and also gaming activities.” The editor of the book is Hannah O. Price and published by Nova Science publisher’s in 2011 which supports the credibility of the source. However, the information can be biased to a certain extent due to emotional baggage. The book contains personal experiences on effects of internet addiction and how effective are some ways of dealing with the addiction which means that there is personal motivation and also it’s a primary source. Most of the information written can be said to have been analyzed through emotions hence its emotion based.

Conclusion: The book also contains the various ways in which internet addiction can be reduced. For example, the book indicates that “parent monitoring is one of the ways. The book mainly focuses on the emotional side of internet addiction and how it influences the emotions of those who are addicted. ”. It can help in knowing more about the emotional attachment addicts have on the internet and how to deal with it. The book can therefore be very useful in research paper when discussing about ways to mitigate internet addiction.


Young, Kimberly S. Caught in the net: how to recognize the signs of Internet addiction–and a winning strategy for recovery. New York: J. Wiley, 1998. Print.

Summary:  The book contains the various signs which show one is addicted to the internet like “being always on the internet, lack of completing one’s duties for being online and even stress when one is unable to access the internet”. She also highlights the various ways one can be able to recover from this.

Introduction:  Internet addiction can be harmful in some ways. The book focuses on how a person can recognize if he or she is addicted. The various signs are well discussed and are easy to comprehend.

Evaluation: The book was written by Kimberly S. Young and published by John Wiley & Sons in 1998. The author is an assistant professor of psychology and also is the founder of the center for on-line addiction which consults to educational institutions, mental health clinics, and corporations on internet misuse matters. This indicates that the line of work of the author is related to the topic and through her work she has been able to obtain wide knowledge on internet addiction. The content can, therefore, be trusted since the source is credible and the level of bias is low. The target audience is the youth and also everyone struggling with internet addiction. The book can be said to be a primary source since it contains various personal experiences with internet addiction and stories of other people affected hence it appeals to emotions and also facts about the topic hence the type of analysis can be said to be emotional and also factual. The motivation for writing is love of one’s job.

Conclusion: From the various signs discussed on can use the information to discover whether one is addicted to internet and also on the ways to deal with the addiction and prevent internet addiction. It is also the kind of book which interacts with the reader well.


Schell, Bernadette H. Online health and safety: from cyberbullying to internet addiction. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood, 2016. Print.

Summary: The book mainly focuses on the health and safety of internet users. The book indicates the various ways in which internet addiction affects the health of people. The book also indicates that “Internet addiction may lead to cyber bullying which will affect the mental health of a person and also self-esteem of the internet user”.

Introduction: How healthy are you in the internet? This is the question the book tries to answer. The state of cyberbullying is on the rise. The books talks about cyberbullying and how it affects our health. It focuses on a physical and also emotional health.

Evaluation: The author of the Bernadette book is a vice provost at Laurentian University in Barrie, Canada, and he has carried out many research studies related to internet use. The information can, therefore, be said to be reliable or credible since it is fact based. The book contains facts and also personal opinions related to internet addiction and cyberbullying. The main target group is college students.  This is because most of college students have been highly affected by the menace of internet addiction. The motivation for writing is the need to help the young people. The information is a primary source since the author has experienced the effects of internet addiction first hand. The type of analysis is experience based since the author have been able to carry out research in internet and human behavior area hence the book remains objective.


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Criminal Justice Peer-reviewed Journal Articles Annotated Bibliography

Beckett, K. (2012). Race, drugs, and law enforcement toward equitable policing.

Criminology & Public Policy, 11(4), 641-653.

The research study by Katherine Beckett, a distinguished law professor and author, explores the racial discrepancies that define the enforcement of the drug law in the US. The discrepancies are rather pronounced in some states, including Seattle. In almost all the states, Blacks are more likely to be arrested for drug-related offenses than Whites. The study investigates the reasons between the race-based composition of drug users and deliverers on one and the race-based composition of the individuals arrested for being drug users and deliverers. Besides, the study sheds light on the patterns and practices that may be helpful in explaining the discrepancies. In particular, the study establishes that there is a significant overrepresentation of Blacks in drug-related arrests compared with the number of persons breaching drug laws within Seattle. Besides, the study establishes that, within Seattle, the discrepancies are fueled by law enforcers’ concentration on cocaine, especially crack cocaine, elementarily.

The study is rather relevant to the upcoming research since it brings to light some significant concerns regarding criminal justice systems. Ideally, the systems should serve all populations equitably. Even then, the study makes it clear that particular considerations lead to inequalities in how criminal justice systems deploy particular resources to serve given populations. The considerations may relate to race, gender or related attributes. Notably, in the study, Katherine Beckett demonstrates that criminal justice practices are political, as well as institutional, political choices and not structurally established outcomes.

Jang, H., Lee, C. & Hoover, L. (2012). Dallas’ disruption unit: Efficacy of hot spots

deployment. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 35(3), 593-614.

Elementarily, the research study seeks to investigate police operations in areas designated as hotspots of given crimes to establish the effect of rotation-based police deployment on particular crimes. The data used in the study was supplied by the Dallas Police Department. The study establishes that rotation-based police deployment in the hotspots has instantaneous impacts on total index offenses, nuisance offenses as well as violent crimes. In Dallas, the deployment was rather effective in manning pedestrian and automobile stops, arresting those suspected of specific crimes like nuisance offenses and violent crimes, and the issuance of citations. Even then, the study establishes that the deployment does not have residual effects in relation to deterring subsequent criminal activities in the hotspots.

The study is rather relevant to the upcoming research since it gives ample insights into police operations. Notably, the foremost contact between those breaching particular laws and a given criminal justice organization, or system, is commonly the police. Ideally, policing operations, which are criminal justice resources, should be made available in all areas where crimes are or may be reported. Even then, the operations are most required in areas designated as hotspots of given crimes. The study is clearly demonstrates that the deployment of criminal justice resources should be well-considered since they are rather limited.