Browse Tag: Article Review

Collection of articles reviews done by our professional writers.

Effects of Personality, Interrogation Techniques and Plausibility in an Experimental False Confession Paradigm – Article Review Summary

Klaver, J. R., Lee, Z., & Rose, V. G. (2008).Effects of personality, interrogation techniques and plausibility in an experimental false confession paradigm.Legal and Criminological Psychology, 13.71-88.

Reason for Conducting the Study

The research was conducted to determine the effect of interrogation techniques, personality variables, and the alleged transgression plausibility level on the false confessions experimental elicitation. It aims at determining factors which might be associated with the false confessions experimental elicitation by use of paradigm. The paradigm aspects considered in this research include locus of control, self-esteem, interrogative suggestibility, and effect of compliance on internalization and false confession.

Research Question

Do suspect age, gender, ethnicity, personality variable and method of interrogation influence individual false confession behaviors?

Hypotheses

The research hypothesis is that false confession is influenced by suspect age, gender, ethnicity, personality variables and method of interrogation

Independent and Dependent Variables and their Operationalization

The research focuses on determining factors that influence false confession and whether they are dependent on age, gender, ethnicity, level of education, interrogation techniques, and level of persuasion. Thus, independent variables included age, gender and ethnicity, level of education, interrogation techniques, and level of persuasion. The dependent variable is the false confession.

The Research Participants and the Instrument Used to Collect Data

The research engaged 219 western Canadian university students as the research participants. Participants were aged between 18 and 45 years. They included both male and female at the ration of 21% and 79% respectively. The 219 participants were from three different ethnicities where 36% were Asian, 49% were Caucasian and 15% originated from an ethnicity regarded as another and with different level of education. The research used four instruments to collect data or to conduct the required assessment. The first instrument was Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS), which is a memory task structured to assess interrogative suggestibility. The second Instrument wasGodjonsson Compliance Scale (GCS), which a self-report questionnaire with 20-item, assessing the tendency to obey to requests of others especially authority, and to avoid confrontation and conflict. Third Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, which is self-report 10-item scale assessing self-worth feelings.The fourth tool was Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control Scale which is a personal belies inventory containing self-report with 29-itemassessing the level to which a person feels in control of her or his life circumstances. The research investigated on participants typing skills, memory, and personality via self-assessment using the above identified tools.

The result of the analysis indicated that the general rates of false internalization and false confession across all situations were 10% and 43% respectively. Higher false confession behavior likelihood was related with the utilization of minimization interrogation methods, greater shift scores on GSS, and rise in the allegation plausibility. With regard to gender, female were highly probable to confess falsely compared to men in a highly plausibility situation. With regard to ethnicity, both Asian and Caucasian participants were equally probable to confess falsely. It was also established that Asians and males behavior was mostly influenced by personality variables like personality.

Researched Conclusion

According the researchers the study results provide an insight into behavior of false confession, where it is proposed that people who are inclined to change their answers in the negative feedback face might be more disposed to false confession behavior. The results also demonstrate the negativity of utilizing minimization interrogation method and illuminate the limited paradigm generalizability to conditions where in the assumed transgression is not reasonable.

Study Critics

Although the research focused on reviewing the aspects of age and education with regard to falsely confession, the final results do not give a clear cut on how the two can influence it. Moreover, the used paradigm is restricted by its aptitude to represent actual legal situations, thus this may not be practical.

Occupational Health Safety Management in Manufacturing Industries – Article Review

Zubar, H. A., Visagavel, K., Raja, V. D., & Mohan, A. (2014).Occupational health safety management in manufacturing industries.Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research, 73, 381-386 – Safety Related Article Review

Introduction

This is a research articles that focuses on evaluating the occupational health and safety in the South India manufacturing industries. The article manages this by collecting information on accident statistics, health management, welfare facilities, safety management, training and leadership, motivation, administration and organization, policy, hazard control, and reporting, statistics, and monitoring and also in risk analysis. The data used in the article was gathered by use of questionnaires that were created in management system of health and safety. The article analyses the gathered data by use of D&S and graphic method. The general research outcome demonstrates that the performance of the management system health and safety requires improvement so as to ensure that a better workers working condition is attained. The article has a standard structure for a research paper which involves the abstract giving the paper brief including the research aim, research procedure and the outcome. It also has an introduction which gives brief background information, the literature review section where previous research work is reviewed to give a good foundation to the current research. It also has the methodology part that gives detail information on how the research will be conducted, the results and analysis part where the research findings are displayed and discussed and finally the conclusion.

Article Key Points

The article insists on the importance of creating a safety culture in an organization. According to the authors, extremely steady and slow efforts are required for the establishment and development of safety culture. This means that a company cannot just embrace safety culture by introducing rules, more needs to be done to ensure that workers embrace the safety rules and make them part of their daily operations. Once the safety rules are integrated in the daily procedures and once the workers give safety measure a higher priority in their daily operations, then, an organization can be said to have adapted a safety culture. The article also insists that most enterprises have failed in nurturing occupational health and safety. This according to the article should be the work of the management. The organization management should take the initiative of not just following the defined governmental rules governing workers health and safety, but should also take the role of creating and implementing the risk valuation scheme so as to be able to overcome defects and limitations in industrial health and safety act. This will play a great role in helping the government in the development of advanced health and safety industrial policy.

The article also stresses that safety-related behaviors and risk perception contains a close association and they may to some level contain association to towards safety attributes. According to the authors, risk perception might influence the behavior of risk taking. This demonstrates the important of creating a perception that focuses on minimizing risk rather than propagating it. This way, an organization can manage to create a safe work environment where every worker is concerned not just of the personal safety but also the safety of the rest in the organization. This is especially important in manufacturing industry where the occupational risk is considerably high compared to other areas as a result of movable machines and heavy materials to carry among other things.

Article Correlation with the Text Book

The article demonstrates the importance of creating safety culture as a way of promoting occupational safety and health. This is an aspect that is highly advocated for in the test book. Similar to the article, the text perceive safety culture as one of the most effective strategies that an organization can employ to enhance health and safety sustainability in an organization. The paper also points out on the role of the management in enhancing safety and culture. The text also acknowledges that effective application of safety measure in an organization can never be successful without the involvement of the management. Management play a great role in defining the organization policies, design the right safety schemes to employ and implementing penalty measures for those who tend to compromise on the safety measures. This means, it is considerably hard for an organization to effectively implement safety measures without complete involvement of its management. This aspect is highly supported by the text book and the article.

Summary of the Conclusion

The article research established that the Indian organizations lack suitable occupational safety and health management system suitable to enhance the level of health and safety in their industrial companies. Thus the paper concludes that the organizations are in great need of maintaining and implementing a good management and safety system to guarantee safety and health to employees and to improve standards of safety in the manufacturing sectors. The paper also concludes that the committed is needed from the top management level in enhancing the current conditions in their companies. Safety is very essential in organization and especially in the manufacturing companies. Thus, in my opinion, management of these organizations should employ all possible effort to implement safety which would include effective communication with the workers. They should also foster safety culture by creating safety policies to be implemented by all in the organization without any form of discrimination.

Article Review – Chapter 15: Through Nonviolence to Truth – Gandhi’s Vision of Reconciliation

The paper is basically a review of the above-mention chapter of the book – “Forgiveness and Reconciliation: Religion, Public Policy, and Conflict Transformation”. It entails an overview of the problem area that has been discussed in the chapter and summarises the theories and conclusions that have been reached by the author. It also provides a personal review and assessment of the chapter giving the strengths and the weaknesses and finally explains how the contents in the chapter contributed towards the conflict management field.

Chapter 15 is basically demystifies the Ghandi’s concepts and vision of reconciliation. It is titled: Through non-violence to Truth and is written by Anthony da Silva. The main purpose of chapter 15 is to initially introduce two key concepts in regards to Ghandi of reconciliation and forgiveness compared with their eastern anchorages (Helmick & Petersen, 307). The second purpose of the chapter is to study the relationship and relevance of these two concepts to the present day discussion on reconciliation and forgiveness as demystified mostly from the perspective of the west. Third and finally is to illustrate through several case studies sourced from India that though forgiveness and reconciliation may be expressed and embedded through a variety of cultural descriptions, it still remains a universal human desire.

The article is clear and provides clear explanation on the issue of forgiveness and reconciliation from the Ghandi point of view. The ghadian concepts that have been listed to further demystify the subject that is, Satya (truth), Satyaghara meaning truth force, ahimsa meaning non-violence (Helmick & Petersen, 312). The chapter has also made a clear comparison of the mediaeval concepts of reconciliation of the current disclosures.

As a way of providing a clear picture of the Ghandian concepts of forgiveness and reconciliation, the strongest technique that has been used to bring out a clear picture are the three case studies. The first is the darshan salt March and Ghandian nonviolence and reconciliation, the second is Dalit’s, Non-violence and Reconciliation and third is Caste, water and reconciliation (Helmick & Petersen, 317).  Each of the case study puts a reader in a situation where he has to reflect on the case studied, do a reconciliation and finally reflect on the main points of the case study through a reflective question.

The article ultimately contributes towards the field of conflict management by helping in demystifying the concept of forgiveness and reconciliation from the Ghandian perspective and answers the question of the relationship between the mediaeval school of thought compared to the current or present day overview. The article shows how the act of forgiveness and reconciliation has helped warring nations to reconcile. It has used an example of the conflict between South Korea and North Korea, where there was a visible act of reconciliation between the two Korean nations populated by the same people not only filled the hearts of thousands of people with a craving for peace and unity but also caught the imagination of the world (Helmick & Petersen 322). In conclusion the article has a concluding remark that brings the reader’s attention to fact that it is desirable and possible to handle issues of confrontation and conflict in ways that bring people together and in ways that build rather than destroy through forgiveness and reconciliation. It provides illustration by giving the example of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.with his non-violent technique of uniting the African American community in its hustle for civil liberties.

Journal Article Review Instructions

Article Selection

Find a scholarly, peer-reviewed journal article related to the provided topic. The article you select must have been published within the last 5 years. Read the article several times. Be sure you have demonstrated a good understanding of the article by the key points, the research findings, and future research considerations, before you begin writing.

Writing Guidelines

Write a 250–300-word review of the article . You must clearly focus on the context of the article including key points, research findings, and future research considerations. Include these as headings to ensure that you cover each one. The key points section should provide an overall summary for what the article is about. The reseach findings sections should provide an overall description as well as details for what the study was about (ie purpose of the study, who participants were, what the study revealed/showed through the findings). The future research considerations section should share what future studies the article thinks should occur or plans to conduct and/or ideas you may have for future studies that are needed.

Do not copy or quote from the article; you must paraphrase the article in your own words, using in-text citations. For example, if you include figures or demographics in the review, be sure to cite the information properly. Do not submit the actual journal article.

Begin the review with a strong introduction regarding the overall purpose or objectives of the article and the research. Write clear and appropriate transitions from one key point to the next. End with a strong conclusion. You must demonstrate excellent sentence fluency, coherent and unified sentences, correct spelling, correct punctuation, and good word choice. The review must be written in third person. Only one journal article may be referred to, cited, and referenced.

APA Format

The reviews must be in current APA format. Take special note of the following guidelines:

  • Double spacing,
  • 1-inch margins on all sides,
  • 12-point Times New Roman font,
  • At least one in-text citation, and
  • References listed on a separate reference page with hanging indents and double-spacing.
  • Include three headings (key points, research findings, future research considerations).

Article Review – The Development Of Personality Extremity From Childhood To Adolescence: Relations To Internalizing And Externalizing Problems

Article reviewed: The development of personality extremity from childhood to adolescence: relations to internalizing and externalizing problems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105 (6), 1038-1048.

The paper seeks to review and analyze the article “The Development of Personality Extremity from Childhood to Adolescence: Relations to Internalizing and Externalizing Problems” written collaboratively by Alithe L. Van den Akker,  Jessica J. Asscher, Amaranta D. De Haan, and Thomas Widiger. The research is on 598 children who grow from childhood to adolescence and are between the ages of 6 to 17 (Van den Akker et al. 2013). Personality extremity is a term that refers to the difference in a person’s characteristics in terms of behavior, thoughts, feeling and intellectual capabilities (American Psychology Association, 2016). The authors collaboratively explore the relationship between adjustment problems and personality extremity among children as they grow to adolescence. This review will therefore examine and re-evaluate the research skills, the critical thinking as well as the writing skills that were used to produce the data as well as the end results in the above article.

The article reaches to results after studying the adjustment, with the help of their fathers, mothers and teachers. The report from the three sources; fathers, mothers and teachers, are used to conclude the adjustment of the children’s internalizing and externalizing problems as they grow into the adolescence stage. The paper seeks to establish if the article is useful in identifying children that are facing difficulties in adjusting their personality (Van den Akker et al 2013). The study on development psychology, uses the Big Five approach to describe the children personality disorder as they grow into adolescence. It is evident that the article uses the Pythagorean Theorem to calculate a child’s vector and thus determining their personality extremity from either the short or the long vector. The theoretical framework used in this study is the Big Five Approach (Mervielde & Van, 2011) to describe child personality types and how they transform to their adolescence stage. This theory as per Van Den Akker has proven beneficial in determining what will become of children in terms of character and behavior.

The case study above is used to establish the outcome of a child in terms of behavior, feelings, emotions, and intellectual abilities as well as how the child will use their personality to tackle challenges. The study also identifies the internal and external problems that a child will come across when growing up (Van den Akker et al 2013). Dekovic further argues that the children who experience a normal personality characteristics have higher self-esteem and a low levels of depression compared to children with extreme personality traits. The study investigates and highlights how the current personality traits of a child could transfer to his or her adult life therefore explaining why he would experience difficulty in solving adjustment problems. The study revealed two other personalities among children. The over controllers and the under controllers. As per the Fleming study, the over controllers tend to experience extreme externalizing problem while the vice versa is viewed among the under controllers (De Haan & Van Der Sluis, 2012).

The samples used in the study are of children between the ages of six to seventeen. Both boys and girls have been used as sample, representing gender balance and therefore resulting in a balanced and well represented data that is applicable to both sex. A sample of 598 children with a mean age of 7 years 6 months were used to collect data, with boys having a percentage of 50.1% while girls 49.9%.  Almost equal number of boys and girls of the same age have been used to carry out the data collection. This is a perfect representation of children with the same personality extremity and can therefore be used to identify the personality extremity of any child with similar characteristics. The samples were obtained from the Flemish study on parenting, Personality and development (Dekovic & Prinzie, 2011). The fathers, mothers, and teachers who were participants were of Belgium population. The location therefore is in the field in Belgium (Van den Akker et al. 2013).  In critiquing the case study deeply, one can argue that due to demographic and environmental conditions that differ across the world, the results might not necessarily relate to children from different parts of the continents even if they share the same age and gender.

Unlike in other articles written by the same scholars in 2012 that was on ‘Development of personality types from childhood to adolescence associations with parenting and adjustments’, where warmness in discipline was used as a variance factor, education level of parents has been used to come up with findings with the help of questionnaires. The study was done in Belgium since the participants and the sample comprise of a population from Belgium (Van den Akker et al. 2013). Ethical considerations have been addressed in this study. To begin with, parental consent has been considered. Parents, who are participants in the study are aware that their children are involved in the study. It is ethical to seek permission from the parents when a minor is used as a sample. In addition to that, ethical considerations such as deception and protection of participants have been taken care of. No cases of physical or emotional harm have been reported by the participants. Some ethical concerns have not been addressed in the case study. For instance, it is not stated anywhere in the article that the participants underwent a debrief once the research was completed.

One of the weaknesses of the study is that due to the large sample, the method of data collection could be inaccurate. Questionnaires were used to gather data in this study. Reviewing all the data is time consuming therefore, crucial information could have been omitted. Other forms of data collection such as interviewing and observation should have been included in the study. In addition to that, it is difficult to fully capture the personality change of children since the study was carried out in different phases with a gap of 2 to 3 years. Furthermore, other important aspects such as a child’s religious, cultural as well as traditional background were not considered to influence their personal traits. Despite the weaknesses the study faces, it has some strengths. To begin with, the study has broadly investigated the area of study using five aspects; openness to experience, extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness and neuroticism to illustrate the different levels of extremity in children (Kruger and Widger 2011). Another positive characteristic of the study is that it is gender sensitive. The sample used has an equal number of girls and boys making the study relevant to all children and adolescence of between 6 to 17 years. Lastly, the study uses tables and graphs to illustrate figures and numbers. This is effective for clarity purposes. It makes it easier for anyone gathering information from the selected field to understand the findings.

The study according to Van den Akker et al (2013), is used to determine the results of a child. The personal traits of a child not only determines but also transfer into their adulthood. Detecting the traits of a child enables the child to seek help in dealing with the adjustment problems that emerges as he grows up (Dekovic & Prinzie, 2011). The study can also be useful in establishing children that are mentality disordered. Extremely high and low levels of extremity are a sign of mental disorder. Detecting them earlier can easen the recovery of a mentally disabled child. It used to determine normal personality as well as establishing problematic personality (Widger & Samuel, 2012).

In conclusion, the study has extensively investigated the extremity in children as they grow to the adolescence stage. The study that focuses on how externalizing and internalizing problems determine the child’s capability to deal with adjustment problems uses clearly outlined graphs and tables to defend its findings. The use of tables and charts effectively clarifies the findings of the case study. The results indicate a direct relation between the personality extremity of a child and its problem adjustment capabilities. The study is important in establishing ones personality traits because a lot of a child’s personality traits are usually transferred to his adulthood. This study, which is a section of the Fleming study make it possible to study the personality development across the human life span because the Big Five Framework applies to adults the same way it applies to adolescents and kids. Personality extremity therefore is important to consider because it determines who the children become in future.

Article Review – Research Articles on Prevalence and Incidence of Disease

Find two articles in the Canadian Journal of Public Health. One should focus on incidence and one should focus on prevalence. The disease group can be the same or different. Please summarize the articles, focusing on the following issues:

  • Briefly summarize the articles.
  • What are the definitions of the numerators and denominators for each of the studies?
  • Was point or period prevalence reported on in the prevalence related article?
    • If period prevalence, what time period was used?
  • What type of incidence was reported on in the incidence related article?
    • What was the time period used?
  • In each of the articles, in your opinion, was the denominator appropriate? Why or why not?
  • In each of the articles, in your opinion, was the case definition (numerator) appropriate? Why or why not?
  • Did the authors’ conclusions seem valid based on the study they reported? Why or why not?

Please, no more than three typed pages using 12-point font. Also, please attach copies or, if online, a link to the url of each of your chosen articles. Please use the National Library of Medicine recommendations for citing medical literature –  www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine/

The Lucifer Effect: Understanding how good people turn evil – Article Review

Introduction

Human behavior is affected by a number of factors both internal and external. This makes it difficult to accurately predict their course of action when faced with different stressful situations. Studies conducted in the resent past show that external forces affect an individual’s reaction more than previously believed (Hong, 2012). The Lucifer effect is an ethical tool that helps us understand how good people may commit evil deeds. This effect describes how a normal person performs an evil deed. This effect sheds light on human vulnerabilities and shows how an individual to fall prey to impulse.

Summary

The Lucifer effect is an ethical tool that helps us understand how good people may commit evil deeds. It explains why people consciously make negative decisions. Philip Zimbardo argues that there are a number of factors that play part in decision making, which makes judging their actions challenging. To demonstrate this, Philip Zimbardo formulates an experiment in which students are turned into brutal inmates. The experiment revealed that when ordinary people are subjected to an environment that supports hostility, they readily assume sadistic roles. In line with this, he goes ahead to defend the actions of the solder who was accused of violence at Abu Ghraib.

Zimbardo also looked into how individuals behave when a higher authority instructs them to do things that may be viewed as evil(Hong, 2012).He analyzed an experiment in which nurses were asked to describe their action in the event that a doctor asked them to administer a maximum dose and a different set of nurses were asked to administer a maximum dose. The experiment revealed that majority of people overestimate their moral code in that although most people claim that they would stand their moral ground, this claim does not hold once placed in a real life situation. The nurses’ experiment revealed that once placed in a real life situation, majority of people will tend to follow those instructions despite the knowledge that it is wrong. According to him, this likelihood to follow authority blindly is greatly influenced by individuals’ coherent need to belong.

Lucifer effect aims to shed light on human vulnerabilities and show how easy it is for an individual to fall prey to impulse and/or the system. To avoid this, people should be conscious of the external forces that may trigger negative actions. In conclusion, Zimbardo urges his readers to hark back to their individuality also look up to people who have overcome autocracies of evil.

Analysis

The Lucifer effect shows that although people may not admit to it, they are less likely to make ethically upright decisions when faced by a situation that permits unethical behavior.Additionally, the article shows that people tend to overestimate their moral stand when asked what they would do if they found themselves in a given situation but when placed in the same situation, this claim does not hold(Hong, 2012).

Conclusion

Lucifer sheds light on people’s susceptibilities to impulse and the system. It points out some of the external forces that may trigger evil actions and explains how they can be addressed. According to Zimbardo, readers should focus on their individuality and to follow the examples of others who have overcome autocracies of evil.

Read The Article Hong, J. K. (2012). The Lucifer Effect: Understanding how good people turn evil.

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Impact of Workplace Bullying on Both the victims and The Organization – Article Review

Article Review

Develop a two- to three-page APA- formatted paper that responds to the following:

  • Describe the impact of workplace bullying on both the victims and the organization.
  • Reflect on a time when you may have witnessed workplace bullying.
  • Discuss at least two practices of workplace bullying addressed in the article that were applicable to your scenario.
  • Recommend at least two techniques from the article that management should implement to provide a positive impact on workplace bullying. Support your response with additional information from the textbook or additional research.
  • Your paper must be two to three pages (not including title and reference pages) and must be formatted according to APA style as outlined in the approved APA style guide. You must cite two scholarly sources in addition to the textbook.

Techniques of Training Needs Analysis in Organizations – Article Review

In “Techniques of Training Needs Analysis in Organizations,” Dr. Gokhan and Dr. Ahmet argue about organization need for training its manpower which should be initiated by the process of training need analysis. As a master student with a lot of experience in business, I must say I find Dr. Gokhan and Dr. Ahmet techniques of training needs  persuasive, intellectual, and—perhaps most importantly—well worth heeding.

Repeated use of phrases likes “Training Needs”, “Vocational and Technical Education”, and “Learning Organizations” in the entire article accurately describe the techniques of training needs analysis in organizations. Their initial point, according to Greer, (2003) that in order to generate a sustainable competitive position, organizations spend on training to uphold long-term efficiency is scientifically sound. Additionally, their second, that state that the experts in the performance upgrading business recognize that training is preferred tools for civilizing performance by the management (Sleezer, 1993), comes authenticated by the weekly news about major corporations and their training techniques.

The four main reasons for carrying out needs analysis ahead of developing training programs that Dr. Gokhan and Dr. Ahmet provide are not enough. I would add that needs analysis makes a comprehensive incursion into the areas in which workers lag behind. Through this indulgent, it gives power to workers to obtain innovative skills at a quicker rate, therefore taking pleasure in their work. Moreover, with the course of time, the root of the issue lies in the reality that the employees’ proficiency gets worse and their proficiencies become outdated with the arrival of technology. So, training needs analysis is a great solution to this dissatisfaction in organizations.

Dr. Gokhan and Dr. Ahmet stress that, traditional training needs analysis is a less comprehensive process. However, I agree with the author as the process consists of only three steps. The three steps cannot exhaust all the things that require to be scrutinized before the training program commences. I would also support the use of competency-based needs analysis that consist of five steps, making it more comprehensive compared to the traditional training needs analysis. The authors support their proposal by stating the advantages of the five step process from the first two steps. However, I support the advantages since team work starts with an individual’s competence. Though, the other three remaining steps are similar to those of traditional training needs analysis Price et al, (2010), their choice of process is outstanding as it has something special from the other.

I applaud the authors for their excellent recognition of the more approaches in their articles. The authors show that the training needs analysis can have various uses if the approaches get broadened. If the author approaches get borrowed they might solve the confusion that arises from the approaches to get used. Reviewing the three fold approach of the McGehee & Thayer’s (1961) and incorporating other three approaches in the article make the authors’ work even more heeding. It is through these additional approaches that made the authors came up with a comprehensive conclusion on the uses of training needs analysis.

With a different approach, I would disagree with the concept of the authors adding additional approaches. However, this is because more approaches will make the process of training needs analysis to get complicated. As a result, organizations will be avoiding the process because of its long process. Therefore, I would suggest that the recognized approaches get incorporated to the existing approaches. For instance, competency-based needs analysis, strategic needs analysis, and demographic needs analysis can get incorporated and analyzed as organizational analysis.

The authors’ ignorance gets portrayed when they do not state categorically that knowledge and skills analysis should target individual employees and how they carry out their duties. The authors also failed to state that the most common method used in this approach is information from the employee’s performance review. Moreover, it is from the employee’s performance appraisal, we can disclose deficiencies that employees has so as to plan for his or her training.

The authors diligently differentiate the job and task analysis. They go ahead and state that job analysis does not recognize training needs, it makes known what is needed for a job rather than what a worker needs (McConnell, 2003:124). However, on this statement I would add that task analysis commences with job prerequisites and contrasts employee skills and knowledge to agree on training needs. The authors also fail to state what a good task analysis should identify. I would add to the authors that a good task analysis identifies task that have to get done, conditions under which to get done, when and how often it gets done, the quality and quantity of performance needed, skills and knowledge needed to do the tasks, and how and where these skills are most excellent obtained. This will help realize the gap amid job prerequisite and performance (Annett & Duncan, 1967).

In the organizational analysis, I approval the authors when they state that a research get needed to develop an enhanced understanding of inefficient must get located and, at what time are, how to establish if training is the most advantageous resolution to the performance crisis (Wexley, 1984:521). However, I would challenge the writers by adding that organizational analysis recognizes the capabilities, skills and knowledge that employees will require for the prospect, as the change happens in jobs and organizations. The authors fail to acknowledge that an organizational needs analysis might also compact with customer protests, quality control problems, and employee complaints among others.

The authors stress on the need to review the needs analysis literature so as to define the role of the training practitioner. The further states that training practitioners were characteristically presented with the proposals from the managers of high levels (O’Driscoll and Taylor, 1992). I concur with the authors on need to review. However, this is because the review will solve the inconsistency amid the theory and techniques actually utilized by organizations to make decisions on management training. Moreover, it will give the training practitioner described role that will solve the issue their dependence on the proposals given by the managers which might be biased.

The authors conclude that concludes that the training needs analysis should be the initial stage prior to any training in an organization. I support the conclusion made by the authors as it is clear that the underlying principle for developing a training program profoundly relies on recognizing training needs, and mitigating the costs and advantages to the organization (Judith, 2002).

The authors make the article even more heeding when they conclude by stating how the end result will impact training program. They also add to the importance of analyses on the level of individuals, duties and organization. I support their views since the aim of the whole process is to determine the needed needs that will get used in determining the training program. The individual, duties and organization analyses will also assist the execution of the training efforts in a precise manner (Rossett, 1987). Moreover, it is through analyses of the approach provided that gives the end result of the whole process of the training needs.

In conclusion, it is clear that without a clear knowledge of needs, efforts of training are at most excellent haphazardly helpful and at most horrible, ineffective. The trainer gets only triumphant and seen as such to the scope that needs are cautiously evaluated and program developed and performed that meet the needs. Moreover, it is clear from the article, that the authors convince that that end result of training is a more defined picture of training needs. I agree with the authors as the training need analysis lead to the training program purposed to improve performance and good outcomes from training.

Human Intelligence Article Summary And Review

Article Summary

The paper will analyze the article “Reminiscences of a communication agent” written on 23rd September 1993 by a technician who was involved in photographic and radio transmission of maps, reports and sketches among other intelligence work to the British service in the Second World War via the foreign agent despite of heavy supervision by the Germans.  The writer lived in three different time that include neutral time when the country was not supporting anyone, then the country as German allay and at last under the German occupation. The writer was initially arrested among many other when Germany overturned the company. He eventually managed to escape and vowed to avenge on what Germany had done on his country. This where he decided to adapt the most unique way to hind from Germanys while still effecting his duties to British Intelligence Services.

Working as an intelligence office for a foreign body was extremely dangerous in this area. It was getting harder and hander since Germany could raid homes and arrest any person they would suspect was working for their opponents. They normally identified foreigners who were living in expensive estates and that would manage to visit expensive places. Once identified their homes were raid and they were imprisoned in case there was anything connecting them to intelligence work. In his determination to fulfill his intention and promise to avenge, the writer developed a strategy to continue working for British Intelligence without making Germany’s suspicious. He enrolled in a school as a foreign student and search for a simple servant boarding house where he lived like a very poor student. He even made the landlady believe that he was extremely struggling to survive in that place. This made it easy for him to escape arrest. He also agreed with his employers to only send enough money to enable him survive in his current environment without affording extra expenses. This made him successful in fooling Germany and also in carrying doing his duties as an intelligence officer effectively.

The writer states that his success with the radio was not due to his high techniques in enhancing security but complete lack of these techniques and procedures. He developed his own transmitter and thus, it was far much below the standards that the Germans were looking for. With this transmitter, it was impossible to change frequencies and thus, it was hard to draw suspicion or attention.  The writer then limited his transmission to about two hours per transmission but ensured that these transmission were done on different places. The writer did not have a transmission schedule. Instead, they always organized for the next one in the end of each transmission. This made it hard for anyone to study their transmission frequency or time and hence hard to time the next transmission and trace it. In case of an emergency call, the British intelligence provided security to the writer transmitter just like other operators. With this kind of communication, the writer was able to facilitate a number of successful bombing of the enemy’s field.

With regard to photographic work, the writer felt a bit safe. He was able to work after Germans raids which normally took place between 10 pm to midnight and between 6 am to 8 am. The writer took advantage of time between 1 and 6 am where he would meet with his superior get materials to work on, work on them and submit them before 6am. The work involved taking photos of volumes of work and packing the negatives in unsuspicious way and sending them through people as presents via new cigarette packets or on flash light battering, in shoes heels among other means. This was a bit more tedious job since it involved photographing 40 to 80 pages of materials making negatives, cleaning negatives to eliminate think ink that would clearly show the content, sizing them and packing them within about 5 hours. It normally happened after every two weeks. The author was supposed to be left with a copy, which he was supposed to hind safely until there is a confirmation on the recipient of the material sent. After taking photos the original materials were completely burnt so as the backup negative after the confirmation to council evidence from Germans just in case. This way, the writer was able to survive and continue working as a British Intelligence officer right in the eyes of Germans.

Observation

I have learnt a number of important intelligence tricks in this article. One of this tricks is that always do the unexpected. Germans expected that intelligence officers would be foreigners showered with enough money to live exotic life. This made many to be imprisoned but the author was able to survive and work for the entire period since he decided to live different in a way Germans could not imagine an intelligence officer could do.  Using of untested own made radio devise also made German overrule its importance in any intelligence service. They anticipated that only powerful secure system would be employed and this makes it hard for him to be suspected. The paper also taught me on the importance of being observant. The author was successful because he was able to monitor Germans routine and counter it. This made it easy for him to hind. It has also taught me on importance of being cautious and creative. The author could burn any material he has used to ensure that it is never linked to him. Cleaning and sizing negatives, storing backup carefully in a manner that no raid would uncover them and also adopting the best packaging technique demonstrate a high level of creativity and cautious. All this contributed to great success of the author in his work against Nazi and in support of British Intelligence.

References

Central Intelligence Agency. (1993). Reminiscences of a communicationagent. Retrieved from <https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/kent-csi/vol2no4/pdf/v02i4a06p.pdf>