Tag: Article Review

Making Connections Between Research and Practice By Jennifer McMaken – Article Review

In recent years, experts have taken a particular interest in research and the integral role it is thought to play in as far as developing viable solutions is concerned. Nonetheless, a clear and distinct connection has been established between research and actual practice in the field. This explicit link is thought to be the reason why most research undertakings end up being successful, producing novel solutions that have gone to aid many in their quest. In Jennifer McMaken and Andrew Porter’s article dubbed “Making Connections Between Research and Practice,” the researchers seek to introduce a new perspective to this whole argument. This article review seeks to provide a comparison of the supply versus the demand explanation presented and action research as per the text.

One of the most important undertakings that need to always be underscored when establishing research protocol is paying close attention to the level of influence that it will likely have on the intended target demography. The purpose of this technique is making certain that those who will eventually receive the final product actually acknowledge the cumulative benefits that the research has been able to bring (In Blackshields et al., 2015). The action research found in the text seeks to elucidate this approach by providing the first hypothesis espousing the importance of implementing research at the instruction level before ultimately allowing the information gathered to be put together in the development of the final product. In this respect, research carried out in the past was always going wrong since the focus was on classroom instruction, a final product. Exploring all aspects of supply would have been advantageous to this quest since research-based programs would first go through a testing phase to establish their feasibility. Instructors would, therefore, be involved in the process from the very start and will have an easier time knowing what actually works and pitfalls that need to be avoided.

Supply versus demand in the context of education research often involves long periods of probing areas that might be of particular interest to the subject matter while involving influential figures. The amount of time spent on setting the ground rules has often been found to be having a direct correlation with the end product that researchers eventually present. An area of particular interest most recently has been on the individuals driving this change. Having the so-called “ideal” leader conducting these projects has been emphasized upon and viewed as a precursor to the development of policy’s that actually do work. According to Jennifer McMaken and Andrew Porter, the involving charismatic individuals during the supply phase often results in better outcomes (Porter & Mcmaken, 2009).  This also serves as their second hypothesis where they explore the effect that such individuals have on standards-based reform. It is common knowledge that influence goes a long way in the implementation of working principles. They usually at the forefront of policy development and practice as was the case with Marshall Smith during his stint at the NSF Education and Human resource directorate. The influence that he wielded is a major reason why he was able to thrive in enforcing systematic reforms that have had lasting effects on the education sector.

Research has to be viewed through the lens of legitimacy and the amount of input that needs to be put into it. Such an approach has been vital in informing decisions made by experts in as far as demand and supply were concerned. In this regard, any practitioner wishing for any commendable results had to make sure that the right individuals were placed at the helm of investigations being made to ensure that they finally delivered quality policies. Pursuant to this point of view, the third hypothesis seeks to incorporate the use of practitioners with relevant knowledge on the field and ready to put their expertise to good use. Such individuals are an added benefit for the cause of improved policy and workable reforms since they seek to provide practical solutions to solve psychometric problems. An example of this has been seen in the continued use of the hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) by practitioners in highly competitive environments. The result has been the development of an overall ability to analyze any data set in education which was hierarchically nested. Such advances, in a relatively short period, have now made it possible to implement improved techniques at the demand stage which ultimately fosters practical use in a psychometric community.

Reforms in the education sector should always involve an in-depth evaluation of their effectiveness and usability since demand often relies on the level of welcome that it would enjoy during instruction. Any policy that needs to be implemented needs to first focus on the end product if any progress is to be made. This is due to the integral nature of the demand side of things that often plays a major role in whether or not the changes are ultimately accepted into the mainstream. The fourth hypothesis focuses on this integral bit of the whole process by advocating reasons that include a policy’s effect on student achievement. Students are a key part of this whole process since it is they who are ultimately affected by any reforms that may be brought forth. Any beliefs held by reformers need to be put in the student’s perspective to ensure that the priorities are placed in their order of importance (Porter & Mcmaken, 2009). Good education research on the supply side of things backs up its demand through the formulation of big ideas that can improve the school climate in general. The relative scale and quality of research, therefore, serve as an area of importance to practitioners whose end goal is to ensure the provision of high-end education.

The inclusion of fresh approaches in education has often been an area of great interest for proponents of nascent ideas. Their inclusion often means that a direct connection is made between supply and demand, notwithstanding the influence that it will eventually have on the quality of education provided. Students require the implementation of these techniques in their school regimen since demand is usually high and the benefits often noticeable. A motivation for change thus serves as the fifth hypothesis since its discharge ensures that practitioners invest in change. Technology and its use in the promotion of fundamental education practices have generally stalled owing to a limited investment on the much-needed change. Its benefits on the demand side will only be acknowledged if a shift in perception takes place, involving the professional development of curriculum using technology.

A paradigm shift involving the passing of merits from one leader to the next has often been seen as a major way in which reforms are affected the education sector. According to Jennifer McMaken and Andrew Porter, it is fundamental to consider demand and supply whenever connections linking research and practice in education are being sought. In essence, the authors of this article acknowledge the fact that, for the longest time, those involved in such processes had the issues misconstrued. The focus was only placed on the research bit representing supply while ignoring the demand and need for such solutions on the ground. The sixth hypothesis underscores the vitality of formal and informal networks since it is through them that any feasible implementation takes place. Reforms end up passing from one leader to the next and promptly implemented for the benefit of all those involved.

Effects of Personality, Interrogation Techniques and Plausibility in an Experimental False Confession Paradigm – Article Review Summary

Klaver, J. R., Lee, Z., & Rose, V. G. (2008).Effects of personality, interrogation techniques and plausibility in an experimental false confession paradigm.Legal and Criminological Psychology, 13.71-88.

Reason for Conducting the Study

The research was conducted to determine the effect of interrogation techniques, personality variables, and the alleged transgression plausibility level on the false confessions experimental elicitation. It aims at determining factors which might be associated with the false confessions experimental elicitation by use of paradigm. The paradigm aspects considered in this research include locus of control, self-esteem, interrogative suggestibility, and effect of compliance on internalization and false confession.

Research Question

Do suspect age, gender, ethnicity, personality variable and method of interrogation influence individual false confession behaviors?

Hypotheses

The research hypothesis is that false confession is influenced by suspect age, gender, ethnicity, personality variables and method of interrogation

Independent and Dependent Variables and their Operationalization

The research focuses on determining factors that influence false confession and whether they are dependent on age, gender, ethnicity, level of education, interrogation techniques, and level of persuasion. Thus, independent variables included age, gender and ethnicity, level of education, interrogation techniques, and level of persuasion. The dependent variable is the false confession.

The Research Participants and the Instrument Used to Collect Data

The research engaged 219 western Canadian university students as the research participants. Participants were aged between 18 and 45 years. They included both male and female at the ration of 21% and 79% respectively. The 219 participants were from three different ethnicities where 36% were Asian, 49% were Caucasian and 15% originated from an ethnicity regarded as another and with different level of education. The research used four instruments to collect data or to conduct the required assessment. The first instrument was Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS), which is a memory task structured to assess interrogative suggestibility. The second Instrument wasGodjonsson Compliance Scale (GCS), which a self-report questionnaire with 20-item, assessing the tendency to obey to requests of others especially authority, and to avoid confrontation and conflict. Third Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, which is self-report 10-item scale assessing self-worth feelings.The fourth tool was Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control Scale which is a personal belies inventory containing self-report with 29-itemassessing the level to which a person feels in control of her or his life circumstances. The research investigated on participants typing skills, memory, and personality via self-assessment using the above identified tools.

The result of the analysis indicated that the general rates of false internalization and false confession across all situations were 10% and 43% respectively. Higher false confession behavior likelihood was related with the utilization of minimization interrogation methods, greater shift scores on GSS, and rise in the allegation plausibility. With regard to gender, female were highly probable to confess falsely compared to men in a highly plausibility situation. With regard to ethnicity, both Asian and Caucasian participants were equally probable to confess falsely. It was also established that Asians and males behavior was mostly influenced by personality variables like personality.

Researched Conclusion

According the researchers the study results provide an insight into behavior of false confession, where it is proposed that people who are inclined to change their answers in the negative feedback face might be more disposed to false confession behavior. The results also demonstrate the negativity of utilizing minimization interrogation method and illuminate the limited paradigm generalizability to conditions where in the assumed transgression is not reasonable.

Study Critics

Although the research focused on reviewing the aspects of age and education with regard to falsely confession, the final results do not give a clear cut on how the two can influence it. Moreover, the used paradigm is restricted by its aptitude to represent actual legal situations, thus this may not be practical.

Occupational Health Safety Management in Manufacturing Industries – Article Review

Zubar, H. A., Visagavel, K., Raja, V. D., & Mohan, A. (2014).Occupational health safety management in manufacturing industries.Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research, 73, 381-386 – Safety Related Article Review

Introduction

This is a research articles that focuses on evaluating the occupational health and safety in the South India manufacturing industries. The article manages this by collecting information on accident statistics, health management, welfare facilities, safety management, training and leadership, motivation, administration and organization, policy, hazard control, and reporting, statistics, and monitoring and also in risk analysis. The data used in the article was gathered by use of questionnaires that were created in management system of health and safety. The article analyses the gathered data by use of D&S and graphic method. The general research outcome demonstrates that the performance of the management system health and safety requires improvement so as to ensure that a better workers working condition is attained. The article has a standard structure for a research paper which involves the abstract giving the paper brief including the research aim, research procedure and the outcome. It also has an introduction which gives brief background information, the literature review section where previous research work is reviewed to give a good foundation to the current research. It also has the methodology part that gives detail information on how the research will be conducted, the results and analysis part where the research findings are displayed and discussed and finally the conclusion.

Article Key Points

The article insists on the importance of creating a safety culture in an organization. According to the authors, extremely steady and slow efforts are required for the establishment and development of safety culture. This means that a company cannot just embrace safety culture by introducing rules, more needs to be done to ensure that workers embrace the safety rules and make them part of their daily operations. Once the safety rules are integrated in the daily procedures and once the workers give safety measure a higher priority in their daily operations, then, an organization can be said to have adapted a safety culture. The article also insists that most enterprises have failed in nurturing occupational health and safety. This according to the article should be the work of the management. The organization management should take the initiative of not just following the defined governmental rules governing workers health and safety, but should also take the role of creating and implementing the risk valuation scheme so as to be able to overcome defects and limitations in industrial health and safety act. This will play a great role in helping the government in the development of advanced health and safety industrial policy.

The article also stresses that safety-related behaviors and risk perception contains a close association and they may to some level contain association to towards safety attributes. According to the authors, risk perception might influence the behavior of risk taking. This demonstrates the important of creating a perception that focuses on minimizing risk rather than propagating it. This way, an organization can manage to create a safe work environment where every worker is concerned not just of the personal safety but also the safety of the rest in the organization. This is especially important in manufacturing industry where the occupational risk is considerably high compared to other areas as a result of movable machines and heavy materials to carry among other things.

Article Correlation with the Text Book

The article demonstrates the importance of creating safety culture as a way of promoting occupational safety and health. This is an aspect that is highly advocated for in the test book. Similar to the article, the text perceive safety culture as one of the most effective strategies that an organization can employ to enhance health and safety sustainability in an organization. The paper also points out on the role of the management in enhancing safety and culture. The text also acknowledges that effective application of safety measure in an organization can never be successful without the involvement of the management. Management play a great role in defining the organization policies, design the right safety schemes to employ and implementing penalty measures for those who tend to compromise on the safety measures. This means, it is considerably hard for an organization to effectively implement safety measures without complete involvement of its management. This aspect is highly supported by the text book and the article.

Summary of the Conclusion

The article research established that the Indian organizations lack suitable occupational safety and health management system suitable to enhance the level of health and safety in their industrial companies. Thus the paper concludes that the organizations are in great need of maintaining and implementing a good management and safety system to guarantee safety and health to employees and to improve standards of safety in the manufacturing sectors. The paper also concludes that the committed is needed from the top management level in enhancing the current conditions in their companies. Safety is very essential in organization and especially in the manufacturing companies. Thus, in my opinion, management of these organizations should employ all possible effort to implement safety which would include effective communication with the workers. They should also foster safety culture by creating safety policies to be implemented by all in the organization without any form of discrimination.

Article Review – Chapter 15: Through Nonviolence to Truth – Gandhi’s Vision of Reconciliation

The paper is basically a review of the above-mention chapter of the book – “Forgiveness and Reconciliation: Religion, Public Policy, and Conflict Transformation”. It entails an overview of the problem area that has been discussed in the chapter and summarises the theories and conclusions that have been reached by the author. It also provides a personal review and assessment of the chapter giving the strengths and the weaknesses and finally explains how the contents in the chapter contributed towards the conflict management field.

Chapter 15 is basically demystifies the Ghandi’s concepts and vision of reconciliation. It is titled: Through non-violence to Truth and is written by Anthony da Silva. The main purpose of chapter 15 is to initially introduce two key concepts in regards to Ghandi of reconciliation and forgiveness compared with their eastern anchorages (Helmick & Petersen, 307). The second purpose of the chapter is to study the relationship and relevance of these two concepts to the present day discussion on reconciliation and forgiveness as demystified mostly from the perspective of the west. Third and finally is to illustrate through several case studies sourced from India that though forgiveness and reconciliation may be expressed and embedded through a variety of cultural descriptions, it still remains a universal human desire.

The article is clear and provides clear explanation on the issue of forgiveness and reconciliation from the Ghandi point of view. The ghadian concepts that have been listed to further demystify the subject that is, Satya (truth), Satyaghara meaning truth force, ahimsa meaning non-violence (Helmick & Petersen, 312). The chapter has also made a clear comparison of the mediaeval concepts of reconciliation of the current disclosures.

As a way of providing a clear picture of the Ghandian concepts of forgiveness and reconciliation, the strongest technique that has been used to bring out a clear picture are the three case studies. The first is the darshan salt March and Ghandian nonviolence and reconciliation, the second is Dalit’s, Non-violence and Reconciliation and third is Caste, water and reconciliation (Helmick & Petersen, 317).  Each of the case study puts a reader in a situation where he has to reflect on the case studied, do a reconciliation and finally reflect on the main points of the case study through a reflective question.

The article ultimately contributes towards the field of conflict management by helping in demystifying the concept of forgiveness and reconciliation from the Ghandian perspective and answers the question of the relationship between the mediaeval school of thought compared to the current or present day overview. The article shows how the act of forgiveness and reconciliation has helped warring nations to reconcile. It has used an example of the conflict between South Korea and North Korea, where there was a visible act of reconciliation between the two Korean nations populated by the same people not only filled the hearts of thousands of people with a craving for peace and unity but also caught the imagination of the world (Helmick & Petersen 322). In conclusion the article has a concluding remark that brings the reader’s attention to fact that it is desirable and possible to handle issues of confrontation and conflict in ways that bring people together and in ways that build rather than destroy through forgiveness and reconciliation. It provides illustration by giving the example of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.with his non-violent technique of uniting the African American community in its hustle for civil liberties.

Journal Article Review Instructions

Article Selection

Find a scholarly, peer-reviewed journal article related to the provided topic. The article you select must have been published within the last 5 years. Read the article several times. Be sure you have demonstrated a good understanding of the article by the key points, the research findings, and future research considerations, before you begin writing.

Writing Guidelines

Write a 250–300-word review of the article . You must clearly focus on the context of the article including key points, research findings, and future research considerations. Include these as headings to ensure that you cover each one. The key points section should provide an overall summary for what the article is about. The reseach findings sections should provide an overall description as well as details for what the study was about (ie purpose of the study, who participants were, what the study revealed/showed through the findings). The future research considerations section should share what future studies the article thinks should occur or plans to conduct and/or ideas you may have for future studies that are needed.

Do not copy or quote from the article; you must paraphrase the article in your own words, using in-text citations. For example, if you include figures or demographics in the review, be sure to cite the information properly. Do not submit the actual journal article.

Begin the review with a strong introduction regarding the overall purpose or objectives of the article and the research. Write clear and appropriate transitions from one key point to the next. End with a strong conclusion. You must demonstrate excellent sentence fluency, coherent and unified sentences, correct spelling, correct punctuation, and good word choice. The review must be written in third person. Only one journal article may be referred to, cited, and referenced.

APA Format

The reviews must be in current APA format. Take special note of the following guidelines:

  • Double spacing,
  • 1-inch margins on all sides,
  • 12-point Times New Roman font,
  • At least one in-text citation, and
  • References listed on a separate reference page with hanging indents and double-spacing.
  • Include three headings (key points, research findings, future research considerations).

Article Review – The Development Of Personality Extremity From Childhood To Adolescence: Relations To Internalizing And Externalizing Problems

Article reviewed: The development of personality extremity from childhood to adolescence: relations to internalizing and externalizing problems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105 (6), 1038-1048.

The paper seeks to review and analyze the article “The Development of Personality Extremity from Childhood to Adolescence: Relations to Internalizing and Externalizing Problems” written collaboratively by Alithe L. Van den Akker,  Jessica J. Asscher, Amaranta D. De Haan, and Thomas Widiger. The research is on 598 children who grow from childhood to adolescence and are between the ages of 6 to 17 (Van den Akker et al. 2013). Personality extremity is a term that refers to the difference in a person’s characteristics in terms of behavior, thoughts, feeling and intellectual capabilities (American Psychology Association, 2016). The authors collaboratively explore the relationship between adjustment problems and personality extremity among children as they grow to adolescence. This review will therefore examine and re-evaluate the research skills, the critical thinking as well as the writing skills that were used to produce the data as well as the end results in the above article.

The article reaches to results after studying the adjustment, with the help of their fathers, mothers and teachers. The report from the three sources; fathers, mothers and teachers, are used to conclude the adjustment of the children’s internalizing and externalizing problems as they grow into the adolescence stage. The paper seeks to establish if the article is useful in identifying children that are facing difficulties in adjusting their personality (Van den Akker et al 2013). The study on development psychology, uses the Big Five approach to describe the children personality disorder as they grow into adolescence. It is evident that the article uses the Pythagorean Theorem to calculate a child’s vector and thus determining their personality extremity from either the short or the long vector. The theoretical framework used in this study is the Big Five Approach (Mervielde & Van, 2011) to describe child personality types and how they transform to their adolescence stage. This theory as per Van Den Akker has proven beneficial in determining what will become of children in terms of character and behavior.

The case study above is used to establish the outcome of a child in terms of behavior, feelings, emotions, and intellectual abilities as well as how the child will use their personality to tackle challenges. The study also identifies the internal and external problems that a child will come across when growing up (Van den Akker et al 2013). Dekovic further argues that the children who experience a normal personality characteristics have higher self-esteem and a low levels of depression compared to children with extreme personality traits. The study investigates and highlights how the current personality traits of a child could transfer to his or her adult life therefore explaining why he would experience difficulty in solving adjustment problems. The study revealed two other personalities among children. The over controllers and the under controllers. As per the Fleming study, the over controllers tend to experience extreme externalizing problem while the vice versa is viewed among the under controllers (De Haan & Van Der Sluis, 2012).

The samples used in the study are of children between the ages of six to seventeen. Both boys and girls have been used as sample, representing gender balance and therefore resulting in a balanced and well represented data that is applicable to both sex. A sample of 598 children with a mean age of 7 years 6 months were used to collect data, with boys having a percentage of 50.1% while girls 49.9%.  Almost equal number of boys and girls of the same age have been used to carry out the data collection. This is a perfect representation of children with the same personality extremity and can therefore be used to identify the personality extremity of any child with similar characteristics. The samples were obtained from the Flemish study on parenting, Personality and development (Dekovic & Prinzie, 2011). The fathers, mothers, and teachers who were participants were of Belgium population. The location therefore is in the field in Belgium (Van den Akker et al. 2013).  In critiquing the case study deeply, one can argue that due to demographic and environmental conditions that differ across the world, the results might not necessarily relate to children from different parts of the continents even if they share the same age and gender.

Unlike in other articles written by the same scholars in 2012 that was on ‘Development of personality types from childhood to adolescence associations with parenting and adjustments’, where warmness in discipline was used as a variance factor, education level of parents has been used to come up with findings with the help of questionnaires. The study was done in Belgium since the participants and the sample comprise of a population from Belgium (Van den Akker et al. 2013). Ethical considerations have been addressed in this study. To begin with, parental consent has been considered. Parents, who are participants in the study are aware that their children are involved in the study. It is ethical to seek permission from the parents when a minor is used as a sample. In addition to that, ethical considerations such as deception and protection of participants have been taken care of. No cases of physical or emotional harm have been reported by the participants. Some ethical concerns have not been addressed in the case study. For instance, it is not stated anywhere in the article that the participants underwent a debrief once the research was completed.

One of the weaknesses of the study is that due to the large sample, the method of data collection could be inaccurate. Questionnaires were used to gather data in this study. Reviewing all the data is time consuming therefore, crucial information could have been omitted. Other forms of data collection such as interviewing and observation should have been included in the study. In addition to that, it is difficult to fully capture the personality change of children since the study was carried out in different phases with a gap of 2 to 3 years. Furthermore, other important aspects such as a child’s religious, cultural as well as traditional background were not considered to influence their personal traits. Despite the weaknesses the study faces, it has some strengths. To begin with, the study has broadly investigated the area of study using five aspects; openness to experience, extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness and neuroticism to illustrate the different levels of extremity in children (Kruger and Widger 2011). Another positive characteristic of the study is that it is gender sensitive. The sample used has an equal number of girls and boys making the study relevant to all children and adolescence of between 6 to 17 years. Lastly, the study uses tables and graphs to illustrate figures and numbers. This is effective for clarity purposes. It makes it easier for anyone gathering information from the selected field to understand the findings.

The study according to Van den Akker et al (2013), is used to determine the results of a child. The personal traits of a child not only determines but also transfer into their adulthood. Detecting the traits of a child enables the child to seek help in dealing with the adjustment problems that emerges as he grows up (Dekovic & Prinzie, 2011). The study can also be useful in establishing children that are mentality disordered. Extremely high and low levels of extremity are a sign of mental disorder. Detecting them earlier can easen the recovery of a mentally disabled child. It used to determine normal personality as well as establishing problematic personality (Widger & Samuel, 2012).

In conclusion, the study has extensively investigated the extremity in children as they grow to the adolescence stage. The study that focuses on how externalizing and internalizing problems determine the child’s capability to deal with adjustment problems uses clearly outlined graphs and tables to defend its findings. The use of tables and charts effectively clarifies the findings of the case study. The results indicate a direct relation between the personality extremity of a child and its problem adjustment capabilities. The study is important in establishing ones personality traits because a lot of a child’s personality traits are usually transferred to his adulthood. This study, which is a section of the Fleming study make it possible to study the personality development across the human life span because the Big Five Framework applies to adults the same way it applies to adolescents and kids. Personality extremity therefore is important to consider because it determines who the children become in future.

Article Review – Research Articles on Prevalence and Incidence of Disease

Find two articles in the Canadian Journal of Public Health. One should focus on incidence and one should focus on prevalence. The disease group can be the same or different. Please summarize the articles, focusing on the following issues:

  • Briefly summarize the articles.
  • What are the definitions of the numerators and denominators for each of the studies?
  • Was point or period prevalence reported on in the prevalence related article?
    • If period prevalence, what time period was used?
  • What type of incidence was reported on in the incidence related article?
    • What was the time period used?
  • In each of the articles, in your opinion, was the denominator appropriate? Why or why not?
  • In each of the articles, in your opinion, was the case definition (numerator) appropriate? Why or why not?
  • Did the authors’ conclusions seem valid based on the study they reported? Why or why not?

Please, no more than three typed pages using 12-point font. Also, please attach copies or, if online, a link to the url of each of your chosen articles. Please use the National Library of Medicine recommendations for citing medical literature –  www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine/

The Lucifer Effect: Understanding how good people turn evil – Article Review

Introduction

Human behavior is affected by a number of factors both internal and external. This makes it difficult to accurately predict their course of action when faced with different stressful situations. Studies conducted in the resent past show that external forces affect an individual’s reaction more than previously believed (Hong, 2012). The Lucifer effect is an ethical tool that helps us understand how good people may commit evil deeds. This effect describes how a normal person performs an evil deed. This effect sheds light on human vulnerabilities and shows how an individual to fall prey to impulse.

Summary

The Lucifer effect is an ethical tool that helps us understand how good people may commit evil deeds. It explains why people consciously make negative decisions. Philip Zimbardo argues that there are a number of factors that play part in decision making, which makes judging their actions challenging. To demonstrate this, Philip Zimbardo formulates an experiment in which students are turned into brutal inmates. The experiment revealed that when ordinary people are subjected to an environment that supports hostility, they readily assume sadistic roles. In line with this, he goes ahead to defend the actions of the solder who was accused of violence at Abu Ghraib.

Zimbardo also looked into how individuals behave when a higher authority instructs them to do things that may be viewed as evil(Hong, 2012).He analyzed an experiment in which nurses were asked to describe their action in the event that a doctor asked them to administer a maximum dose and a different set of nurses were asked to administer a maximum dose. The experiment revealed that majority of people overestimate their moral code in that although most people claim that they would stand their moral ground, this claim does not hold once placed in a real life situation. The nurses’ experiment revealed that once placed in a real life situation, majority of people will tend to follow those instructions despite the knowledge that it is wrong. According to him, this likelihood to follow authority blindly is greatly influenced by individuals’ coherent need to belong.

Lucifer effect aims to shed light on human vulnerabilities and show how easy it is for an individual to fall prey to impulse and/or the system. To avoid this, people should be conscious of the external forces that may trigger negative actions. In conclusion, Zimbardo urges his readers to hark back to their individuality also look up to people who have overcome autocracies of evil.

Analysis

The Lucifer effect shows that although people may not admit to it, they are less likely to make ethically upright decisions when faced by a situation that permits unethical behavior.Additionally, the article shows that people tend to overestimate their moral stand when asked what they would do if they found themselves in a given situation but when placed in the same situation, this claim does not hold(Hong, 2012).

Conclusion

Lucifer sheds light on people’s susceptibilities to impulse and the system. It points out some of the external forces that may trigger evil actions and explains how they can be addressed. According to Zimbardo, readers should focus on their individuality and to follow the examples of others who have overcome autocracies of evil.

Read The Article Hong, J. K. (2012). The Lucifer Effect: Understanding how good people turn evil.

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Impact of Workplace Bullying on Both the victims and The Organization – Article Review

Article Review

Develop a two- to three-page APA- formatted paper that responds to the following:

  • Describe the impact of workplace bullying on both the victims and the organization.
  • Reflect on a time when you may have witnessed workplace bullying.
  • Discuss at least two practices of workplace bullying addressed in the article that were applicable to your scenario.
  • Recommend at least two techniques from the article that management should implement to provide a positive impact on workplace bullying. Support your response with additional information from the textbook or additional research.
  • Your paper must be two to three pages (not including title and reference pages) and must be formatted according to APA style as outlined in the approved APA style guide. You must cite two scholarly sources in addition to the textbook.

Techniques of Training Needs Analysis in Organizations – Article Review

In “Techniques of Training Needs Analysis in Organizations,” Dr. Gokhan and Dr. Ahmet argue about organization need for training its manpower which should be initiated by the process of training need analysis. As a master student with a lot of experience in business, I must say I find Dr. Gokhan and Dr. Ahmet techniques of training needs  persuasive, intellectual, and—perhaps most importantly—well worth heeding.

Repeated use of phrases likes “Training Needs”, “Vocational and Technical Education”, and “Learning Organizations” in the entire article accurately describe the techniques of training needs analysis in organizations. Their initial point, according to Greer, (2003) that in order to generate a sustainable competitive position, organizations spend on training to uphold long-term efficiency is scientifically sound. Additionally, their second, that state that the experts in the performance upgrading business recognize that training is preferred tools for civilizing performance by the management (Sleezer, 1993), comes authenticated by the weekly news about major corporations and their training techniques.

The four main reasons for carrying out needs analysis ahead of developing training programs that Dr. Gokhan and Dr. Ahmet provide are not enough. I would add that needs analysis makes a comprehensive incursion into the areas in which workers lag behind. Through this indulgent, it gives power to workers to obtain innovative skills at a quicker rate, therefore taking pleasure in their work. Moreover, with the course of time, the root of the issue lies in the reality that the employees’ proficiency gets worse and their proficiencies become outdated with the arrival of technology. So, training needs analysis is a great solution to this dissatisfaction in organizations.

Dr. Gokhan and Dr. Ahmet stress that, traditional training needs analysis is a less comprehensive process. However, I agree with the author as the process consists of only three steps. The three steps cannot exhaust all the things that require to be scrutinized before the training program commences. I would also support the use of competency-based needs analysis that consist of five steps, making it more comprehensive compared to the traditional training needs analysis. The authors support their proposal by stating the advantages of the five step process from the first two steps. However, I support the advantages since team work starts with an individual’s competence. Though, the other three remaining steps are similar to those of traditional training needs analysis Price et al, (2010), their choice of process is outstanding as it has something special from the other.

I applaud the authors for their excellent recognition of the more approaches in their articles. The authors show that the training needs analysis can have various uses if the approaches get broadened. If the author approaches get borrowed they might solve the confusion that arises from the approaches to get used. Reviewing the three fold approach of the McGehee & Thayer’s (1961) and incorporating other three approaches in the article make the authors’ work even more heeding. It is through these additional approaches that made the authors came up with a comprehensive conclusion on the uses of training needs analysis.

With a different approach, I would disagree with the concept of the authors adding additional approaches. However, this is because more approaches will make the process of training needs analysis to get complicated. As a result, organizations will be avoiding the process because of its long process. Therefore, I would suggest that the recognized approaches get incorporated to the existing approaches. For instance, competency-based needs analysis, strategic needs analysis, and demographic needs analysis can get incorporated and analyzed as organizational analysis.

The authors’ ignorance gets portrayed when they do not state categorically that knowledge and skills analysis should target individual employees and how they carry out their duties. The authors also failed to state that the most common method used in this approach is information from the employee’s performance review. Moreover, it is from the employee’s performance appraisal, we can disclose deficiencies that employees has so as to plan for his or her training.

The authors diligently differentiate the job and task analysis. They go ahead and state that job analysis does not recognize training needs, it makes known what is needed for a job rather than what a worker needs (McConnell, 2003:124). However, on this statement I would add that task analysis commences with job prerequisites and contrasts employee skills and knowledge to agree on training needs. The authors also fail to state what a good task analysis should identify. I would add to the authors that a good task analysis identifies task that have to get done, conditions under which to get done, when and how often it gets done, the quality and quantity of performance needed, skills and knowledge needed to do the tasks, and how and where these skills are most excellent obtained. This will help realize the gap amid job prerequisite and performance (Annett & Duncan, 1967).

In the organizational analysis, I approval the authors when they state that a research get needed to develop an enhanced understanding of inefficient must get located and, at what time are, how to establish if training is the most advantageous resolution to the performance crisis (Wexley, 1984:521). However, I would challenge the writers by adding that organizational analysis recognizes the capabilities, skills and knowledge that employees will require for the prospect, as the change happens in jobs and organizations. The authors fail to acknowledge that an organizational needs analysis might also compact with customer protests, quality control problems, and employee complaints among others.

The authors stress on the need to review the needs analysis literature so as to define the role of the training practitioner. The further states that training practitioners were characteristically presented with the proposals from the managers of high levels (O’Driscoll and Taylor, 1992). I concur with the authors on need to review. However, this is because the review will solve the inconsistency amid the theory and techniques actually utilized by organizations to make decisions on management training. Moreover, it will give the training practitioner described role that will solve the issue their dependence on the proposals given by the managers which might be biased.

The authors conclude that concludes that the training needs analysis should be the initial stage prior to any training in an organization. I support the conclusion made by the authors as it is clear that the underlying principle for developing a training program profoundly relies on recognizing training needs, and mitigating the costs and advantages to the organization (Judith, 2002).

The authors make the article even more heeding when they conclude by stating how the end result will impact training program. They also add to the importance of analyses on the level of individuals, duties and organization. I support their views since the aim of the whole process is to determine the needed needs that will get used in determining the training program. The individual, duties and organization analyses will also assist the execution of the training efforts in a precise manner (Rossett, 1987). Moreover, it is through analyses of the approach provided that gives the end result of the whole process of the training needs.

In conclusion, it is clear that without a clear knowledge of needs, efforts of training are at most excellent haphazardly helpful and at most horrible, ineffective. The trainer gets only triumphant and seen as such to the scope that needs are cautiously evaluated and program developed and performed that meet the needs. Moreover, it is clear from the article, that the authors convince that that end result of training is a more defined picture of training needs. I agree with the authors as the training need analysis lead to the training program purposed to improve performance and good outcomes from training.

Human Intelligence Article Summary And Review

Article Summary

The paper will analyze the article “Reminiscences of a communication agent” written on 23rd September 1993 by a technician who was involved in photographic and radio transmission of maps, reports and sketches among other intelligence work to the British service in the Second World War via the foreign agent despite of heavy supervision by the Germans.  The writer lived in three different time that include neutral time when the country was not supporting anyone, then the country as German allay and at last under the German occupation. The writer was initially arrested among many other when Germany overturned the company. He eventually managed to escape and vowed to avenge on what Germany had done on his country. This where he decided to adapt the most unique way to hind from Germanys while still effecting his duties to British Intelligence Services.

Working as an intelligence office for a foreign body was extremely dangerous in this area. It was getting harder and hander since Germany could raid homes and arrest any person they would suspect was working for their opponents. They normally identified foreigners who were living in expensive estates and that would manage to visit expensive places. Once identified their homes were raid and they were imprisoned in case there was anything connecting them to intelligence work. In his determination to fulfill his intention and promise to avenge, the writer developed a strategy to continue working for British Intelligence without making Germany’s suspicious. He enrolled in a school as a foreign student and search for a simple servant boarding house where he lived like a very poor student. He even made the landlady believe that he was extremely struggling to survive in that place. This made it easy for him to escape arrest. He also agreed with his employers to only send enough money to enable him survive in his current environment without affording extra expenses. This made him successful in fooling Germany and also in carrying doing his duties as an intelligence officer effectively.

The writer states that his success with the radio was not due to his high techniques in enhancing security but complete lack of these techniques and procedures. He developed his own transmitter and thus, it was far much below the standards that the Germans were looking for. With this transmitter, it was impossible to change frequencies and thus, it was hard to draw suspicion or attention.  The writer then limited his transmission to about two hours per transmission but ensured that these transmission were done on different places. The writer did not have a transmission schedule. Instead, they always organized for the next one in the end of each transmission. This made it hard for anyone to study their transmission frequency or time and hence hard to time the next transmission and trace it. In case of an emergency call, the British intelligence provided security to the writer transmitter just like other operators. With this kind of communication, the writer was able to facilitate a number of successful bombing of the enemy’s field.

With regard to photographic work, the writer felt a bit safe. He was able to work after Germans raids which normally took place between 10 pm to midnight and between 6 am to 8 am. The writer took advantage of time between 1 and 6 am where he would meet with his superior get materials to work on, work on them and submit them before 6am. The work involved taking photos of volumes of work and packing the negatives in unsuspicious way and sending them through people as presents via new cigarette packets or on flash light battering, in shoes heels among other means. This was a bit more tedious job since it involved photographing 40 to 80 pages of materials making negatives, cleaning negatives to eliminate think ink that would clearly show the content, sizing them and packing them within about 5 hours. It normally happened after every two weeks. The author was supposed to be left with a copy, which he was supposed to hind safely until there is a confirmation on the recipient of the material sent. After taking photos the original materials were completely burnt so as the backup negative after the confirmation to council evidence from Germans just in case. This way, the writer was able to survive and continue working as a British Intelligence officer right in the eyes of Germans.

Observation

I have learnt a number of important intelligence tricks in this article. One of this tricks is that always do the unexpected. Germans expected that intelligence officers would be foreigners showered with enough money to live exotic life. This made many to be imprisoned but the author was able to survive and work for the entire period since he decided to live different in a way Germans could not imagine an intelligence officer could do.  Using of untested own made radio devise also made German overrule its importance in any intelligence service. They anticipated that only powerful secure system would be employed and this makes it hard for him to be suspected. The paper also taught me on the importance of being observant. The author was successful because he was able to monitor Germans routine and counter it. This made it easy for him to hind. It has also taught me on importance of being cautious and creative. The author could burn any material he has used to ensure that it is never linked to him. Cleaning and sizing negatives, storing backup carefully in a manner that no raid would uncover them and also adopting the best packaging technique demonstrate a high level of creativity and cautious. All this contributed to great success of the author in his work against Nazi and in support of British Intelligence.

References

Central Intelligence Agency. (1993). Reminiscences of a communicationagent. Retrieved from <https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/kent-csi/vol2no4/pdf/v02i4a06p.pdf>

Methodological Issues Article Review Instructions

Read the following articles, which can be accessed through the ProQuest database in the Ashford University Library:

  • Evidence-based practice in psychology: Implications for research and research training.
  • Practice-based evidence: Back to the future.
  • Psychological treatments: Putting evidence into practice and practice into evidence.

Write a three- to four-page article review in which you discuss methodological issues unique to psychological research and analyze basic applied psychological research relevant to the treatment of mental disorders. In your paper, you will discuss the topics of evidence-based practice and practice-based evidence and their roles in providing practitioners useful information for making decisions about appropriate mental health treatments.

In the body of your paper:

  1. Discuss the methodological issues and challenges that are unique to psychological research investigating effective treatments for psychological disorders.
  2. Explain the concepts of evidence-based practice and practice-based evidence and identify controversies associated with these concepts.
  3. Select one treatment modality associated with a disorder in the DSM-5 and present at least one example of pertinent, applied psychological research investigating the efficacy of the treatment modality. Discuss the findings of the research. Locate at least one peer-reviewed article that contains a research study on a treatment modality to fulfill this requirement. You may not use any of the course materials.
  4. Take the point of view of Bauer (2007) to analyze the article(s) you selected in #3. Using this author’s arguments from his Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology: Implications for Research and Research Training article, what would be his evaluation of the article(s) you selected?
  5. Take the point of view of Brendtro, Mitchell, & Doncaster (2011) and analyze the article(s) you selected in #3. Using these authors’ arguments from their Practice-Based Evidence: Back to the Future article, what would be their evaluation of the article(s) you selected?
  6. Discuss ways in which an evidence-based practice model might provide practitioners useful information for making decisions about the degree to which the treatment modality you selected in #3 is an appropriate treatment for the disorder you specified.
  7. Conclude your paper with a discussion of your opinion of the utility of evidence-based practice and practice-based evidence for practitioners needing to identity effective treatments for psychological disorders.
  8. Utilize a minimum of two additional peer-reviewed journal articles published within the last five years (not including the course text or any of the course materials). At least one article must be used to satisfy the requirement in #3, and at least one article must also be included to support your arguments. All sources must be documented in APA style, as outlined by the Ashford Writing Center.

Writing the Methodological Issues Article Review

 

The Assignment:

  1. Must be three to five double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  2. Must include a title page with the following:
    • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  3. Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement. (Refer to the Ashford Writing Center Thesis Generator ).
  4. Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
  5. Must end with a conclusion that summarizes your opinion of the utility of evidence-based practice and practice-based evidence for practitioners needing to identity effective treatments for psychological disorders.
  6. Must utilize each of the three required articles: Bauer (2007); Brendtro, Mitchell, & Doncaster (2011) and Dozois (2013).
  7. Must utilize a minimum of two additional peer-reviewed sources published within the last five years (not including the course text).
  8. Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  9. Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Critical Preliminary Stage of Mounting a Research Study – Articles Review

First Article

The purpose of the study titled “Bank Image in the UAE: Comparing Islamic and Conventional Banks” by Al-Tamimi, Lafi and Uddin (2009) is to examine the variations between how UAE-based consumers of banking services view conventional banks on one hand and Islamic banks on the other hand. Particularly, the study seeks to examine the differences as they relate to the banks’ religious factors, demographic attributes, and cultural aspects. Besides, particularly, the study seeks to examine the differences as they relate to the banks’ images, products as well as service quality.

In the study by Al-Tamimi, Lafi and Uddin (2009), the research questions are not stated explicitly. Even then, they are implicit in the study’s report, article. The implied questions are:

  1. Do UAE-based consumers of banking services prefer getting banking services from Islamic banks more than getting banking services from conventional banks?
  2. Are the preferences of UAE-based consumers of banking services for getting banking services from particular banks premised on their satisfaction with the quality of the services offered by the banks?
  • Do UAE-based consumers of banking services develop positive images of the banks that they get services from?
  1. Do the factors that UAE-based consumers of banking services consider when selecting a bank differ in their significances?
  2. Is there a considerable variation between how UAE-based consumers of banking services view convectional banks on one hand and Islamic banks on the other hand based on the length of their relationships with the banks?
  3. Is there a considerable variation between how UAE-based consumers of banking services view convectional banks on one hand and Islamic banks on the other hand based on the length of their gender?
  • Is there a considerable variation between how UAE-based consumers of banking services view convectional banks on one hand and Islamic banks on the other hand based on the length of their educational attainments?

Hypotheses are the suggested explanations for given phenomena. Scientific hypotheses are testable. In the study by Al-Tamimi, Lafi and Uddin (2009), the implied hypotheses are:

  1. UAE-based consumers of banking services prefer getting banking services from Islamic banks more than getting banking services from conventional banks.
  2. The preferences of UAE-based consumers of banking services for getting banking services from particular banks are premised on their satisfaction with the quality of the services offered by the banks.
  • UAE-based consumers of banking services develop positive images of the banks that they get services from.
  1. The factors that UAE-based consumers of banking services consider when selecting a bank differ in their significances.
  2. There is a considerable variation between how UAE-based consumers of banking services view convectional banks on one hand and Islamic banks on the other hand based on the length of their relationships with the banks.
  3. There is a considerable variation between how UAE-based consumers of banking services view convectional banks on one hand and Islamic banks on the other hand based on the length of their gender.
  • There is a considerable variation between how UAE-based consumers of banking services view convectional banks on one hand and Islamic banks on the other hand based on the length of their educational attainments.

There are various independent, as well as dependent, variables in the study by Al-Tamimi, Lafi and Uddin (2009). The dependent variables include the preference levels of the consumers. The independent ones include bank type, quality of services, length of the relationships between the banks and the consumers, consumers’ gender, and consumers’ educational attainments.

Second Article

One of the purposes of the study titled “The Impact of Monetary Policy on Bank Lending Rate in South Africa” by Matemilola, Bany-Ariffin and Muhtar (2015) is to examine the money market rate’s pass-through of the lasting interest rate as it relates to the lending rates of banks and their asymmetric adjustments. The second purpose is to apply the momentum asymmetric and autoregressive models for correcting errors. In the study by Matemilola, Bany-Ariffin and Muhtar (2015), there is a research question that is not stated explicitly. The question is whether or not the lending rates of banks reviewed downwards when rates in money markets reduce in South Africa.

As noted earlier, hypotheses are the suggested explanations for given phenomena. Scientific hypotheses are testable. The implied hypothesis in the titled “The Impact of Monetary Policy on Bank Lending Rate in South Africa” study by Matemilola, Bany-Ariffin and Muhtar (2015) is that the lending rates of banks reviewed downwards when rates in money markets reduce in South Africa. The independent variable in the study is the rate in the money markets. The rate is deemed independent since the study by Matemilola, Bany-Ariffin and Muhtar (2015) does not entail the measurement of the rate against any set of standards or benchmarks. The rate is taken as it is in the money markets. In the study, the variable that is deemed to be changing, or varying, over time is the lending rate of any of the selected banks. Notably, the variable is seen as varying in response to the rates in the money markets of South Africa.

Article Review – David Hume : Causation

Out of all known empiricist that lived in the Early Modern epoch, David Hume (1711-1776) and his ideas have survived the test of time. He is particularly known for his rigorous application of empirical standards that posit that no innate idea exists and that the origin of all knowledge can eventually be traced back to experience (Hume 12). It is because of this notion and perspective that would go ahead to make him institute causation and necessity. Through this article, the reader obtains an in-depth elaboration of all the empirical foundations that ultimately drove Hume to his own account of the notion of causation (“Hume, David: Causation | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy”). Additionally, the article succinctly details all possible definition of causation and how he makes use of his insights.

The article offers material rich in information and arranged systematically to allow the reader better understand the finer details encapsulated in cause and effect, it is divided into six crucial tenets. The first one deals with the position that causation occupies in Hume’s taxonomy, detailing his vital contribution to causation and the philosophy behind it, and examining the relationship between cause and effect and human reasoning. Secondly, the discourse shifts to the connection Hume’s proposition has and the two definitions that he brought forth. Here, the bifurcation of all known objects of knowledge is used especially in regard to matters of fact and relations of the idea. The third tenet expertly tackles the Problem of Induction, describing this skeptical argument in detail. It is important to note that Hume’s insights that focused mainly on experience having the ability to limit one’s casual knowledge get a meticulous elucidation. Casual reductionism then features as the translation of Hume’s causation through reductionism. It is only through reductionism that one can explain the theories of causation as presented by Hume. Fourthly, we have Casual skepticism which seeks to interpret Hume’s position by use of epistemic interpretation as opposed to ontology. Lastly, Casual realism that introduces all interpretive tools needed to avoid arbitrary conclusions while bolstering the notion of causation.

In conclusion, the article provides a detailed account of Hume’s work on cause and effect while systematically arranging the various points of views to give a clear account of his vantage point. The article is particularly important to aficionados of Philosophy who loath superficial overviews as it gets down to the nitty grits of Hume’s position. Additionally, it also offers references segment for further reading so as to better understand the subject matter.

Data For Life by Natasha Dow Schüll – Article Review

Natasha Dow Schüll’s article, Data For Life has as its main focus the crucial need of wearable technology in promoting a culture of self-care among people. It is true that wearable technology which includes devices with sensors and complex algorithms will most likely become the  next big thing in digital healthcare(Blobel, et al.). These gadgets evaluate the wearer’s behavior over time and I am of the opinion they are key in helping individuals make decisions vital to their well-being.  Additionally, most of the information in the article is drawn from an ethnographic fieldwork that took place two years prior and was put to use during the Digital Health Summit(DHS) of the  Consumer Electronic Show(CES) which goes to say that the information included was succinct, conclusive and from seasoned professionals.

It is important to note that the manuscript does a superb job at exploring scientists vision of the world that receives technological assistance that in turn bring forth an assortment of technology in the wearable tracking category (Bushko 7). I also share in the opinion  that it is the wearable tracking technology that will allow a consumer to simultaneously outsource and embrace the challenging task of lifestyle management(Occupational Health). Such technology exemplifies self-regulation and a somewhat short-circuit of important ideas as Digital health encompasses all forms of mobile health application devices, telehealth systems predictive analytics, sensor technology and chronic care (Lin and Qu 23).

The Affordable Care Act would also trigger an incentive for compliance that would in effect compel insurers, consumers, and health care providers to cut on cost. These technological advancements are similar to Alex Rivera’s  feature film, Sleep Dealers, where the film paints a picture of a future where people have a virtual-reality cybernetwork connection which is driven by “nodes” (Westwood ). These electronic jacks are in the form of implants that are in the individual’s necks and though ambiguous in function throughout the film, this dystopian gadget makes life more bearable for the subject.(Oldenburg and Griskewicz). I agree that  it is this big data that will transform epidemiology and create a paradigm shift in public health, streamlining medical practices and electronic health care records.

Business Law Article Review – Sarbanes-Oxley Act

ARTICLE SYNOPSIS

This article is about accounting misconduct by Ian J. McCarthy, the former Chief Executive Officer and board member of an Atlanta-based home builder, Beazer Homes USA, Inc. According to the Securities and Exchange Commission, Beazer’s former Chief Executive Officer has just agreed to reimburse the company several millions of dollars that he received in compensation and profits when the company was committing accounting fraud. The Securities and Exchange Commission had previously filed a case against Beazer and its Chief Executive Officer who committed the fraud. However, McCarthy failed to reimburse the company as stated in Section 304 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. In this article, McCarthy has accepted to repay the company 6, 479, 281 cash, 40, 103 as restricted stock units, and 78, 763 as shares of restricted stock (all values are in United States Dollars). The bonuses, compensations, and profits in United States Dollars that Beazer obtained in the entire fiscal year 2006 during McCarthy’s tenure are as follows; 772,232 in stock sale profits, 5,706, 949 in cash, 78,763 shares of restricted stock, and 40, 103 in restricted stock units (U.S Securities and Exchange Commission, 2011).

LEGAL ISSUE

McCarthy, the former Chief Executive Officer of Beazer Homes USA Inc., used to manipulate the company’s land development and house cost-to-complete accounts for a period of 12 months in 2006 fiscal year. Additionally, McCarthy improperly recorded certain model home financing transactions as sales with the aim of increasing the company’s income. McCarthy’s accounting misconduct made Beazer to fraudulently overstate its income during the fiscal year 2006, thereby misleading investors.

MANAGERIAL PERSPECTIVE

McCarthy’s accounting misconduct can affect the business in a number of ways. First, manipulation of Beazer’s land development and house cost-to-complete accounts can make the company bankrupt and unable to meet its financial obligations both in the short run and in the long run. Second, increasing Beazer’s income can mislead investors who might place their huge finances in the company but fail to earn profits. Third, McCarthy’s accounting misconduct can make Beazer acquire a negative image among its stakeholders, leading to drop in sales. Fourth, Beazer has to spend additional time and finances in having its accounting statements for the fiscal year 2006 restated. These reasons explain why McCarthy’s accounting misconduct is punishable under Section 304 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (U.S Securities and Exchange Commission, 2011).

Section 304 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act compels senior corporate executives to reimburse any bonuses and compensations received during their tenure as a result of accounting misconduct. This provision also applies to individuals who have not been personally charged with the misconduct in question, but have violated the federal securities laws. The legal issue in this article could have been avoided if McCarthy could have complied with the financial reporting requirements recognized under Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, (GAAP), in order to avoid violation of the federal securities laws (U.S Securities and Exchange Commission, 2011).

Business Research Article Review

Description of the Research Process

This research is founded on “The role of information communication technology in the transformation of healthcare business model: a case study of Slovenia” article by Stanimirovic and Vintar (2015). Slovenia healthcare has greatly failed in integrating the information and communication technologies (ICT) into its context of operation and as an alternative, upholding its traditional way and rigid structure if doing business.  The study focuses on offering an evaluation of the concept of the business model and its implications, and to specify the possible impacts of automation on the current Slovenia healthcare business model. The research evaluated the current system and then projects on the improvement that would be achieved if the organization could have consider integrating the ICT related technology in the organization. The research helps to demonstrate the benefit of integrating ICT in their current business model.

The Research Problem and Methodology

Slovenia healthcare business model is currently based on traditional process of operations and its effort to modernize the model by integrating the ICT technology has greatly failed. However, it is still believed that the process of integrating the healthcare with the ICT technology will highly enhance its operation. Thus, the research focuses on analyzing the current system and establishing the probabilities of its transformation via comprehensive ad innovative informatisation. To accomplish this, the research evaluates the concept of BM, its elements, and its applicability in the environment of healthcare, the evaluation and identification of the informatisation impacts on the current Slovenia healthcare BM, and conceptualization and mapping of the ICT-induced change of the current Slovenia healthcare.

The research uses a single exploratory or explanatory case study design. This case study is founded on the impacts of the ultimate conceptualization and informatisation of the transformed Slovenia healthcare business model. This took place in the in the 2013 first half. The research is founded on structured, iterative interview process supplemented by observations and literature review. These techniques were employed as the actual techniques of data collection in the formative phase of the research.  The research sampling was founded on interviews experience and expertise in the Slovenia healthcare system. Suitable knowledge of contextual, organizational and structural healthcare system characteristics to ascertain that the chosen interviewees would guarantee validity and credibility of their recommendations and views. The research is based on 12 interviewees from various institutions of health. Four different specialists were chosen from different professionals that include healthcare professionals, ICT experts from government, ICT experts from healthcare institutions, and healthcare managers. The data was collected using interview process, where three pilot interviews were conducted. The rate of response was 100% and the interviews took about 90 to 120 minutes, where 7 unstructured questions were used in the interview. The researcher also conducted an extensive research on the use of the ICT in the healthcare system. Thus the research is based on interview data as well as literature review journals.

How the Research is solving the Problem

The research aims at evaluating the probability of enhancing the operations of the Slovenia healthcare system. The research evaluates the situation in the organization with intention of integrating the current system with ICT technology. The research evaluates the organization ability to handle the new system and also evaluates the likelihood of improving the organization performance by the integration of the current business model with the ICT technology. The research engages both medical and ICT experts to ensure that the organization gets the most reliable information to enhance the development of the new system in the healthcare system. The two are involved in evaluating the level in which the two can be integrated without causing any interruption or errors in the medical operation. Based on the fact that the initial trial to enhance this integration failed. In this regard, there was a need for conducting a comprehensive research to establish the best technique that can be employed to ensure a successful integration of the ICT technology. The main aim is to ensure that the previous barriers that resulted into total fail of the integration process have been identified and suppressed. The research thus acts as a roadmap for the BM elements redefinition and the Slovenian healthcare BM transformation. It comprise the particular BM actors’ reconfiguration and their interactions, and the advanced ICT solutions application that facilitate more efficient health resources utilization and enhanced an advanced healthcare products and services delivery.

Other Potential Applications

The derived theoretical solution and presented development technique can be transferable to other nations with the same socio-economic traits and equivalent healthcare systems, subject to particular inclusion and adjustments of national particulars. The approach can also be modified to fit a bigger or smaller healthcare organization that has not yet integrated their system with the ICT. The solution can also be slightly adjusted to fit other healthcare organizations in different economic situation. This will only be done to fit the economic environment budget and hence, enhancing the approach integration. In this regard, the organization can be applied widely in different healthcare organization focusing at advancing their functionality through ICT integration.

Article Review: E-Business and Intellectual Property

Time and money are the two most important resources are the two most resources of any business.  However, most small companies ignore the importance of intellectual property. The small business owners feel threatened by lawyers of big companies who engage in intellectual property lawsuits. Therefore, small business companies think that intellectual property is a problem for large corporations. Increase in competition due to the development of the internet has increased the importance of intellectual property to small businesses.

Patents, copyright, and trademark are some of the legal mechanisms related to intellectual property rights. Other types of intellectual property such as know-how are also important as they may have a high commercial value. However, there is no particular intellectual property law does not offer them any kind of protection except in cases where there are contracts that show that the know-how is an intellectual property (Dahl, 2009).

The internet has helped in revolutionizing customer relationships. The dot-com boom marked the beginning of internet revolution. It led to the development of business models that were previously non-existent. The new business models were based on the internet. Companies such as Google, Amazon, and Yahoo took advantage of the development of the internet to develop business models that took advantage of various aspects of the internet. This development necessitated the “brick and mortar” stores to acknowledge the fact that they had to provide customers with an opportunity to acquire various goods and services over the internet to fulfill the customer expectations.

Most companies use websites to promoting and generating sales. However, this has created several ethical and legal issues. Other companies may copy the look and feel of the website of a certain company. However, various parts of websites are protected by different types of intellectual property laws. The HTML code used in the development of the website can be protected by intellectual property laws. An organization may protect its website by registering it trademark. It should also use a domain name that reflects its trademark (Dahl, 2009).

E-Businesses face various challenges. Privacy and security are some of the major challenges that they face. E-businesses may share customer information with third parties for certain promotional purposes without seeking consent from customers. For example, Facebook, the largest social networking site, has been accused several times of sharing information on what customers post on their walls with third parties. Privacy concerns necessitate Facebook users to change their privacy settings.

E-Businesses are also prone to attacks by hackers. The hackers may use personal information of the customers of an organization for their own benefit. For example, they may use social security numbers and credit card numbers to defraud customers of an e-business enterprise. Despite the fact that most companies acknowledge the problems posed by hackers, it is still difficult for companies to maintain high security of their systems.

Companies should ensure that they engage in ethical business practices. However, certain large corporation engage in unethical business practices by stealing the intellectual property rights of the small businesses if the businesses refuse to sell them the intellectual property rights. The small companies do not have enough funds to pay lawyers to engage in lawsuits, which are usually very costly.  The above factors necessitate businesses to seek the services of a specialized internet attorney on internet property and other legal issues before creating an e-business.

E-business and Intellectual Property Article Review

MEMORANDUM

 

DATE:

TO:         (Facilitator Name)

FROM:   (Student Name)

RE:         Ernst & Young. (2014). Cybersecurity and intellectual property theft in China: Protecting your corporate assets. Board Matters Quarterly, 7-8.

                                                               ARTICLE SYNOPSIS

Since industrial revolution, the number of hackers who seek to steal intellectual property has been on the rise in China. During the initial stages of technological advancements, many organizations in China largely focused on growth and paid limited attention to protection of important corporate assets and intellectual property against attack. Many companies in China are now developing adequate controls and safeguards on intellectual property as national economy matures. Majority of victims of intellectual property theft are companies and individuals who do business online. Currently, China provides a very good ground for doing business, and new investors are expected to take the lead towards protection of intellectual property. National leaders are taking appropriate steps to curb the ongoing intellectual property theft in China. China’s leaders have realized that innovations and economic growth can best be achieved if appropriate laws that protect and respect intellectual property rights are formulated and enforced. The government of China strives to enact laws that can help to address the problem of intellectual property theft in the country (Ernst & Young, 2014).

LEGAL ISSUE

Cyber attacks, illegal information technology, and intellectual property theft continue to be legal issues affecting China’s economy today. Approximately 20 million people using e-commerce have reported security fraud related to intellectual property theft within the last six months. Intellectual property theft in China is mainly affecting e-commerce retailers, and there is great need for all organizations in the country to prioritize cybersecurity as a risk that needs to be addressed urgently (Ernst & Young, 2014).

MANAGERIAL PERSPECTIVE

Illegal information technology, cyber attacks, and intellectual property theft in China are unethical because they infringe on the rights of individuals and businesses. Companies and individuals who have spent a lot of money in research and development lose their products on the hands of criminals due to intellectual property theft. According to ( ), the main reasons why criminals steal intellectual property is to reap cash from products that have been developed by others. This makes innovators in China to lose millions of cash every year. The impact of intellectual property theft is not only felt by people involved in e-commerce, but also by the national government. Since intellectual property contributes greatly to China’s economy, the Chinese government automatically loses millions of dollars due to intellectual property theft. The problem of intellectual property theft can be solved in a number of ways including transformations in the global security management framework, making changes in the global systems, increasing the level of security awareness, and implementation of modern technological tools to facilitate intellectual property protection (Ernst & Young, 2014).

The problem of intellectual property theft in China could have been avoided if adequate controls were in place. Authorities in China are working hard to prevent intellectual property theft through enforcement of protection laws. The Chinese government is concerned that effective laws, regulations, and rules are in place to help prevent intellectual property theft, but the only problem throughout the country is lack of enforcement of those regulations. Ideally, the risks of intellectual property theft and cyber attacks can significantly decrease, considering the fact that many companies continue to accept best practices for corporate governance as China’s economy develops. The Chinese government should continue to enact new legislations that will help reduce intellectual property theft in the country. Additionally, board members should insist that their companies develop international polices to curb intellectual property theft and effectively enforce those rules (Ernst & Young, 2014).

Hixson, Walter, – Red Storm Rising – Article Review

The article “’Red Storm Rising’: Tom Clancy Novels and the Cult of National Security” focuses on demonstrating how artists have used their work to demonstrate the American war culture and the tactics employed to win cold war between the western nations and the communist nation. The main war challenge was the threat of using nuclear weapons, a topic that attracted most readers into purchasing the fiction work. The article specifically focuses on the work of Clancy who wrote a number of novels regarding the cold war between the American government and communist nation and the threat for nuclear war employment which threatened the evolution of world war III between western nations lead by the Americans and communist nations led by Korea assisted by China and slightly by the Soviet nation. The author achieves this by analyzing three Clancy Novels that include Red Storm Rising, The Hunt for Red October and the Cardinal of the Kremlin.

The author uses a number of illustrations to demonstrate the power Clancy fictional work had on the influencing American war culture and passing the message regarding the country’s national security. The author demonstrate this using the Clancy description of cold war and the advancements the two fighting groups were employing to win in this war. He also uses the rivalry between the American and Soviet Union which was propagated during the Second World War, giving the reason for the communist nation to apply most threatening war weapons. Beside Clancy work, Hixson has also used other artists work to demonstrate how the American war culture has been spread through fictional work. Other mentioned novelists work that include One Lonely Night where an American Hammer is depicted killing so many people in one night, a book that was published when Korean communist were fighting with American Soldiers. Other books that demonstrated American war culture and defense of their national security included The Big Kill, Vengeance Is Mine, and My Gun is Quick, among others.

The main strength of this article is that the author has employed a number of illustrations to support his argument. This includes quoting or mention of certain sections of the Clancy work as well as other fictional work that was published during the cold war. He also relates most of the novelists’ work he uses to illustrate his argument with actual events that were taking place in the world. In his work Hixson demonstrate how active American novelists were to prophecy victory and the faith they had on the American military power over their enemies during that time. Americans were not tensed but they anticipated great history. This was also demonstrated by fictional work regarding the American administration plans and tactics they employed handle the situation. They eventually managed to conquer the communist based on Clancy the Hunt for Red October work.

The main weakness of this article is that it is a bit confusing at the beginning and anyone without background information regarding Clancy work and what it represents may not easily understand the author’s message. The reader also need to have read an extensive work of 1950 fictional publications to be able to clearly understand Hixson’s argument and to critic it in depth. Without this information, this article may appear very complex for a leader to comprehend the author’s intention.

Workplace Bullying : Costly and Preventable – Article Review

Review the Wiedmer article regarding workplace bullying (Workplace Bullying : Costly and Preventable )

Develop a two- to three-page APA- formatted paper that responds to the following:

  • Provide a review of the article. Describe the impact of workplace bullying on both the victims and the organization.
  • Reflect on a time when you may have witnessed workplace bullying. Discuss at least two practices of workplace bullying addressed in the article that were applicable to your scenario.
  • Recommend at least two techniques from the article that management should implement to provide a positive impact on workplace bullying. Support your response with additional information from the textbook or additional research.

Your paper must be two to three pages (not including title and reference pages) and must be formatted according to APA style as outlined in the approved APA style guide. You must cite two scholarly sources in addition to the textbook.

Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.

Article Review – MRO sourcing goes global – Purchasing

Maintenance Repair and Operations

Identification of Spend Types in Purchasing

Spending is one way in which an organization can incur more cost than was initially intended or projected. In this regard, most companies focuses on identifying all hidden cost that may aggravate spending in the long run. An organization can improve in identifying different type of spending by classifying them and defining the kind of goods or services in which each one of the identified type of spending can be found. For instance, they can be classified as direct and indirect spending involves purchases of services and goods which are directly integrated into a manufactured product. Indirect spend can be used to define services and goods that are not directly integrated into the manufactured product. With this, the company can then develop analytic component of comprehending data and making classification, spend evaluation and identification. Another way to identify spending is by sending strategic sourcing skilled personnel into the market to do the evaluation as well as working closely with suppliers in assessing spending (Varghese, 2014).

Identifying Suppliers with Capabilities for Global Business

Global suppliers normally contain a high level of reliability and efficiency and thus, they can be of great importance when identified by an organization which embraces quality and reliability. One way an organization should consider employing to identify if a supplier is global or not is by evaluating the consolidating source and aggregating source of supply. Assessment of the suppliers manufacturing standards and their level of quality can also direct one on whether a supplier targets a local market or an international market which is more competitive and that is more attentive to the product quality.  Another way is by conducting an intensive risk assessment to establish if a supplier can manage to settle the needs of a company. An organization can also identify global suppliers by identifying their distributors. A company with various local distributors in different parts or with one distributor in all corners of the world qualifies to be a global distributor (Avery, 2009).

Strategy of Integrated Supply Approach with Distributors

The best way for a company to enhance supply of goods and services around the word is by use of distributors. This involves both international distributors and local distributors. To enhance distribution, a company should first focus on an international distributor with branches in different parts of the world. This way, a company can manage to work with one distributor who will be supplying their products or services in different parts of the world without much hassle for the company. If a company fails to get an international distributor, a company should consider using a well known local distributor. In both cases an integrated business model which allows a good working strategy between the distributor and the company should be enhanced (Avery, 2009).

Processes to Track Performance of Suppliers Including Cost of Ownership and Outsourcing

There are various techniques employed to meet the performance analysis of a supplier in a global supply chain. One of these techniques is by use of report card where performance is evaluated based on the suppliers’ ability to meet cost, technology used in the entire supply chain, delivery, availability of their products, product’s quality on delivery as well as responsiveness goals. Another strategy that can be employed is by use of informal process that contains daily feedback. An equivalent formal system can also be integrated as a part of supplier relationship management (SRM) programs. Other formal techniques are employed which works to ensure that there is continuous improvement of a product to ensure sustainable internal client satisfaction and competitive advantage. Other means that can be used to evaluate the supplier quality include processing, sorting, rework and scrap cost because of poor quality, processing costs and MRB inventory because of inspection failure, line shut down as a result of poor quality. Others include recall expenses, warranty expenses, employing equipment that is rework capacity constraint due to poor quality (Terfehr, 2009).

 

 

 

Article Review – Educating Students with Learning Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms

In his article, Ford highlights the importance of allowing children with learning disabilities to learn alongside normal students in general education classrooms, also known as inclusive classrooms. The least restrictive environment mandate points out that, students with learning disabilities should be educated in inclusive classrooms unless their state of disability is so severe that they cannot be taught using teaching aids (Ford, 2013). In addition, the principle of inclusion should be implemented because through inclusion, academic institutions are able to show empathy, care, recognition, and respect towards students with learning disabilities.

Various stakeholders however have differing opinions on whether students with disabilities should be allowed to learn with their peers in general education classrooms (Ford, 2013). Some people claim that students with learning disabilities have unique characteristics that will prevent them from obtaining the desired academic achievement when allowed to learn in inclusive classrooms. On the contrary, other researchers argue that students with learning disabilities can perform well in inclusive classrooms if they are assisted by both special and genera educators (Ford, 2013). According to Ford (2013), the three strategies that can be applied to effectively educate students with learning disabilities in inclusive classrooms include co-teaching, differentiated instruction, and peer-mediated instruction and interventions.

As people continue to debate about the effectiveness of inclusion, it is important to differentiate between full inclusion and inclusion. Personally, I feel that when allowing a student with learning disability to study in a general classroom, it is important to assign a special teacher who will ensure that the student is getting the academic skills that he or she needs to achieve success.

 

Article Review – Business Ethics – Sample Paper

Summary

The article strives to explain the factors that have a significant impact on business ethical standards and conduct in diverse cultures. It explains that due to globalization, multinationals are finding it hard to adapt to diverse cultures as they conduct their business. The article advocates that organizations require paying attention to culture, as mistakes of culture in an organization are costly in most cases. The tricky part in many organizations is determining what people of a certain culture consider as being ethical. Multinational organizations need to generate ethical business practices that indicate sensitivity to differences that may arise due to culture.

The article puts into perspective the five Hofstede cultural dimensions and explains how each of them affects culture and business ethics. It article asserts that personal factors have an impact on the business ethics diversity across cultures. Ethics legislation is an institutional factor that affects the business ethics across cultures. The lack or, availability of legislation on ethics affects conduct of business and ethical practices across cultures. Organizational factors also have a say in the business ethics across cultures. An example given in the article is the code of ethics.The codes of ethics in corporations across the globe has an impact on the business ethics. The article recognizes that managers of multinational corporations should be keen in management as they can influence ethics across culture or culture can have an influence on their ethics.

Significance

Comprehending the impact of culture in business ethics is one of the most critical aspects of success of any multinational organization. The rationale is that culture is diverse across the globe. The culture of people in one country is not the same in another country. Culture influences business ethics in that a practice that is people consider as being ethically wrong in a country is ethically right in another culture. In addition, the managers must realize the value of incorporating culture in their business organizations. Culture will determine the business ethical practices that the organization will adapt in an effort to make the organization a success in the foreign nation. An organization may use various ways to examine the culture of a particular target group before it can choose to venture in the culture. The research on culture will encompass personal and organizational factors that affect business ethics and their applicability in the foreign market. The organization may also need to adjust and conduct a research in order to form business ethical standards that conform to the cultures of the new markets.

Business ethics forms the backbone of every organization. However, culture dictates on acceptability or otherwise of some business activities. The study of business ethics is paramount to all managers when they seek to understand their targets markets. The moral judgment of the people who control the business entity has a direct relationship with the culture of the individuals. Business ethics works in assisting an organization in attracting customers to try the products of the firm and boosts the sales and profits of the organization. When the company comprehends the culture of individuals, the business ethical standards put in place help in attracting clients. Moreover, an important aspect of any organization is the employees. Business ethics also influences the length that employees will stay in the organization. An organization that appreciates the culture of all the employees and accepts the diversity has employees who love their work. These employees tend to stay longer in the organization thus increasing the productivity. It is, therefore, a prerequisite that any organization researches on the culture of the target market with a view of formulating business ethical practices that will not be detrimental to it or the market.

References

Stajkovic, A., &Luthans, F. (1997).Business ethics across cultures: A social cognitive        model. Journal Of World Business32(1), 17-34. doi:10.1016/s1090-9516(97)90023-7