Tag: Australia

Political Discrimination Faced by Indigenous People in Contemporary Australia


Australia is regarded as one of the developed nations in the world. It has a strong economy and has managed to eliminate most of social problems affecting other nations in the world. However, despite of this good rating, the country’s indigenous community that are experiencing so many problems and injustices that portray uneven governance and provision of public amenities. Australian indigenous community is marked by two main groups that include the aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander. Based on the 2006 approximation of Australian Bureau of Statistics, there were about 517000 people in the country from the two indigenous groups. In general, these individuals account for 2.5% of the entire population in Australia. Based this statistics it was approximated that 90% which accounts for 463700 individuals in the indigenous community were of Aboriginal roots, 4% which accounted for 20100 were a mixture of Torres Strait Islander, while 6% which accounted for 33300 originated from Torres Strait Islander (Dudgeon et al, 2010). Indigenous people are scattered around the country. According to Dudgeon et al. (2010), about 32% of the indigenous community live in big cities, 22% are found in the outer regional parts, 21% are found in the inner regional parts, 15% are found in very remote places, while 9% are found in remote places. Majority of the indigenous community live in the Northern Australia or even extra remote areas. The demographic analysis of the Australian people demonstrates a great social, health, education, economic, and political gap between the non-indigenous and indigenous people. This brings in the question of the political discrimination in the country between non-indigenous and indigenous people. The argument is that in such a developed country with high ability to provide for its citizen, there should never be such a great gap between two communities unless there is political discrimination. This paper traces the political history of Australian indigenous community with intention of identifying cause of the underlying situation.

Political Discrimination among Indigenous Australia

Australian Indigenous has been experiencing social and political injustices since the colonial period. Since the settlement of European in the country, the indigenous communities who were mostly semi-nomadic lost their lands to the settlers for what was termed as economic purposes. This increased the expansion of the industry of pastoral, attracting more British immigrants. This resulted to cattle rustlings where the indigenous community raided cattle from the European flocks and receive retaliation from the Europeans. This eventually resulted into a way between the settlers and the indigenous people. While Indigenous people employed guerilla warfare, the Europeans used military to counter worrier, they later extended their tactics to civilians where they massacred even children and women in the indigenous communities. With intention of eliminating indigenous to extend their land ownership, the European in some parts adopted more crude methods like supplying the indigenous individuals with poisoned flour and sometimes deliberately distributed diseases that included influenza, chicken pox, and measles (Dudgeon et al., 2010). Thiscontained sever impact to the community. The situation became scary as more people indigenous died of diseases, guns, and hunger among other things. With strong military, better weapons and improved war tactics, European managed to defeat indigenous people. They tried to offer themselves to labour for food but the European refused to feed groups but individuals. This resulted to high death rate among the dependents among the community. Despite this, they were also subjected to discriminative government policies that tried to convert, disperse, “protect”, displace and ultimately assimilate them.

Australian territories and states at federation had responsibility and control for indigenous Australians. The states of the newly created federation enacted and framed policies and legislations suites which were restrictive and punitive toward Australian Indigenous community. The Aboriginal Protection Board was established in New South Wales in 1883, and it was given the legal power with enactment of 1909 Aboriginals Protection Act. Similar legislations were passed in other states with intention of controlling the indigenous community. Among other introduced acts included 1869 Aboriginal Act in Australia, the 1912 Cape Barren Island Act in Tasmania, the 1953 Welfare Ordinance and the 1911 Northern Territory Aboriginal Ordinance, and the 1897 Aboriginals protectionand restriction of sale of Opium act in Queensland (Dudgeon et al., 2010; MCcallum, 2008). The main intention of developing these restrictive and punitive laws under indigenous people good was clear. Their impacts were a kind of indigenous Australian culture genocide, by the loss of language, cultural practices cessation, and family dispersion. The 1905 Aborigines act of the Western Australia today contains special meaning due to its gross rights erosion, resulting in forceful separation of children and aboriginal people intimidation in bleak reserves, to liv in despair ad servitude (Reconciliation.org.au, 2013). The year 1905, marked the beginning of formidable oppression and surveillance period for aboriginal people. Although the 1936 Native Administration Act consolidated the complete state rights over aboriginal community, the act of 1905 still act as symbol of oppression among indigenous people as much as the National Referendum in 1967, where the rights of Aboriginal people were won back acts as a symbol of emancipation.

The 1905 act gave the Aborigines Chief Protector the legal guardian to each aboriginal individual and of children that were half-caste. Pastoralists or police constables were given power as Aborigines protectors, and they tookthe role of removing half-caste children from their families in order to give them better life opportunities away from aboriginal environments contaminating influence. Reserves and mission were created for these kids, where the chief protector had the power to transfer the kids from one region to another (McCallum, 2005). Aboriginal were restricted from entering the city without permission, and their women were forbidden from cohabiting with non-aboriginal men. This part of the history shows how legislation became the protector of racism. Although the counter measures were employed in 1967, the damage had already been done and since then, the Aboriginal people have still been struggling to restore their initial strength and life vigour.

Although the 1967 referendum seemed like a breakthrough to the Indigenous communities especially the aboriginal people, there have seemed to be a long way to go. This referendum did not guarantee the community a place in the society or the government and its system. According to Rigney (1999), Indigenous Australia still experience stereotyping, structural alienation and name calling initiated by racism. These oppressions have resulted to the continuation of indigenous people subordination from political, social and educational processes in the society of Australia. The Australian educational institutions and policies have historically been marinated racial and cultural social engineering theories, that have continues to impact current policy, social perceptions, government debates and research with regard to indigenous Australians.

The discrimination in the allocation of the government resources and provision of government services has continued to increase the gap between the indigenous people and the rest of the Australian population. Although there are times that the government had demonstrated interest towards bridging social, education, and economic gap between the indigenous community and the rest, the plan are normally not long lived. According to Sutton(2001), the Australian society is progressively drawing aboriginal culture and religion as being the Aboriginal people province,  especially those in remote and rural communities, which the “new conservative arrangement” between the state and indigenous people contains great resource impacts to Indigenous individuals living in urban environment. For instance, there has been no joint responsibility contract enacted in urban area (Loppie et al., 2014). The important area where the dichotomy is causing disastrous effect is in education of indigenous people. The changes were provoked by the federal government in indigenous policy that included changing the arrangements of funding for indigenous education. This yielded to cuts of two million dollars to the money given to indigenous education funding. As a result, only a few indigenous children will manage to obtain tutorial assistance. In addition, the government cancelled aboriginal student support and parent awareness scheme (ASSPA) funding which enhance communities of individual school to locally organize their own support programs in various urban regions, where most indigenous children live. This fund was used to add to significant community activities that include after school homework clubs, storytelling and dancing activities with elders, breakfast clubs, and assistance in continuation and rival of aboriginal culture. The changes are described as government disrespect to the culture of indigenous people in the country (Davis, 2006).

According to Dudgeon et al. (2010), the history of Australia demonstrates how indigenous rights given by one regime taken away by another regime due to poor political power in the community. For instance, the labour prime minister in 1988 promised a treaty between the state and the indigenous Australians, but it was never completed. In 1989, the Federal Labour Government enacted the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders Commission Act. However, this act was abolished in 2005 by the Federal Coalition government without indigenous community consultation. In addition there was enactment of 1993 Native Title Act following the High Court ruling on recognition of native land title. During the enactment debate the parliament adjourned the 1975 racial discrimination act which was meant to eliminate all forms of racial discrimination in the country (Thornton, 1990).  In 1998, there was the native title amendment where the parliament reduced aboriginal native title. This amendment again did not employ enough consultation with indigenous people. Although the abolishing of racial discrimination violated the obligation of Australia under the international law, this did not make the parliament to reconsider its decision (Charlesworth&Durbach, 2011).

The abolishment of racial discrimination act has highly propagated the growth of indigenous people discrimination in Australia, especially with regard to the access to public services and facilities. According to Dudgeon et al. (2010), there are high cases of reported individual racist experience among indigenous people especially in health sector. In a racism survey conducted in 2007, it was established that 7.7% of Anglo-Australians overwhelmingly believed in race inequality. Thus, racism is still practiced by a small but significant part of the population. Apart from the self-reported racism cases in health, racism might also burden indigenous Australian to access to quality health in conventional health services. A view that healthcare system in Australia is institutionally racist remains controversial. According to Awofeso (2011) the health system racism view results to the development of values and beliefs on the operation of institutions and result into discriminating over indigenous Australians. Although the political authorities of Australia refuse to acknowledge it, there is consistent reporting of high and increasing rates of racism by indigenous people in the country, which may influence the wellbeing and health of indigenous people (Awofso, 2011).

Indigenous people have been experiencing life challenges in different measures. The there is also a considerable gap between the social, education, health and economic gap between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians. This has been attributed to culture, past social injustices, political discrimination, and general poverty. Although the Australian constitution recognizes indigenous people as members of commonwealth, they are never treated like so. Indigenous people in the country are marginalized, poor and very distance from the rest with regard to the acquiring of the necessary public services. Although this may partly be attributed to cultural factors, it is highly enhanced by the government inability to offer services to all its citizens equally. According toDick andCalma(2007),indigenous Australians are not well provided for by the government especially with regard to social and public amenities while compared to non-indigenous people. Consequently these people suffer from different issues include high rate of diseases, poverty, high rate of drugs and alcohol use, high infant mortality rate, low life expectancy with difference being about 17 years, low access to medical, and education facilities, poor social amenities including safe water to drink, sewerage system, healthy housing, and rubbish collection services (King et al., 2009). Despite all this,there is very little being done to reduce the gap between the indigenous and non-indigenous people in the country. As discussed above, the Australian legislature has developed a habit of nullifying what was enacted by the previous legislatures to protect the indigenous community. In this regard, their political struggle to be treated right like all other citizens or members of commonwealth has never been successful. This is possibly due to constant nullification of their previous efforts, making it hard to achieve anything tangible in the long run.

The political struggle of indigenous people has been real for so many years. According to Henderson (2015), there have been various referendum proposals in the country; around 44, but only a few; 9 have been successful. However, there has been no particular constitutional reference to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. According to advocates indigenous Australians recognition in the founding document is important, both practically and symbolically. Moreover, there are various race references in the country’s constitution that permit indigenous Australians discrimination by the government (Henderson, 2015). Being minorities groups in the country, and hence in the parliament, it is considerably hard for the indigenous people to initiate change in the constitution. Moreover, most governments are not ready to invest the national resources in uplifting the life of aboriginal people, maybe due to their poor contribution to the national revenue (Maria-Eugenia et al., 2009). This makes it considerably hard to handle the situation as it should be handled.


The government of a country has a role to provide for its citizen equally to enhance equal growth and to promote good health and wellbeing in the country. However, this is not the case in Australia. Although the country is regarded among the developed nation, it has not managed to cover the gap between the poor indigenous people and the rest of the population. The indigenous Australians who have experienced social injustices under the governance of Europeans have since lived in poverty, and any effort employed to liberate them is overturned by legislators in the future. In this regard, it has been considerably hard to uplift their life to match the standards of other Australians. The analysis demonstrates how the Australian indigenous has been experiencing political discrimination such that it has been proven hard for them to liberate themselves from these discriminations.

The Reserve Bank of Australia- Critical Reflection Briefing Paper

Reserve Bank Purpose and Brief History of its Development

The Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) refers to the central bank of Australia, which drives its power and function from the 1959 Reserve Bank Act. This was an advance step after the establishment of the Australian Commonwealth Bank by the legislation in the 1911.The corporate original body of the Australian Commonwealth Bank was in 1959 preserved in the legislation as the Reserve Bank of Australia (Rba. gov.au, 2017).The RBA duty is to add to the currency stability, economic welfare and prosperity, and full employment to the Australian people. RBA manages this by setting the rate of cash to meet an approved medium-term inflation goal, working to uphold an efficient payment system and strong financial system, and delivering the country’s banknotes. The RBK offers specific required baking services to the Australian Government as well as its agencies, and to several official institutions and central banks in the foreign nations. It also manages the foreign exchange and gold reserves of the country (Fsi.treasury.gov.au, n.d.). The RBA also carries out monetary policy and participate as the policy-making body in the country.  This institution is divided into boards based on the 1959 Reserve Bank Act. The two boards include the Payment System Board and the Reserve Bank Board.

Main Argument in Favour of the Reserve Bank

The RBA is one of the most important government institutions in the Australia. This is because the institution plays a great role in determining the general economic welfare of the country, and individuals’ financial ability. According to Rba.gov.au (2015), the Reserve Bank works in the financial market, conducts market analysis, operates the key high-value Australian payment system, and enhance the institutional developments. The Bank is also involved in government as well as other local regulatory discussion regarding regulatory structure initiatives, mainly via the Council of Financial Regulators (CFR). The CFR bring the Australian Treasury, the Bank, Australian Securities and Investments Commission and Australia Prudential Regulatory authority together in order to make a contribution to the effectiveness and efficiency of the financial system stability and regulation (Bnm.gov.au, 2009).

The Reverse Bank under the 2001 Corporation Act, via the Payments System Board has a duty for establishing standards for financial stability for licensed settlement and clearing facilities and evaluating compliance of these facilities with the set standards. In addition, the Corporations Act determines over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives markets regulation regime that comprises of Bank advisory role on various matters. The diverse responsibilities help the Reserve Bank in enhancing the general financial system stability (Rba.gov.au, 2015). Although the bank does not contain the financial institutions prudential supervision responsibility, the Bank and all appropriate agencies would work during disturbance of financial system eliminate the systemic consequential risks. This means that the Reverse Bank of Australia play a very vital role in protecting the country against unnecessary financial crisis.

The RBA is very important in the country since it ensure high level of integrity during its operation. This is because the RBA is accountable to the legislation body of the county. This is as guided to the 2013 Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act. Having a bipartisan operation power, this clearly means that any malpractice the institution considers all its actions carefully to avoid cases of integrity which can be propagated further easily after or when being discussed in the parliament by the media. The fear of losing the public and government trust, and the tight supervision makes the Bank work with high level of integrity to the advantage of the country. This simply means that the Reserve Bank of Australia act independently without government interference, however, its actions are closely monitored, with a high need to show accountability. This prevents the government officials from imposing their own rules or procedure for personal political gains and also pushes the bank to work with high level of integrity to pass the legislation scrutiny. This plays a major role in enhancing effective functionality of this institution for the betterment of the people of Australia.

Main Argument against the Reserve Bank

The RBA is highly involved in the development of monetary policies that governs the Australia country, without government interference. These policies are mostly developed without much consultation with the affected parties. Although the bank seeks the government approval, their policies are not lobbied like other policies that are effectively scrutinized in the parliament and lobbied by the affected stakeholders to ensure that all the involved parties benefit equally or the policy benefits the majority. In most cases, some stakeholders feel oppressed by these policies as the normal citizen enjoys the benefits. However, their concerns are never taken into much consideration. In the recent past, the Reserve Bank reduced the housing investment borrowing interest rate. Although this was done in good faith, to boost citizens in acquiring their own homes, the rate of borrowing in this sector has gone extremely high such that there is a possibility of eruption of financial crisis in the country (Lowe, 2015). This demonstrates a considerable level of incompetence in the Reserve Bank’s ability of setting economically sound decisions and policies to protect the economy of the country. While the bank plays great role in protecting some of its stakeholders, it oppresses others by minimizing their profitability and increasing their level of liability. In the long run,some of the policies created by the Reserve Bank maybe creating a wanting situation such as economic crisis, where all individuals in the country may experience the impact of the past policies made to promote the citizens.

Although the Reserve Bank is scrutinized by the legislation body, this only happens twice per year. There is no scrutiny of the policies made by the legislators before they are implemented. This implies that the legislative body only scrutinizes the outcome of the applied policy and it is never given a chance to determine the practicability of the policy. Thus, some of the applied policies may highly affect the financial welfare of some stakeholders in the country before it is rectified (Rba.gov, 2016). Moreover, all the Bank applied policies are approved by the government. This simply means in a bipartisan argument, the party ruling the country may easily protect the bank decision as a way of protecting the government credibility. This neutralises the independence that the body is given and the strength of legislative body scrutiny. This simply means, while majoring on promoting the welfare of the citizen, the Reserve Bank may develop measures that highly undermine the ability of other financial institutions to grow and do their business effectively.

Reserve Bank Recommendation for Reform

The Reserve Bank of Australia plays a major role in controlling economic health and citizens’ financial welfare in the country. The Bank develops policies that govern the economic performance of the country. However, unlike other government policies, the Bank policies are only reviewed by the government officials and once approved, these policies are implemented. This forces the affected stakeholders to follow policies that they were never involved in their development or which were developed without considering their opinion on the matter (Stevens, 2010). This seems oppressive to all stakeholders especially those in the financial institutions whose operations are always regulated by the Reserve Bank. In this regard, I would recommend that the Reserve Bank policy making policy may integrate all the affected stakeholders through lobbing. This implies the policies should be presented to the public after the governmental approval for public scrutiny. The institution should then review the public view before making the final decision on the policy, and consider them in decision making or creating a balance in its policies. This will ensure fairness and balance in the experiencing of the possible impact of the provided rules. The Bank should work to ensure a state of balance where the welfare of all is regarded.

The Bank is closely supervised by the legislation to ensure that it stays within its limit. However, this scrutiny happens on events that have taken place. This scrutiny takes place twice per year. This means that the Bank is only scrutinized on events that have already taken place. The bank does not offer accountability to the legislative body on the formed policies before they are implemented. This may mean that the legislative scrutiny may be sometimes late especially when the applied policies have negative short-term effect on the economy. Thus the law governing the institution scrutiny may need to be changed. The institution should be scrutinized regularly, especially in events where a new policy needs to be implemented. However, it should still be given an upper hand in the policy development due to high expertise on economic matters. The legislator in the new changes should be given a chance to review the policy and give their opinion on the same. This will ensure that the citizens are fully represented in the formation of the policy. Nevertheless, the Reserve Bank has played a great role in ensuring that the Australian economy is highly protected and the financial welfare of the people is put into great consideration. Its measures in ensuring the financial health of the country and has for a long time managed to instil economic balance in the country. The Bank only needs to ensure that it consider both short and long-term impact of its policies before they are implemented.

Supply Chain Design – Warehouse Operations in Australia

Strategic Warehouse Management, Inc. (SWM) is a U.S. based warehousing organization in the construction and management of warehouse operations. The CEO’s market development team has determined that there is an opportunity to open a warehouse in Australia that could serve multiple businesses. The CEO plans to open a “non-resident company” (Land and Tax News, 2012). The CEO has also decided that the warehouse can be opened in any city in Australia. Some clients in Australia have also asked SWM to manage the flow of goods from Australia to U.S. locations. The CEO wants to get a preliminary plan developed as soon as possible before going further. The CEO asked you to design a supply chain that includes warehouse operations in any city in Australia. In addition, the CEO has a number of items he’d like to see you cover in the report. He has asked you to:

  • Develop requirements for the warehouse design and to provide an organization structure to manage the warehouse in Australia.
  • Present considerations for Workforce Management
  •  Investigate key regulations and other key issues (e.g. labor climate) related to managing a warehouse in Australia as a foreign entity.
  • Develop export procedures and import procedures in the U.S.
  • Discuss supply chain risks and possible mitigations.
  • Analyze which operations Strategic Warehouse Management would outsource and which operations Strategic Warehouse Management would directly manage and explain why.
  • Outline the budget line items that would need to be considered (it is not necessary to develop a budget with dollar figures).
  • Determine the metrics you would use to measure success of the warehouse and the total supply chain.

Your report should be an eight to ten page APA style paper (not including the title and reference pages) and submitted to the CEO (your instructor) by the last day of the class. You are required to include at least 6 scholarly sources,

Australia Groceries Market Analysis Using Microeconomic Principles

The retail grocery sector in Australia came under a lot of criticism in the past couple of years because of the rising prices of goods. One issue in the debate was the role of competition in the sector. The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission estimated that Coles and Woolworths accounted for about 70% of packaged grocery sales and 50% of fresh food product sales in Australia. This assignment asks you to apply microeconomic principles to analyse the market for groceries in Australia.

  1. Is the retail grocery market in Australia a perfectly competitive one? Outline the major reasons why it might not be perfectly competitive. What are the likely implications of this for consumers? (800 words)
  2. Explain the concept of ‘workable competition’. Why might it be relevant in this market? What indicators could be used to assess whetherworkable competition exists in the retail grocery market? Justify your answer. (400 words)
  3. The major retail grocery chains are vertically integrated. Explain the meaning of this term and the implications for any competitors in the industry. Suggest a strategy for successful entry of a new competitor. Draw up a payoff matrix to illustrate your strategy. (800 words).

BRL Hardy – Globalizing An Australian Wine Company

 How do you account for BRLHardy’s international success in the wake of the merger.?

BRL Hardy’s international success is attributed by a number of factors in the wake of the merger. The merger provided room for increased deliveries from to almost five hundred member growers.  The newly increased member growers delivered over fifty thousand tonnes of grapes which attributed to the BRL attaining a second largest rank in Australia.

The success can also be accounted for in terms of the new integrated management team that was growth oriented. The new management team as suggested by Miller could expand their targets beyond home market unlike the former. The merger was accompanied by great business innovations that included the management styles. David woods proclaim that not everyone could easily adopt but he finally earns his stripes through self innovations by integrating two sales forces.

 Should Millar approve Carson’s proposal to launch D’istinto  Why/why not?

Carson’s proposal to launch D’istinto, a new line of Italian wines, could only promote the centralization of the market. This is very contrary to what Miller believe in. Approving the launch could jeopardize his desire for the European unit’s actions. Apart from the centralization element, Carson’s proposal had its financial implications that could have been drastic for the organization.  There were far too many concerns about the Italian ventures plus the senior management’s bad feeling towards the whole idea.

 What recommendation would you make to the organization concerning the conflicting proposals for Kelly’s Revenge and Banrock Station? What would you decide to do as Carson? As Millar?

About the conflicting proposals for Kelly’s revenge and Banrock Station, both had potential catch at different regions. An organization best prioritized goal is to make the most profit while maximizing sales, the brand dominating in an extended geographical cover is deemed fit for an organization. However as Carson, with great conviction and support from the United Kingdom, I will pursue the support for the new brand of Kelly’s revenge over Bankrock Station. As Miller on the other hand, personality and personal stand towards a brand should not precede the business interests. Kelly’s revenge seeks to dominate a wide cover and support.  I will involve Davies into logical reasoning concerning the practicability and profitability of the brands and give in if necessary.

Causes of Customer Complaints at Tigerair Airlines in Australia


Customer satisfaction is an important aspect for every company or organization. A profit-seeking company always strives to ensure high levels of customer satisfaction through quality services and products. It is the desire of every company to always receive positive feedback from its customers regarding the services and products since this has positive outcomes on the financial performance of the company. High levels of customer satisfaction translates to high customer retention rates by the company as it increases customer loyalty towards the organization. Loyal customer will not only continue purchasing the company’s services/products but are more likely to refer other potential customers to the company. The reverse is true whenever there is high level of customer dissatisfaction regarding a company’s service or product.

The airlines industry is quite a volatile industry for any operating company due to the increase in number of competitors. Being a service industry, customer satisfaction is of paramount significance. In fact, airlines compete along the ability to best satisfy the needs of customers in terms of airplane design, much minimized delays, as well as effective customer engagement. The Australian airline industry has a number of competitors. There are five major airline companies which operate as domestic carriers. These are Virgin Australia, Jetstar, Rex, Tigerair, and Qantas Domestic (Nick, 2015). All these companies compete for the domestic market share. Due to the many available airlines, customers are quite sensitive to the quality of service offered by a company as well as other factors like price.

Tigerair Australia is a subsidiary of Virgin Australia Holdings. It started its operations in Australia in the year 2007 and sailed on the market entry strategy of being a price leader. Its services were the cheapest in the market during its entry, a strategy that won it a significant number of customers. The company, however, has since been ranked the worst airline in Australia based on the numerous complaints received from customers who used its services. Since its operation, it has faced several complaints, increasing from 13% in 2013 to 31% in 2014 (Dang, 2014). The report released by the Federal Government’s Airline Customer Advocate (ACA) in 2014 indicated that the airline had ranked the worst in three consecutive years based on number of complaints. Customers have launched numerous complaints that include frequent delays caused the airline, the cancellations of flights, refusal to refund customers, poor terms and conditions, as well poor airport customer services (Nick, 2015).

The rise in number of customer complaints every year is a major risk to Tigerair’s operations. It is an indicator of increased customer dissatisfaction, which could result in massive loss of customers. It is also an indicator of poor leadership within the company since the complaints are based on similar issues which have being ignored and not resolved over the years. There is need for these complaints to be clustered into categories and the root causes of such complaints identified. The company should then identify possible solutions to these complaints so as to avoid the devastating outcomes of increased customer complaints.


The main aim of this research is to find a lasting solution towards solving the customer complaints at Tigerair. The specific objectives of the study include;

  1. To identify and cluster the complaints raised by the customers.
  2. To identify the causes of those complaints.
  • To determine the possible solutions to those complaints


Researching on customer complaints at Tigerair is important for both the company and the customers. Just like most of its competitors, Tigerair is a company that does business primarily to generate profits. It can only achieve profits and its financial objectives by having an adequate number of regular customers who purchase the company’s services. This cannot be achieved with the current situation where majority of the customers are clearly dissatisfied by the quality of the company’s services. The results from this research can, therefore, be very beneficial to the company in achieving more sales. It is expected that the company would adopt the recommendations from this research project in a rational way and implement them within a reasonable timeframe. Secondly, this research is important for the customers. The customers have a right to quality service and products. Such quality is currently definitely not being assured by Tigerair. This research will help in identifying the key causes of the customer complaints and present them to the company for recommendations for change. This is important to the customers whose complaints will be presented collectively which will serve as a reasonable call for change made to the company.


This research proposal is expected to have a number of outcomes at the end of the study. The expected outcomes are based on the fulfillment of the stated objectives. These outcomes are outlined below;

  1. Customer complaints will be identified and clustered into common categories.
  2. The causes of the customer complaints will be identified and similarly matched with the clusters of the complaints.
  • A number of possible solutions to the customer complaints will be identified and recommendations will be developed from these possible solutions for implementation by Tigerair.


Customer satisfaction in the airlines industry is a topic that has been explored extensively through research and past surveys. The surveys have focused on the various aspects of customer satisfaction in this industry which include factors of satisfaction as indicators of customer satisfaction in the industry. Grigoroudis and Siskos (2009) identified a number of methods that can be used to measure customer satisfaction in various industries. They first identifies the three main satisfaction dimensions for customers of airlines. These dimensions are customer satisfaction before, during, and after their flights. These two authors adopted the use of dual importance diagram which is a satisfaction criteria based on four quadrants.

Fig: The dual importance diagram(Grigoroudis and Siskos, 2009).

As can be seen from the diagram below, the four determinants of customer satisfaction in the airlines industry include pricing, quality of service, and relationship with company personnel, and speed of service delivery. Grigoroudis and Siskos (2009) then propose a number of techniques that can be used by the airline companies. One of the proposals is the integration of information technologies in enhancing quality and speed of customer service. One of the technologies proposed is Automated Response Systems (ARS). These are technologies that help in offering customer services by responding to any inquiries from the customers. The advantage of using ARS is increased efficiency in terms of reduced response time. ARS establishes a customer’s identification based in database contact information, identifies the inquiries or complaints launched and seeks to automatically respond to these inquiries based on matching programmed responses. Renart (2013) also provides an analysis based on the importance of customer relations in airlines industry. He observes that airlines companies can always gain competitive advantage by building a strong customer relationship. Customer satisfaction is deemed to be the key marketing aspect for any airline company which cannot be ignored at any given time. Renart (2013) suggests that companies should always first identify the specific needs of eth customers when developing marketing strategies. The common needs of airlines customers include affordability and convenience in terms of time management and customer service. Improving ion these facets will always make an airline more attractive to customers compared to its competitors

Constant and effective communication is also an aspect that has been identified by Renart (2013)as being necessary in enhancing customer satisfaction. Reputable airline companies always communicate with their customers to inform them of any new offers, rescheduling, or even refunds. Such companies are also very responsive to inquiries made by customers. They are also always apologetic to any customers who launch complaints and who feel they have received below-par services. Communication can be done through email, social media, and even through the mainstream media like television and radio.

Survey agencies like the ACA provide important statistics on the common customer complaints. ACA often ranks airline companies in Australia based on the number and type of complaints received by the companies’ customers. According to the agencies, the following are the three most common complaints raised by airline customers;

  1. Delays and flight cancellations.
  2. Hidden fees and charges.
  3. Poor customer service. A number of complaints are raised in this category including poor in-flight services as well as poor airport services like lack of adequate reception guidelines or restrooms.

Other complaints that are commonly launched against the airline companies include non-reimbursements. ACA reports that some airlines do not reimburse their customers who miss flights or who incur extra costs arising from inconveniences created by airline. In some cases, for instance, the airline can postpone a flight to the next day, necessitating that the customers seek hotel accommodation for the night. It is normally the responsibility of the airline to cater for such costs hence should offer full compensation to the customers in the form of reimbursements. The other complaint that is raised against most airlines is poor accessibility, that is, their websites are prone to downtimes. Most companies have online platforms for customers to make various complaints regarding quality of services. Most of the successful companies use these complaints to their advantage. Khan and Khan (2014) observe that “Customer complaints offer organizations with a chance to correct their mistakes, retain dissatisfied customers, and manipulate customers’ future”. That is what most of the successful airlines like Virgin and Qatar airlines have developed a strong customer base. They have developed the reputations for being the ‘listening airlines’ who always listen positively to customer complaints, acknowledge their mistakes, and initiate corrective measures.

The research will be conducted using mixed methodology (Bricki & Green, 2002). It will incorporate both qualitative and quantitative methodology. The qualitative one will be important in analyzing the current situation within the airport whereas the quantitative one will aim at analyzing the data collected in the course of the research (Todd , Waldman, Baker, & Blain, 2004). Once the data has been collected, the questionnaires will be analyzed to check for clarity and completeness. The data obtained will be edited and coded for accuracy. A quantitative form of data analysis will then be used and a frequency distribution table plotted in a tabular form showing the percentages.

Data collection techniques

Both open ended and closed questionnaires will be used for this research. Surveys and case studies will also be used as the tools for data collection. (Moffitt, 2017) This will aid in getting the customer feedback, in analyzing the situation within the airport and in narrowing down previous researches so as to get to more specific details concerning it. This research will ensure that it covers a reasonable target population so that the data collected will be more accurate and serve as a representation of the whole population. Secondary data can also be collected through examination of recorded documents (Kadam, Shaikh, & Parab, 2014). The secondary sources will include data from airline associations like the ACA which keeps summarized data of customer relationship with various airlines operating within Australia. ACA also keeps records of the complaints launched by the customers for each of the airline companies being monitored by ACA. For instance, the sample complaints can be collected from the customer’s complaint book from within the airport. Tigerair also has a website that keeps historical logs of complaints made by customers. These records will be accessed to identify the common complaints and cluster them into common categories.

Other secondary sources that will be explored include articles and peer reviewed journals. These source will serve as important literature which will provide a number of possible solutions to the complaints raised by customers. Case studies will also provide research data. The case studies will be conducted on Virgin Airways, Qantas, and Jeter. These three companies are the major competitors of Tigerair, hence it will be necessary to study how they have handled customer complaints within their companies and how they have always implemented corrective measures to deal with such complaints.

Population and sampling

The target population of this research is 200 customers and 20 employees of Tigerair. Random sampling will be used to identify the 200 customer respondents. 100 respondents will be women while 100 respondents will be men so as to avoid any gender bias. As for the employees, stratified sampling will be used since employees at different management levels will be questioned.The questionnaires given to the 20 employees will, therefore, be different based on the level of employment and the specific roles of the respondent.

Data analysis

Since qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques will be used, it will necessitate the use of different data analysis techniques. The following are the qualitative and quantitative techniques that will be used for data analysis;

  1. Quantitative data: quantitative data consists of all the numerical data. The numerical data shall be derived from the closed-ended The closed-ended questionnaires will be analyzed using SPSS data analysis software.
  2. Qualitative data: the qualitative data will be extracted from the open-ended questionnaires and surveys. The opinions and views raised by the respondents shall be clustered into common categories.

All the data collected shall then be analyzed for variance using ANOVA. Charts and graphs will also be drawn to show proportions of customer complaints collected from the study.

The following are the sections/chapters that will be included in the final research document.




Start time

End time

Duration in days

Formulating the research topic
Formulating the research questions
Formulating the research design and selecting of research methodology
Chapter one write-up
Literature review
Data collection
Data analysis
Final report write-up and submission



The following is a breakdown of the budget that would be required to sufficiently achieve all the objectives of this study.

  1. Cost of carrying out literature review: the literature review will require access to journals, books, and articles, most of which are contained in e-libraries and databases. These databases require subscription fees to access. The estimated cost for this is $400.
  2. Sampling and administering of questionnaires: the questionnaires will be administered to the respondents through mail and by direct delivery. This will require at least two employees to help in this. The estimated budget for the sampling, generation of questionnaires and distribution of these questionnaires is $4000.
  • Data analysis: data analysis will be done using a number of analytical tools like SPSS. These software are not freeware hence will require money to purchase from the vendors. The estimated cost for this purpose is $1500.

Below is a tabulated summary of the budget.

Purpose Estimated budget
1 Literature review materials $400
2 Data collection $4000
3 Data analysis $1500
Total $5900


Australian Taxation System Essay – Sample Paper

Australia is one of the most prosperous nations in the world. It has various high quality services that are not available in most underdeveloped nations. However, the Australian taxation system has been criticized for its many shortcomings. The major pitfall of the Australian taxation system is that it does not have neutrality in the treatment of high-income earners and small businesses. In addition, the taxation system tends to favor the baby boomer generation. The taxation system is also negatively geared towards investment properties. This necessitates the Australian government to undertake sweeping reforms in the taxation system to correct the problems inherent in the system.

The current Australian tax system has too many vested interest and rent seekers that make it not be neutral. The current system favors high income earners and small businesses. The current system also has unfair deductable expenses. Negative gearing of the Australian taxation system favors high income earners and small businesses. Negative gearing occurs when an investor buys a certain property but the income of the property is unable to meet interest on the money the investor borrowed to purchase the property. Negative gearing favors high income earners. This is due to the fact that high income earners have high interest rates and would therefore have a greater benefit of negative gearing.

The present taxation policies favor high income earners in relation to family trusts. It provides them with tax breaks for discretionary family trusts. Family trusts enable the high income earner to tying up their assets in a trust, which reduces their taxable income. Family trusts enable the high income earner to distribute their income to low income family members. The tax policies should be altered to ensure that there is a minimum amount of profit that a trust may earn before it is converted to a company.

The Australian tax system also favors small business owners. If an individual employer changes the tax status from employee to sole trader, partnership or company, the individual would be entitled to tax breaks that were previously not enjoyed.For example, an employee cannot deduct travel expenses to and from the workplace from the taxable income.However, a business owner can deduct all travel expenses from the taxable profit of the business.

The Australian tax policy has consistently favored the baby boomer generation in their entire lives. The tax policies has been changed on several occasions to favor throughout their lives. The baby boomer generation have not only received tax breaks, they have also received free education and benefits from a system that enabled them to exploit other taxpayers.
The current Australian tax policy enables people to reduce their taxable income based on the expenses they incurred to invest in various properties. In so doing, it treats low-income earners who cannot afford to buy property unfairly. It makes the low income earners continue wallowing in debt. The tax benefits give the high income earners who are already in the property market an advantage over other people who would like to purchase a home. Negative gearing was aimed at encouraging people to build new houses. However, it has been unable to achieve its purpose. This has made it place a large drain on the taxation system.
The tax discount on 50% capital gain for investments that are more than one year has increased the bias of Australian tax system towards the high income earners. This tax benefit has led to a significant reduction in government revenue. In addition, it has not only made young low income tax payers be unable to purchases homes but has also ensured that their taxes benefit the high income earners who collect their monthly rent.
It is unfair for the current Australian tax system to offer deductions on loss making properties. It reduces government revenue. In addition, it enables investors who receive less income from their property than they pay for the amount borrowed to purchase the property to reduce their taxable income. This system is unfair to people who cannot afford to purchase their own homes as they do not receive deductions on their taxable income.
The tax system should have a neutral treatment of rental and owner occupied homes. The system may achieve neutrality by providing incentives for investors to construct new houses. They may then rent the houses to low income taxpayers at a lower price. This strategy would help in alleviating the Australian housing shortage. The Australian tax system may also provide rent assistance to low income earners. It should also abolish the stamp duty taxes.
The baby boomer generation accounts for a significant proportion of the population in developed countries. However, the baby boomers are approaching the retirement age. The Australian government implemented a compulsory superannuation scheme in 1992 to tackle to issue of the ageing workforce. However, the government still needs to implement other measures to tackle the reduced workforce. Reduction in the workforce would reduce income tax revenue and increase health care payments for the old. This would place a strain on the younger tax payers as they would have to meet the tax burden due to the retirement of the baby boomer generation. Currently, the Australian tax system does not generate enough revenue to meet the public demand for various services. The demand would increase in the future as the population that needs the public services increases.

The government should ensure that it undertakes measures that would help in increasing the tax revenue. However, the measures should be non-discriminatory. The government may increase the tax revenue by increasing the rate of goods and services tax. This would be applicable to all taxpayers regardless of their income level. The current Australian goods and services tax is significantly lower than the level of other countries. Therefore, it would be a good source of raising additional tax revenue. Increase in tax revenue would help in maintaining the high quality of public services. The government may also increase the tax revenue by taxing the family trust of high income earners. The government may use the tax revenues to improve the welfare of the low middle class earners. However, increasing goods and services tax has become a political issue with different parties on either side of the debate.
In conclusion, the Australian tax system has been criticized due to its pitfalls. It favors high income earners and small business owners. It makes them be eligible to various tax breaks. The tax breaks reduce tax revenue. The ageing of the baby boomer population would reduce the active workforce in the economy. This necessitates the government to formulate measures that would help in improving the tax revenue.

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LAWS20023 Australian Taxation Law Course Help

What is this course about?

This course enables students to acquire a sound knowledge of the Australian taxation system and the compliance requirements. Topics include:

  • the Constitution and taxation power
  • the concept, source and derivation of income
  • trading stock, exempt income, allowable deductions
  • tax offsets; and the determination of taxable income
  • decline in value
  • and miscellaneous business deducations
  • tax administration
  • fringe benefits tax
  • and goods and services tax.

What are the expected outcomes of the course?

Course learning outcomes On successful completion of this course, you should have:

  • a sound understanding of the Australian Taxation system and the sources of Australian taxation
  • demonstrated knowledge of the main concepts and principles of Australian income taxation law
  • competence in applying the taxation law in preparing income tax returns of moderate complexity for individual taxpayers, companies, partnerships and trusts
  • an ability to critically evaluate principles of Australian Fringe Benefits and Goods and Services tax regimes
  • knowledge of the compliance requirements under the Australian taxation system a critical awareness of the concept of tax avoidance and of general tax avoidance provisions in the Australian Tax legislation

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Collaboration Systems at Isuzu Australia Limited Case Study – Answered

Collaboration Systems at Isuzu Australia Limited Case Study Questions

Read the case study in Chapter 12 titled “Collaboration Systems at Isuzu Australia Limited”.

Write a two to three (2-3) page paper in which you:

  1. Summarize the main reason(s) that prompted Isuzu Australia Limited (IAL) to use collaboration technologies.
  2. Identify the platform that IAL chose as an online portal and content management system, and describe the main reason(s) why IAL chose such a specific platform.
  3. Discuss the significant attributes of a wiki, and describe the overall manner in which IAL uses wikis for its internal collaboration.
  4. Speculate on the main challenges that IAL could face when implementing groupware, and suggest one (1) step that IAL could take in order to mitigate the challenges in question.
  5. Use at least three (3) quality reference. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Identify emerging technologies that enable new forms of communication, collaboration, and partnering.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in information management.
  • Write clearly and concisely about information management systems using proper writing mechanics.


Collaboration Systems at Isuzu Australia Limited Case Study Questions Sample Answers

Reason that prompted Isuzu Australia Limited (IAL) to use Collaboration Technologies

Isuzu Australia Limited (IAL) is deemed as a subsidiary Isuzu Motors Limited located in Japan and it is responsible for entire things including Isuzu Trucks within Australia. This company was demanding an effectual course of connecting its dealer network so as to heighten the accuracy and speed of its communications between headquarters and all dealers as well as business partners. However, the reasoning behind company requiring updating their systems and they way of conducting their activities in an effective manner is viewed to be based on various reasons. Foremost, this company wanted to get access of modern information and materials from AIL head office. For instance, by 2005, they had managed to distribute all the data in printed format and ferried it through Australia post. Essentially, this action was aimed at establishing centralized communication network which would be exponential towards company’s productivity, dealers as well as various business partners that need to acquire information and also submitting issues in the actual time rather than relying on post (Laosirihongthong, McLean, Leabsuetrakool, Chongjareonjai & Leedhirakul, 2008).

Isuzu Australia Limited Online Portal and Content Management System

Isuzu Australia Limited has also opted to employ Web Content Management (WCM) and IBM’s WebSphere portal, as well as Lotus Same Time instant messaging, Portal Document Manager (PDM) for central repository of informations, and Lotus Quickr for team linked project management. Apparently, application of above instruments was proposed by the Staff Operration Manger, Aninka Morhall since WCM and WebSPhere Portal are endowed with resolution that is capable of catering for needs than any other provisions in the market, particularly as far as scalability is concerned. The management is also interested in various additional collaborative components that are focused at facilitating accountability and transparency within the organization. For instance, Lotus Notes@ user are confirmed to apprehend that these systems would integrate seemingly with available technology platforms (Brooks, 2012).

Significant Attributes of a Wikis And Their Use in Isuzu Australia Limited

The introduction of wiki in has brought about diverse attribution in effectual progress of IAL. Indeed, wiki has improved internal collaboration within this organization. As a result, staffs are currently capable of publishing information by their own, hence promoting expediting entry to important details. For example, instant messaging has also made workers to depend less on email and thus various business decisions can be accomplished in the real time. The discipline of applying a central document repository is also easily hosted online, therefore indicating that documents can be shared through attachments and users can be exceedingly confident that they are accessing the most current version of information. Through this, the company’s announcements are no longer sent through email since users can log in to their portals and get update of the progress of the organization (Stephan, 2010).

While summing up, IAL shall also encounter diverse challenges while in trial of implementing groupeware. Foremost, there might arise some critical mass and confusion problems from the users. Diverse groupeware are only essential where high percentage of team members is ready to use it. Based on this, if some of the members in IAL are not ready to embrace this new technologies then the company may be forced to go back to the previous means of interaction. In case this groupware is influenced by motivational, social and political factors, then it can be resisted. To be at the safer side, AIL’s actions are supposed to be guided by social conventions and be done through awareness of the priorities and awareness of individuals around them. In conclusion, this advancement may also be costly since the company shall be forced to offer its staffs with new training so that they can comfortably use this modern platform (Minchin, 2007).

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ACC5502 – Corporate Governance In Australia – Santos

What is meant by the term Corporate Governance?


Corporate governance is a framework in which there are set of rules that define the relationship between the management, board of directors, and stakeholders of a company and influence the operations of the company. Primarily, corporate governance entails issues which result from the separation of control and ownership (Adler & APEA Seminar, 2009).The founding tenets of corporate governance go far beyond the establishment of a clear relationship between managers and shareholders of an organization or a company.

The Australian Security Exchange (ASX)sets out specific principles and recommendations to regulate the aspects of corporate governance practices for the various listed entities on its chart.The council gives lots of recognition to the fact that the different entities could legitimately adopt various governance practices, based on a number of factors; corporate culture, history, complexity and size. Therefore, the Principles and Recommendations are not regarded as mandatory and do not pursue prescribing the corporate governance practices that a listed entity should adopt (Australian Securities Exchange, 2010).

Every entity listed in ASX are obliged to provide to ASX alongside its annual report a completed Appendix 4G, which stipulates the key to where the different disclosures suggested in the recommendations or as required under Listing Rule 4. 10.3.

An entity which has not included its corporate governance statement in its annual report is obliged to give a copy of its corporate governance statement to ASX at the same time when submitting the annual report. The corporate governance statement should be current as per the effective date indicated in that statement for the purpose of Listing Rule 4. 10.3. All these requirements apply to all the ASX listed entities irrespective their structure of legal form, whether they have their establishment in Australia or anywhere else, or whether they are managed externally or internally.

The Council encourages that the listed entities do not take a legalistic or pedantic approach to their corporate governance disclosures, whether it is their corporate governance statement under the Listing Rule 4. 10.3 or in their different disclosures under these Principles and Recommendations but rather to give an informative and holistic explanation of their respective corporate governance framework (Adler & APEA Seminar, 2009).

Santos’ Corporate Governance Framework

Santos exercises a good corporate governance from various perspectives of the company’s operations. First, the company conducts its appraisal and exploration program in the Gunnedah Basin to provide additional geological and reservoir data. The program was conducted on a sustainability grounds by ensuring engineering and geological re-evaluation to remap the CO2 and methane content, and net gas pay. The company has ensured that the contingent resource estimates are also adjusted to provide for the incorporation of such re-evaluation (Australian Securities Exchange, 2010).

Secondly, Santos has a highly structured leadership team who are tasked with the responsibility of running the affairs of the company at all levels. The team includes the lead Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, Technical Engineering and Innovations Personnel, Group Executive Investor Relations all through to the least ranked individuals like supervisors who also perform a little bit of the management operations at the lowest ranks of the company. The company’s leadership provides a rational division of control and leadership within the context of the organization management’s platform.

Strengths of Corporate Governance at Santos Ltd

The Santos Corporation enjoys a great level of independence especially within its management. For instance, the company exercise high levels of its Directors’ Independence (South Australia, 2011). The Board undertakes the assessment of the independence of each Director of this corporation, putting into consideration the definition and aspects of independence as set out in the ASX Principles (Australian Securities Exchange, 2010). The company’s corporate governance provides a highly structured framework on which the Board assesses each Director’s Independence on an individual basis with respect the stipulated materiality guidelines and give focus on the assessment of the capacity of every Director’s to bring independence of judgment on the decisions of Board.

Secondly, Santos Limited’s framework for the Nomination Committee’s consideration on the Board composition, as stipulated in the Board Charter provides that the Directors should be chiefly on the basis of their capacity to contribute to the company’s development. This strongly heightens the company’s corporate governance as it ensures that the Board includes at least a given number of members with experience in the resources industries.

Weaknesses of Corporate Governance at Santos Ltd

Santos has faced technical challenges that have prompted the management team to opt for an outsourcing solution. This has posed a great challenge to the company as it strives to fully operationalize its business activities internally (South Australia, 2011). This has encompassed sourcing technologies to handle the complex technical and engineering challenges of unconventional and conventional drilling.

Additionally, the company has failed to meet satisfactory standards of socially and environmentally responsible energy company. The aspects of promoting sustainable future has inflicted critical debates in the operations of the company and thus it needs to understand the genuine needs and concerns of its key stakeholders and social communities.

Reconciliation in Australia Essay

Essay Prompt

Early this semester we looked at two theoretical works: Benedict Anderson’s deliberation on the ‘nation’ in Imagined Communities, and Lorenzo Veracini’s theorisation of ‘settler colonialism’.  In what ways might it be said that the Reconciliation era, and the years sine then, constitute various ‘imaginings’ of the settler nation?  Reflecting on Veracini’s ‘formula’ for decolonisation (which you may choose to agree or disagree with), have we moved closer to decolonisation, or not?


Sample Essay


Benedict Anderson’s Deliberation on the ‘Nation’ in Imagined Communities

The Australia reconciliation era involved the acceptance of Aboriginal community and their integration in the Australian community. The community experienced great level of discrimination during Australian colonialism due to their rebellion. The reconciliation period was basically meant to create peace and harmony in the country. However, this reconciliation could have been imaginable in the fact that, there was always two side of the coin. In some point, the Australian government appeared to assist the Aboriginal community and try to embrace them in the country, there was still some rules that discriminated them, which had not been changed or which were still discriminative to the community. Thus, in the real sense citizens were influenced to love and accept Aboriginal community, while as the rule of law still discriminated them and no one was ready to accept any form of change (Anderson, 2006).

The government just as claimed by Benedict uses similar tool to create group consciousness and national cohesion as it uses to create a boundary for those who were historically discriminated and rebellious. It employs language that evokes images, tells history and provide social cohesion. Never the less, the same tool of the language that they use to create distinctions and cement distinctions, which were created by intruders and outsiders (Anderson, 2006.). This makes real that the reconciliation which was thought to be taking place was not comprehensive. Instead it was imaginable to the community. The government made the community imagine that there is a reconciliation, however, in the real sense the aspects they employed to enhance cohesion is actually a lie since the rules were still static and apprehensive.

Reflecting on Veracini’s ‘Formula’ for Decolonisation

Based on Veracini decolonization formula, we are not closer to decolonization. According to Veracini, colonization is not basically about arrival of settlers and displacement of locals by them. However, it is all about the rules and the authority they create which ends up ruling the countries they colonize long after their departure from these countries. Although people were more concerned about settlers and their acts of displacing them, the most important aspects is not about all this or the occupation of indigenous people land, but the foundation they build in developing the political foundation of a country (Veracini, 2010). Although the indigenous had their own life, all this is nullified with arrival of settlers and new organizations are create which are left running in a country even after the departure of the settlers or colonials. In this regard, they always hesitate in embracing full freedom of the indigenous people even after the dismissal of the colonialism since their system still allows the aspect of discrimination and oppression (Veracini, 2007).

I highly agree with Veracini, although settlers have moved back to their countries of origin they established the government and the form of governance ruling in different parts of the world they ruled. Most countries still have the settlers’ constitution which guides through their daily operations. Moreover, the economic system in these countries is highly defined by their colonials. Thus even in their absence their effect remains dominant though it is executed by locals who take over the governance. They follow the same steps the colonial followed in their governance. Thus, geographically, settlers and colonialism is over though analytically the colonialism system rules in almost all the countries that experienced settlers’ colonization.


Anderson, B. 2006. Introduction. In Imagined Communities: reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. Verso: London.

Veracini, L. (2010). Leronzo veracini on settler colonialism. Retrieved from < http://www.southernperspectives.net/ips-series/lorenzo-veracini-on-settler-colonialism>

Veracini, L. (2007). Settler colonialism and decolonization. Borderlands. Retrieved from < http://www.borderlands.net.au/vol6no2_2007/veracini_settler.htm>


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Equal Treatment of Individuals with Special needs in Healthcare – Australia


Individuals with special needs, such as those with intellectual disabilities, are often not subjected to equal treatment, just as their rights are not always respected when using health care services. The society and the modern culture are also against these individuals, subjecting them to a further poor treatment, and not offering any form of support. This, however, can be controlled through the creative implementation of legislation, policies and many other ways to ensure that meaningful change is established in the lives of these individuals.

Equal Treatment of Individuals with Special needs in Healthcare

In Australia, the Equal Opportunity Act impacts the ways that services are made available for special needs individuals through many ways. This legislation uses a human rights based approach as guide to ensuring quality services and treatment for special needs individuals (Roberts et al.2013:15). Therefore, when offering health care services, human rights principles must be considered, and this also includes the rights of people with special needs. This legislation ensures accountability so as to protect individuals who are vulnerable to mistreatment.

The Social Care Act 2008 is yet another legislation that impacts how services are offered to people with special needs. It mainly focuses on the regulation of quality and safety standards in health and social care (Griffith & Tengnah 2010: 599). Therefore, people with special needs will also be able to receive high quality services and be protected from harm caused by poor quality services. In 1948, The World Health Organization declared that any person is entitled to the enjoyment of the highest health quality as a fundamental human right (Huxter 2013: 735).

Unfortunately, as much as the government is trying to promote the positive treatment of individuals with special needs, the society and culture are still working against the same goal. For instance, Huxter (2013: 736) argues that the mentally ill are being alienated in the society, and instead of being taken to healthcare facilities that will help them, a majority end up in prisons. Generally, these people are viewed by most cultures as abnormal. This is why they are stigmatized in the society and may not be encouraged to get the help they need. Huxter (2013: 736) further argues that it is possible that the Western societies’ attitudes towards health equity has not changed, despite the various changes in legislation and medical science.

In the modern Western culture, only a limited number of individuals actually care about the mentally ill and their special needs (Huxter 2013:740). This is why most of these people actually end up in prisons instead of mental facilities. Basically, the mentally ill are being treated just like criminals, despite the main issue here being their health. No one wants to be associated with ensuring they get the  health care they need.


The legislations and policies are ways that the government is using to ensure that all human beings are treated equally, with their rights being respected despite their mental and physical condition. This, however, is being limited by the fact that the society is still stuck to an outdated way of viewing the conditions of special needs individuals, mainly because of the modern Western culture. The legislation and policies play an important role in controlling negative behaviors and attitudes from the society so as to offer protection for the special needs individuals.


Griffith, R, & Tengnah, C 2010, ‘The Health and Social Care Act 2008’, British Journal of Community Nursing, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 598-602.

Huxter, MJ 2013, ‘Prisons: the psychiatric institution of last resort?’, Journal of Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 735-743. Available from: 10.1111/jpm.12010. [19 February 2015].

Roberts, A, Townsend, S, Morris, J, Rushbrooke, E, Greenhill, B, Whitehead, R, Matthews, T, & Golding, L 2013, ‘Treat me Right, Treat me Equal: Using National Policy and Legislation to Create Positive Changes in Local Health Services for People with Intellectual Disabilities’, Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 14-25. Available from: 10.1111/jar.12009. [19 February 2015].