Browse Tag: Buddhism

Buddhism related academic resources.

Chinese Philosophies, Confucianism, Buddhism, And Taoism, And How They Have Influenced The Chinese Business Culture

From the Global Edge site, China appears on top of the list as a country with the highest Market Potential Index, (MPI). This indicates that China is one of the fastest growing countries designated as emerging markets and therefore acts as a potential target for global expansion (Global Edge, 2014). Global Plastics Inc., a small company located in the United States, wants to market its plastics and toys in China. Such a move requires close negotiations between Global Plastics Inc. and a Chinese company, CEKG. In order to create a successful meeting with the people from the Chinese company it is important to understand how Chinese culture and philosophy influences business negotiations.

According to Li (2006), the Chinese cultural tradition is mainly inclined on three ideology headstreams namely, Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. These philosophies have greatly influenced the Chinese business culture. In Chinese culture, Confucianism is a belief system that is based upon interpersonal relationships that comprises of six different core values namely; respect for seniority and hierarchy, moral cultivation, the concept of face, importance of interpersonal relationships, family orientation, and pursuit of harmony and conflict avoidance. Confucianism pays attention to the dual aspects of obligation and responsibility. Therefore, when meeting with people from the Chinese company, it is important to observe responsibilities and negotiations and ensure that the relationship is just a harmonious one (Li, 2006).

Taoism in Chinese culture emphasizes on creation of harmony between two opposing forces, and it is seen as a natural process that flows through all things. It is an actionless activity that aims at finding a middle ground. Chinese people are largely concerned with finding a workable solution and this greatly affects business relationships. In the Chinese culture, ethical duties are believed to be contextual, and dishonesty can sometimes be rendered virtuous depending on the context in which it is used. Buddhism is another Chinese philosophy that has greatly influenced how business is carried out in China. In Buddhism, people believe that pain results from people’s desires and it is possible to overcome pain by overcoming those desires. This belief requires people to behave in manner that will enable them to obtain spiritual peace, where all aspirations and cravings are overcome by merging eternal harmony with the spirit. In business relationships in China, every relationship is considered successful if it generates a solution to an existing problem (Li, 2006).

The best approach process for creating a successful meeting with the people from the Chinese company must incorporate all the three Chinese philosophies described above. The approach process is that which carries forward the Chinese superior traditions of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. Specifically, the approach must be based upon interpersonal relationships, it must aim at finding a workable solution while creating harmony between opposing forces, and it must enable Global Plastics Inc. to fulfill its business objectives and benefit from the global expansion (Sebenius and Qian, 2008).

This approach process has been chosen considering some of the positive benefits that it has generated to companies in the past. According to Zhigang, (2013), Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism are very important pillars that support Chinese business negotiations. These three philosophies have similar essential thoughts and they all pay attention to humanistic values, despite the fact that they call for different reactions in the Chinese cultural tradition. Therefore, in order to observe the superior philosophies of the Chinese culture, the most important task is to flaunt the Chinese traditional philosophy that comprises of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. It is historically believed that the three Chinese philosophies tend to nurture and brighten the spiritual world of the people from China, and they act as forces that promote social harmony and enhance national growth. In addition, Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism play a big role in promoting social progress among the Chinese people (Zhigang, 2013). This explains the significance of choosing an approach process that entails the traditional Chinese philosophies as well as the components of the Chinese culture.

During an initial meeting with the Chinese company, CEKG, I had to display all the elements of the Chinese culture and philosophy as evidenced in their business culture. For instance, I have focused in relationships, particularly, interpersonal relationships throughout the meeting. Additionally, I have shown respect to seniority and hierarchy while striving to avoid conflict. Interpersonal relationships and respect for seniority and hierarchy are the key features of Confucianism that Chinese people pay attention to (Zhigang, 2013). Throughout the meeting, I have observed behaviors that the Chinese people view to be ethical during their first meetings with foreigners. For example, I have not viewed deception to be unethical considering the fact that Chinese people sometimes render dishonesty virtuous. Moreover, I have strived to create a balance between two opposing forces that was encountered during the meeting. This demonstrates that I have observed Taoism as one of the superior traditions of the Chinese culture (Li, 2006). Furthermore, I have strived to make negotiations that will assist Global Plastics Inc. to solve its present problems as a way of demonstrating Buddhism requirements.

 

Comparison – Buddhism and Christianity

Christianity is a faith based upon the instructions and miracles of Jesus.  The word Christ means anointed one, therefore, Jesus is the Christ. Jesus is the anointed one from God the Father who satisfied the Old Testament laws and prophecies when he came to earth, died on the cross, and rose from the dead physically. Buddhism is a path of put into practice and spiritual growth leading to imminent into the factual nature of realism. Buddhist practices get fond of contemplation are means of altering yourself sequentially to extending the qualities of consciousness, compassion, and wisdom.

The reality is, even though one can get many realities in Buddhist a tradition, Buddhism is in various points unable to get along with Christianity (King, 1963). Upon assessment of elementary Buddhist and Christian beliefs, it promptly becomes understandable that there is an obvious dissimilarity amid the tradition of Christianity and those of Buddhism. Even though you may pay attention to some Buddhists assert that they believe the same things, though there are numerous paths to God, various elementary Buddhist traditions are in actual fact absolutely conflicting to those of the Biblical Christianity.

The main difference between the Buddhism and the Christianity gets seen in the belief of the God the creator. The Nicene Creed, the mainly extensively used Christian creed, affirms that “We accept as true in one God, the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth, and of the entire things noticeable and indiscernible”. However, the idea of theistic creation is usually unfamiliar to Buddhist contemplation, and the query of the continuation of God is possibly one of the mainly essential barriers between the beliefs of Christianity and Buddhism.  Although, Mahayana Buddhism puts across faith in Bodhisattva this is extremely diverse from the conception of Creator God in Christianity. While some differences of Buddhism accept as true in an uncongenial external Buddha or trikaya in all-purpose Buddhism views unfilled space as everlasting and devoid of a preliminary point of creation

However, according to historian Jerry (1992), there are some similarities between the Buddhism and Christianity. Therefore, the main similarity is that Jesus Christ also lived preceding lives and it is clear that as it is believed by the Buddhism he reached a high position, either as a Bodhisattva, or a progressive person, all the way through Buddhist put into practice on something like that.

It is clear that, though Buddhism and Christianity have a little similarity, the differences are diverse. From the experience I have Buddhism has no similarities with the Christianity. The way Buddhist beliefs and do at their temple it is contrary with what Christians do at their church.  My assessment is that Buddhism is more human to human and reaching the highest point in life, while the Christianity is more human to God and they believe on getting eternal life as an achievement. Moreover, Buddhism faith does not recognize the trinity which is a very vital concept in Christianity belief. Although, this difference are experienced in daily life there other more difference that are not noticed physically and therefore, some cannot be seen.

Four Noble Truths of Buddhism

Buddha claimed that his teachings were a raft that would take people further ashore. In so doing, he did not simply describe the shore as the end. He portrayed the shore as something that can be carried around once people get there. The raft provides insights into the truths of the existence of people. It provides them with a path to liberation (Nirvana), which is the further shore that people should aspire to reach. In his first sermon, the ‘Deer Park’ Buddha set forth The Four Noble Truths, which acted as the foundation of his future teachings (Fisher, 1997). The Four Noble Truths were: “1). that life inevitably involves suffering, is imperfect and unsatisfactory 2) that suffering originates in our desire 3) that there us a state in which there is no suffering, and 4) that there is a way to realize this state” (Fisher, 1997, p. 132).

The first noble truth is known as Dukha. It represents the shore that people are currently in. People usually aspire to have pleasures. This makes people be attached to the present shore due to their desire for pleasure (second noble truth). The attachment to pleasure prevents people from have an awareness of Nirvana. This prevents it from being reachable. Following a noble pathway (fourth noble truth) would enable people cut their attachment to pleasure. This would enable people drift to Nirvana, which would be the new shore as portrayed in the third noble truth.

The Four Noble Truths are applicable to the practice of gaining self-identity through consumerism. The desire to gain self-identity through consumerism represents the shore that people are currently in. This is relevant to the first noble truth. The desire for self-identity through consumerism makes people continuously yearn to preserve their self-identity through consumerism. This makes them be attached to the desire for pleasure (second noble truth). The desire for self-identity through consumerism blinds people from Nirvana, making it unreachable. Following a noble pathway as described in the fourth noble truth, would enable people get rid of their desire for self-identity through consumerism. This would drift people to Nirvana, which would be the new shore where there is no desire for self-identity through consumerism.

 

Imagine that you are interviewing the founders of two of the following: Buddhism, Daoism or Confucianism.

Imagine that you are interviewing the founders of two of the following: Buddhism, Daoism or Confucianism. Write a 1000 to 1250 word magazine article about your interviews. Choose two of the following topics to cover in your interviews (the same two for both founders): The founder s teaching on the nature of the world and the nature of the divine The founder s teaching on the nature and role of humans The founder s teaching on society and ethics The founder s teaching on what is most essential in life Include a concluding paragraph in which you explain what you found most interesting in these interviews.