Browse Tag: Childhood Obesity

Academic resources related to childhood obesity which include but not limited to essays , research papers , article summaries, assignments and sample answers, research proposals e.t.c

An Evaluation of Issues Related to Childhood Obesity

Introduction

The 21st century has been punctuated by sudden spikes in epidemiological transitions that have, more often than not, been the bane of human existence. Concomitantly, obesity is presently progressing in prevalence with a wide range of causative factors being blamed for this particular state of affairs. Even more shocking, is the rise in cases of childhood obesity which had hitherto been virtually unheard of in modern societies. General practitioners have time and again underscored the seriousness of this public health challenge that is now a becoming a common feature of many low and middle income nations around the globe. It is estimated that roughly 43 million children under the age of six harbor excess body fat with their body mass index (BMI) determining their morbid obesity (“4.5 Childhood obesity going up,” n.d., p. 78). Health pundits have often made it their life’s work to put this particular issue into perspective, especially when most health agencies are openly nonchalant when dealing with this debacle or offering viable solutions. Children residing in urban settings are more likely to exhibit morphological compositions that are characteristic of childhood obesity, an indication of a deep seated problem. It is for this reason that this research paper seeks to analyze issues related to childhood obesity with a primary focus on its causes, effects on health and possible intervention options that may aid in managing the condition.

Causes of Childhood Obesity

  • Consumption of fast foods: In recent years, parents and children alike have adopted bad eating habits that have been blamed for the steady rise in obesity amongst children. Consumption of junk foods and fast foods has now become the norm with many paying little or no attention to the cumulative effects that would result from their dietary choice. The spread of fast food chains such as a Burger King, Domino’s Pizza, Hardees’s and KFC, families in urban settings now make up a regular clientele. This phenomenon has been blamed on busy work schedules that leave parents with limited time to prepare meals for their families. Moreover, these foods are inexpensive and the reason why teenagers are more likely to consume them on a regular basis. Nonetheless, it is vital to acknowledge that these foods are only rich in fats and carbohydrates with high calories while devoid of any nutritional value.
  • Limited physical activity: Lack of physical activity in children is now becoming a cause for concern for many general practitioners since it has been directly linked to childhood obesity. Children are spending less time outdoors, preferring instead to remain indoors leading a sedentary life in front of modern conveniences such as television and gaming consoles. The immediate result of this lifestyle is an extension of their adipose tissue, an indication of extra pounds added (“4.5 Childhood obesity going up,”). Additionally, the addictive nature of these video games and television programs usually means that they would spend a large chunk of their time staring at their screens as opposed to engaging in activities that are physically tasking. Similarly, they are more likely to be exposed to commercials promoting junk foods which may subsequently influence them to increase their consumption of sweetened beverages, sweets and other salty snacks.
  • Genetic Factors: Ground-breaking research into factors promoting childhood obesity has recently revealed that genetics also play part in increasing susceptibility. Coupled with behavioral and environmental factors, children with obese parents are likely to follow a similar route albeit sooner rather than expected. This is because the genetic make-up of such individuals consists of genes that are associated with a lower basal metabolic rate. The expenditure of energy while in sedentary state is therefore quite low which becomes a contributing factor in as far as weight gain is concerned.
  • Socio-economic factors: The fiscal environment that a child or family find themselves in has also been a contributing factor in childhood obesity. The common culprits blamed for this eventuality are parents from middle-class families since they are usually in a position to provide their children with such luxuries. A common trend that is typical in such households is that of children snacking between meals. It is this purchasing power that ultimately ends up impacting the children negatively, especially if the parents do no set rules and regulations poised at limiting such habits. Children from middle-class families that are fairly well-off therefore are at a higher risk of becoming obese in comparison to their counterparts from poor households.

Effects on Health

  • The development of type 2 diabetes: One of the most surprising developments in health care in the past four decades has been the permeation of diabetes among children. Nevertheless, an analysis of nearly all these cases have one common denominator; obesity. It did not take scientist long before concluding that obesity in children also led to development of diabetes. More specifically, the said individuals would develop Type 2 diabetes, making it next to impossible for the body to effectively metabolize glucose (Ahima, 2014). Consequences of developing this condition are that sufferers may end up developing various forms of eye infections or kidney failure.
  • Cardiovascular diseases: As mentioned earlier, children who become obese are more likely to adopt an unhealthy lifestyle lacking any form of physical activity. They adopt such an approach, even when constantly ingesting foods that have been prepared using unsaturated fats. As a result, cholesterol levels shoot up to an alarming level, clogging the blood vessels thus making the pumping of blood an uphill task. In addition to this, the blood pressure also shoots up, leading to hypertension and increasing the risk of developing heart disease (Bagchi, 2015, p. 90). Obese children are therefore at a very high risk of suffering a stroke or a heart attack due to a cholesterol level which is abnormally high.
  • An increase in asthma afflictions: As co-morbidity, asthma has often been directly linked to obesity. The main reason why this is the case has to do with the chronic inflammation of the subject’s lungs which becomes a predisposing factor, especially if the persons in question are obese children. Breathing ends up becoming a major challenge for such individuals who may later on suffer from increased bouts of breathlessness. Researchers are categorical in stating that there is a direct correlation between developing severe asthma and childhood obesity. It is for this reason that they caution parents against allowing this condition to deteriorate often due to the residual effects that it may have in future.
  • Sleeping disorders and joint pains: Obesity in children takes a toll on their weak and nascent bodies since they are largely unprepared to handle the body weight that they are forced to contend with. It is for this very reason that such may have difficulty sleeping often as a result of a myriad of disorders. Snoring now becomes an issue of great concern with others developing disorders that are more severe such as sleep apnea. Their usually regimen is now disturbed by the extra weight forming around the neck area and being responsible for the blockage of airways. Moreover, the frail bones of such individuals struggle to support their body weight resulting in severe joint pain.

Possible Management Approaches

  • Transforming eating habits: The main contributing factor promoting obesity in children are the eating habits that they have been accustomed to all their life. A large majority of obese children are in their present predicament due to the unhealthy lifestyle choices practiced within their family units. In other scenarios, it is the parents who influence the children to indulge in such practices that ultimately end up affecting them negatively. Since children are under their care, parents should take the first step in changing these destructive eating habits and introducing changes for posterity. This can be done by either limiting or having a total ban on junk foods at home and during family outings. It is this same consciousness that will allow the parents to invest in vegetables, fresh fruits and, lean proteins, non-fat milk and whole grains.
  • Increasing physical activity: The introduction of physical activity is one of the surest ways of ensuring that a child sheds excess weight. Regular work-outs for children at this particular stage in life may seem less interesting and in extreme cases even loathed. An alternative in such a case would be to make the physical activity more fun by encouraging the child to join a sport of their liking. For instance, an overweight child may take an interest in football and lose a considerable amount of weight while in the process of engaging in the sport. An increase in family activities may also be a step in the right direction. Incorporating activities such as swimming and hiking into the family routine is not only a superb chance to bond but an opportunity for all members to become active. Parents are also obligated to limit the time that their children spend before screens and switching this with a timetable that ensures that they lead a healthy lifestyle. They are now able to lead a life that is more balanced in all aspects.
  • The use of medications and even surgery: It is vital to note that there are certain instances during which drastic measures may be required to aid such a child shed weight. The use of a wide range of medication and surgery, when necessary, are effective methods that can be used to keep a child’s weight in check. Prescription medication such Xenical is effective in aiding children shed excess weight with no side effects on the individuals (“Global Childhood Obesity Update,” 2011, p. 337). Consulting a physician is, however, an important step since they are better placed when it comes to recommending the correct medication and its dosage. Extreme cases call for drastic measures to help a child lose excess weight. This is often when other methods have borne no fruit. Surgery is an effective method that has aided many in their weight loss journey.

Conclusion

Childhood obesity is a modern day health challenge that has been steadily rising. The consumption of fast foods, limited physical activity, genetic and socio-economic factors are the most common reason why this is the case. This condition has been blamed for an increase in cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, sleeping disorders, asthma and joint pains among children. Though tasking, this condition can be managed by transforming eating habits, increasing physical activities, the use of medications and surgery which would enable children lead lives that are more fulfilling.

Type 2 Diabetes and Childhood Obesity

This paper elaborates in detail the significance of health promotion and maintenance of desirable health by embracing healthy lifestyles so as to avert the occurrence of both childhood obesity and Type 2 diabetes. In the past, reported diabetes cases among children were that of immune mediated type 1a. However, with increasing cases of childhood obesity there has been a dramatic increase in Type 2diabeties among the children. Obesity is associated with resistances to insulin; Type 2 diabetes is developed when the condition is coupled with insulin deficiencies in the body. Children who develop this type of diabetes have higher chances of experiencing micro vascular as well as macro vascular complications of the ailment during young ages compared to individuals who become affected by the condition in adulthood (Wilmot & Idris, 2014). These complications include atherosclerotic cardiovascular illnesses, myocardial infarction, stroke, renal inefficiency and failures, retinopathy that can lead to blindness, neuropathy and even sudden death in chronic cases. Since both cases, Type two diabetes and childhood obesity have raised a lot of concern in the recent past, healthcare professionals are advised to take more measures in reducing the impacts of the diseases. This can be done by researching on the root cause of both diseases and mitigating further incidences.

Importance of health promotion

Increasing rates of both childhood obesity and Type Diabetes among children have detrimental effects and substantial long term repercussions to the affected persons, the society and the public health system at large. It is therefore necessary that all health care providers reduce the effects at the early age, prevent and control further occurrences. Since Type 2 diabetes can be avoided by practicing good health measures, healthy habits and lifestyles have to be instilled in populations at high risk of developing the conditions (Segel, 2011). In the event that measures meant for stopping the rise of childhood obesity and Type 2 diabetes are ignored, more harm will be seen in both the children and the society. Early onset of Type 2 Diabetes automatically leads to early development of chronic complications like renal failures, neuropathy or even blindness due to retinopathy, which affects the physical wellness of the children. Tagging to that, the economic, psychological and social impacts of these conditions are too significant.

Patient population

For the past thirty years, the number of children diagnosed with obesity has kept on increasing at a very high rate. It is documented that 22.6% of children between the age of 2 to 5, and 31% between the ages of 6 to 19 years have higher risks of being overweight in United States of America. The other fact is that the condition disproportionately affects children who descend from minority groups. The occurrence of obesity among non-Hispanic white children was 8.6%, 8.8% for non-Hispanic black children, and 13.1% for the case of Mexican American children. The children suffering from obesity have higher chances of becoming obese adults as well if the recommended health measures are not taken seriously. They are also likely to develop serious medical, psychological, and social problems all through their life span (Koukourikos et al, 2013). The growing prevalence of childhood obesity corresponds to the rise of Type of diabetes among the children. In the pediatric population, Type 2 diabetes accounts for a significant fraction of number of newly diagnosed diabetes. The figure rises to a high of 50% incidences in some clinics. Children at puberty stage have higher chances of developing Type diabetes even though they are not obese. This is because of the fact that puberty is closely related to the enhanced secretion of growth hormones by the body, a factor that promotes the body’s ability to develop insulin resistance. Therefore, when this factor is coupled with genetic and environmental factors, the individual has higher chances of developing Type 2 diabetes.

Proposed solution

Health care professionals and care givers including parents and guardians should assume the active role of identifying cases of obesity, reduced glucose tolerance and diabetes in children. This can be done through various ways. The first one is through identification of environmental and genetic risk factors like gestational diabetes, maternal obesity and lack of physical activities by the populations at risks at an early age. This will help in reducing the impacts caused by the risk factors and avert the development of chronic conditions. Counseling programs should also be provided in all learning institutions that promote the importance of weight loss through modifications of lifestyles (Hurtado-lopez & Marcias-Rosales, 2013). The other solution is screening of persons at risks of getting Type 2 Diabetes, this is because the disease is asymptomatic and signs might show up at later stages upon development of chronic complications. It is, therefore, essential to monitor the risk factors and use screening methods to identify the presence of the condition among the population at risk.

The American Diabetes Association (ADA) endorses screening for diabetes among children who have a BMI of 85th percentile for age and gender, alongside two risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes. Screening is more important because it helps in early detection of the disease and early treatment and management provided to those affected (Ortega-Cortes, 2013). It is evident that diabetes related complications begin even before the onset of its signs and symptoms. Aggressive treatment on the other hand slows the occurrence of complications, therefore early identification and treatment of children with Type 2 Diabetes presents the promise of prevention of occurrences of serious complications.

Goals

One of the goals is to reduce the occurrences of childhood obesity among the populations. This will not only promote better and healthy lifestyles but also reduce the occurrences and spread of Type 2 diabetes. All government entities and communities should ensure that children are encouraged to choose healthy lifestyle choices. Teachers should take the roles of eliminating junk foodstuffs like candy and sodas in school cafeterias and mandate regular physical activities. Governments should ensure that policies are formulated that protect the right of children to access good healthy foods whether in their homes or school environment, should also ensure that all schools provide the recommended environments for children to play and exercise (Farsani et al, 2013). This goal will be measured using the BMI method, the BMI should be plotted annually on the BMI growth charts. This can be done by the providers of healthcare in all Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP), and determine if the level of childhood obesity is increasing or decreasing.

The other goal is ensuring that Type 2 diabetes in children is prevented by all means. The disease can be prevented or delayed from occurring for many years. With thorough investigation, identification, treatment and management of the condition, it can be prevented from occurring at an early age. It is paramount to note that even small changes can make big differences in a person’s body, which can lead to prevention of the disease. This includes daily eating of healthy foods, having enough physical exercises, and being active on a daily basis. Parents and guardians should also be aware of Type 2 diabetes warning signs since the condition is asymptomatic. The warning signs include having blurred visions, abnormal fatigue, increased thirst, and frequent nighttime urination. Upon identification of the signs, the parents and guardians are supposed to take their children for Type 2 diabetes screening (Karnik & Kanekar, 2015). So as to ensure that this goal is achieved, all relevant institutions, including government and learning institutions are expected to come up with effective policies that promote healthy living conditions and lifestyles. These policies have to be followed to the latter end, and form of punishments enforced to those who violate the provided laws. Health audits can be conducted in the relevant institutions so as to ascertain that the measures are adhered to, and any corrective measures undertaken in case of incompliances.

Barriers

The first barrier to effective prevention of childhood diabetes and Type 2 diabetes is financial challenges. All the programs that lead to interventions of the diseases based both in schools and community levels need subsequent monitoring of improvement and sustainability for longer periods of time. Therefore with insufficient funds, the program facilitators may end up using ineffective methods or discontinue the programs, which will end up negating the whole process. School based intervention programs need more funds since it involves training of teachers, provision of enough facilities and promotion of policies that encourage healthy lifestyles. It is also the most essential and preferred intervention mechanism since children longer in schools than they stay in their homes or community (Segel, 2011). Communities on the other hand will find it difficult to provide safe neighborhood for the children to play and exercise with insufficient funds. In order to avert this barrier, all the relevant institutions should practice transparency when explaining the impacts of the disease in society. This will help in raising funds especially form the private sector and other non-governmental organizations to help in mitigating the impacts. The federal and state governments on the other hand should allocate funds that can help in preventing occurrences in populations at high risks of getting both conditions.

The other barrier is that stigmatizing obese children has become a common occurrence. Obese children are often face discrimination because of their body appearance, this reduces their chances of coming out for healthy programs and any other essential assistances.  This mostly happens in learning institutions and community settings, where interventions are mostly conducted. This act of stigmatization, especially by their peers, is seen as mental barrier and leads to undesirable body image and the avoidance of certain foods. This makes the condition worse because it can lead to other detrimental effects like malnutrition (Ortega-Cortes, 2013). This can be eliminated by implementing policies that support healthy living while at the same time discouraging any forms of discriminations of all persons. These policies should be supported by all levels of government, starting from national, regional to local.

Benefits

The reduction of childhood obesity and Type 2 diabetes has more benefits to the patient population, the key ones being that it reduces the psychological and social health issues that can affect the well-being of the children throughout their lifespan. Obese children have negative body image which ends up lowering their self-esteem in the long run. This may also affect their academic and social lives which are more essential in a child’s growth (Koukourikos et al, 2013). With early detection and treatment, the children are able to live normal lives and achieve their desired potentials in future. With regard to the nursing profession; health promotion activities reduce the chances of disease occurrences hence increasing the rate of healthy populations. This promotes the roles of nurses in the society, which is creating and maintaining healthy environments. Reduced disease occurrence and spread will consequently lead to reduced roles and responsibilities on the part of health care providers and care givers.

Participants and Interdisciplinary Approach

For successful implementation of this plan, many stakeholders have to be involved. This is because the determinants of childhood obesity are varied and no single intervention is likely to eliminate it. With respect to that, varied stakeholders have to be incorporated in the plan as well. Sustained interventions have to be undertaken at different levels, individual levels especially in schools and communities with the aim of effecting changes in behaviors. The other important sectors are the agricultural departments, food manufacturing companies, learning institutions, transportation and urban planning departments (Segel, 2011). The other important people are the public health officers who can assist in diseases surveillances and epidemiology. Medical officers are needed to provide treatment and management of the diseases among the populations already affected by the chronic complications of both childhood obesity and Type 2 Diabetes.

The education sector will assist in incorporating healthy living programs in schools calendars.  Urban planning departments will take the important role of ensuring that children have the right environments for playing and physical exercise activities (Karnik & Kanekar, 2015). Agricultural and food manufacturing companies will ensure healthy and nutritious foods are marketed and sold to the public. Parents and guardians have to take the role of instilling good healthy practices among the children while in home, while teachers are mandated to provide the same roles while the children are in schools. The federal and state governments are mandated to protect the rights of children to access good health services and live healthy lives.

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Childhood And Adult Obesity in America

Obesity in America is considered an epidemic. There are many contributing factors to obesity (both childhood and adult), such as biological, environmental, social, or economic factors. Review the information on obesity on pages 383 to 385 in the textbook. You may also use the Internet or Strayer Library to research obesity and its causes.

Write a one to two page (1-2) page essay in which you:

Describe the effect that obesity (childhood and / or adult) has had on you personally or your community.

Select one (1) contributing factor to childhood or adult obesity.

Recommend two (2) preventative measures related to the selected factor that people can take in order to reduce their chance of becoming obese.

Discuss one (1) sociological theory that relates to the selected contributing factor to obesity.

 

Childhood Obesity – Review Of The Literature

The following is a review of literature related to childhood obesity which is major health problem all over the world. The essay will focus on the different studies that have been done on childhood obesity and the recommended solutions to the problem. Most of the literature recognizes that childhood obesity is a major health problem, and not one single intervention is adequate to deal with the problem. The role of nurses in interventions is critical to reducing and preventing childhood obesity.

Childhood obesity is a big problem in Spain and other developed countries. A study was done in Spain which provided an overview of obesity in Spain, and the approach required to develop preventive strategies in the country. It acknowledged that obesity is a major public issue in developed countries. It also provided statistics of obesity in Spain. Prevalence of obesity in Spanish children is 13.9% for the whole group. The causes of obesity in Spain are absence of breast feeding, low consumption of fruits, vegetables, high consumptions of soft drinks, sweetened foods, and low physical activity due to too much time spent watching television. It proposes a school based intervention project as a solution for dealing with the problem. The program will promote healthy eating at the school level with the support of parents (Aranceta et al, 2007).

Promoting knowledge among undergraduate nursing students is important in the prevention of obesity when they start to practice. There are numerous health issues that are related to the childhood obesity pandemic. There is single strategy than can deal with the problem effectively.  Nurses need to work together with children and parents through education, guidance and support. Nurses play a significant role in interventions for treating childhood obesity. If nurses are trained in childhood obesity before they practice, it will prepare them on how to deal with children with obesity. It will develop their creative ability in engaging children to learn about obesity (Ellen Ben-Sefer, 2008).

Childhood obesity is a major health issue that an international panel of experts did a systematic review of obesity to come up with best practice. The objective was to make recommendations about the development and implementation of best practice recommendations to promote healthy weight in children and youth for the prevention of chronic diseases associated with obesity. The panel analyzed 147 intervention programs based in pre-school, primary school and secondary schools. It concluded that not a single program provided any model for best practice. However, it proposed that schools were the best setting for intervention programs for obesity. Schools were ideal for also promoting physical activity which is an essential component of reducing and preventing obesity. Programs should be evaluated on the long term effect to maintaining healthy weight (Flynn et al., 2006).

  1. Nurses and families can work together in dealing with overweight children. Nurses can also provide the knowledge and support to families to deal with overweight children before they become obese. Preventing and reducing obesity among children requires the involvement of families and nurses. These two groups are critical in providing education, support and guidance during intervention programs and to reduce the pandemic (Harbaugh et al, 2007).

Mothers play an important role in the health of their children. A group of mothers with obese children have come up with strategies designed to deal with obesity. Healthy eating habits begin with the parents. The mothers initiated a range of strategies that included development of physical activities, reducing consumption of junk food, and creating awareness of healthy foods.  If mothers make healthy choices from the time their children are born, it is more likely that the children will not become obese. The study supported the role of nurses in working with mothers in implementing interventions that deal with obesity (Jackson, Mannix, Faga, and McDonald, 2005).

The gravity of childhood obesity in the United States is alarming. Obesity is an epidemic that is threatening America as the number of obese adults is rapidly increasing. Children need to change their eating habits and start making healthy choices. American needs to change their lifestyles as over 50% of obese children become obese adults. Chronic diseases related to obesity are on the rise and there is need for the use of health practitioners such as nurses in the fight against obesity (Kaufman, 2005).

Nurse practitioners play a significant role in dealing with childhood obesity. A study was done to describe the prevention practices that nurse practitioners (NPs) in family and pediatric practices use in dealing with childhood obesity. It concludes that NPs working in family and pediatric practices are not consistent in screening for childhood obesity through the checking of Body Mass Index (BMI). However, NPs are involved and committed to teaching parents about making healthy food choice and engaging their families in physical activity. This study supports the significant role that nurses play in the prevention and reduction of childhood obesity. It concludes that the major barriers to the implementation of childhood obesity strategies are parental attitudes, American lifestyle and lack of resources for both the NP and the family (Larsen, Mandleco, Williams, and Tiedeman, 2006).

Childhood obesity is an increasing health problem linked to chronic health problems in adults and children. Childhood obesity is a major health issue because of its association with other chronic diseases such as diabetes. One of the major challenges of obesity is when it persists into adulthood. Decreasing calorie intake and burning calories through physical activities are not enough to reduce obesity. The use of case management is useful in dealing with chronic health problems brought about by obesity. This is better than single interventions on weight management which cannot detect other chronic illnesses related to obesity. (Mason et al, 2008).

Many studies have been done to come up with methods to use as best practice for obesity prevention. One of the causes of obesity is lack of access to healthy foods. Most children with obesity have access to a lot of junk food, and sweetened drinks compared to healthy food. Determining the location of food retailers in relation to the urban population density of obesity behaviors is important in coming up with best practice to prevent obesity. Best practice should include interventions that support nutrition and healthy choices and accessibility to these in preventing obesity in children (McNeil and Flynn, 2006).

The performance of clinician’s performance in identifying and managing obesity can help determine how effective they are in preventing obesity. An analysis on statistical information on the rates of identification of obesity by pediatric residents, nurses, and faculty in an academic primary care setting can determine their performance. Pediatric health care providers are the crucial initial step in the management of obesity. They are the first point of contact that children make when they are ill, and early detection and prevention can help reduce obesity (O’Brien, Holubkov, and Reis, 2004).

Pediatric obesity is a chronic and growing problem for which new ideas offer hope for effective solutions. It is important that understanding that obesity is an increase in fat mass and not body weight can assist in coming up with effective solutions. The identification of bio chemicals that cause obesity through genetic approaches can provide a theoretical foundation to develop safe and effective obesity treatments. This is a different approach to coming up with a solution for obesity as no single intervention can be used to prevent it (Schonfeld-Warden and Warden, 1997).

Technology is an important tool in health care management. The use of Health Information Technology (HIT) in the screening and treatment of childhood obesity can be beneficial in the reduction and prevention of obesity. Childhood obesity is a global health issue affecting children in every country. HIT can be used for screening purposes and for monitoring the effectiveness of various interventions for childhood obesity. HIT can improve the quality, efficiency, and management of childhood obesity (Smith et al, 2013).

Dietary treatments in children with simple obesity through the analysis of the children’s state of nutrition and eating habits are an effective way of preventing childhood obesity. Simple obesity in children aged 3-15 is connected to familial, environmental factors and incorrect eating habits. Diet is an important aspect of any intervention for childhood obesity. When a child understands the benefits of eating health early in life, they will develop healthy eating habits which will reduce the chances of them becoming obese (Weker, 2006).

Nurses play a significant role in fighting obesity in children. A combination of strategies is required to fight the disease. Statistics on obesity in the United States are alarming as the number of children with chronic diseases related to obesity is also on the rise. Nurses are an important part of the solution as they can educate and support children and their families on changing their lifestyles and making healthy choices (White, 2002).

The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity among Hong Kong Chinese children are over 10%. The differences in behavior between overweight children and obese children are statistically significant. These two groups are different, and therefore different intervention strategies should be used for each group. Health issues affecting overweight children are very different from those affecting obese children (Wong, 2005).

HA535 – Childhood Obesity in America – PowerPoint Presentation

HA535: Data Analysis for Health Professionals – Childhood Obesity in America – PowerPoint Presentation

Introduction

  • Childhood obesity is a health-based concern that has continually affected a considerable percentage of children in the 21st century. In the United States, approximately 21-24% of adolescents and Children are obese (Sabin et al., 2015).

Causes

  • Biologically, obesity is as a result of insulin resistance resulting in the development of type 2 diabetes among other health related issues.
  • A decline in engagement in physical activities and well as increased consumption of unhealthy meals has resulted in the development of obesity among children in the current age.

Facts and Figures

  • Between 1980s and 1990s, the prevalence rates of obese children aged between 2 and 19 years has greatly risen.
  • Approximately 17% of children within the identified age bracket are obese in America.
  • The prevalence rates of obesity among children aged 2 and 5 has been declining significantly to about 8.4% in 2012 from 17.7% (Gagnon & Stephens, 2015).

Risk Factors

  • The choice of foods such as high fat foods as well as sugary foods results in obesity.
  • Decline in the rates of physical activity
  • Engaging more in sedentary activities
  • Genetics

Societal role in obesity

  • The society has played a significant role in the increased prevalence rates of childhood obesity through;
  • Increased cost of healthy foods
  • Increased portion sizes
  • Increased use of cars
  • Increased marketing of unhealthy foods and drinks

Childhood and Adult obesity

  • Childhood and adult obesity are directly interlinked.
  • It is a high possibility that an obese child will remain obese even during the adolescent stage and become overweight as an adult.
  • Approximately 80% of overweight adults were obese as children (Sabin et al. 2015).

Social Problems For Obese Children

  • Obese children records a lower level of self-esteem compared to the non obese ones
  • Increased chances of suffering other health related concerns as adults

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U.S. Childhood Obesity and Climate Change

Article Summary: After reading the article U.S. Childhood Obesity and Climate Change: Moving Toward Shared Environmental Health Solutions located in Doc Sharing, write a paper summarizing, agreeing, disagreeing, responding to, or reflecting your personal thoughts and observations about the article. The paper must be double spaced, minimum two-pages in length, and in APA format.

Activity – Toxins in the Body: List some of the toxins that persist in the human body, and the potential sources of those toxins in your environment. What are the substances that your body comes into contact with during a normal day? Make up a dialogue between your body and your environment and submit a paper. The paper must be double spaced, minimum two-pages in length, and in APA format.

Childhood Obesity Research Paper

Research the responsibility of a critical thinker in a contemporary society. Examine the principles of critical thought in relation to Childhood Obesity, and consider the importance of ethics, moral reasoning, a research-based process to search for truth, and the advantages of information technology in gathering data.

 

Your Final Research Paper on Childhood Obesity should:

  1. Include a literature review of three scholarly sources based on Childhood Obesity. Analyze the validity of the author’s arguments and/or biases.
  2. Explain how academic knowledge impacts the social elements and institutions of both local and global communities.
  3. Assess how the principles of active citizenship could impact Childhood Obesity during the next five to ten years.
  4. Include at least one reference to a multimedia component (i.e., podcast, interactive website, blog, or video) and evaluate the relevance of this piece in relationship to academic knowledge and the selected issue.

The paper must be 12  (excluding the title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style. You must use at least 12 scholarly sources, six of which can be found in the Ashford Online Library.  Cite your sources within the text of your paper and on the reference page. For information regarding APA, including samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center within the Learning Resources tab on the left navigation toolbar.

Writing the Final Research Paper

The Final Research Paper:

  1. Must be 12  double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  2. Must include a title page with the following:
    • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  3. Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
  4. Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
  5. Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
  6. Must use at least 12 scholarly sources, including a minimum of six from the Ashford Online Library.
  7. Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  8. Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.