Tag: Cold War

The Collapse of the Soviet Union

Collapse of the Soviet Union

Before 1985 the Soviet Union was a territory that ignored the various activities that were taking place from the West. The culture, technological advancements, and manifestations were all ignored. Before 1985 the Soviet Union was surrounded by a wall which was made of stone. The wall was impossible to be broken down by any person.  The foundation of the wall was put in place by the communism people who lived in the country during that time. By the year 1985, the Soviet Union had a new leader in place. He was known as Gorbachev and he realized that something was wrong in the country immediately he took to power. The party decided to take a role of transforming society, economics and politics of the people in that particular country. With such findings he introduced a new political process that was termed as the perestroika. It was a special program that was meant to change the various ways through which political, economic and social issues were handled in society. Gorbachev strongly believed that the country required two important processes to become a truly democratic state. With such factors in pace citizens would be allowed to know the various events that are taking place in society. The period from 1985 to 1991 become the only single time through which the gigantic existed (Borjas, & Doran, 2012).

Gorbachev contributed immensely to the change in the Soviet Union. The Soviet forces that were in Afghanistan were withdrawn and the cold war came to an end. The turn of events that occurred in the new leadership left the Soviet people confused on how they were to carry out various roles in society. The people in the Soviet lacked contact with the West and now the there was contact. Some of the people enjoyed the cultural contact while others did not the contact that was created. The people an essence of competing with the west and that left them more confused. The various issues that were lost in the aspects of the people had no proper substitute. The resulting effect was clashes, strikes and increased crime rate. After 1985, the Soviet was completely unaware of the way that they would use in handling various issues in society. The people were unaware on how they would handle speech, choosing religion and the right to participate in strikes (Borjas, & Doran, 2012).

The leaders at the time wanted the Soviet Union to be integrated to be part of the world. The only way integration would be achieved is through introduction of democracy within the Union. Market economy and a liberal market are essential in ensuring that the market that is created is free. That would allow business to be carried out freely with any country in the world. Although the country was not ready of the various dramatic changes, the country finally made changed. The Soviet Union collapsed and democracy was introduced.       Gorbachev had a lot of hope that he never attained during his reign. The crisis that had began led to serious consequences by the year 1991. The liberals come up with propaganda that had even more modern changes as compared to those of Gorbachev (Borjas, & Doran, 2012).

How Cold War Politics Shaped Political Developments In East Asia Since The End Of WWII

The cold war was the period after the Second World War when the communist world, the west and the soviet unions were in a state of political tension, economic rivalry; military tension coupled with a series proxy wars. The effects of the cold war on East Asia were significant in terms of political, social and economic changes. While it is important to note that most Asian countries have moved towards establishing democratic political systems, the process has not been an easy course. After the cold war, not many countries have been able to embrace democracy or have had a stable democratic political system (Mamta, 2015).

China for example has had significant developments in terms of economic growth and today, it is celebrated as one of the most stable economies in the world. However, the political system has not changed and even after the cold war, China is still under control by the Communist Party of China. However, it is important to understand that there have been political movements towards democratic systems of governance in East Asia. South Korea for instance has been preaching politics of reunification after the cold war. Its move to change from an authoritarian system of governance to a more inclusive and democratic system of governance has not been easy, albeit, the country has achieved tremendous milestones as a result of its quest for a democracy. Categorically, without loss of generality, the East Asian countries especially South Korea and Japan have developed politically after the cold war whereas China still remains a communist country with an authoritarian system of governance despite attempts to embrace democracy.

The Cold War and U.S. Diplomacy – Research Paper

Presidential doctrine definition and a summary of regional/global events during the Cold War leading up to the formation of the presidential doctrine 

(you wrote about in Assignment 1 (Reagan Doctrine))

A doctrine or presidential doctrine refers to stances attitudes or goals that are outlined by the United States presidents for the country’s foreign affairs (Brands, 2006). There exist many presidential doctrines, for example the Bush Doctrine, Reagan Doctrine, the Monroe Doctrine and Truman Doctrine. Although many doctrines were related to the cold war, the main purpose for issuance of a doctrine by the president is to shape the country’s foreign policy.

The Reagan doctrine was crucial strategy adopted by United States president in resisting and fighting the influence of the Soviet Union. The Reagan doctrine strategy involved giving backing to anti-communist guerrilla wars against the communist governments in the states that were backed by the Soviet Union (Brands, 2006). Initially adopted as a response to the Brezhnev Doctrine, the Reagan Doctrine would later become the cornerstone of the American foreign policy in mid 80s until the end of the cold war in 1991.

The Relationship between Russia and the U.S during Cold War

The relationship between Russia and the United States was driven by a mixture of ideological, political and economic factors (Hager, 2016). According to the author, the interplay of these factors led to a shift in the nature of corporations between the two countries, which often resulted in superpower rivalry. The U.S was predominantly democratic country, while Russia was a communist nation that led in a dictatorial manner. This differences in political systems between the two countries often resulted in misunderstandings on key policy issues.

Initially, American government has a history of supporting other countries in their struggle for independence, freedom and democracy. The administration of president Regan felt that going back on this old tradition was like giving in to the Russian communist revolution. Moreover, the Soviet Union acted with its proxies to advance the communist dictatorships. Russia under the Brezhnev Doctrine backed insurgencies in various countries that aimed at advancing their ideologies, for example in Nicaragua (Hager, 2016). In response, the United States under Truman administration adopted the strategy of containment.

The U.S strategy led to a tense relationship between the country and the Soviet Union. A series of nuclear tests were performed by the U.S and Russia (McDonnell, 2012). Many Americans got involved and many people built anti-nuclear walls, while many war drills were being conducted. The stakes of the Cold War heightened. These tensions would soon be subverted under President Nixon’s diplomatic strategy.

The Impact of Reagan Doctrine on Regional or Global Affairs during Cold War

The early years of the Presidency of Reagan were marred by intensified tensions of Cold War between Russia and United States (Ambrose & Lagon, 1994). Reagan began his presidency with suspicions of Russia as being an evil empire. His view of the regional conflicts in form of Cold War paradigm led to his determination in preventing the communist takeover in the Western Hemisphere. The invasion and takeover of Granada by Marxist government fueled the “Reagan Doctrine”.

The Regan Doctrine was the instrumental strategy upon which President Reagan intended to end communist revolutions (Ambrose & Lagon, 1994). The Reagan Doctrine was instrumental in forcing the communist withdrawal from Nicaragua. Moreover, the doctrine was easily employed in Angola, providing support to the UNITA movement. The doctrine was also instrumental in ending the Soviet occupation in Afghanistan and its actions against communist proponents, for example sanctions against Poland were instrumental in ending communist revolutions. Eventually, the Reagan Doctrine succeeded in ending cold war, which later saw new Russian leadership under new reforms and policies led by Gorbachev.

The Relationship that Exists Currently Between the U.S and Russia

Although communism has rapidly faded in Russia after the end to the Cold War, the shared leadership between the United States and Russia ended after the end of the Cold War (Heuser, 2014). However, according to (Moraru, 2013) the end of the Cold has been followed by curious policy thoughts between the two countries.  According to the authors, after the end to the Cold War, the United States did not and has not shown any urgency in embracing Russia into the Western political, security and economic circles.

Most of the bilateral relationships between the two nations are highly dependent on the personal relationships of the presidents of the two countries (Heuser, 2014). This was evident in the escalation in relationships between the two countries prior to the 2016 presidential elections. There were increased tensions between the two countries when it appeared that the Democratic presidential hopeful Ms Clinton was going to win the general elections. Russia viewed the Democratic presidential hopeful as an enemy. However, the tensions reduced when the Republican presidential hopeful won the presidential elections.

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Assignment 1 – The Cold War and U.S. Diplomacy – Answered

Assignment Instruction

Select a president from the table, “Presidents and Their ‘ Doctrines,’” in Roskin, Chapter 4. Then write a 3-5 page paper on the doctrine that president used according to Roskin. Your research must include at least four (4) credible sources, apart from your textbook.

Your paper must address the following:

  1. Summarize a situation that required U.S. diplomatic efforts during the president’s time in office..
  2. Explicate the diplomatic doctrine the president followed, with reference to specific actions or events that occurred..
  3. Describe the effects of these diplomatic efforts for the U.S. and other countries..
  4. Assess, in conclusion, the advantages and disadvantages of the particular doctrine that was followed..
  5. Cite at least four (4) reputable sources in addition to the textbook, not including Wikipedia, encyclopedias, or dictionaries. .

Your assignment must:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions..
  • Include a cover page containing the tile of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length..

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Identify the cultural, economic, and political context of information resources, and interpret information in light of that context..
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in international problems..
  • Write clearly and concisely about international problems using proper writing mechanics..
  • Grading for this assignment will be based on answer quality, logic/organization of the paper, and language and writing skills..

Sample Answer

The Cold War and U.S. Diplomacy

The Reagan Doctrine was the foreign policy in the United States, legislated by President Ronald Reagan. This doctrine was designed to eliminate the communist governments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America that were endorsed and validated by the Soviet Union. This assignment will summarize how the United States provided open and private support to guerrilla and resistance movements during the Regan years. Also, explicate the strategic doctrine specific events that occurred in Afghanistan when the Soviet Union invaded.  Finally, this assignment will describe the advantages and disadvantages based on the Regan Doctrine.

Summarize The Situation of U.S. Diplomatic of The Regan Doctrine

Throughout the opening years of the Cold War, Presidents Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, and Jimmy Carter all sanctioned policies against communism to contain it. Ronald Regan rejected their détente policy in 1979 when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. This alone proved that system that only provides communism were ineffective. Regan disapproved of the compromise policy when it came to any communist government. Instead, Reagan proposed the Rollback strategy. The making of the Reagan Doctrine shifted from containment and spreading to eliminating all current communist parties. Furthermore, the United States wanted to increase and encourage democracy and capitalism in replacement of ousted communist regimes (Conservapedia, 2012).

Implementation of the Regan Doctrine was to provide overt and covert support to guerrilla and resistance movements in countries where the Soviet Union wanted to spread their communist’s agenda or were eradicate an existing regime (Conservapedia, 2012). The doctrine was in full operation when The Soviet Union without provocation and with overwhelming force invaded Afghanistan in 1979. This rollback of Soviet power met little resistance from the international community except for Central America. Internally, Democrats in Congress warned that the Regan Doctrine would eventually lead to a nuclear war in response; they attempted to hinder and stop the implementation of the doctrine. Historian Barbara Tuchman disagreed with Regan confrontation doctrine and wanted the United States to pursue the stuff goose strategy. This option was to provide the then Soviet Union with consumer goods and all the grain they needed. Nevertheless, despite Regan’s lack of foreign policy credentials his pursuit to stop the evil, empire and would not deter him. However, some people believed he was a dangerous warmonger (Souza, 1997).

Roskin and Berry (2010) states that during the Cold War, most U.S. presidents articulated policies that journalists quickly dubbed their “doctrines.” These principles help us remember what each president stood for; however, they are all just variations of the first, the Truman Doctrine which was sometimes called the “containment” policy. The overall goal of U.S. foreign policy was to stop communism. I have chosen President John F. Kennedy and his doctrine of flexibility whose presidential term was from 1961 – 1963. According to Roskin and Berry (2010), President Kennedy’s tradition was to respond flexibly to communist expansion, especially to guerrilla warfare.

A situation that required the United States diplomatic efforts during President Kennedy’s time in office occurred October 15, 1962, when a U-2 surveillance plane captured photographs of nuclear missile sites being built in Cuba for Fidel Castro by Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev and the Soviet Union. The United States expressed its concerns to the Soviets, but they claimed they were only providing Cuba with weapons to defend themselves in the case of future attacks by the United States. According to Hermes (2001), President Kennedy made it clear that the United States would retaliate against the Soviet Union with nuclear weapons if any Cuban Missiles Crisis.

Describe the effects of these diplomatic efforts for the U.S and other countries.

For many countries, such as the United States, the practice of public diplomacy includes not only one-way communications but also the promotion of cultural, educational and citizen interchange. Public diplomacy differs from traditional government-to-government diplomacy in that it deals not only with foreign officials but also with non-governmental individuals and institutions, as well as mass audiences.  Depending on its long-term success on candor, credibility, and open interchange, public diplomacy does not include black propaganda, psychological warfare or other forms of covert action, which by their nature seek tactical and short-term gain.  Nor, by most definitions, does it refer to activities of private citizens and organizations (such as media and educational institutions) that take place without government financial support.  In short, much of public diplomacy can be viewed as the purposeful exploitation of what Joseph Nye calls a nation’s nonmilitary “soft power.”

“American traditions and the American ethic require us to be truthful, but the most important reason is that truth is the best propaganda and lies are the worst. To be persuasive, we must be believable; to be believable we must be credible; to be credible we must be truthful. It is as simple as that.” Within the U. S. State Department, public diplomacy is considered a separate function from public affairs. The latter focuses on reaching domestic audiences, while public diplomacy deals with overseas audiences.  The two terms, however, are used interchangeably at U.S. missions abroad, where the public diplomacy unit is known as the Public Affairs Section (PAS) and is led by the embassy or consulate’s Public Affairs Officer (PAO).

Although this portion of the website focuses primarily on the United States, it should be noted that virtually every country in the world uses public diplomacy to advance its interests, employing such tools of the trade as international broadcasting, publications, press conferences, Internet web sites and cultural events.

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What were the causes of the Cold War? – Essay

The Cold War is termed as a period where there was tension between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Cold War began after the end of the Second World War. It is referred to as the Cold War because there was no any active confrontation between any nations. The main reason why there was no active confrontation is mainly due to the fear of nuclear power that various nations had in their possession. There were numerous indirect attacks that took place on various nations. The most common form of indirect is that Vietnam and Korea. The Cuban crisis in 1962 is one of the incidences when the World almost came to a point of using nuclear power (Van Evera, 2013).

Causes of the Cold War

The major cause of the Cold War was as a result of the intentions of the Soviet Union trying to ensure that the ideology of communism gained fame in various parts of the World. That was against the wish of Americans who strongly believed in Democracy. Acquiring of automatic weapons by the USA caused fear and panic among the soviet people. The control of Eastern Europe led to the suspicions that the US president had to the Union. The US president personally disliked the leader of the Soviet Union. The fear that was among Americans was that the Soviet Union may use Western Europe as a base to cause attacks. The occupation of some parts of German by the Soviet Union also annoyed the Americans (Dudziak, 2011).

There were three underlying causes of the Cold War. They are classified as ideological, economic and power rivalry. In terms of ideologies, the United States believed democracy while the Soviet Union was a communist State. The Soviet Union had tried to advance attempts of ensuring that their ideology of communism was adopted by all states. That idea angered the US people. In terms of economy, the United States tried to ensure that there was free trade in all parts of the World, a concept that was opposed by the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union wanted its territories clear of any international commerce. There were power rivalries between the United States and the Soviet Union. That led to the creation of tension among the countries. Europe becomes dominated by the Soviet Union and the United States. The fight to gain total control by each of the States led to rivalry among the two countries (Dudziak, 2011).

Steps taken by the United States to counter the threats from the Soviet Union

The United States was shocked with the rate at which communism was growing in Europe. They immediately set the Marshall Plan that was aimed at countering the effect of communism that had widespread throughout in Europe. Through the plan, the US was able to offer relief support to countries that were in war torn areas to rebuild their economy. The money was not available to any of the Soviet countries or any of its close allies. The main motive for the financial assistance was to create business partners and exclude the Soviet Union from any trading relationships (Obama, 2010).

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How the Cold War began and how the US changed as a Nation.

Explain how the Cold War began and how the US changed as a nation.

The end of World War II brought about for many Americans an intense desire to return to normal life. It also brought about the confrontation with the Soviet Union and the beginning of the “Cold” war. At the end of this week’s reading and discussion, you will understand and be able to explain how and the various places we fought this new “Cold” War.

Your assignment is to write a 2-4 page paper on the following topics:

  • How did containment shape American actions abroad for almost half a century?
  • Where and how did we practice the policy of containment in the 1950s and 1960s?
  • Why did it become the dominant feature of American foreign policy after World War II?
  • In your answer discuss both proponents and opponents of the policy.
  • Follow APA guidelines.

Comparing and contrasting the arguments offered by John Lewis Gaddis and Walter LaFeber about the origins of the Cold War

Write a 4 page essay comparing and contrasting the arguments offered by John Lewis Gaddis and Walter LaFeber about the origins of the Cold War.  You should start by identifying the argument of each author. Then try to explain why Gaddis and LaFeber come to such different conclusions.In trying to address these issues, you might consider questions like the following.  (Address only those that seem relevant.)

  •  Do the two historians make the same assumptions about the motivations and security interests of the U.S. and the Soviet Union?  If not, how does that affect their respective arguments?
  • Do the two historians give the same attention/weight to the actions of the U.S./Truman and the Soviet Union/Stalin? If not, how does that affect their arguments?
  • How do the two historians describe the personalities of Truman and Stalin? How, if at all, does that affect their arguments?
  • Is there anything on which Gaddis and LaFeber agree? Do you see any similarities in their arguments?
  • The bulk of your paper should compare and analyze the two arguments. However, once you have done this, you may choose to briefly evaluate the arguments. Do you find one or the other more convincing? If so, why?

Please spend some time ensuring that your paper is well organized and grammatical, that you use the active (rather than passive) voice, and that you begin paragraphs with strong topic sentences.

  • Paper is about comparing historians and their arguments, it is not about what was happening in the cold war. so just compare historians and their arguments.
  • 1st page: write about these 2 historians Motivations and explanations and create a strong thesis. How did they explain cold war started. Analyze their common and different arguments about the topic.
  • After comparing their arguments, write a strong conclusion before ending the paper.