Browse Tag: Conflict

Academic resources related to conflict which includes essays, research papers, assignment instructions and sample answers, article summaries, movie and book reviews e.t.c

Managing Conflict and Stress In Workplace – Julie’s Scenario


As the manager of a department, you have noticed a lot of tension and arguments between your employees. The disagreements have been about work and personal issues. Julie has been a model employee for more than a year. In the past month, she has been late to work six times. You have noticed her checking her cell phone for messages very frequently, and she has been visiting non-work-related websites on her computer. Coping with work conflicts such as these has created an increased amount of stress in your life.

Write a paper of approximately 750 words that answers the following questions:

  • How do you identify and approach the different conflicts occurring within your department?
  • On which issues are you going to counsel, manage, and correct the behaviors of your employees? Outline your action plan for Julie. If you feel no action on your part is needed, explain why.
  • How are you going to manage your increased stress?
  • What policies and procedures can you put into place to help you and your team succeed?
  • Include a minimum of two sources,

Sample Solution

Managing Conflict and Stress


Conflict is a common phenomenon among people of different mind working to share similar scarce resources. Conflict normally happens when two or more individual cannot agree on something. In the workplace, conflict normally results to wastage of the time and development of tension among workers. It spoils the work environment, undermining the work morale in the workplace. In this regard it is important for the human resource manager to take control of the situation and manage the conflict to curb its interference with the organization performance

Conflict Management

Conflict can be identified by watching people’s behaviors and how they interact with each other. Workers normally have a way of interacting with each other and behaving respectfully to word each other. Sometimes workers are required to team up to complete a certain task, especially when a task has to go through different stages to be completed. A manager can identify that a conflict exist among workers if there is unusual behavior such as uncompleted work that requires collaboration and the workers blaming each other for this. This is a sign that there is a conflict. Thus a manager can identify conflict by identifying work loopholes, tension, abusive or sarcastic language, and unnecessary arguments which are hardly resolved (Wood, n.d.).

To resolve these conflicts, the manager requires organizing a meeting with all workers who seems to be having a conflict. The meeting should focus on identifying the root course of the conflict. In this part of the meeting, the manager should focus on digging out the main course of the conflict by allowing the two sides to speak out and give their side of the story. The manager should then look past the incident, by probing the workers involved to assist them in defining the real problem that will need to be resolved to end the conflict. The manager should then make the conflicting parties to identify the best solution that they think can address the problem. The conflicting parties should be able to identify the best way to make things work more effectively. With this, the manager should mentor the conflicting parties to define a workable solution that suits the two fighting parties. This includes the procedures that should be followed to ensure the problem has been effectively resolved. The manager should then make the two parties to resolve their conflicts by apologizing and forgiving each other by shaking hands (Ratnieks et al., 2006).

Counseling Workers Behaviors

The manager is required guide the employees on how they are required to behave and manage the organization time and resources. They also need to be guided on the use of personal phones during work time and visiting non-work related site. This should be recognized as wastage of the company’s resources and the manager should make it clear that a disciplinary action should employed in case one is found doing do. Workers will also be expected to respect their work and each other to enhance their team work. Workers should work as per their work descriptions and remain within their set objectives. The work performance appraisal should be introduced to ensure that workers operate as anticipated and work to enhance the organization productivity, and not to promote personal businesses while in the workplace

Julie Action Plan

Julie behavior has changed of late demonstrating change of interest and lack of the required attention to her job. She keeps stealing the employer’s time by doing other personal businesses during work hours. The manager should counsel Julie about her role in the organization and how she is anticipated to behave and to use her time in the organization. Julie will be guided on her duties in the organization and warned against using the organization time and resources to accomplish personal businesses.

Managing Increased Stress

To manage the increased work stress the manager should first recognize the presence and the cause of stress. The manager should then define measures to resolve the sources of stress in a manner that he will be able to ease the working process. For instance in this case, the source of stress could easily be conflict among workers and lack of work commitment. To resolve this, the manager should clearly define the roles of each worker and set the milestones for their work to ensure that no worker gets an opportunity to waste time or perform personal businesses during work time. Increase in the workers supervision and implementation of disciplinary measures for those who tend to misuse the organization resources should be implemented. Defining conflict resolution strategies and ensuring minimal chances of conflict development will also ease the management role and hence reduce or eliminate the manager’s stress. The manager should also try to promote a favorable work environment that will motivate workers to carry out their responsibilities without follow up and accomplish more than they are anticipated to accomplish. This will ease the management demand and stress (Michie, 2002).

Policies and Procedures to enhance Team Success

The manager should develop policies and procedures on how to resolve conflict among workers. This will ensure that conflicts do not propagate beyond the required level and that they are not fueled to influence the general organization performance. Other policies will be created to guide on the use of organization resources which include working time and the garget provided to accomplish the organization duties. Disciplinary action to be employed when one goes against the defined policy will clearly be stated.

Conflict in Marital Relationship – Communication Interactions Paper

Communication Interactions Paper

This is an interaction paper that conveys the understanding of the concerns that cause conflict between people or institutions and the methods and techniques and resources currently being used to resolve the conflicts in the varied contexts. This is implemented by selecting a specific topic or conflict situation and demystifying and analysing the events within the conflict to particular situation. The essay will define the context of the conflict; provide relevant history and the limitations of the conflict survey. It will also examine the major issues of the conflict and their causes as identified in the topic chosen. The communication methodologies that are used to resolve the conflict will also be reviewed and the recommendations for respective approaches to be considered in resolving the conflict.

Topic: Conflict in marital relationship

Marriage is a union that is of social nature union or a contract that is legal between spouses, and establishes obligations and rights amongst them, amongst them and their children and also their in-laws (Guttmann, 7). It is an institution that ensembles love, trust, understanding and unity. People marry for varied purposes including social, legal, emotional, financial, and religious and many others. A marital relationship is a union of the spouses with mutual interests and the spouses live together for various social and legal reasons. In a successful marital relationship, spouses must have more positive than negative interactions. The positive interactions and pleasant times help spouses feel respected and loved.   As an institution that involves human beings, conflict is inevitable. All humans are different, have varied beliefs, likes, dislikes and values (Bradbury, Fincham & Beach, 970). These differences are what make up an individual’s perspective and perspective is the way an individual consider or view things. The manner in couples deal with marital conflict is a powerful predictor of successful marriage. All marriages, even the very successful of them all, have conflict. Marital conflict is a normal part of two human beings working out a life together.

Marital conflict is not just a misunderstanding in the partners’ opinion but rather a sequence of events that have been handled poorly and inconsistently thus deeply damaging the marriage union. The issues in any marriage institution have deteriorated to a point that anger, stubbornness, anger, bitterness, hurt have left most marriage broken and prevented effective marriage communication. Marital conflicts have a harmful effect on family, mental and physical health and decades of findings and research have produced a clear picture of the nature of conflicts by revealing couples who are behaviours or tendencies of conflict.

 Four stages of marital conflict (Guttmann, 8)

These stages are what lead to marital discord.

Stage 1: this is where newly married couples are still new in the institution and do not know how to successfully resolve their differences. They settle issues by avoiding confrontation and thus have the ‘have it your way’ mentality.

Stage 2: this is now when the spouses have ignored each other enough to an extend of neglecting their basic needs. They now turn to individualism and want things done their own way. This is where discord begins in terms of who owns what.

Stage 3: This stage involves negotiating and compromising each other.

Stage 4: This is the stage where resignation is observed. Spouses in this stage are exhausted and the conflicts are at a stage where resolving is quite a hard task. This is where divorce is rife and expert advice and marriage guidance is required.

Research by various psychologists on marriage, especially the social psychologists whose main aim is to better assist couples experiencing marital conflicts in the last three decades showed that marital conflicts assume a special status in the institution of marriage. This was evidenced by three schools of thought.

  • First, many of the highly influential theories of marriage reflect the view that frustration results from spouses’ aversive and indecisive response to conflict (Grych & Fincham, 65).
  • Second, the research on marriage has entirely focused on the effect rather than the cause. That is what the spouses do when they disagree with each other and thus most interactions are inclined towards studies of conflict and problem solving (Grych & Fincham, 65).
  • Third is that conflict resolution techniques and skills are what are used by distressed couples as psychological intervention (Grych & Fincham, 65).

Marital conflicts entail very many things and can be virtually about anything. Many spouses complain about the major sources of conflict. These sources of conflict can range from abusiveness, which can either be physical or verbal, to their behaviour or personal characteristics. The issue is about division of labour and general sharing of family responsibilities. There is always a perceived inequality in the sharing of responsibility. This has caused marital conflict where the male folk tend to withdraw whenever conflict arises. Conflict over power or who is in charge at what time. This is strongly related to dissatisfactions in the marriage institutions. Couples reports of conflict over extramarital sex, excessive alcoholism and drug use is a predictor of divorce. Other reports are mainly from the wives of husband being jealous and foolishly spending money. The severity of most of the marital conflicts normally increases the likelihood of divorce. As much as the issue violence is not reported to be a problem by most couples, it is also a huge predictor of divorce in most newlyweds (Grych & Fincham, 70).

Spouses behave differently when conflict arises. An observational study conducted by psychologists with the underlying hope of identifying the dysfunctional trends and behaviours through couple therapy gave detailed information about how non-distressed and distressed spouses behave during conflict. At a time of conflict, couples who are distressed make more reactive and negative statements about each other and fewer positive statements than their non-distressed counterparts (Howard & Dawes, 478). They are also more likely to react or respond with unfavourable or reactive behaviours any time their partners behave otherwise.  All in all this so called negative reciprocity is more rampant across varied kinds of situations than is the ratio of negative behaviour thus making it the most reliable manifest sign of marital conflict. Negative behaviour is more frequently reciprocated in spouses who engage in physical aggression than any other spouses reported and this is a major cause of marital conflict amongst couples today.

Conflict in marriage can be looked at in several contexts according to Bradbury, Fincham and Beach.

  • Conflict in the context of affectional expressions and giving support
  • Conflict in the context of wider environment
  • Conflict in the context of the couples’ character traits and backgrounds.

There is atypical pattern of behaviour whenever couples are in distress or when they are experiencing conflict. These behaviours are more rampant or predictable amongst the distressed couples as compared to those who are not. These are normally dominated by chains of negative traits that usually escalate making it difficult for the couples to stop it. One of the biggest challenge for couples in today’s environment of marital conflict about negative exchanges is to stop the conflict and o adapt to each other’s flaws and to exit from such circles of negative perceptions about each other. This can be attempted or done through responses that are well thought out to repair the couple’s interaction and mode of communication. For example, listening to each other and not responding with irritation or sadness. However, if the partners respond to each other negatively and with rage, they will end up continuing the cycle of aggression thus enhancing the conflict again (Grych & Fincham, 73). The advantage of couples who are non-distressed is that they can handle conflict faster and in a structured and predictable manner in that they will appear to be more responsive to attempts of repairing the areas of conflict and thereby will be able to exit from marital conflict faster and with ease compared to their distressed counterparts.

The other behaviour pattern that is exhibited by couples who are undergoing marital conflict is the demand-withdraw pattern. This is where one partner presses the other partner with criticism, demands and complaints one hand, and in the other, the partner withdraws with passiveness, not acting on any of the aggression and at times becoming very defensive. Specifically, the most common situation is in the behaviour sequence where the husband withdraws from the hostile responses from the wife. This research finding was found to be very consistent with several studies showing that most wives display more effects of negativity and aggressive behaviour than their male counterparts (husbands), who tend to make statements or respond suggestive of withdrawal. Withdrawal o not engaging, in turn, plays a big role in decreasing marital satisfaction (Howard & Dawes, 479).

Are conflicts in marital relationships important? The answer to this question can be answered by first demystifying the reasons for conflict. Most marital conflict are caused by marital problems and issues such as;

  • Expectations
  • Financial problems
  • This entails include their discipline, diet and parenting issues
  • Sex
  • Responsibilities and shared tasks
  • Time away from each other
  • Toxic friends and peers
  • Family, especially the in-laws
  • Irritating behaviours and habits

The attention given to the conflicts in marriage can be understood when one considers, apart from the causes, but also its implication on the physical, mental and family health. These conflicts have been connected to the causing of symptoms of depression, eating disorders, alcoholism, absentee parenting and divorce. Marital conflicts are associated with poorer health and malnutrition. This is because the hostile behaviours at the time of conflict leads to stress and depression thus affecting the normal functioning of the body. The other issue is physical aggression. This has been experiences in many families in the United States who experience marital conflicts. It has led to physical injury. Cases of women being brutally injured and in some instances murdered by their husbands have been reported. Marital conflicts can be important if it is looked from the perspective of finding out the strengths and weaknesses amongst partners. When a conflict arises and it opens up doors of correcting and learning from each other, then the conflict can be termed as important since it has led to the strengthening of the marriage (Karney & Bradbury, 23).

In order to effectively resolve marital conflict, a couple must know, accept and adjust to their differences. All humans are different and it is important to understand these differences and then accept and adjust to them. Secondly, resolving conflict also requires couples to defeat selfishness. This is done through trusting each other and living in harmony. Third is the act of pursuing each other as a couple. This can be done successfully by checking on each other’s attitudes and circumstances and listening to each other.  Forgiveness is also key in conflict resolution (Koerner & Jacobson, 215). Both partners should learn the art of forgiveness because all human beings have flows and it only through forgiveness that couples will end up understanding each other’s flows and move on without prejudice and hate. Finally is effective communication. This is the main solution to most marital conflicts. When couples communicate well, openly and freely, they create a level of understanding that will overrule their weaknesses and make them adaptable to each other and thus reducing instances of conflict.

In conclusion, marital conflicts are what makes or breaks any marriage in today’s society. The supposition that management of conflicts in marriage is the key to successful marriages and that skills can be modified in a special therapy for couples has perceived very useful in propelling the research on marriage into the psychology mainstream. The stability of any marriage depends on how couples manage conflict amongst themselves.

Resolve Conflicts and Promote Collaboration as an Agile Coach

Determining how to build a high-performing agile team, while managing conflicts, is a considerable task for any agile coach. In this assignment, you are asked to explore and discuss various conflict resolution methods and determine when and how to use them as an agile coach. You must discuss the techniques in a context of an agile project team environment with various scenarios, and must also demonstrate how you can turn the high-contention situations into high-collaboration situations. For example, the project team has consistently encountered changes of scope by the product owner. The QA team also emailed the whole team on how poorly the developers have done in their coding. The developers escalated to their manager about the documentation errors done by architects.

Write a four to five (4-5) page paper in which you:

  1. Identify and evaluate at least three (3) conflict resolution techniques that can be used by the agile coach to change the dynamics of the team in the example provided.
  2. Summarize at least five (5) common causes of conflicts in this team and analyze why agile strategies can be applied to resolve those conflicts.
  3. Analyze the pros and cons of conflict resolution techniques and their usefulness in at least three (3) different situations (e.g., levels of conflicts).
  4. Suggest at least three (3) strategies for an agile coach to use conflict as a catapult to achieve high performance.
  5. Recommend at least five (5) best practices for collaboration and cooperation within agile teams. Justify your response for each best practice with an example.
  6. Use at least three (3) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources. You may use the resources above or others of your choosing.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Explain how agile teams and coaches master agile project management.
  • Describe effective communication strategies among agile coaches.
  • Compare and contrast facilitation techniques among agile coaches.
  • Describe effective communication strategies among agile coaches.
  • Compare problem-solving techniques in agile environments.
  • Explain the role of an agile coach in addressing ethical issues and conflict among team members.
  • Compare and contrast best practices with collaboration and cooperation in agile teams.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in advanced agile project management topics.
  • Write clearly and concisely about advanced agile project management topics using proper writing mechanics and technical style conventions.

Death of a Salesman Primary Theme – Conflict Between Father And Son And First-Born And Second-Born Sons

Do you agree that the primary theme of Death of a Salesman is the conflict between father and son and between first-born and second-born sons?

I agree that the primary theme of Death of a Salesman is the conflict between father and son and between first born and second-born sons. Miller’s book describes the life of a salesman Willy Loman who strives to make his life better as well as his family’s. Suffering from mid-life crisis, Willy finds himself in a state of sheer frustration after having failed to accomplish his life dreams as a salesman. He works tirelessly to ensure his two sons; Biff and Happy prosper in life despite having a misguided idea of how to achieve that. He puts all his hopes on his first son Biff and hopes he will live to become prosperous and live the American dream.

The relationship between Willy and Biff is coupled with tension because Willy demands a lot from Biff as his first son. In any typically situation, people always have different views in life and this seems not to be the case according to this play. Willy subjects his son to live a life he deems right without giving a second thought on Biff’s own thoughts. Respect compels Biff to live up to his father’s ideals but their relationship is affected after Biff finds out his father is cheating on his mother. His dream of becoming a football star is shuttered and he decides to run away from home. He no longer believes that having an athletic body and good looks will bring him success. He loses focus as he struggles and fails a couple of times while at the same time wondering if indeed he can become what his father wants him to become. Resentment engulfs between Biff and Willy. Biff begins to hate his father for misguiding him and putting undue pressure on him. Willy on the other side begins to resent Biff for not living up to his expectations as his first son.

Willy Loman is responsible for the conflict that arises between Biff and Happy. While he is portrayed as a good father, bringing up his children with love despite giving them misguided directions. His flawed lifestyle and the manifold contradictions that make up his character is what make him a bad parent (Miller, 1975). At some point he even encourages stealing and justifies Biff’s actions that make him go to prison. The resentment between the two sons is ignited by the fact that Biff is considered more special than Happy. He is his father’ favorite son who gets approval of everything he does and all the showers of love while Happy is considered second and worthless of the amount of love shown to Biff. The fact that Willy plans for Biff’s success while ignoring Happy, makes the two sons resent each other.

This tension between the father and his sons and that between his sons forces Biff to run away from home to seek his own fortune somewhere else. The family is torn and Willy is left desperate with only one option left, to take away his life. Willy decides to commit suicide; a decision he makes so that the insurance can reimburse Biff and make him achieve the American dream he wants his son to achieve. In essence, therefore, the play revolves around conflict, that between the father and sons and that between the sons which is what make the aforementioned the primary theme for the play.

Book Review – Forgiveness and Reconciliation : Religion, Public Policy, and Conflict Transformation

This book is written by a group of experts who explore conflict resolution and emphasizes on the importance of forgiveness. It digs into theology, public policy, psychology as well as social theory. This book is important because it serves to educate the society and the public on the need for forgiveness and reconciliation. Conflicts are inherent and are part of our daily lives. The need for conflict resolution is therefore inevitable and forgiveness being a moral responsibility, acts as the best solution to conflicts. The essence of life is to live harmoniously amongst ourselves and serve our purpose in the best interest of the society. Forgiveness and reconciliation is an essential moral obligation for the society and a very critical aspect in conflict resolution. The writers of this book have discussed forgiveness and reconciliation in relation to religion while at the same time tailoring the content to societal context.

Article nine of this book deals with forgiveness and reconciliation. Definitions of forgiveness, unforgiveness, dispute resolution and reconciliation are the opening statements in article nine. Everett Worthington definitions are justifiable and well-thought because they are drafted in the perspective of international and societal relations thus showing relevance in terms of purpose. According to him Everett, forgiveness is the superposition or the inclination to embrace positive emotions against the negative emotions of hate and resentment.He says that people forgive but one cannot tell whether they have actually forgiven others. He defines forgiveness as an altruistic gift that we give to others. I agree because forgiveness makes us get over the hurt while at the same time creating a harmonious environment which is good for peaceful coexistence. He defines conflict resolution as a way of solving differences between people in a society and that it involves skills of communication as well as negotiation. While people, families, and friends can be able to solve conflicts, it does not mean that problems are eliminated.

Everett in article talks about forgiveness as a personal decision and I agree with him. However,it is important to note that forgiveness is not as easy as the Bible states. God recommends that we forgive and forget, but the emotional nature of human beings makes forgiveness very difficult. Article nine expounds on the importance of managing emotions when we are hurt so that we can be able to forgive and forget as the Bible recommends. Reconciliation as discussed in this article involves another party and therefore is not a personal decision. Reconciliation according to the article is defined as the restoration of trust between two or more parties. It involves forgiveness. Everett explains the relationship between forgiveness and reconciliation by attempting to show how one can bridge the gap between forgiveness and reconciliation. I however disagree with the thought that forgiveness precedes reconciliation. In my opinion, the process of forgiveness comes after reconciliation and it is what determines the success of reconciliation process.

Naturally, human beings develop bonds of love and when such bonds are broken, hatred comes in. The consequence of hate is that we tend to objectify those who wrong us and alienate ourselves from them and the longer we hold on to hate and resentment the deeper it eats into us. It is therefore important to learn how to forgive before we get overwhelmed with hatred. Religion is also playing a critical role in justifying and encouraging the need for forgiveness and peaceful coexistence. This book is a masterpiece given the in-depth analysis and scholarly input from its writers. Research to promote forgiveness and reconciliation has been done to help reduce the act of unforgiveness.The acrostic REACH is used to explain the five step model for forgiveness.

You can order a 100% unique book review for a book of your choice at an affordable price. 

Conflict Management , Negotiation and Dispute Resolution Approaches and Models

Assignment Instructions

The workshop for this module has introduced some tools and models that can be used by project managers to manage issues related to managing conflicts, negotiating, resolving disputes using mediation and arbitration. This assignment asks you to extend your readings to find approaches and models to help you to manage conflict, negotiate and resolve disputes more effectively. The assignment asks you to critically examine some of the concepts introduced in the workshop and extend concepts where appropriate.

The total word limit for the whole assignment is 3000+- 10%. You must complete Part 1 and Part 2. The
table of contents, abstract/executive summary (within one page), list of references and citations are
excluded from the word count. For word count purposes a quarter page figure or diagram will count as 150

Part 1

  • Choose to focus on one of the methods (conflict management, negotiation, mediation or arbitration).
  • Critically review a selection of the literature on your chosen topic. (max 1000-1500 words).

Part 2

This part asks you construct a model to guide you in making decisions when confronting and managing
situations that involve disagreement and/or disputes. The model/s will include references to the following:

  • Approaches and tools available and/or suitable for use in the context/s being considered
  • People who are best situated to use them – e.g. would you bring in a professional or would you
  • Choose to use the model without such assistance?
  • Circumstances most appropriate for its use
  • Cues or signs that a person using your model can look for, including e.g. physical, emotional and language cues that you might look for – 2/3
  • Intrapersonal cues – your personal responses to disagreement/ conflict. For example – at the thought of
    conflict your stomach tightens, your forehead begins to sweat, your pulse rises, etc. To Find these you may
    have to think quite deeply about past conflict situations.
  • Interpersonal – what will you expect to see in the other person in a face to face situation ? e.g. they may go red in the face, raise their voice, begin to repeat themselves etc. If it is a virtual context perhaps they use CAPITAL letters to shout at you, delay responses, deny responsibility, shifting the blame etc.
  • Remember a good model will deal with all three aspects – Task, Process and Relationships to develop your model you could use all/any of the following:
    • pre-workshop research activity
    • pre-readings provided in conflict management, negotiations, mediation and arbitration.
    • other courses/workshops in this area that you may have attended
    • all resources provided in the workshop
    • other materials or resources you have collected in the course of your career


Marks will be deducted if the following are omitted:

  • Abstract (or Executive Summary) ? Keep it in proportion to the length of the assignment
  • Table of contents
  • Introduction
  • Body (discussion including citations)
  • Conclusion
  • List of references used

Marks will be allocated to reflect

  • Rigour demonstrated in the analysis
  • Breadth of academic literature used to support or contradict your observations
  • Ability to relate to present or past experience
  • Innovative thinking

Stress and Conflict Management Assignment Instructions

Conflict may occur in any work environment, whether it is in the clinical setting, another department, or another organization. It is important to understand how conflict arises and how conflict is managed through effective communication.

The behavior of a leader has a direct impact on the motivation of his or her team. It is crucial for a leader to understand how his or her behavior and conflict-handling ability impact the care of patients.Here is a scenario of a leader who is willing to handle conflicts in his or her workplace.

You are promoted to a management position in a small organization. There are four full-time members and three part-time members. You have a department manager currently overseeing the operations. You are excited to begin with your new assignment and have completed orientation. You heard some rumblings from the staff development team, “You have your work cut out for you in this department!” It does not sound promising, yet you are filled with energy, a positive

attitude but a bit concerned as you do not want to appear bossy. You lack a bit of confidence since they are seasoned team members and you are new to the organization.

Once you begin your first day, you decide to meet with everyone as a group and individually over the next few days. What you are uncovering is disturbing and you quickly realize that the team members have lots of conflicts within the department. In a nutshell, this is what you have discovered:

  1. The department manager thinks she is in charge since clients, customers, or patients have specialized needs. She is stern faced and does not seem to smile, yet she does not admit it is her or her department’s fault if there is an error. She seems to enjoy the increasing conflict among the unit as it takes any “pressure” off her and she can continue to “tell people what to do.”
  2. Two full -time administrative staff members do not like each other and refuse to work together. One feels the other cooks “strange food” and cannot understand her when she speaks, and she is too quiet. The other staff member feels the first one is too outspoken and not gracious and hurries through her assignments. They share a small office and their work is critical to the success of the organization as they oversee all billing, accounts payable and receivable, and schedule the large projects and services to other organizations. The rest of the staff members avoid going to this office as the tension is clearly increased in this room.
  3. The part-time staff feel they are not being offered any extra shifts and sometimes they are asked not to come to work if the day is slow. They feel they are not valued and are demotivated by less pay. This is a critical time for them due to the economy crisis. When they are at work, they often bring their home problems with them and seem stressed when they have to work with the other team members.

Please read the Stress and Conflict Scenario. Based on this scenario, please answer the following questions:

  • How will you address each area and improve understanding, collaboration, motivation, and positive attitude?
  • How does emotional intelligence play a role in encouraging the staff to cooperate and to be willing to make behavior changes?
  • What behavior theory will you research to develop your thoughts when you speak to each staff member?
  • How important is decreasing overall conflict in the workplace?
  • How can you develop a win-win approach?

Legislative Conflicts – Conflicts Between The Commander In Chief And Congress: Concurrent Power Over The Conduct Of War

The Constitution separates war powers between the Congress and the President. The creators of the constitution intended to make sure that it was not easy to enter into wars. Nonetheless, the separation of power leaves the President with several unique and exclusive powers such as the Commander-in-Chief. However, the Supreme Court has fairly little to say concerning the Constitution’s war powers. Apparently, legislatures are co-equal and separate branches of the government; the authorities ought to balance the power of the executive branch and the governors (Gaziano, 2001). Also, the legislature needs to participate in the stimulation of policy and criticize to rubber-stamp the proposals of the executive branch. For instance, in 1960, the legislative reform movement was dominated by the governors where the legislature nurtured a sense of legislative freedom and independence.

Furthermore, the Legislative power vital and essential, however, it is paramount to attain a balance between the executive and the legislative (Exploring Constitutional Conflicts, n. d). Conversely, it is easy to measure the constitutional powers of the executive and the legislative, since their power hinges lie on the traditions and political factors of the statutory and the constitution.

Conflicts between the Commander in Chief and Congress: Concurrent Power over the Conduct of War

The governance of the United States comprises of the separation of powers where separate elections determine who controls the district institutions. As a consequence, the legislative and executive relations are conflictual and disturbing. The above article illustrates how the executive and the legislative deal with conflicts when making policy and rulemaking.  Also, the article describes the administration of Bush and how his government handled the separation of power between the legislative and the executive branch of government.

For instance, the Bush administration argued that the President or the Commander in Chief has restricted and exclusive power to choose and decide on the military devices and tactics to implement so as to defeat the enemy (Lobel, 2008). The administration did not expect the Congress to interfere with the decision of the Executive commander in chief or the president. Conversely, the decision was significantly criticized, and the executive branch was expected to interview or question and get involved in wiretapping on the citizens of United States. As a consequence, the legislative branch argued that the President has exclusive power and authority over the functions and operations in the battlefield.

The aim or objective of the above article is to challenge the presumption and the statement of the Bush administration. The article argues that the President and the Congress have the simultaneous and concurrent power to conduct warfare, which has been allowed and authorized by the Congress.  Additionally, the Congress argued that it has the power to maintain the ultimate power and authority to choose and decide on the strategies, tactics, and methods through which the America will wage war if it decides to implement the authority. Nonetheless, the president can manage and direct military campaigns without the presence of the congressional restrictions and regulations. However, the commander in chief has the power that the Congress cannot replace (Lobel, 2008). The power of the president to command and be the nation’s first general. In conclusion, this article argues that the two branches of the government power over the conduct of certified or authorized power, which is divided as a realistic issue through timing, and not the subject matter. The Congress has more reflective and deliberative power, and the president has the authority to initiate over the theater of war.

Managing Virtual Team Conflict

Virtual team

            A virtual team is described as a group of individuals undertaking similar activities collectively across time and space through the use of electronic communication technology. Currently, many companies have invested heavily in internet connection and trying to connect all employees using fiber optic, technological and software breakthroughs, thus enabling people to work together as one bigger global community(Ubell, 2010). Virtual team allow members to work together in different time zone, cultures and work environment. The number of people working together virtually in the world is increasing significantly. Statistics indicated that regular telecommunication grew by 61 % between 2005 and 2009, and based on these trends, it is estimated that the number of telecommunicating workers will increase to five million by 2016, which is an increase of 69 %.

With the increasing internet connection and subsequent growth of telework which is also referred to virtual work, it is inevitable to witnessed the growth of people virtually working together from dispersed geographical location using advancing technology such as telephone, text messages, emails, videoconferencing and teleconferencing(Webster, & Wong, 2008). The effectiveness and efficiency of the virtual teams is influenced by the team dynamics such as the composition of the teams and proximity of the team members to one another. In addition, factors such as organization structure and culture, the dependency and complexity of the task as well as the use of information technology leads to conflicts. The conflicts arising from one virtual team to another differs greatly based on the prevailing factors.


            The term conflict has been defined by many scholar using different ways over many years. Many scholars have argued that the key issue of conflict a rises when an individual in the groups fails to perform as expected. For example, individuals A in the group is fully aware of what is expected from him/her but refuses to conduct him/herself as required by an individual B who could be leader of the group(Skovholt, et al., 2014). Other scholars have argued that conflict arises when at least two inter-dependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce rewards, and interference from other party in achieving their goals.In simple terms, conflict is defined as serious disagreement over needs or goals.

Sources of conflicts in virtual teams

            The way conflicts are managed in virtual team is very important because it determine the successes, effectiveness and efficiency of the team. Therefore, it imperative to explore factors that results to the conflict and how it can be resolved effectively. Studies have categories virtual team into four based on virtual dimension: spatial dispersion, temporal dispersion, cultural dispersions and organization dispersion(Nystrom, & Asproth, 2013). Each category has different and unique sources of conflicts

Spatial dispersal: This is the virtual team that composed of members working together without face-to-face supervision or interaction. The conflict arises when the team members finds it difficult to receive instructions or guidance from their supervisor or leaders. Also, conflicts arises when the team members lack the opportunity to seek clarification about their roles and tasks in the group(Lindsell-Robert, 2011). Although some of these sources of conflicts affects majorly the spatial dispersal team, they also contributes to conflicts in other types of teams. Among other factors, these are the major sources of conflicts in spatial dispersal.

Temporal dispersal: Similarly to spatial dispersal, this type of virtual team composed of members working in disperse geographical location without face-to-face interaction or supervision. This means that the main source of conflicts are attributed to team members not receiving instructions or guidance from their supervisor and leaders(Johnson, et al., 2009). In addition, team members do not have the enough opportunity to seek clarification about their roles and tasks in group which is the situation in the face-to-face teams. These are the major sources of conflicts in temporal dispersal.

Cultural dispersion: This is the virtual team that composed of members from different backgrounds and cultures. Therefore, the major sources of conflicts are attributed majorly to diversified composition. Studies have indicated that team members could possesses varying communication styles, work style, personality and values. It is important to note that these factors are also sources conflicts in face-to-face team(Ebrahim, et al., 2009). However, they are very crucial in virtual team since team members are drawn from diverse communities and societies. In addition, lack of face-to-face interaction among the team members could be considered as the main reason why the cultural differences are so crucial in virtual team.

Organizational dispersion: This type of virtual team composed of members working virtually across organizational boundaries. The major source of conflict in organizational dispersion is the issues of identity(Brandt, et al., 2011). Studies have indicated that this type of virtual team faces challenges of developing cohesiveness since the members are drawn from different organizations. As a result, weak identity and lack of cohesiveness are the major sources of conflicts in organizational dispersion.

Managing virtual team conflicts

            Managers play important role in ensuring that team conflicts are resolved amicably in order to develop trust and hold the team together. As a manager, there are five step that needs to be followed in team conflict resolution. It is important to clearly understand what each step entails. The first step involves the process of defining the problem.

Defining the problem

Studies have indicated that the process of defining a problem is the most challenging task that manager struggles to overcome on their daily basis. As a result managers tend to ignore this very important step and go straight problem solving. The consequence of such action leads to a more divided virtual group and subsequent more conflicts because the real problem has not been defined. It is crucial for the manager to understand that the process of defining the problem contributes to the establishment of solutions to the problems(Bulleit, 2006). Therefore, the first initiative that managers needs to undertake while managing virtual team conflict is to define the problem. Some of the approaches that manager may use to define the problem include noting down problem statement multiple times in various ways and from different perspective. This process is very important to the team since they get the opportunity to look at the problem from different perspectives. In face-to-face team, team interaction is the key success because team members would be able establish how the team operates. However, in virtual team members rarely get the opportunity to interact. Therefore, rules of engagement should be communicated clearly through internet.

Gather data

This is the second step which involve addressing virtual team conflict through gathering of data about the actual conflict that is taking place. it is very important for the managers to collect factual information about the problem and not the hearsay or opinions. These facts should be measurable and observable(Ubell, 2010). Some of the information could be gathered through first-hand experience by observing the proceeding of video conferencing, teleconferencing and telephone conversations. The purpose of gathering data is to substantiate and prove the truth about the problem.

Some of the information that needs to be collected include who is the informal leader, who lunches together, who is outside or inside the group, who goes extra mile, who initiates or come up with good ideas and who work independently. The other approach that manager may employ as part of gathering the data is to review the past actions by asking the following questions: what motivates each employee? Do managers and supervisors clearly understand job experience, skills and roles? Do I know my employees? How do I communicate with my team? How do they communicate with each other? These questions helps the managers to be objective and confident to analyze the problem considering that they might be part of the problem.

Analyze the data and diagnose

Prior to commencing data analysis and diagnosis, it is important for the managers to make sure that the data collected make sense. After establishing that the information collected was observable and verifiable, the managers can began the process of analyzing the data and determining what is happening within the team itself. In order determine team performance and dynamics, the manager needs to analyze and diagnose communication process by asking some questions that stimulate their thinking(Bulleit, 2006). The questions include determining whether the style of communication in the team was poor as well as establishing whether the team lack the skills requisite for problem-solving. The analysis and diagnosis of the data collected enables managers to establish a precise comprehension of the team dynamics.

Choosing the best solution

After the analysis and diagnostic of the data collected, the manager would have manage to identify the root cause of the problem. At this point the manager and the team would have identify the problem to be either communication or lack of skills. The best solutions are selected from the list of many solution proposed(Bulleit, 2006). This involves the process of relooking at the problem areas together with the issues. The solutions that can be tailored to improve the efficiency, effectiveness and holding the group together are considered the best solution.

Implementing the solution and continue to refine it

This is the final step that involves clear articulate of the ideas and thoughts, active listening, give effective feedback, think and analyze in methodical and systematic way as well as identify risks and assumptions(Brandt, et al., 2011). The process of implementing the solutions include modelling and coaching the team members to adopt the desired behavior.

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Social Institutions As Defined By Conflict, Interactionism And Functionalist Perspectives

Social institutions are organized patterns of social norms characterized with social needs. Example of social institutions includes education, family, power of the state and healthcenters. Social systems are defined by different theoretical perspectives; conflict perspective, interactionism perspective, and functionalist perspective.

Interactionism Perspective

The theory focuses on firsthand information on human interaction with each other. Interactionism perspective focuses on the interaction between individuals starting with a small conversation. For example, in marriage, interactionism perspective applies to the communication of one partner to the other asking for a hand in marriage and the quality of the ring for engagement.

Interactionism perspective is beneficial in a way that it enables one to determine the meanings of people actions towards social institutions. From a simple gesture to two people conversation, one can be able to determine how they value their activities.

The major weakness of the interactionism perspective on social institutions is that it neglects the bigger picture of social institutions. Interactionism Perspective focuses on small group conversation and ignores the larger picture of social interactions. The theory is involved in micro sociology but not macro sociology (Schaefer, 2012).

Functionalism perspective

Functionalism theory explains that everything and everyone are dependent upon another factor and the vice versa; that is everything is interdependent in the society. For example, social institutions such as families depend on the power of the state to provide learning institutions for their children, who will in turn get employed and help their families and pay taxes to the power of the state.

According to Schaefer, (2012) social units are there to maintain stability to one another, hence functionalist perspective theory. Functionalism theory is concerned with the relationship of smaller groups and the extended groups in the community.

Functionalism theory is critiqued with how it does not encourage changes in the society. The theory believes that any change may lead to an adverse impact. Functionalist theory also neglects possible negative effects of related and interdependent factors in an organization.

Conflict Perspective

Unlike Functionalism theory, conflict theory is based on changes and encourages change. Conflict theory is based on pressure that exists between people and societal group based on resources, boundaries and power. Earlier sociologists and philosophers such as Karl Max based his perspective of conflict in the struggle existing among people in the society related to economic stability. Today conflict theory is evident in inequality in gender, race, ethnicity and also the economic factor of the rich and the poor.

The theory weakness is that it tends to look at every social aspect of the society from an adverse side. This is a problem because such social issues such as democracy are viewed as elements formulated to control the society but to for its benefits.

I align myself with conflict theory since it is more evident in our lives today than the other two theories. Conflicts are evident in our day to day lives and start from home extending to the society as a whole. For example, in United States of America economic conflict is evident in the huge gap between the rich and the poor. In our society today the rich control, the flow of resources and in return get richer in the process at the cost of the poor. Race, ethnicity, and tribal differences are quite common, and people are discriminated based on these social aspects among others.