The Interpreter of Maladies is a story that demonstrates conflicts in a family of Mr. and Mrs. Das. The first instance of external conflict is demonstrated in the beginning of the story where Mr. and Mrs. Das could not agree on who could take Tina, their daughter to the toilet during their tour. Mr. Das however won the argument after claiming to have bathed the child the previous day (Mays 446). Another instance of external conflict is notices when Mrs. Das demonstrated her dissatisfaction with the kind of car her husband hired for tour. To her the car was considerably old and she did not like it that the car lacked important facilities such as air conditioner just to save some coins (p.450). However, Mr. Das brushed this off wisely to eliminate any chance of aggravating the conflict. Another argument is identified after the second historic point stop where Mrs. Das refused to come of the vehicle to watch the site (p.456). The story also demonstrates instance of conflicting mind. One instance is when Mrs. Das confesses that his second son was not Raj’s son, secrete she had kept for the last eight years (p.457). Mrs. Dashas hold this conflicting thought for years wondering whether to tell anyone or to continue keeping secrete forever. Mr. Kapsa also had instances of conflicting thoughts while traveling to Konarak He was getting attracted to Mrs. Das but could not decide on how he could approach it. He even imagined of how they would communicate after the family had finished its tour in India (p.453-456). It is not clear on how Mr. and Mrs. Das, coped after the tripe, however, the possibility of Mr. Kapsa being the source of their disagreements and conflicts in the future were killed when the paper with his address flew out of Mrs. Das bag, as they were saving Ronny from monkey attack. Mrs. Das confession also killed the desire Mr. Kapsa had developed over her.
As the manager of a department, you have noticed a lot of tension and arguments between your employees. The disagreements have been about work and personal issues. Julie has been a model employee for more than a year. In the past month, she has been late to work six times. You have noticed her checking her cell phone for messages very frequently, and she has been visiting non-work-related websites on her computer. Coping with work conflicts such as these has created an increased amount of stress in your life.
Write a paper of approximately 750 words that answers the following questions:
- How do you identify and approach the different conflicts occurring within your department?
- On which issues are you going to counsel, manage, and correct the behaviors of your employees? Outline your action plan for Julie. If you feel no action on your part is needed, explain why.
- How are you going to manage your increased stress?
- What policies and procedures can you put into place to help you and your team succeed?
- Include a minimum of two sources,
Managing Conflict and Stress
Conflict is a common phenomenon among people of different mind working to share similar scarce resources. Conflict normally happens when two or more individual cannot agree on something. In the workplace, conflict normally results to wastage of the time and development of tension among workers. It spoils the work environment, undermining the work morale in the workplace. In this regard it is important for the human resource manager to take control of the situation and manage the conflict to curb its interference with the organization performance
Conflict can be identified by watching people’s behaviors and how they interact with each other. Workers normally have a way of interacting with each other and behaving respectfully to word each other. Sometimes workers are required to team up to complete a certain task, especially when a task has to go through different stages to be completed. A manager can identify that a conflict exist among workers if there is unusual behavior such as uncompleted work that requires collaboration and the workers blaming each other for this. This is a sign that there is a conflict. Thus a manager can identify conflict by identifying work loopholes, tension, abusive or sarcastic language, and unnecessary arguments which are hardly resolved (Wood, n.d.).
To resolve these conflicts, the manager requires organizing a meeting with all workers who seems to be having a conflict. The meeting should focus on identifying the root course of the conflict. In this part of the meeting, the manager should focus on digging out the main course of the conflict by allowing the two sides to speak out and give their side of the story. The manager should then look past the incident, by probing the workers involved to assist them in defining the real problem that will need to be resolved to end the conflict. The manager should then make the conflicting parties to identify the best solution that they think can address the problem. The conflicting parties should be able to identify the best way to make things work more effectively. With this, the manager should mentor the conflicting parties to define a workable solution that suits the two fighting parties. This includes the procedures that should be followed to ensure the problem has been effectively resolved. The manager should then make the two parties to resolve their conflicts by apologizing and forgiving each other by shaking hands (Ratnieks et al., 2006).
Counseling Workers Behaviors
The manager is required guide the employees on how they are required to behave and manage the organization time and resources. They also need to be guided on the use of personal phones during work time and visiting non-work related site. This should be recognized as wastage of the company’s resources and the manager should make it clear that a disciplinary action should employed in case one is found doing do. Workers will also be expected to respect their work and each other to enhance their team work. Workers should work as per their work descriptions and remain within their set objectives. The work performance appraisal should be introduced to ensure that workers operate as anticipated and work to enhance the organization productivity, and not to promote personal businesses while in the workplace
Julie Action Plan
Julie behavior has changed of late demonstrating change of interest and lack of the required attention to her job. She keeps stealing the employer’s time by doing other personal businesses during work hours. The manager should counsel Julie about her role in the organization and how she is anticipated to behave and to use her time in the organization. Julie will be guided on her duties in the organization and warned against using the organization time and resources to accomplish personal businesses.
Managing Increased Stress
To manage the increased work stress the manager should first recognize the presence and the cause of stress. The manager should then define measures to resolve the sources of stress in a manner that he will be able to ease the working process. For instance in this case, the source of stress could easily be conflict among workers and lack of work commitment. To resolve this, the manager should clearly define the roles of each worker and set the milestones for their work to ensure that no worker gets an opportunity to waste time or perform personal businesses during work time. Increase in the workers supervision and implementation of disciplinary measures for those who tend to misuse the organization resources should be implemented. Defining conflict resolution strategies and ensuring minimal chances of conflict development will also ease the management role and hence reduce or eliminate the manager’s stress. The manager should also try to promote a favorable work environment that will motivate workers to carry out their responsibilities without follow up and accomplish more than they are anticipated to accomplish. This will ease the management demand and stress (Michie, 2002).
Policies and Procedures to enhance Team Success
The manager should develop policies and procedures on how to resolve conflict among workers. This will ensure that conflicts do not propagate beyond the required level and that they are not fueled to influence the general organization performance. Other policies will be created to guide on the use of organization resources which include working time and the garget provided to accomplish the organization duties. Disciplinary action to be employed when one goes against the defined policy will clearly be stated.
Communication Interactions Paper
This is an interaction paper that conveys the understanding of the concerns that cause conflict between people or institutions and the methods and techniques and resources currently being used to resolve the conflicts in the varied contexts. This is implemented by selecting a specific topic or conflict situation and demystifying and analysing the events within the conflict to particular situation. The essay will define the context of the conflict; provide relevant history and the limitations of the conflict survey. It will also examine the major issues of the conflict and their causes as identified in the topic chosen. The communication methodologies that are used to resolve the conflict will also be reviewed and the recommendations for respective approaches to be considered in resolving the conflict.
Topic: Conflict in marital relationship
Marriage is a union that is of social nature union or a contract that is legal between spouses, and establishes obligations and rights amongst them, amongst them and their children and also their in-laws (Guttmann, 7). It is an institution that ensembles love, trust, understanding and unity. People marry for varied purposes including social, legal, emotional, financial, and religious and many others. A marital relationship is a union of the spouses with mutual interests and the spouses live together for various social and legal reasons. In a successful marital relationship, spouses must have more positive than negative interactions. The positive interactions and pleasant times help spouses feel respected and loved. As an institution that involves human beings, conflict is inevitable. All humans are different, have varied beliefs, likes, dislikes and values (Bradbury, Fincham & Beach, 970). These differences are what make up an individual’s perspective and perspective is the way an individual consider or view things. The manner in couples deal with marital conflict is a powerful predictor of successful marriage. All marriages, even the very successful of them all, have conflict. Marital conflict is a normal part of two human beings working out a life together.
Marital conflict is not just a misunderstanding in the partners’ opinion but rather a sequence of events that have been handled poorly and inconsistently thus deeply damaging the marriage union. The issues in any marriage institution have deteriorated to a point that anger, stubbornness, anger, bitterness, hurt have left most marriage broken and prevented effective marriage communication. Marital conflicts have a harmful effect on family, mental and physical health and decades of findings and research have produced a clear picture of the nature of conflicts by revealing couples who are behaviours or tendencies of conflict.
Four stages of marital conflict (Guttmann, 8)
These stages are what lead to marital discord.
Stage 1: this is where newly married couples are still new in the institution and do not know how to successfully resolve their differences. They settle issues by avoiding confrontation and thus have the ‘have it your way’ mentality.
Stage 2: this is now when the spouses have ignored each other enough to an extend of neglecting their basic needs. They now turn to individualism and want things done their own way. This is where discord begins in terms of who owns what.
Stage 3: This stage involves negotiating and compromising each other.
Stage 4: This is the stage where resignation is observed. Spouses in this stage are exhausted and the conflicts are at a stage where resolving is quite a hard task. This is where divorce is rife and expert advice and marriage guidance is required.
Research by various psychologists on marriage, especially the social psychologists whose main aim is to better assist couples experiencing marital conflicts in the last three decades showed that marital conflicts assume a special status in the institution of marriage. This was evidenced by three schools of thought.
- First, many of the highly influential theories of marriage reflect the view that frustration results from spouses’ aversive and indecisive response to conflict (Grych & Fincham, 65).
- Second, the research on marriage has entirely focused on the effect rather than the cause. That is what the spouses do when they disagree with each other and thus most interactions are inclined towards studies of conflict and problem solving (Grych & Fincham, 65).
- Third is that conflict resolution techniques and skills are what are used by distressed couples as psychological intervention (Grych & Fincham, 65).
Marital conflicts entail very many things and can be virtually about anything. Many spouses complain about the major sources of conflict. These sources of conflict can range from abusiveness, which can either be physical or verbal, to their behaviour or personal characteristics. The issue is about division of labour and general sharing of family responsibilities. There is always a perceived inequality in the sharing of responsibility. This has caused marital conflict where the male folk tend to withdraw whenever conflict arises. Conflict over power or who is in charge at what time. This is strongly related to dissatisfactions in the marriage institutions. Couples reports of conflict over extramarital sex, excessive alcoholism and drug use is a predictor of divorce. Other reports are mainly from the wives of husband being jealous and foolishly spending money. The severity of most of the marital conflicts normally increases the likelihood of divorce. As much as the issue violence is not reported to be a problem by most couples, it is also a huge predictor of divorce in most newlyweds (Grych & Fincham, 70).
Spouses behave differently when conflict arises. An observational study conducted by psychologists with the underlying hope of identifying the dysfunctional trends and behaviours through couple therapy gave detailed information about how non-distressed and distressed spouses behave during conflict. At a time of conflict, couples who are distressed make more reactive and negative statements about each other and fewer positive statements than their non-distressed counterparts (Howard & Dawes, 478). They are also more likely to react or respond with unfavourable or reactive behaviours any time their partners behave otherwise. All in all this so called negative reciprocity is more rampant across varied kinds of situations than is the ratio of negative behaviour thus making it the most reliable manifest sign of marital conflict. Negative behaviour is more frequently reciprocated in spouses who engage in physical aggression than any other spouses reported and this is a major cause of marital conflict amongst couples today.
Conflict in marriage can be looked at in several contexts according to Bradbury, Fincham and Beach.
- Conflict in the context of affectional expressions and giving support
- Conflict in the context of wider environment
- Conflict in the context of the couples’ character traits and backgrounds.
There is atypical pattern of behaviour whenever couples are in distress or when they are experiencing conflict. These behaviours are more rampant or predictable amongst the distressed couples as compared to those who are not. These are normally dominated by chains of negative traits that usually escalate making it difficult for the couples to stop it. One of the biggest challenge for couples in today’s environment of marital conflict about negative exchanges is to stop the conflict and o adapt to each other’s flaws and to exit from such circles of negative perceptions about each other. This can be attempted or done through responses that are well thought out to repair the couple’s interaction and mode of communication. For example, listening to each other and not responding with irritation or sadness. However, if the partners respond to each other negatively and with rage, they will end up continuing the cycle of aggression thus enhancing the conflict again (Grych & Fincham, 73). The advantage of couples who are non-distressed is that they can handle conflict faster and in a structured and predictable manner in that they will appear to be more responsive to attempts of repairing the areas of conflict and thereby will be able to exit from marital conflict faster and with ease compared to their distressed counterparts.
The other behaviour pattern that is exhibited by couples who are undergoing marital conflict is the demand-withdraw pattern. This is where one partner presses the other partner with criticism, demands and complaints one hand, and in the other, the partner withdraws with passiveness, not acting on any of the aggression and at times becoming very defensive. Specifically, the most common situation is in the behaviour sequence where the husband withdraws from the hostile responses from the wife. This research finding was found to be very consistent with several studies showing that most wives display more effects of negativity and aggressive behaviour than their male counterparts (husbands), who tend to make statements or respond suggestive of withdrawal. Withdrawal o not engaging, in turn, plays a big role in decreasing marital satisfaction (Howard & Dawes, 479).
Are conflicts in marital relationships important? The answer to this question can be answered by first demystifying the reasons for conflict. Most marital conflict are caused by marital problems and issues such as;
- Financial problems
- This entails include their discipline, diet and parenting issues
- Responsibilities and shared tasks
- Time away from each other
- Toxic friends and peers
- Family, especially the in-laws
- Irritating behaviours and habits
The attention given to the conflicts in marriage can be understood when one considers, apart from the causes, but also its implication on the physical, mental and family health. These conflicts have been connected to the causing of symptoms of depression, eating disorders, alcoholism, absentee parenting and divorce. Marital conflicts are associated with poorer health and malnutrition. This is because the hostile behaviours at the time of conflict leads to stress and depression thus affecting the normal functioning of the body. The other issue is physical aggression. This has been experiences in many families in the United States who experience marital conflicts. It has led to physical injury. Cases of women being brutally injured and in some instances murdered by their husbands have been reported. Marital conflicts can be important if it is looked from the perspective of finding out the strengths and weaknesses amongst partners. When a conflict arises and it opens up doors of correcting and learning from each other, then the conflict can be termed as important since it has led to the strengthening of the marriage (Karney & Bradbury, 23).
In order to effectively resolve marital conflict, a couple must know, accept and adjust to their differences. All humans are different and it is important to understand these differences and then accept and adjust to them. Secondly, resolving conflict also requires couples to defeat selfishness. This is done through trusting each other and living in harmony. Third is the act of pursuing each other as a couple. This can be done successfully by checking on each other’s attitudes and circumstances and listening to each other. Forgiveness is also key in conflict resolution (Koerner & Jacobson, 215). Both partners should learn the art of forgiveness because all human beings have flows and it only through forgiveness that couples will end up understanding each other’s flows and move on without prejudice and hate. Finally is effective communication. This is the main solution to most marital conflicts. When couples communicate well, openly and freely, they create a level of understanding that will overrule their weaknesses and make them adaptable to each other and thus reducing instances of conflict.
In conclusion, marital conflicts are what makes or breaks any marriage in today’s society. The supposition that management of conflicts in marriage is the key to successful marriages and that skills can be modified in a special therapy for couples has perceived very useful in propelling the research on marriage into the psychology mainstream. The stability of any marriage depends on how couples manage conflict amongst themselves.
Determining how to build a high-performing agile team, while managing conflicts, is a considerable task for any agile coach. In this assignment, you are asked to explore and discuss various conflict resolution methods and determine when and how to use them as an agile coach. You must discuss the techniques in a context of an agile project team environment with various scenarios, and must also demonstrate how you can turn the high-contention situations into high-collaboration situations. For example, the project team has consistently encountered changes of scope by the product owner. The QA team also emailed the whole team on how poorly the developers have done in their coding. The developers escalated to their manager about the documentation errors done by architects.
Write a four to five (4-5) page paper in which you:
- Identify and evaluate at least three (3) conflict resolution techniques that can be used by the agile coach to change the dynamics of the team in the example provided.
- Summarize at least five (5) common causes of conflicts in this team and analyze why agile strategies can be applied to resolve those conflicts.
- Analyze the pros and cons of conflict resolution techniques and their usefulness in at least three (3) different situations (e.g., levels of conflicts).
- Suggest at least three (3) strategies for an agile coach to use conflict as a catapult to achieve high performance.
- Recommend at least five (5) best practices for collaboration and cooperation within agile teams. Justify your response for each best practice with an example.
- Use at least three (3) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources. You may use the resources above or others of your choosing.
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:
- Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
- Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
- Explain how agile teams and coaches master agile project management.
- Describe effective communication strategies among agile coaches.
- Compare and contrast facilitation techniques among agile coaches.
- Describe effective communication strategies among agile coaches.
- Compare problem-solving techniques in agile environments.
- Explain the role of an agile coach in addressing ethical issues and conflict among team members.
- Compare and contrast best practices with collaboration and cooperation in agile teams.
- Use technology and information resources to research issues in advanced agile project management topics.
- Write clearly and concisely about advanced agile project management topics using proper writing mechanics and technical style conventions.
Do you agree that the primary theme of Death of a Salesman is the conflict between father and son and between first-born and second-born sons?
I agree that the primary theme of Death of a Salesman is the conflict between father and son and between first born and second-born sons. Miller’s book describes the life of a salesman Willy Loman who strives to make his life better as well as his family’s. Suffering from mid-life crisis, Willy finds himself in a state of sheer frustration after having failed to accomplish his life dreams as a salesman. He works tirelessly to ensure his two sons; Biff and Happy prosper in life despite having a misguided idea of how to achieve that. He puts all his hopes on his first son Biff and hopes he will live to become prosperous and live the American dream.
The relationship between Willy and Biff is coupled with tension because Willy demands a lot from Biff as his first son. In any typically situation, people always have different views in life and this seems not to be the case according to this play. Willy subjects his son to live a life he deems right without giving a second thought on Biff’s own thoughts. Respect compels Biff to live up to his father’s ideals but their relationship is affected after Biff finds out his father is cheating on his mother. His dream of becoming a football star is shuttered and he decides to run away from home. He no longer believes that having an athletic body and good looks will bring him success. He loses focus as he struggles and fails a couple of times while at the same time wondering if indeed he can become what his father wants him to become. Resentment engulfs between Biff and Willy. Biff begins to hate his father for misguiding him and putting undue pressure on him. Willy on the other side begins to resent Biff for not living up to his expectations as his first son.
Willy Loman is responsible for the conflict that arises between Biff and Happy. While he is portrayed as a good father, bringing up his children with love despite giving them misguided directions. His flawed lifestyle and the manifold contradictions that make up his character is what make him a bad parent (Miller, 1975). At some point he even encourages stealing and justifies Biff’s actions that make him go to prison. The resentment between the two sons is ignited by the fact that Biff is considered more special than Happy. He is his father’ favorite son who gets approval of everything he does and all the showers of love while Happy is considered second and worthless of the amount of love shown to Biff. The fact that Willy plans for Biff’s success while ignoring Happy, makes the two sons resent each other.
This tension between the father and his sons and that between his sons forces Biff to run away from home to seek his own fortune somewhere else. The family is torn and Willy is left desperate with only one option left, to take away his life. Willy decides to commit suicide; a decision he makes so that the insurance can reimburse Biff and make him achieve the American dream he wants his son to achieve. In essence, therefore, the play revolves around conflict, that between the father and sons and that between the sons which is what make the aforementioned the primary theme for the play.
This book is written by a group of experts who explore conflict resolution and emphasizes on the importance of forgiveness. It digs into theology, public policy, psychology as well as social theory. This book is important because it serves to educate the society and the public on the need for forgiveness and reconciliation. Conflicts are inherent and are part of our daily lives. The need for conflict resolution is therefore inevitable and forgiveness being a moral responsibility, acts as the best solution to conflicts. The essence of life is to live harmoniously amongst ourselves and serve our purpose in the best interest of the society. Forgiveness and reconciliation is an essential moral obligation for the society and a very critical aspect in conflict resolution. The writers of this book have discussed forgiveness and reconciliation in relation to religion while at the same time tailoring the content to societal context.
Article nine of this book deals with forgiveness and reconciliation. Definitions of forgiveness, unforgiveness, dispute resolution and reconciliation are the opening statements in article nine. Everett Worthington definitions are justifiable and well-thought because they are drafted in the perspective of international and societal relations thus showing relevance in terms of purpose. According to him Everett, forgiveness is the superposition or the inclination to embrace positive emotions against the negative emotions of hate and resentment.He says that people forgive but one cannot tell whether they have actually forgiven others. He defines forgiveness as an altruistic gift that we give to others. I agree because forgiveness makes us get over the hurt while at the same time creating a harmonious environment which is good for peaceful coexistence. He defines conflict resolution as a way of solving differences between people in a society and that it involves skills of communication as well as negotiation. While people, families, and friends can be able to solve conflicts, it does not mean that problems are eliminated.
Everett in article talks about forgiveness as a personal decision and I agree with him. However,it is important to note that forgiveness is not as easy as the Bible states. God recommends that we forgive and forget, but the emotional nature of human beings makes forgiveness very difficult. Article nine expounds on the importance of managing emotions when we are hurt so that we can be able to forgive and forget as the Bible recommends. Reconciliation as discussed in this article involves another party and therefore is not a personal decision. Reconciliation according to the article is defined as the restoration of trust between two or more parties. It involves forgiveness. Everett explains the relationship between forgiveness and reconciliation by attempting to show how one can bridge the gap between forgiveness and reconciliation. I however disagree with the thought that forgiveness precedes reconciliation. In my opinion, the process of forgiveness comes after reconciliation and it is what determines the success of reconciliation process.
Naturally, human beings develop bonds of love and when such bonds are broken, hatred comes in. The consequence of hate is that we tend to objectify those who wrong us and alienate ourselves from them and the longer we hold on to hate and resentment the deeper it eats into us. It is therefore important to learn how to forgive before we get overwhelmed with hatred. Religion is also playing a critical role in justifying and encouraging the need for forgiveness and peaceful coexistence. This book is a masterpiece given the in-depth analysis and scholarly input from its writers. Research to promote forgiveness and reconciliation has been done to help reduce the act of unforgiveness.The acrostic REACH is used to explain the five step model for forgiveness.
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The workshop for this module has introduced some tools and models that can be used by project managers to manage issues related to managing conflicts, negotiating, resolving disputes using mediation and arbitration. This assignment asks you to extend your readings to find approaches and models to help you to manage conflict, negotiate and resolve disputes more effectively. The assignment asks you to critically examine some of the concepts introduced in the workshop and extend concepts where appropriate.
The total word limit for the whole assignment is 3000+- 10%. You must complete Part 1 and Part 2. The
table of contents, abstract/executive summary (within one page), list of references and citations are
excluded from the word count. For word count purposes a quarter page figure or diagram will count as 150
- Choose to focus on one of the methods (conflict management, negotiation, mediation or arbitration).
- Critically review a selection of the literature on your chosen topic. (max 1000-1500 words).
This part asks you construct a model to guide you in making decisions when confronting and managing
situations that involve disagreement and/or disputes. The model/s will include references to the following:
- Approaches and tools available and/or suitable for use in the context/s being considered
- People who are best situated to use them – e.g. would you bring in a professional or would you
- Choose to use the model without such assistance?
- Circumstances most appropriate for its use
- Cues or signs that a person using your model can look for, including e.g. physical, emotional and language cues that you might look for – 2/3
- Intrapersonal cues – your personal responses to disagreement/ conflict. For example – at the thought of
conflict your stomach tightens, your forehead begins to sweat, your pulse rises, etc. To Find these you may
have to think quite deeply about past conflict situations.
- Interpersonal – what will you expect to see in the other person in a face to face situation ? e.g. they may go red in the face, raise their voice, begin to repeat themselves etc. If it is a virtual context perhaps they use CAPITAL letters to shout at you, delay responses, deny responsibility, shifting the blame etc.
- Remember a good model will deal with all three aspects – Task, Process and Relationships to develop your model you could use all/any of the following:
- pre-workshop research activity
- pre-readings provided in conflict management, negotiations, mediation and arbitration.
- other courses/workshops in this area that you may have attended
- all resources provided in the workshop
- other materials or resources you have collected in the course of your career
Marks will be deducted if the following are omitted:
- Abstract (or Executive Summary) ? Keep it in proportion to the length of the assignment
- Table of contents
- Body (discussion including citations)
- List of references used
Marks will be allocated to reflect
- Rigour demonstrated in the analysis
- Breadth of academic literature used to support or contradict your observations
- Ability to relate to present or past experience
- Innovative thinking
Conflict may occur in any work environment, whether it is in the clinical setting, another department, or another organization. It is important to understand how conflict arises and how conflict is managed through effective communication.
The behavior of a leader has a direct impact on the motivation of his or her team. It is crucial for a leader to understand how his or her behavior and conflict-handling ability impact the care of patients.Here is a scenario of a leader who is willing to handle conflicts in his or her workplace.
You are promoted to a management position in a small organization. There are four full-time members and three part-time members. You have a department manager currently overseeing the operations. You are excited to begin with your new assignment and have completed orientation. You heard some rumblings from the staff development team, “You have your work cut out for you in this department!” It does not sound promising, yet you are filled with energy, a positive
attitude but a bit concerned as you do not want to appear bossy. You lack a bit of confidence since they are seasoned team members and you are new to the organization.
Once you begin your first day, you decide to meet with everyone as a group and individually over the next few days. What you are uncovering is disturbing and you quickly realize that the team members have lots of conflicts within the department. In a nutshell, this is what you have discovered:
- The department manager thinks she is in charge since clients, customers, or patients have specialized needs. She is stern faced and does not seem to smile, yet she does not admit it is her or her department’s fault if there is an error. She seems to enjoy the increasing conflict among the unit as it takes any “pressure” off her and she can continue to “tell people what to do.”
- Two full -time administrative staff members do not like each other and refuse to work together. One feels the other cooks “strange food” and cannot understand her when she speaks, and she is too quiet. The other staff member feels the first one is too outspoken and not gracious and hurries through her assignments. They share a small office and their work is critical to the success of the organization as they oversee all billing, accounts payable and receivable, and schedule the large projects and services to other organizations. The rest of the staff members avoid going to this office as the tension is clearly increased in this room.
- The part-time staff feel they are not being offered any extra shifts and sometimes they are asked not to come to work if the day is slow. They feel they are not valued and are demotivated by less pay. This is a critical time for them due to the economy crisis. When they are at work, they often bring their home problems with them and seem stressed when they have to work with the other team members.
Please read the Stress and Conflict Scenario. Based on this scenario, please answer the following questions:
- How will you address each area and improve understanding, collaboration, motivation, and positive attitude?
- How does emotional intelligence play a role in encouraging the staff to cooperate and to be willing to make behavior changes?
- What behavior theory will you research to develop your thoughts when you speak to each staff member?
- How important is decreasing overall conflict in the workplace?
- How can you develop a win-win approach?
You are a counselor in a detention center for delinquent adolescent boys. Your current project is to devise a way to reduce intergroup conflict that has been escalating between the boys at the center, many of whom were active in local gangs.
- Discuss in detail the concepts that lead to the intergroup conflict, such as stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. How have these attitudes and behaviors created and perpetuated the ongoing conflict?
- Discuss the different strategies to reduce intergroup conflict found in your text and the Hewstone article.
- Looking back at the course discuss 2 to 3 additional concepts that could be applied in helping a person overcome these negative attitudes and behaviors.
Keeping these strategies and concepts in mind, what activities and/or programs can you create that will help these boys overcome this conflict and learn to work together, respect each other, and come to see each other’s differences as valuable. Briefly summarize each program/strategy in 2 to 3 sentences each in preparation for part 2 of this project. Answer the above points in a 3- to 4-page paper. Your paper should be double-spaced, typed in 12-point Times New Roman font with normal one-inch margins, written in APA style, and free of typographical and grammatical errors. It should include a title page with a running head, an abstract, and a reference page.
Create a 4- to 8-slide PowerPoint presentation (not including title and reference slides) to present to the board of directors for the detention center that will cover the following:
- A detailed outline of each of the 3 to 4 programs/strategies that you would like to put into place at the center.
- Discuss for each program/strategy why you believe it will be effective within the context of your detention center
The Constitution separates war powers between the Congress and the President. The creators of the constitution intended to make sure that it was not easy to enter into wars. Nonetheless, the separation of power leaves the President with several unique and exclusive powers such as the Commander-in-Chief. However, the Supreme Court has fairly little to say concerning the Constitution’s war powers. Apparently, legislatures are co-equal and separate branches of the government; the authorities ought to balance the power of the executive branch and the governors (Gaziano, 2001). Also, the legislature needs to participate in the stimulation of policy and criticize to rubber-stamp the proposals of the executive branch. For instance, in 1960, the legislative reform movement was dominated by the governors where the legislature nurtured a sense of legislative freedom and independence.
Furthermore, the Legislative power vital and essential, however, it is paramount to attain a balance between the executive and the legislative (Exploring Constitutional Conflicts, n. d). Conversely, it is easy to measure the constitutional powers of the executive and the legislative, since their power hinges lie on the traditions and political factors of the statutory and the constitution.
Conflicts between the Commander in Chief and Congress: Concurrent Power over the Conduct of War
The governance of the United States comprises of the separation of powers where separate elections determine who controls the district institutions. As a consequence, the legislative and executive relations are conflictual and disturbing. The above article illustrates how the executive and the legislative deal with conflicts when making policy and rulemaking. Also, the article describes the administration of Bush and how his government handled the separation of power between the legislative and the executive branch of government.
For instance, the Bush administration argued that the President or the Commander in Chief has restricted and exclusive power to choose and decide on the military devices and tactics to implement so as to defeat the enemy (Lobel, 2008). The administration did not expect the Congress to interfere with the decision of the Executive commander in chief or the president. Conversely, the decision was significantly criticized, and the executive branch was expected to interview or question and get involved in wiretapping on the citizens of United States. As a consequence, the legislative branch argued that the President has exclusive power and authority over the functions and operations in the battlefield.
The aim or objective of the above article is to challenge the presumption and the statement of the Bush administration. The article argues that the President and the Congress have the simultaneous and concurrent power to conduct warfare, which has been allowed and authorized by the Congress. Additionally, the Congress argued that it has the power to maintain the ultimate power and authority to choose and decide on the strategies, tactics, and methods through which the America will wage war if it decides to implement the authority. Nonetheless, the president can manage and direct military campaigns without the presence of the congressional restrictions and regulations. However, the commander in chief has the power that the Congress cannot replace (Lobel, 2008). The power of the president to command and be the nation’s first general. In conclusion, this article argues that the two branches of the government power over the conduct of certified or authorized power, which is divided as a realistic issue through timing, and not the subject matter. The Congress has more reflective and deliberative power, and the president has the authority to initiate over the theater of war.
A virtual team is described as a group of individuals undertaking similar activities collectively across time and space through the use of electronic communication technology. Currently, many companies have invested heavily in internet connection and trying to connect all employees using fiber optic, technological and software breakthroughs, thus enabling people to work together as one bigger global community(Ubell, 2010). Virtual team allow members to work together in different time zone, cultures and work environment. The number of people working together virtually in the world is increasing significantly. Statistics indicated that regular telecommunication grew by 61 % between 2005 and 2009, and based on these trends, it is estimated that the number of telecommunicating workers will increase to five million by 2016, which is an increase of 69 %.
With the increasing internet connection and subsequent growth of telework which is also referred to virtual work, it is inevitable to witnessed the growth of people virtually working together from dispersed geographical location using advancing technology such as telephone, text messages, emails, videoconferencing and teleconferencing(Webster, & Wong, 2008). The effectiveness and efficiency of the virtual teams is influenced by the team dynamics such as the composition of the teams and proximity of the team members to one another. In addition, factors such as organization structure and culture, the dependency and complexity of the task as well as the use of information technology leads to conflicts. The conflicts arising from one virtual team to another differs greatly based on the prevailing factors.
The term conflict has been defined by many scholar using different ways over many years. Many scholars have argued that the key issue of conflict a rises when an individual in the groups fails to perform as expected. For example, individuals A in the group is fully aware of what is expected from him/her but refuses to conduct him/herself as required by an individual B who could be leader of the group(Skovholt, et al., 2014). Other scholars have argued that conflict arises when at least two inter-dependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce rewards, and interference from other party in achieving their goals.In simple terms, conflict is defined as serious disagreement over needs or goals.
Sources of conflicts in virtual teams
The way conflicts are managed in virtual team is very important because it determine the successes, effectiveness and efficiency of the team. Therefore, it imperative to explore factors that results to the conflict and how it can be resolved effectively. Studies have categories virtual team into four based on virtual dimension: spatial dispersion, temporal dispersion, cultural dispersions and organization dispersion(Nystrom, & Asproth, 2013). Each category has different and unique sources of conflicts
Spatial dispersal: This is the virtual team that composed of members working together without face-to-face supervision or interaction. The conflict arises when the team members finds it difficult to receive instructions or guidance from their supervisor or leaders. Also, conflicts arises when the team members lack the opportunity to seek clarification about their roles and tasks in the group(Lindsell-Robert, 2011). Although some of these sources of conflicts affects majorly the spatial dispersal team, they also contributes to conflicts in other types of teams. Among other factors, these are the major sources of conflicts in spatial dispersal.
Temporal dispersal: Similarly to spatial dispersal, this type of virtual team composed of members working in disperse geographical location without face-to-face interaction or supervision. This means that the main source of conflicts are attributed to team members not receiving instructions or guidance from their supervisor and leaders(Johnson, et al., 2009). In addition, team members do not have the enough opportunity to seek clarification about their roles and tasks in group which is the situation in the face-to-face teams. These are the major sources of conflicts in temporal dispersal.
Cultural dispersion: This is the virtual team that composed of members from different backgrounds and cultures. Therefore, the major sources of conflicts are attributed majorly to diversified composition. Studies have indicated that team members could possesses varying communication styles, work style, personality and values. It is important to note that these factors are also sources conflicts in face-to-face team(Ebrahim, et al., 2009). However, they are very crucial in virtual team since team members are drawn from diverse communities and societies. In addition, lack of face-to-face interaction among the team members could be considered as the main reason why the cultural differences are so crucial in virtual team.
Organizational dispersion: This type of virtual team composed of members working virtually across organizational boundaries. The major source of conflict in organizational dispersion is the issues of identity(Brandt, et al., 2011). Studies have indicated that this type of virtual team faces challenges of developing cohesiveness since the members are drawn from different organizations. As a result, weak identity and lack of cohesiveness are the major sources of conflicts in organizational dispersion.
Managing virtual team conflicts
Managers play important role in ensuring that team conflicts are resolved amicably in order to develop trust and hold the team together. As a manager, there are five step that needs to be followed in team conflict resolution. It is important to clearly understand what each step entails. The first step involves the process of defining the problem.
Defining the problem
Studies have indicated that the process of defining a problem is the most challenging task that manager struggles to overcome on their daily basis. As a result managers tend to ignore this very important step and go straight problem solving. The consequence of such action leads to a more divided virtual group and subsequent more conflicts because the real problem has not been defined. It is crucial for the manager to understand that the process of defining the problem contributes to the establishment of solutions to the problems(Bulleit, 2006). Therefore, the first initiative that managers needs to undertake while managing virtual team conflict is to define the problem. Some of the approaches that manager may use to define the problem include noting down problem statement multiple times in various ways and from different perspective. This process is very important to the team since they get the opportunity to look at the problem from different perspectives. In face-to-face team, team interaction is the key success because team members would be able establish how the team operates. However, in virtual team members rarely get the opportunity to interact. Therefore, rules of engagement should be communicated clearly through internet.
This is the second step which involve addressing virtual team conflict through gathering of data about the actual conflict that is taking place. it is very important for the managers to collect factual information about the problem and not the hearsay or opinions. These facts should be measurable and observable(Ubell, 2010). Some of the information could be gathered through first-hand experience by observing the proceeding of video conferencing, teleconferencing and telephone conversations. The purpose of gathering data is to substantiate and prove the truth about the problem.
Some of the information that needs to be collected include who is the informal leader, who lunches together, who is outside or inside the group, who goes extra mile, who initiates or come up with good ideas and who work independently. The other approach that manager may employ as part of gathering the data is to review the past actions by asking the following questions: what motivates each employee? Do managers and supervisors clearly understand job experience, skills and roles? Do I know my employees? How do I communicate with my team? How do they communicate with each other? These questions helps the managers to be objective and confident to analyze the problem considering that they might be part of the problem.
Analyze the data and diagnose
Prior to commencing data analysis and diagnosis, it is important for the managers to make sure that the data collected make sense. After establishing that the information collected was observable and verifiable, the managers can began the process of analyzing the data and determining what is happening within the team itself. In order determine team performance and dynamics, the manager needs to analyze and diagnose communication process by asking some questions that stimulate their thinking(Bulleit, 2006). The questions include determining whether the style of communication in the team was poor as well as establishing whether the team lack the skills requisite for problem-solving. The analysis and diagnosis of the data collected enables managers to establish a precise comprehension of the team dynamics.
Choosing the best solution
After the analysis and diagnostic of the data collected, the manager would have manage to identify the root cause of the problem. At this point the manager and the team would have identify the problem to be either communication or lack of skills. The best solutions are selected from the list of many solution proposed(Bulleit, 2006). This involves the process of relooking at the problem areas together with the issues. The solutions that can be tailored to improve the efficiency, effectiveness and holding the group together are considered the best solution.
Implementing the solution and continue to refine it
This is the final step that involves clear articulate of the ideas and thoughts, active listening, give effective feedback, think and analyze in methodical and systematic way as well as identify risks and assumptions(Brandt, et al., 2011). The process of implementing the solutions include modelling and coaching the team members to adopt the desired behavior.
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Social institutions are organized patterns of social norms characterized with social needs. Example of social institutions includes education, family, power of the state and healthcenters. Social systems are defined by different theoretical perspectives; conflict perspective, interactionism perspective, and functionalist perspective.
The theory focuses on firsthand information on human interaction with each other. Interactionism perspective focuses on the interaction between individuals starting with a small conversation. For example, in marriage, interactionism perspective applies to the communication of one partner to the other asking for a hand in marriage and the quality of the ring for engagement.
Interactionism perspective is beneficial in a way that it enables one to determine the meanings of people actions towards social institutions. From a simple gesture to two people conversation, one can be able to determine how they value their activities.
The major weakness of the interactionism perspective on social institutions is that it neglects the bigger picture of social institutions. Interactionism Perspective focuses on small group conversation and ignores the larger picture of social interactions. The theory is involved in micro sociology but not macro sociology (Schaefer, 2012).
Functionalism theory explains that everything and everyone are dependent upon another factor and the vice versa; that is everything is interdependent in the society. For example, social institutions such as families depend on the power of the state to provide learning institutions for their children, who will in turn get employed and help their families and pay taxes to the power of the state.
According to Schaefer, (2012) social units are there to maintain stability to one another, hence functionalist perspective theory. Functionalism theory is concerned with the relationship of smaller groups and the extended groups in the community.
Functionalism theory is critiqued with how it does not encourage changes in the society. The theory believes that any change may lead to an adverse impact. Functionalist theory also neglects possible negative effects of related and interdependent factors in an organization.
Unlike Functionalism theory, conflict theory is based on changes and encourages change. Conflict theory is based on pressure that exists between people and societal group based on resources, boundaries and power. Earlier sociologists and philosophers such as Karl Max based his perspective of conflict in the struggle existing among people in the society related to economic stability. Today conflict theory is evident in inequality in gender, race, ethnicity and also the economic factor of the rich and the poor.
The theory weakness is that it tends to look at every social aspect of the society from an adverse side. This is a problem because such social issues such as democracy are viewed as elements formulated to control the society but to for its benefits.
I align myself with conflict theory since it is more evident in our lives today than the other two theories. Conflicts are evident in our day to day lives and start from home extending to the society as a whole. For example, in United States of America economic conflict is evident in the huge gap between the rich and the poor. In our society today the rich control, the flow of resources and in return get richer in the process at the cost of the poor. Race, ethnicity, and tribal differences are quite common, and people are discriminated based on these social aspects among others.
Politics and power play a significant role in organizations, from how employees interact with each other and to how decisions made. In small and big organizations, the effect of power relies on whether managers use negative and positive power to influence others in the workplace (Zeiger, n. d). Apparently, politics directly control or influence the person who has the authority, and determines if the general culture of the organization promotes output and productivity.
Identify the potential sources of conflict among the managers.
Conflict is the practice that happens when a group or an individual recognizes that another group or person is aggravating a vital goal or concern. Apparently, conflicts occur after you perceive that someone is upsetting or thwarting your goal (Boundless, 2015). Conversely, a lot of conflicts arise from incorrect judgment or perception that someone is intentionally averting the attainment and success of individual objectives.
Consequently, conflict among managers and team members result or arise from several sources, and some conflicts have their basis on disagreements concerning the nature of the manager’s work, how it’s attained, and how the managers behave (Boundless, 2015). Below following is a list of potential sources of conflicts of the mentioned organization:
- Competing interest
- Ambiguity or Vagueness
- Performance deficiencies
- Poor or lack of communication
Describe the types of organizational power individual managers might be seeking and how their search for power may contribute to conflict in the organization.
Companies offer a power base and pedestal for persons working within the organization. From a wholly monetary stance and viewpoint, companies live to generate an expendable income over costs through meeting needs in the marketplace (Zalenznik, 1970). Conversely, companies are politically structured and offer chances to employees to develop livelihood, which provides platforms for the expression of employee’s motives and interests. Consequently, the advancements of professions specifically high professional and managerial levels, depends on amassing of power as the vehicle for converting employees motives into actions that influence other people or employees.
Here is a list of type’s organizational power that individual managers may strive to attain:
- Control of scarce resources
- Formal authority
- Control of decision process
- Use of rules, regulations, and organizational structure
- Ability to handle ambiguity
- Control of information and knowledge
Analyze how organizational politics might influence formal and informal decision-making within the organization.
Organizational politics affect the connection between informal and formal decision making. The informal decision making minimizes the perception of organizational politics, as the managers provide the mission, vision, and an operative process for goal attainment (Ivanko, 2013). Whereas formal decision making minimizes vagueness and professional uncertainty that certifies the feeling that it is hard to handle organizational challenges in a civilized way based on fairness and justice.
First of all I have explained the interpersonal conflict and its components then linked all the components with my interpersonal conflict with my parents on the issue of going abroad for higher studies. Further I discussed different concepts of interpersonal conflicts with reference to my own interpersonal conflict. At the end I discussed the role neuroscience in building interpersonal conflicts.
Interpersonal conflict is the difference between perceptions of two or more persons on a single matter because of many factors. Factors include Values, ego, facts, policies etc. Conflicts that occur can be a combination of three components.
Behavioral Component: This is where one person interferes with other person’s objectives achievement.
Cognitive Component: This refers the conflict between persons because of the conflict between interests and objectives of each person.
Affective Component: This is the state of negative emotions because of conflict with someone.
As per instructions I was required to choose some interpersonal conflict in which I was personally involved. Therefore, my conflict was with my parents upon the issue of my studies, as I belong to a developing country so I thought to go abroad (USA) for higher studies but my parents did not allow for going abroad. It started with my personal thought. One day I was thinking about my future and what it would be like? What I will need in future? How I will become a professional? What I will make for my kids and wife and parents? And to make it all real I decided to go abroad.
Initially I gathered some information about procedures and expenditures involved in the process of visa for going abroad. I contacted some of my friends already went for the same reason and discussed with them about their conditions and goals whether achieved or not? What kind of difficulties they were facing in achieving their objectives and other things like situation about accommodation and monthly expenses involved for survival. After making a complete detail and thinking it a suitable opportunity for me to go abroad I also thought it was affordable for my parents to bear the expenses I discussed the situation with my parents and I told them everything like my objectives and results that I was expecting from my decision. My parents rejected the whole idea at once and even asked for no more discussion on the matter.
This was the time when affective component strike first time to my plan and I started to disagree with my parent’s instructions. I tried to impress my parents regarding the similarity between my objectives and my family’s objectives but they again rejected the whole plan this is where cognitive component added. I knew there was no one who can bear my expenses and after all I have to convince my parents first if I have to go abroad. I continued to try harder and harder. I asked my parents again but they rejected again and asked for no more discussion this is where behavioral components added and a conflict came in existence between me and my parents. Interpersonal conflict concept suggests that the interpersonal conflict can occur because of different situations. Three of them as instructed are discussed with reference to my conflict with parents as under.
This conflict refers to the situation where one party does not agree to the other party because of some values and beliefs on which first party have a complete faith. In this instance I think this was one of the main reasons between me and my parents as it was their belief that one should not leave his country if he is living his life without pain. Secondly it was also their belief that the friends who really help in the time of need do not exist and most of my plan was dependant on my friends. They were also thinking that I was just a child and cannot handle every situation alone so they were not ready to send me alone anywhere.
This refers to the situation where one party thinks himself most superior and other party is not able to achieve his targets/goals.ego conflict arises when a person think that his decisions should not be challenged. In this situation a person sticks to his decision because he cannot bear the criticism. Same was the case with my parents. When I discussed my plan with them, my parents at once rejected my thought without any reason. Without realizing the fact that I was thinking of a bright future they gave their opinion just to satisfy their desire to keep me with them and they asked me not to discuss the issue again. They were afraid that if they agree to my decision it can hurt their ego, their self esteem.
This is a situation where both parties think that they are fully aware of facts behind any matter they are having under discussion. In this regard I was confident that I was fully aware of all the facts involved in my plan of going abroad but on the other hand my parents were fully confidant upon their knowledge of facts and this remain the reason of conflict between me and my parents and I could not make them understand and believe what I was trying to do. For me it was like I was doing everything for me and my family whereas for them it was like they were thinking for me and the whole family.
Neuroscience & Interpersonal Conflicts
Scientifically it is proven that individual’s experiences and the neural pathways of their brains are interlinked. Experiences affect neural pathways and as a result neural pathways affect experiences. On one hand parents having great and enough experiences of life think that their children must learn and act and establish their goals in accordance with their experiences. Whereas, on the other hand children just started experiencing life according to their neural pathways, want to live their life and achieve goals according to their own desires and experiences. Here arises the conflict.
I decided to go abroad for higher studies as I thought that the life will be challenging in future because of the competition in jobs and level of qualifications and worse economic conditions and this will help me to become distinct and help be to grab opportunities to achieve my goals about my career and life I have planned for me and my family. But my parents thought opposite and rejected my idea of going abroad as according to their experiences life in here was easy and I can spend the same life with same luxuries like they had and they decided that I should stay here and create opportunities for myself like them as their experiences told them that there is no place and people better than their country. Whereas, I believed that God has created men to conquer the world. In spite of all my wishes and ideas I could not resist and surrendered to my parents experiences despite of having a great desire to go abroad for higher studies and a splendid career.
There has been a lot of social conflict in the modern America regarding the religious beliefs that the traditional Christians had tied close to their hearts. They simply believed that God was on their side no matter what. This was however different as compared to the modern American’s beliefs. They hold this despite them being either conservative or progressive. In the better part of the American history, we have seen this as being true. In the modern America, people majorly claim to be speaking about God’s wishes and at the same time, according to them; they are getting things the wrong way. There are several things that modern Americans claim that the traditional Americans got them all wrong and are thus causing social conflict.
The traditional Christian values were totally in supportive of slavery. It was claimed that the bible was in supportive of the same. Conservative Christians will find it very difficult in the present modern America to revive slavery(Luckmann,1967). In the present America, you can hardly find even the one person who is the greatest fan of the bible who believes in the same.
The conservative Christian was in supportive to thesuffrageof women, just the way it is against the progression of women. The women were not given the rights to vote as they are doing now. The men were allotted the headship position and the womenwere to abide by them nomatter what. This in the past was well receipted (Hart,2002). Despite this issue being seen as clearly wrong in the modern American society, there are some conservative Christians who see this as being right and should be up for debate again.
The modern Americans believe that the story of creation the bible is very wrong and that he world has been evolving for millions of years through random mutation. Most Christians have resisted this as hard as they possibly could. The Christians have, in most cases gone to court to defend this. This has however not been successful as many minds have been shifted on what is termed as “the truth”. At one point, a republican-appointed judge went ahead to term the conservative Christians who were defending their values as being liars who were pushing for theories that were of “breathtaking inanity.”(Ammerman,2007).
The pain relief given for child birth
In the Bible, pain during child birth was a punishment given to Eve by God when she disrespected Him. This is the exact same thing mist of the Christians of the19th Century believed in. The modern Americans view pain as a product of evolution and not a punishment from God(Luckmann, 1967).
Abortion and contraception
Among the Catholics, abortion and contraception is strongly prohibited. Between the 19th-20ththere was a widespread anti-Catholic sentiment that came up which legalized the use of contraception’s and abortion(Luckmann, 1967). The conservative Christians saw contraception as being ungodly.
Majority of the modern Americans are in support of the same sex marriage. Gay rights are being legalized as Illinois is now the 15th state to legalize this. This is however, according to the conservative Christians, a very big mistake as the Bible only allows marriage between a man and a woman (Ammerman, 2007).
The Christians find it well to pray to God and ask for his favor and mercy in their lives. On the onset of modernization, this was strongly fought against. In 1961, the matter was taken to the Supreme Court at it ruled against the usual prayers in school even if they were voluntary. They saw this as a way the Christians were forcing the unwilling souls to get into their “outrageous” beliefs(Luckmann, 1967). This was seen as an act of bullying the non-believers of Christ.
The Christians in the 19th century were strongly against alcoholism and motivated people to keep away from alcoholism as much as they could. This was however not taken positively by the modern Americans as they saw that Jesus was a wine drinker and thus everyone had to be left free to choose whether to drink or not. It took more than a decade for this issue to be fixed(Hart, 2002).
There are several people who went ahead and wrote papers to justify their opinion about the influence of religion. One of such people is Merton who wrote a thesis on the relationship between early experimental science and the rise of Protestant Pietism(Hall, 1963). He argues that the English scientist, that were at one point in time protestants explain a clear relationship that exists between the protestants and the values that guide science. He goes ahead to explain that the relationship that exists between religious interests and affiliation in the field of science as resulting from a great synergy between that exists between the modern science and the ascetic protestant values(Hall, 1963). In his view the values held by the Protestants encourage scientific research by letting science get to know the influence of God to the world. This thus provides a religious justification to support the scientific research (Hall, 1963).
Another person who wrote about Christianity was Dietrich Bonhoeffer. He was a German Lutheran Pastor and he strongly opposed the German Evangelical church which was state-controlled. He joined others in the foundation of the confessing church which later was on the forefront of the resistant against the Nazi regime(ATAOV, 1990).Bonhoeffer had his own beliefs about Christianity. For instance, he joined the resistance against Adolf Hitler as he believed that true Christianity included resistance against a criminal leading a state. He was arrested for this and while in prison, he wrote a letter questioning what Christianity really is. He argued on the long-held assumption that humans are spiritual or religious in nature. He says that at several occasions, people may have the need to express their arguments regarding religion in some way or another(ATAOV, 1990).
He saw a time coming where religion would end up to be meaningless. He claimed that the Christian’s expression of religion was from the highest and truest form. He questioned this after the Second World War where everyone including Christians was fighting against the other. He went ahead and asked the question, “what exactly is religion?” he concluded that the religious practices that guided Christianity had turned out to be private and personal and that it was totally disintegrated from politics and social ethics (ATAOV, 1990).
Another scholar, Professor Riesman concluded that in these periods of population growth, technological progress, like reformation and the Renaissance, most people have developed the capacity to do most things alone and are able to set lifelong goals based on certain values such as fame, wealth, quest for the religious salvation and also search for scientific truth. He believes that with religion one can be able to achieve most of the things they want in life(Wagner, 1964). One also has to incorporate science and also have wealth to facilitate all these.
It is very clear from the above papers written by several scholars that all of them have different perceptions. Merton believes that science is the major explanation of the values believed by the Christians while Bonhoeffer on the other hand has a lot of doubts about what Christianity is all about. These are based after the happenings of the World War II where Christians failed to show the Christian values. Riesman also believes in Christianity but he also believes that for one to be successful, they have to incorporate not only religion but also scientific research coupled with wealth.
Assignment 2: LASA 2— Conflict Management Report
The workplace can be an especially stressful environment. Personal conflicts between coworkers, fear of layoffs, and heavy workloads can be causes of negative stress. This stress can be carried to our homes and after-work activities, impacting personal health. Allowing these stressors to build and intensify will only further impair the work environment. For this assignment, you are required to review a scenario regarding a woman (Kate) who has experienced negative stress stemming from her work environment. Then, you will compare your own conflict management skills and experiences against Kate’s experiences. Follow the directions below to write an 8–10-page report on conflict management.
Review the following scenario:
Kate has been employed by a well-known manufacturing company for 12 years. She is the only female on her line and the fastest worker. She has been promoted several times through mergers and acquisitions, but has always been looked over for a senior management position. Kate believes she is qualified for advancement but thinks her manager has a problem with her personally. To top it off, Kate did not receive a semiannual or annual review, which would have resulted in a raise. Her coworkers (all males) have urged her to go to management and report what she believes to be discriminatory behavior from her immediate manager.
Now, complete the following tasks:
- Discuss a situation you have been in where you felt you were passed over for a promotion, made to feel indifferent, or were discriminated against. Compare and contrast your story with Kate’s.
- Compare the possible ethical breaches of Kate’s manager against your own manager’s behavior. Utilize scholarly research on leadership theory as justification.
- Compare the possible legal breaches of Kate’s manager against your own manager’s behavior. Utilize scholarly research on leadership theory as justification.
- Recommend an approach Kate could have used to manage the negative risk both personally and professionally.
- Evaluate the advice Kate received from her coworkers.
- Referring to the conflict resolution strategies taught in this course, determine which one is best suited to resolve Kate’s conflict. Justify your position.
- In the chart below, evaluate your conflict resolution skills from the past five years. Rate yourself on a scale from 1–5, where 1 represents low performing and 5 represents high performing.*
I’VE ALREADY RANKED MYSELF ON HERE SO GO AHEAD AND USE IT AS A REFERENCE INTO GUIDING YOU ON THIS PAPER*
|Conflict Resolution Approach||Rate Yourself (1–5)|
- Select one conflict resolution approach in which you ranked the lowest and develop an individual improvement plan for that approach.
- Explain how the mediation process could strengthen your conflict resolution and management skills.
- Discuss how the arbitration process could strengthen your conflict resolution and management skills.
- Implement some portion of your plan. Provide a detailed summary of the changes that occurred in your development as it relates to your ability to handle conflict.
Sample Answer – Conflict Management Report
Women discrimination is not a new thing in the military. Women have always been discriminated at all level including receiving sexual harassment and denial of promotion chance among other things. As a militant woman, I have felt passed over for a number of times. However, there is one episode that I will always remember. In this episode, I was denied a promotion opportunity even after pass all the evaluation measures, just because I was a woman. I am a corporal and the most recent performance review demonstrated that I am fit for promotion into a sergeant. However, after the review my immediate boss raised a concerned that I am a woman and thus, I cannot be given such a big post and responsibility while there are men round. According to him, a man with slight lower performance than me would perform better since he can join the force comfortably in the battle field while a woman cannot perform excellently in the field. The most disappointing part is that the panelist were carried away by his concerned and no assurance from my side was good enough to make them change their mind. The militant man who was slightly below me in the performance merit was given the position and I had to remain a corporal just because I am a woman. This was the most hurting incident in my life as a militant.
Just like in Kate’s case, I was denied to move up my career ladder just because I am a woman. Unlike Kate who thinks that the immediate manager has a personal issues with her, I am sure that my immediate boss and other seniors in the military have a problem with my being a woman. Although Kate was punished by the manager refusing to conduct her review to ensure that she does not appear in the list of those to be considered for a promotion. However, in my case, the evaluation was done but the thought of women as weak individuals made a person who had lower performance to take the post I deserved just because I am a woman. We both suffered from gender based discrimination from our immediate bosses which is truly against human ethics and the law.
Comparison of Possible Ethical Breach
Organizations are bound to work as guided by work ethics. Ethically managers are supposed to treat their employees with respect. Managers are required to show all employees that they are valued by the company as a way of motivating them. Organization managers also have a moral duty of promoting talents in an organization. This is normally done by motivating employees and appreciating their hard work through promotion, verbal recognition and salary increment among other rewards. In this regard, the managers should only consider the employee talents, abilities and contribution to the organization when promoting, demoting, terminating, or rewarding employees, and not any other discriminative factor such as gender, race, age, religion or sexuality. The manager in my scenario failed in employing this ethical requirement by putting discriminative gender factor above the employee ability to lift the organization to a different height (Aom, 2006). However, on Kate case, the manager deliberately refused to evaluate the employee performance so as to deliberately leave her out for any promotion consideration. This is a sabotage which end up killing employee’s personal drive, job satisfaction, motivation, vigor and personal growth of an employee. Ethically, managers are anticipated to create an ethical culture in an organization where by every member of the organization will feel obligated to do only what is right. However, the two incidences, the two do not only destroy the ethical values in the organizations but also individual employees esteem and value in the organization (Swailes, 2013).The second scenario seems to be even more fatal since the top management in the branch supported the manager in his discriminative mission. This a clear indication that the entire organization does not consider any ethical values when doing their duties.
Workers appraisal is one of the regular organization practices that are employed to evaluate employee performance with intentions of changing duties, making promotion, demotion, or termination. It is also done to identify changes that can be made to increase employee’s efficiency. The unethical act of refusing to review an employee for whatever reason was not only committed against the employee, but also against the company (Guerci et al., 2015). The company anticipated that the activity will help in identifying the best talents it has and be able to utilize them to enhance its performance. Thus, the manager had ethically failed the company by failing to perform his duty sincerely for the best interest of the company. He also failed the company by doing a demoralizing act that can easily kill a talent that could have been very beneficial to the company (Robroek et al., 2012).
The managers in my scenario failed in employing transformational leadership which is a form of leadership that advocate for change. Transformational leadership focuses on changing the organization culture to create a new culture that is more favorable to the performance of an organization (Meinert, 2014). Ethically, a leader should focus on developing an organization that embrace inclusion in a diverse workforce. My manager had a moral duty of making women appreciated, respected and recognized in the organization. It was his duty to try the women’s ability in aspect he had doubts on. Good performance beyond the surrounding men in all other category demonstrated high potential even in untested aspect. It was the manager’s moral duty to convince other panelist that women ought to be given a chance to evaluate on how they would perform in untested areas. This way he could have enhanced a positive transformation in the military. However, instead of creating change, the manager contributed in devaluing women in the military an aspect that is highly demotivating and demoralizing.
Comparison of Legal Breach
The two incidences demonstrate a high level of discrimination in the workplace. This goes against the American antidiscrimination law which was established in 1964 under civil rights act. This law prohibits workers discrimination based on ethnicity, originality, sex, color, race, disabilities, age, sexuality, or religion among other similar aspects (Houseman, 1999). In this case, the managers introduce sex based discrimination in promotion. Kate was discriminated by being disregarded during the performance evaluation activity with intention of leaving her name out while evaluating the individuals to be promoted. Although the reason for discrimination is not clear in Kate’s case, it is evidence that the discrimination is not based on genuine aspects such as performance, skills or abilities but something malicious or illegal. Kate suspect that she was discriminated because she is a woman. On the other hand, I was discriminated by being denied a promotion just because I was a woman.
Corruption could be another aspect that could have contributed to the two acts. Promotion is normally considered a great milestone in a career of every person. In this regard, different means can be used to sabotage promotion of an individual who has an aspect that can be used discriminatively to blur him or her from achieving it. This can be done either by other employees who are in competition with the individual in question. This can also be done by an individual in the management who is completely against women in management. This corrupt act could have been authorized from the top or by one of the employee who is highly favored by the manager. Either way, the two managers are highly involved in these corrupt deals particularly in Kate case, corruption could have played a great deal in what happened (Smith et al., 2007).
Recommended Approach for Kate
The situation in the Kate case is not very clear. Although it is clear that the manager has personal issues with Kate, it is hard to pin point the actual problem that the manager has. It could be he is threatened by Kate’s achievements, just as he could be threatened by a man with Kate’s ability or he is bias on Kate case because she is a woman. The truth regarding the manager’s position on Kate’s issue cannot be identified unless investigated further. The best strategy Kate can employ to establish the actual problem is by approaching the manager politely with intention of knowing why neither her annual or semiannual review was done. Kate should be keen to note the manager’s tone and visual expression while giving his response, together will noting the response. This response should determine her next move. In case the manager will pretend that this happened by mistake, Kate should just cool down and discuss on when the evaluation can be down. However, if the manager become satirical and demonstrate an aspect of arrogance or dismissal, or incase the manager places personal discriminative demands to allow a review, Kate should consider reporting this to his seniors.
The reporting process should involve an email written to them manager inquiring on why she has not been reviewed for a whole year. This email should be copied to the senior as a way of notifying them on what is going on and also as a way of forcing the manager to give a professional reason for this. Kate can raise her concern or present her complains to the senior as a reply to the email or in a new email thread. This will make everything easy since she will have introduce the seniors to the case and provided the manager a chance to raise his argument. In case the management is aware of the biasness and by any reason facilitated it, Kate should consider filing a case on the court of law regarding discrimination in the workplace for the established reasons, probably due to her gender. In this case, a systematic procedure will be useful.
Evaluation of Coworkers Advice to Kate
Kate is advised by her co-workers to consider go to the management is viable. However, this may great more problems between her and her boss in the future than it is today. Kate’s boss may feel that Kate is trying to tarnish his boss reputation to his seniors which may affect his job. In this regard, he may make some major advances that may cause Kate’s job and hence her twelve years of hard work. In this regard, Kate should only consider involving the management as advised in case she is completely unable to resolve the issue with the manager. The management may also refer her back to the manager in case they realize that she bypassed him. Kate should consider approach her immediate manager first prior to involving other seniors. This will demonstrate her effort to resolve the issue and create a sense of urgency when the issue reach to the management. The management will be sure that they are handling a case that could not be handled by those responsible and thus give it a considerable magnitude of importance. Moreover, there is always a communication and conflict resolution protocol in the company. It is always safe to follow the provided conflict resolution protocol. The first stage would involve evaluating if there is any other employee with a similar complain and join hands in resolving the issue. If there is no any other such case, Kate should consider establishing the reason why she was treated differently and demand for equal treatment. If this does not workout, she should consider involving the management.
Best Conflict Resolution Strategy
The best strategy to employ to resolve conflict in Kate case suppressing the conflict. Kate is cannot manage to prevent or avoid the conflict since the situation created by the manager has already introduce the conflict. Kate needs to know what happened and why she was not evaluated for a whole year. Anything can happen while trying to obtain this information since she does not have control of the manager or other involved parties reaction. However, Kate can try to suppress the conflict by approaching the problem in a careful manner. For instance, instead of reporting the case directly to the management Kate should consider trying to resolve the case with her immediate manager so that she may understand why the manager is so mean to her. This way, Kate will avoid advancing the conflict to the top management without trying to resolve it at the current level.
Mediation can be employed to strengthen the process of conflict resolution. To enhance the process of resolving this problem, Kate may consider approaching another manager of the same level with her immediate manager but from a different department to work as a mediator. Mediation will highly assist in creating a consensus between Kate and the manager. He will assist Kate in making the manager understand Kate’s concern and also assist them in identifying the best way to resolve the solution. A mediator who is supposed to be neutral will highly assist in pointing out mistakes and establishing the best neutral solution (Oore et al., 2015).
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Social stratification refers to categorization of people according to socio and economicstrata, normally it is based on their occupation and income. Inmodern society,stratification exist in two classes that is the upperclass, middleclass and the lower class, the functionalist view of stratification identifies the role they play in maintaining social order in the society, Determining the structures of social stratification arise because of the existing inequalities of status among the members of the society, for instance the greater the social complexity of the society, the more social strata exist.
Social stratification enables exclusive upper class individuals who receive elite education and typically have the essential background which further translates to ascending them to power of politics, for example, to military and corporate companies. The unfortunate individuals become the ruled hence resulting to a balance of equilibrium in leadership,on this basis, functionalist believe that the owners of production or firms and other professional in both the private and public sectors are well rewarded financially because their work is important and contributes to stability of the society
According to Oswald(1946),Structuralfunctionalist believe that societies tend to be stable and mostly held together through mutual agreement, this provide a platform for the society to function thus lessening the conflict. Sociologist believe that stratification result to cohesive functioning,for instance ,some jobs are more important than the others like the job of a brain surgeon and ajob of shoe-shining.
Moreover the views implies that people move up form economic basedladder, in general because of lack of equal opportunity, the existence of public and private school all aim at imparting knowledge to children portrays the existing difference.
On the other hand, stratification system attempts to avert conflict over the distribution of goodand services in the society. A ruling class derives its power from its ownership and hence control all the forces of production, here the capitalist exploits the subject hence resulting to unfairly competition (George, 1955). In this case ,the rich have the power to perpetrate an unfair system that works to their advantage, losers on the other side and who are at the bottom of social stratification have little opportunity to improve their situation since those at the top tend to have more political and economic power, however , this encourages people who want to succeed to proceed with their hard work.
Conflict approach believes that socialstratification benefits the rich at the expense of the poor suffering. In other words, it creates a system for winners and losers, in this aspect, thewealthy families pay low wages to the gardeners which end up not progressing, this game end up creating and perpetuating stratificationsystem. United states have rolled out the programs of empowerment to its citizens as platform of ensuring that the existinggap between the classes is reduced.(McArthur, 1955).
Various Conflict Management Strategies
There are various strategies, or approaches, employed in managing given conflicts. The accommodation approach involves offering to each of the parties to a conflict what it desires. The avoidance approach is aimed at postponing conflict for an indefinite time, with the hope that it goes away devoid of confrontations. The collaborative approach involves the integration of ideas propounded by diverse persons to come up with innovative settlements satisfactory to all parties.
The compromise approach entails reaching out to conflicting parties to resign from various components of their claims or positions to give way to the establishment of agreeable or satisfactory settlements. The competition approach seeks settlements in which some parties win at the expense of others. It is commonly used by conflicting parties that are rather assertive. Lastly, the team building approach seeks settlements in which all the parties to a given conflict win through innovative solutions (Krile, 2006).
Strengths and Weaknesses of Chosen Conflict Management Strategies
Each of the approaches employed in managing given conflicts has particular strengths along with downsides. The competition strategy results into settlements rather rapidly and increases the resulting outputs. However, it is ineffective in lasting engagements and injures interpersonal relations significantly. The avoidance approach results into positive settlements rather rapidly and allows for discussions between conflicting parties. However, it does not by itself provide solutions and is ineffective in lasting engagements.
The compromise approach offers solutions where the others fail and helps for the development of empathy among conflicting parties (University of Nebraska, 2012). However, it compromises each of the parties’ goals and shares, may give openings to forced settlements, and is ineffective in lasting engagements. The collaborative approach supports co-creation, as well as innovativeness, and supports the development of lasting relations. However, the approach is challenging to formulate. As noted earlier, the team building approach seeks settlements in which all the parties to a given conflict win through innovative solutions. Even then, it presents challenges in creating teams owing to variations in individual goals, opinions as well as values (Krile, 2006).
Considerations for Selecting a Strategy
When selecting the approach to employ in managing given conflicts, organizations should consider the party relationships and issues informing the conflicts. The organizations should consider whether the relationships between conflicting parties are low or high and the value the parties attach to the relationships (University of Nebraska, 2012). The organizations should consider whether the issues between the conflicting parties are low or high and the value the parties attach to the issues.
Ideally, when a conflict entails a high-level party relationship and a high-level issue, the compromise approach is used. Ideally, when a conflict entails a high-level party relationship and a low -level issue, the accommodation approach is used. Ideally, when a conflict entails a low-level party relationship and a low-level issue, the avoidance approach is used. Ideally, when a conflict entails a low-level party relationship and a high-level issue, the competition approach is used (Krile, 2006). In the presented scenario, the conflict entails a low-level party relationship and a low-level issue. Thus, the avoidance approach should be used.
As noted earlier, in the scenario, the conflict entails a low-level party relationship between employees in the same cadres and a low-level issue. Therefore, the avoidance approach should be used. In the alternate, the next best approach is the accommodation approach. The accommodation approach should be employed in resolving the conflict following the failure of the avoidance approach.
As earlier noted, the usage of the avoidance approach may not by itself resolve the conflict conclusively. It may be ineffective in lasting engagements between the quarrelling employees. As well, the avoidance approach may not by itself resolve the conflict conclusively. It may be ineffective in lasting engagements between the employees who party to the conflict (Krile, 2006).
Team building is a significant element of the organizational theory along with practice. Over time, conceptual clarity and consensus about the constituents of team building have developed. Its components include the setting of appropriate goals, the management of societal relations, the clarification of member roles, and conflict resolution. In the Riordan Manufacturing case, the most favorable intervention is role clarification. In the presented scenario, the conflict entails a low-level party relationship and a low-level issue. Consequently, the avoidance approach should be used.
The case study presented concerns the numerous changes that took place in the Taj group Hotel in 1990’s. In 1990’s, revolutionary transformations took place at the Taj Group Hotel, which gave the company a completely new image while under the leadership of Ajit Kerkar and Krishna Kumar. Under Kumar’s leadership, new novel practices that had major influences on employees were introduced. The company’s owned properties were streamlined, its management was restructured, and new strategies were implemented to enable Taj Group Company to compete favorably with other companies both locally and internationally. These changes brought about some variations in management of Taj Group Hotel during the tenure of the two leaders. In summary, the case study provides a classic scenario of how PESTEL objectives can conflict with corporate objectives.
Evaluating Performance Management Systems in Taj
Strengths-Kerkar’s management system
One of the major strengths of Kerkar’s system is its ability to breed great loyalty among the company’s employees. This gives members of staff the opportunity to be part of the company’s vision, which eventually motivates them to work hard in order to help the company realize its objectives (Beardwell and Claydon, 2010; & Forrester and Tashchian, 2006, p. 461). Again, Kerkar’s system has brought about greater financial and physical growth to Taj Group Hotel as compared to the company’s status before his tenure. This has been advantageous in the sense that, it has enabled the company to make better improvements than those made before his tenure. The third strength of Kerkar’s system is the fact that it creates a culture with a ‘family orientation.’ This culture ensures that there is a close relationship between the company’s leader and the workers (Yagil and Medler-Liraz, 2013, p. 482).
Most importantly, Kerkar’s performance management system lays much emphasis on developing internal talent pool and grooming is done through on-the-job-training. Talent development is one of the most important aspects of human resource management (Yukl 2012). Through talent development, Kerkar assists Taj Group Hotel to achieve sustained success through a strategic and integrated approach that incorporates improvement of employee performance and development of individual capabilities (Wilton 2013).
Weaknesses: Kerkar’s management system
Kerkar runs the Taj Group Hotel on the basis of personal relationships which prevents him from creating boundary between personal life and the company. This prevents him from formulating strategies that can help the company move forward (Forrester and Tashchian, 2006, p. 459). Even though Kerkar’s performance management system has resulted into aggressive expansions in the company, the system lacks service quality mainly due to the absence of a formal process of employee evaluation and tracking. Lack of a formal process of employee evaluation and tracking prevents KerKar from identifying employees’ strengths and weaknesses thereby making it difficult to suggest methods for improvement (Bach 2000, p. 268).
Kerkar’s performance management system lacks structured systems and standards which prevents him from identifying the best method of motivating employees. He therefore ends up using wrong motivation strategies to encourage his employees. Using wrong motivation strategies may not inspire workers in the long run which may interfere with their performance (Kaifi and Noori, 2011, p. 82) as observed during Kerkar’s reign. For instance, KerKar feels that meeting employees once a year and congratulating them for the good job done throughout the year is enough to encourage then to continue working for the company. Again, Kerkar’s system puts employees’ salaries at arrange of between 15 and 20 percent lower than market average. This does not motivate employees as expected.
Strengths: Kumar’s management system
Kumar’s performance management system comprises of employee development and performance appraisal. This system assists employees to improve their skills and to identify their areas of weaknesses for future improvements (Bach 2000, p. 268). According to Becker, Huselid and Ulrich (2006), a good performance management system needs to involve employee development and performance appraisal. Kumar understands the importance of having highly skilled and well-performing employees in an organization. For this reason, he has decided to launch an extensive reform that will ensure that corporate governance is realized at the Taj Hotel Group (Newton and Findlay, 1996, p. 56)
Kumar also employs the 360-degree feedback that enables him to maximize transparency among employees (Hazucha, Hezlett and Schneider, 1993, p. 332). With the 360-degree feedback in place, managers at the Taj Group Hotel are ready to provide feedback and have discussion with the company’s employees (Yukl 2012; & Knights and Wilmott, 2007). The system also enables leaders and employees of the company to remain transparent and to be morally responsible about their actions. This prevents workers from engaging in unethical behaviors, thereby ensuring that the Taj Group Hotel meets the ethical standards of the Tata Companies (Karl 1997, p. 100; & Brewster, Sparrow and Vernon, 2011).
Additionally, Kumar has introduced a new performance management system that has been able to unify the Taj Group Hotel with other Tata Companies. The system has created structured systems and standards that are applicable to all branches of the company, thereby enabling them to act as a unit (Yukl 2012). Kumar’s structured performance management system also assists him to create a more balanced promotion system for better employee motivation (Kaifi and Noori, 2011, p. 82). This system has also enabled Kumar to transfer successful managers to other locations where they can achieve maximum benefits from their skills and capabilities (Bach 2000, p. 268).
Weaknesses; Kumar’s management system
The new systems introduced by Kumar do not capture all aspects that are required for a person to be considered a successful manager. Additionally, Kumar’s performance management system has seen some excelling members of staff being promoted to manager positions. However, Kumar does not consider the fact that the business has now become very complex and too technologically demanding to be managed by merely excelling employees (Poon 2013, p. 400).
Other weaknesses of Kumar’s management system include; its ignorance about the traditional framework culture, it does not promote loyalty among employees, and the fact that the new system is not focused on a physiological contract plan to motivate experienced senior employees to the changes. These weaknesses greatly interfere with employee motivation in the company which impacts negatively on performance (Becker and Gerhart, 1996, p. 800).
Rationale for Bhowmick’s request
As far as Bhowmick is concerned, the person who has been selected to feel the position of the general manager at the Taj Kumarakom is not the right candidate for the job. I think Kumar should consider the several complaints that have been raised by senior executives concerning the new recruitment and selection process since this one of the best ways used to involve employees in the decision-making process (Kaifi and Noori, 2011, p. 90). After making these considerations, Kumar should accept Bhowmick’s request but he must first approach the Career Development Committee and inform the members about the request. Kumar should let the committee members know that senior executives are not comfortable with the method that the committee uses to fill vacant managerial positions.
Rationale for accepting Bhowmick’s request
The rationale behind Bhowmick’s request is the idea that, well experienced members of an organization enhance performance and appointing managers to senior positions based on experience highly motivates employees (Brady 1987, p. 440). This position has been arrived at following a comprehensive analysis of the steps that needs to be followed in performance management process. Performance management is a process that occurs in a cycle. The process begins by performance planning where employees’ expectations are viewed, including the plans they expect to achieve when still working with the company (Clegg, Kornberger and Pitis, 2008). Looking at employees’ expectations and levels of experience is very important because it provides an insight into how the workers will get the job done (Kaplan and Norton, 1992, p. 72; & Kaplan and Norton, 1996, p. 76).
This explains why it is important to allow senior managers to reconcile their expectations with that of the company when filling vacant managerial positions at Taj Group Hotel (Lucas, Lupton and Mathieson, 2006). Consequently, this will assist the senior managers to achieve important results when given the new positions (Wright and McMahan, 2011, p. 99). Since the current system used by the company does not give employees room to link their job expectations with that of the company, the star employees may not respond positively to it (Atkinson and Shaw, 2006; & Becker and Gerhart, 1996). Since a position has been taken that Kumar should accept Bhowmick’s request, it is unnecessary to give rationale for declining the request.
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Assignment: Diagnosing Conflict Using the Circle of Conflict or Triangle of Satisfaction Model
During the spring of 2010, an oil rig explosion on a platform in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in one of the largest oil spills in history. As the weeks progressed and environmental problems increased, a myriad of suggestions, plans, proposals, and arguments were put forward. Each varied significantly, based on the particular group that proposed the solution and its involvement in the oil spill.
Research the British Petroleum Gulf of Mexico oil spill of spring 2010. Use the Circle of Conflict Model or the Triangle of Satisfaction model to analyze the event from three varying positions: BP, the state of Louisiana, and the United States federal government. You may use either the Circle of Conflict or Triangle of Satisfaction Model for your analysis. Write a paper outlining your completed model for diagnosing conflict. You must include outside research to support your findings. Make sure that you use credible resources for your research.
Create a mind map of your analysis with the oil spill as the problem at the center and the three different organizations as the first level from the center. From each of these, you should include additional information, such as the various viewpoints, plans of actions, etc.
Please run paper through a plagiarism checker and provide minimum 5 references.
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The oil spill in Deepwater Horizon is the biggest marine oil spill in the world history. BP Oil Spill incident was as a result of a blast on the Deepwater Horizon platform of offshore oil nearly 50 miles southeastern part of the Mississippi River delta. The incident took place on April 20, 2010 resulting to the death of 11 workers and 14.2 million barrels of oil spilling after Deepwater Horizon sank in the water about 5000 feet. Deepwater Horizon was owned by BP who had contracted Transocean to operate Macondo Prospect. The incident resulted into a conflict regarding who was responsible for the incident, the blame going to the parties responsible for the project. They included the BP, Louisana a local government and the federal. (Cleveland, 2013) This paper employs the circle of conflict model to resolve this conflict.
Resolving the Conflict
This conflict will be resolved by use of circle of conflict model. According to this model, conflict is caused by five aspects which include interests, values, relationships, structural and data. Each aspect can contribute to conflict individually or a conflict can be as a result of combined causes (Kotrv, 2012). Below is the analysis of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill with regard to the model:
Data: The main conflict in this case regarded who was responsible for the incident. The main reason as to why it was not easy to identify the actual party who was responsible was due to missing information. There was no information regarding the actual cause of the spill that resulted to the explosion. The actual way to resolve this was by identify the actual cause so that the three parties could know who failed to accomplish their duties comprehensively. BP was basically the owner of the company and thus the owner of the project that caused the incident. On the other hand, the federal government permitted for the project and thus responsible of false assurance, the Louisana state government was responsible for inspecting the ground and giving the authorization of the operation limit by evaluating the risk value. There the establishment of the major cause of spill would determine who among the three was supposed to curb the spill and why they failed in this to establish the person responsible.
Structural: the structural aspect focuses on how the three parties are relating to each other. The owner of the project was BP who had issued a full contract to Transocean, and thus Transocean was working under BP but without or with minimal supervision. The government authorized the drilling besides knowing the danger, however, leaving the supervision role to the state of Louisana government. Therefore to resolve the issue, party with the upper hand should be identified. The local government had to inspect every single level before authorizing the other. BP was supposed to ensure the best security measures when drilling after the authorization. There was no clear structure control structure between the BP and the local government. The two were supposed to be on the lookout before, during and after a drill.
Relationships: The three parties were responsible of the safety of the well at different measures. However, they started blaming each other after the incident. Federal government could not have authorized drilling associated with such great risks. The BP Company could have ensured that every fault is sealed while the Louisiana could have ascertained that every fault is sealed. Assumption could have been the major caused of this relation. The assumption that one party was responsible then the other is what created the problem. Accepting responsibilities and failure to take them would assist in resolving this conflict.
Value and Focus: BP believed that their project was approved by the BP because it was safe enough to be carried out and thus, the responsibility for the project failure was theirs. The federal government on the other hand believed that the company understood the nature of the project and thus, they knew the risks involved. Therefore, they were supposed to be careful enough. The BP also believed that the state of Louisana was well aware of the project and their approval to move to the next stage was an assurance the previous drills were successful and thus safe. State of Louisana then believed that BP was responsible of successful drilling since they were to benefit more on the project and theirs was just an assurance to clear the air. The best way to resolve this is by evaluating how deep did each party go to accomplish their duties and was not done by each parties without focusing on their believes. This can be defined based on the constitution and the contract.
Interest: The problem has already happened and resulted to a huge loss including to the loss of life. This must be compensated and thus, the parties must take charge in compensating this. The problem arises when every part want to avoid to be considered responsible. The main interest is to avoid being blamed for the problems and thus being held responsible for the losses. In this case it is hard to reconcile them since compensation is very high and thus, the powerful ones will continue blaming the weak to avoid the punishment involved.
Channel conflict occurs when a party in a marketing channel has the perception that another member(s) in the channel is engaging in activities that activities that prevent it from achieving its goal. Channel conflict enables an organization to plug loopholes in its system in a timely manner. This is enables an organization to maximize its performance. Channel conflict also keeps other channel members in their toes since decline in the performance of the members may lead to changes in channel arrangement (Pride et al. 2012).
Third parties refers to intermediaries that help in the intermediation of services between two companies. For a company to use third parties in the distribution of its products it must have have measures that would help in identifying the right third parties for distribution. This necessitates the company to set certain requirements that the distributor must first fulfill. This would enable the relationship between the distributor and the company to be mutually fulfilling. Failure to have a good relationship with the distributor may make the distributor refuse to sell certain products of the company. This is one of the major channel conflicts that a company, which uses third parties for distribution of its products faces. The third party distributors may prefer to sell the products of competitors. Offering incentives enables an organization to overcome this channel conflict. However, the incentives should not be offered haphazardly. The company should first identify determine the performance requirements of distributors. A company should also identify performance related factors that the third-party distributors may reject. This enables them to formulate incentives that match the bases of rejection by the channel (Pride et al. 2012).
Lack of a long-term perspective may also lead to channel conflicts in companies that use third parties for distribution. The company should ensure that it does bypass the third party distributor for short-term gains or terminating their services to avoid short term pains. The distributors may be opportunistic to the partnership with the company. This makes the relationship fail to be mutually beneficial to all parties. However, a long-term perspective does not imply that the manufacturer should have experience negative consequences from the relationship. It is vital for the relationship to be mutually beneficial to both the manufacturer and the third party distributor. The manufacturer and third party distributors may lack trust in each other. This is despite the fact that trust and dependence are critical in the development of long-term operation of the relationship between the company and the distributor. However, trust and dependence alone are not enough in the development of long-term relationships between a company and the third party distributor (Pride & Ferrell 2012).
Lack of legitimacy and compatibility between a company and the third party distributor may also lead to channel conflicts. Legitimacy and compatibility are some of the major factors that enable partnerships to have economic or shared values. Legitimacy may make a company or third party distributor view the partnership as a vehicle to enter into the market. Lack of resource sharing is one of the major channel conflicts that exist among companies that use third parties for distribution. It is vital for partnerships to ensure that they have synergistic resource sharing. This enables the partnerships to attain economies of scale, which improves their cost effectiveness. Shared relational, organizational, and information resources is more important in the long-term than the human resources or finances available in the partnership. Toyota is one of the companies that uses resource sharing to improve its competitiveness. The company provides its partners with information that help in improving their knowledge. This improves the relationship between Toyota and its distributors. Partner relationship management is the key factor that helps in development of information resources and sharing between partners. The information shared between the partners should be honest and timely to be effective (Pride & Ferrell 2012).
Dual distribution refers to a situation where a manufacturer or wholesaler uses more than one channel at the same time to enable products to reach consumers. In dual distribution, a company may sell a product directly to consumers or sell the product to other companies for resale. Using different channels to attract a certain market segment may lead to channel conflict. Business format franchising is one of the types of dual distribution. In format franchising, the franchisor issues other parties then right to operate certain units while concurrently owning and operating certain units themselves. The overlapping independent channels may lead to channel conflicts. This is due to the fact that there may be competition for market demand among the different locations. This is despite the fact that the price of the basic product or service in the different locations may be the same across the line of product. Most companies use dual distribution since the purchase preferences and experiences of customers may vary according to the customer, location, customer service, and product assessment. These factors may influence the channels of distribution that various customers prefer. Dual distribution enables companies to have access to different customer segments. This increases the ability of a company to increase market demand and size of the market share. Having multiple channels of distribution simultaneously increases the market presence of a product. This increases customer awareness and the possibility of creating brand loyalty among new and existing products (Pride et al. 2012).
Channel conflicts may arise if the distributors and other companies desire to keep profits to themselves despite thw fact that they may be in a difficult environment to operate in. A company can reduce channel conflict due to dual distribution by using direct distribution. This is due to the fact that it enables a company to determine marketing channels where customers are not fully services, which increases the market share of a company. Direct distribution enables a company to provide its products or services to customers who may have found it difficult to obtain the products or services. Therefore, a direct distribution strategy may enable a company build a sustainable competitive advantage over its rivals (Pride et al. 2012).
South Sudan rebels compel oil firms to leave
South Sudan rebels has directed that the oil firms still in operation in the country to immediately shut down as an urgent matter due to conflict. The opposition, Sudan People’s Liberation Movement and allied groups led by the former Vice president RiekMachar directed that the firms are supposed to immediately evacuate the Upper Nile region (Aggrey, 2015).
A statement issued by the opposition’s spokesman, James GatdekDak read, “In response to the government’s full scale offensive on our positions in the three states of greater Upper Nile region, we have decided to take control of the oilfields and…(prevent) SalvaKiir from using the oil revenues to perpetuate the war.”
Therefore, the leadership of Sudan People’s Liberation asked all the oil companies operating in the Upper Nile to stop every operation of theirs and undertake an immediate evacuation of their staff. The rebels asked them to carry out the process of shutting down in a manner safe not to damage the oil facilities and result in environmental degradation (Aggrey, 2015, p. 19). An earlier directive had resulted in shutting down and employees’ evacuation by companies like Petroliam NasionalBhd, India’s Oil $ Natural Gas Corp., China National Petroleum Corp. and other oil companies which were operating in the neighboring Unity State.
The overwhelming oil business venture in the country which seceded from the Sudan in July 2011 results into the production of over 160,000 barrels daily from the Upper Nile. This generates approximately $15 million in revenue for the under attack government of SalvaKiir. This has revoked the rebels as they think the Kiir’s government is using the resources from the oil mines in perpetrating war between the countries.
The General and Specific costs of the conflict.
The cost of conflict is the technique in which there is an attempt to measure the price of conflict on human race. This basically encompasses the examination of the cost as a result of conflict not only in relation to the economic, casualties and deaths but also the strategic, environmental, social and developmental costs of conflict.
The general cost of conflict may be so diverse but with respect to the South Sudan oil conflict a few would be derived: First, is the as aspect of an environment which hostile for business activities. In the presence of such a rebellious conflict of two political fonts on some business venture pure presents unfriendly business environment (Pipe, 2012). This is because such a system of wrangles do not foster resolutions that are geared towards addressing the sources of conflict resulting to breakdown in relationships between investors and the country or the relationship of the country with other countries in terms of business undertakings. Such a process of conflict and deteriorations in the intergovernmental relations have no design to get individuals back to an optimal state of productivity. Secondly, there is a breakdown of trust and inability in fostering a neutral ground of future business undertakings. Investors perceived the country as an environment for business with unforeseen risks unhealthy for business undertaking. Lastly, the country experiences a state of economic doldrums. As the course of business falls due to unhealthy environment there is a state of economic stagnation in the country (Pipe, 2012).