Tag: Crime

A Student Studying Criminal Justice Could Recreate New Techniques on how to Reconstruct Crimes and Analyze Physical Evidence

Criminal justices students are engaged in studying how to investigate crimes by reconstructing the scene of crime and gathering all possible evidence at the scene of crime and also recording verbal statements from suspects and witnesses. They also work closely with forensic science specialists who are involved in investigating the collected evidence for fingerprints, and DNA patterns among other important analysis that can help in linking the suspect to the crime or the crime scene. Reconstruction of crime scene refers to the process of eliminating and determining the actions and events which took place at the crime scene via analysis of pattern of the crime scene, the position and location of the physical evidence, and the forensic or laboratory assessment of the physical evidence. Reconstruction of crime scene also entails systematic study of logical theory formulation and related information (Chisum & Turvey, 2011). This paper investigates between criminal justice/forensic science and crime scene reconstruction and analysis of physical evidence.

Effective criminal justice personnel should be able to study a crime scene and reconstruct it to come up with theory of what could have transpired in the crime scene. This always acts at the first step to the case investigation. Crime reconstruction needs the aptitude to put a puzzle together using unknown dimensions pieces with no guiding picture. Reconstruction of crime is the observational outcome of an action or act, which assist in the hypothesis of the results cause (Chisum & Turvey, 2011). Crime reconstruction can be done using scientific method. This is a method that is founded on the principles of hypothesis and experimental test to determine if the hypothesis explains the cause of the event. The definition of possible hypothesis depends mostly on individual experience, or creativity in crime solving. Thus one can test as many hypotheses as possible until a viable explanation of the event is acquired. To settle for any hypothesis, the criminal justice specialist must be able to provide supporting data, which in this case is the collected physical evidence. Only the theory that accounts for all collected physical evidences can be used as the true representation of what transpired during the crime (Fisher &Fisher, 2012). To be able to do this, the criminal justice investigating personnel must be a keen observer, be logical and critical thinker, must understand science, and be able to recognize evidence. Logic, critical thinking and clues are normally used by criminal justices investigator in crime reconstruction process. Normally, it is considerably hard to acquire all the needed information to fully reconstruct the crime by scene analysis. However, the scene should clearly tell what happens even with lost details of the sequence of events. The analysis requires both deductive and inductive logic in the crime analysis testing all formulated hypothesis, where most viable are kept for further analysis after more information on the crime is obtained, while the impossible are eliminated (Chisum&Turvey, 2011).

Collection and analysis of physical evidence play a great role in promoting accurate crime reconstruction. Basically, the crime scene is secured immediately after the arrival of the right personnel including criminal justice and forensic science officers.  Pictures of the crime scene are taken from different views that include the aerial view and on the ground. Sketches of the crime scene are also developed. The crime scene identification is mostly directed by physical evidence that may include breakage of the doors, scattered things, blood stains, dead body, clothes with blood stain, and murder weapon among other things, based on the specification of the crime. The data gathering should consider all aspects that can results to reconstruction of crime which include physical evidence condition, impressions and patterns, victim’s condition, position of the evidence based on the visible reference feature, and any other small detail that can explain the situation (Kumar & Goyal, 2017). A search should be conducted around then crime scene to determine if anything else could be find such as any lost item from the offender during the struggle with the victim or when running away, any item that can assist in identifying the victim, or any other physical thing that can aid in giving more clues.

Physical evidence according to Chisum andTurvey(2011) is simply one puzzle piece when investigators are attempting to solve a case. In some forms of crimes for instance sexual assault and homicide, physical evidence might be the most vital aspect in proving the connection between the victim and the suspect. Physical evidence might also be significant in proving that the same suspect is connected to series of crimes.  Some of the physical evidence likely to be found in the crime scene include drugs, semen, blood, saliva, fiber, fingerprints, glass, hair, organs, explosives paint, petroleum products, powder residue, minerals, soil, tool marks, vehicle parts, and plastic bags among others. One way to identifying all possible physical evidence is by being careful and searching keenly to anything unnatural in the crime scene, this include trails, broken pieces of trees, disturbed shrubs and the likes (Jblearing, n.d.). Criminal justice personnel should know that physical evidence found at the crime scene can be utilized to determine some of the events that happened during, immediately after, or before the crime. The evidence might be able to assist investigators to establish the order in which the incidences took place. The crime scene assessment is followed by physical evidence gathering and analysis. Analysis of collected physical evidence plays a great role in solving the puzzle. With this information, the investigator can conduct deductive and inductive reasoning, pattern, statistics, and probability analysis to evaluate the data offered by the physical evidence. More information from the eyewitness, photographs, sketches and reports writing can also help in reconstructing the crime (Jblearing, n.d.).

According to Fisher andFisher (2012), physical evidence recognition is an important step in the crime reconstruction. If possible physical evidence is not identified, properly collected, tested and preserved, the evidence forensic value might be reduced greatly or lost forever. Distortion of physical evidence may also result to punishing innocent people while the criminal remain free and boost about their success. Thus, it is important for criminal justice and forensic science personnel to the required integrity and knowledge be able to collect, preserve and analyze the available evidence effectively. This includes identifying and recording transient evidence which is temporal evidence that can be easily lost or changes (Parmar, 2015).  To ensure efficiency such kind of evidence which can include some physical and biological phenomenon such as drying blood, color, and temperature, recorded as soon as it is noticed. The investigator should also notice conditional evidence and record it to ensure that it is not lost since it is also temporal. This can include smoke, lighting, TV settings, position of the window, victim’s condition or condition of the victim’s body, or specific position or location of certain evidence in the room or crime scene. This kind of evidence speaks a lot about how the crime took place and if lost, it may become hard to reconstruct the crime. Pattern evidence should also be documented immediately. This can include depositions or fractures, imprints, striations or indentations. Some of possible patterns in the crime scene include blood stain of spatter pattern, article or clothing pattern, glass fracture, position of the furniture among others. This evidence can also be lost and hence need to be documented immediately (Fisher& Fisher, 2012).

Investigator should also consider transfer or trace evidence which is normally created by physical contact between objects, persons, or objects and persons. This evidence includes chemicals, blood, drugs, fingerprint, soil, hair, body fluid, and fiber. This kind of evidence normally requires forensic assessment and it can be used to link the victim to the offender or the crime to the offender. Another form of evidence is medical evidence which consist of injuries of witness, suspect, and victim, the injury degree and type, the wound condition and location, the size and number of the wounds, and individual medical history. Associative evidence refers to particular items positioned at a crime scene, which might be utilized as evidence to relate a suspect or victim with a specific scene. This evidence can be used to link the suspect to the victim. Some of these evidences include vehicle of the suspect, victim’s properties in possession with the suspect or suspect’s property left at the crime scene. Electronic evidence can also be found which include audio recording, video from mobile devices or from surveillance camera among other thing. According to Lee and Pagliaro (2013), any qualified criminal justice officer should be able to classify these forms of evidence and be able to prioritize on the most volatile evidence in the crime scene. These evidences can be easily gathered by taking photographs which preserves the appearance of the crime scene for future reference especially during analysis. However, a more effective investigation should use photographs, sketches and crime scene notes to ensure all details have been grasped and preserved for future analysis. Different types of evidence are anticipated to lead the investigation team to the suspect after understanding what transpired. The criminal justice officer should thus be able to integrate all the available evidence to bring out the events that took place to the crime and get bases to determine the involved suspects using this information (Parmar, 2015). Being systematic in gathering the evidence based on their level of volatility is the key secrete to acknowledging of all available evidence and preserving it to nub the suspects and to reinforce the case during trial.

It is important to note that each crime is unique even when committed by the same person. Each crime thus has its own features that may guide in the investigation process. However, an intelligent criminal justice officer can easily relate similar features of different crime to relate crimes done by a network of criminals. Nevertheless, one should not come with set mind on what to expect in a crime scene. The scene should work as the guide to crime reconstruction, after which, the investigator can conclude whether the crime was committed by a serial criminal, a master criminal or a novice. The scene should also give clue on where to start questioning investigation. In most cases, the questioning starts with the victim if alive or the family of the victim if dead and after the victim identification. High level of creativity, critical thinking and logical deduction is needed to be able to reconstruct the crime. Complete scene reconstruction is a major step in solving the crime misery (Fisher& Fisher, 2012).

Criminal investigation which includes analysis of the crime scene, identification of physical evidence, and reconstruction of the crime scene has for long been based on a systematic approach that employ scientific methods of investigation. This kind of investigation has been proved to be effective since it is the main referred method of crime investigation. However, it is important to note that the success of any criminal investigation resulting to crime scene reconstruction is highly determined by the level of knowledge, creativity and intelligence of the investigator and also on the investigator’s ability to use logic and critical thinking to solve problems. This implies that, even without changing the techniques, a qualified specialist can easily define workable theories to explain the crime and manage to nub the criminal and ensure their prosecution. One of the best technique that an intelligent criminal investigator should use include identifying and recording evidence on a priority basis by focusing first on the most volatile evidence to the least volatile. Another technique is working as a team. Normally,acrime scene can contains a number of volatile evidences that can be hard to be noted by a single person. Thus, working as a team to ensure each one record any seen volatile evidence immediately after arriving and the scene and also in volatile evidence can be quite fruitful. Collaborating even with forensic scientists in collecting and preserving samples and in making analysis is quite important since their findings play a major role in making the first leads to crime scene reconstruction. Thorough search of the crime scene surrounding after recoding everything visible can also play a great role in identifying some of the most important evidence to link the suspect to the crime. Thus, a criminal justice student can enhance the crime scene reconstruction and physical evidence analysis by employing intelligent procedure, and advance knowledge on what to prioritize over the other in evidence collection.

Crime Mapping

Crime mapping refers to a process of utilizing a geographic information system to carry out spatial crime problems analysis as well as other related police issues. Crime mapping facilitates statistical and visual analysis of the spatial crime nature and other forms of events. It permits analysts to connect different sources of data together, as per geographical variables and offers maps which assist in communicating results of the analysis.  Crime mapping is harmonizing to all kinds of crime analysis since it plays an essential role in about all analysis. Crime mapping is important since it assist in enhancing administration, evaluation, and dissemination of information (Us.crowin, 2005). Mapping is used to inform investigators and police officers of incidents of crime in different locations. It also assists in making decision regarding allocation of resources and evaluation of intervention measures. It also assist the patrol officers on the areas to watch based on the crime rates and the areas that are likely to make emergency calls. It also assists officers in informing residents about the criminal activities in the area (Mamalian & LaVigne, 1999).

Computer Crimes Acts Research Paper Instructions

Today, there are many laws that address different acts of computer crimes. Select one of the laws presented in Chapter three (3) or four (4) of the textbook.

Write a 3-4 page paper in which you:

  1. Identify the chosen law and evaluate its impact on society in the U.S. and / or global environment.
  2. Describe the penalties and fines that exist for offenders of the selected law.

Research the Internet for news articles and judicial cases that provide details on how this law was exercised and realized convictions.

  1. Analyze the effectiveness of the law at convicting offenders to determine any modifications that should be made to the law.
  2. Suggest a change or ratification of the law and explain how your changes will impact society as well as those convicted of the crime.
  3. Summarize the challenges the prosecution faced in a trial from your research and whether you believe they could have handled the challenges differently.
  4. Use at least four (4) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Evaluate the ethical concerns that computer crimes raise in society and the impact of information technologies on crime, terrorism, or war.
  • Describe the different types of computer attacks.
  • Describe federal computer-related laws and legislation.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in the investigation of computer crime.
  • Write clearly and concisely about computer crime investigation topics using proper writing mechanics and technical style conventions.

How DNA Analysis Affects Procedure at the Crime Scene and Afterwards – MEMO

The new detective you are assisting is interested in finding out more about how the possibility of DNA analysis affects procedure at the crime scene and afterwards. Write a memo for his benefit, addressing the following issues:

  • Brief explanation of what DNA analysis is and how it can be used as evidence in criminal investigations.
  • Explain why extra caution must be exercised when collecting DNA analyzable evidence.
  • Discuss the precautions that must be followed to avoid contamination of evidence that may contain DNA evidence.
  • Describe the methods for collecting and storing DNA evidence.
  • Identify and discuss at least one controversial issue connected to the collection and/or use of DNA evidence.

The Frequency Of Corporate Crime In The United States

Crime is divided into different types: ordinary/conventional; organizational /occupational. Conventional crime engulfs crimes of violence like rape, assault, and murder. On the other hand, theoccupational crime consists of aviolation of laws in the course of carrying out a legitimate occupation and is also dubbed “white collar crime.” Lastly, organizational crime is committed by large organizations when they participate in illegal means to achieve their goals. Organizational crime is commonly referred to as acorporate crime.

Corporate crime, in criminology, refers to crimes committed by a business entity or corporation or by individuals acting in place of a corporation or any business entity. The main problem of defining corporate crime is that some negative behaviors by corporations are not termed as criminal, and this is primary because laws vary between jurisdictions.For example, corporate crime overlaps when it comes to white-collar crime, organized crime, and state-corporate crime. For whitecrime, it is because many individuals who might act or represent corporation interests are white-collar professionals whereas organized crime may involve criminals who set up corporations for crime purposes or as laundering vehicles of crime. Lastly, state-corporate crime has contexts where the opportunity to commit crime develops from relationships between corporations and the state.

Because of the reasons above, the definition of any “crime” that is used in acorporate crime is any undertaking or act punishable by the state(Clinard etal., 1980, p.xiv). According toSutherland et al. (1983), the critical characteristic of crime what the state prohibits, or, that which brings injury to the state and against which the state, as a whole, may react by punishment. However, in legal terms, only corporate offenses prosecuted under thecriminal law could be termed as truly “criminal.”

Another problem concerning corporate crime is investigating its frequency. It is impossible to tell definitely whether acorporate crime has increased over the recent times. There are rare studies carried out regarding corporate crime. Consequently, it has been impossible to carry out tests of conclusions reached by a certain study. There are no definitive assessments on the commonality of corporate crime in the U.S. Even the F.B.I has not yet compiled comprehensive data on corporate crime in its crime reports. However, there are indications that major corporations in different industries have at one point engaged in activities that are ethically wrong, even if not termed as outright illegal. Sociologist Edwin H.Sutherland carried out a study on corporate crime in 1949 and found out that 70 non-financial corporations had been convicted of 980 criminal and civil charges. The data showed that each company had been convicted of an average of 14 crimes. Many companies have been convicted of acrime in the past as well. Examples include pharmaceutical organizations which withhold information regarding negative side effects of drugs that they market.

All the same, corporate crimes have proved difficult to detect and even prosecute, whether because the illegal behavior is buried within a deep network of transactions or because the wrongdoing can be passed onto an individual or specific employees (Pontell & Geis, 2007, p.188).

Crime trends are formed from reports of crimes that have already occurred. Areas are mapped and marked with what time and what type of crime occurs over

Crime trends are formed from reports of crimes that have already occurred. Areas are mapped and marked with what time and what type of crime occurs over a specific period of time (a large database is used, a record that holds a full year of information is more accurate than just a few days, a week, or a month).

There is one fundamental problem with reported crime. The shortcoming in any analysis of crime is what criminologists call thedark figure of crime. The total amount of crime consists of the following two things:

    • The amount of crime reported to the police
  • Crimes not known to the police
Crimes not known to the police may happen because they were undiscovered, unreported, or not recorded properly by the law enforcement department. One aid to help with the dark figure of crime is self-reported victimization surveys; yet, they still do not pick up all of the unreported crime. Some surveys are sent to homes and only the head of the household fills it out, and this person may not know that a crime has been perpetrated on his or her spouse or child. Therefore, the notation of this crime happening will be overlooked. In a self-reported study, one may not consider the event a crime. These crimes will not be noted in any statistics. These are the dark figures of crime—crime that is happening, yet it is not reported.
Given what you now know about crime mapping, discuss the dark figure of crime again, answering the following questions:
    • Is there any way a local police department may gather information on crimes that were never reported?
    • How would the local department handle unreported crimes in a confidential and private manner?
  • Give suggestions on how this may be accomplished and if you think that it could be accomplished?

Be sure to reference all sources using APA style. For more information on APA, please visit the APASTYLE Lab.

RJS105- Theories of Crime Causation Unit 1 Individual Project Instructions

Because crime is one of the more appealing themes in popular culture, the public receives a skewed version of crime. The public’s knowledge may be particularly lacking with regard to the entire field of criminology, the differences between blue-collar and white-collar crime, and the general perception of the incidence of crime in the United States. You are asked, as the public relations representative of your police department, to provide an information session on the field of criminology.The expectation is to make sure the public understands the facts of law enforcement and to differentiate between the fictions presented in different media outlets.

Please answer the following questions and requirements to write your 4–6-page paper. As you answer each question, you must provide support or evidence that will enhance and empirically prove your answers.Academic criminal justice articles or real-life criminal justice findings that are found in journals or other academic sources must be used in supporting your answers.Please use APA format for all cited sources, including your reference page. The questions and requirements are as follows:

  • Explain the differences between criminologists, criminalists, and forensic psychologists and their respective areas of study.
  • Discuss the differences between white-collar crime and blue-collar crime. Which types of crime are measured by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the Uniform Crime Reports? Which of the two (blue-collaror white-collar crime) are focused on heavily in popular culture through the media?
  • What is the difference between an index-one crime and an index-two crime as measured in the Uniform Crime Reports of the FBI?
  • Which index-one crimes would you classify as violent crimes, and which would you classify as property crimes?


Please note that you are required to support your views by citing your sources in all assignments. Even if the question asks for your opinion, you are still expected to support your opinion with references to published works and other materials. APA Format is necessary for your assignments when citing references, and assistance on how to do so is available using the APA Citation Center.

Order a unique and high quality answer to this assignment at an affordable price. 

Arson Crime Scene Investigations Guidelines Assignment

You are a senior member of an arson investigations unit. You are being supported by newly assigned criminal investigators from a street crime unit, who don’t have must experience in the investigation of arson crimes. These investigators have had training in the physical evidence collection process, but they look to you for legal guidance in terms of their presence in an arson scene. You must prepare guidelines for the new investigators to ensure that they are not violating the law and legally tainting evidence by their actions at the crime scene of an arson investigation.

Assignment Guidelines

Address the following in 3–5 pages:

  1. Describe the crime scene parameters of an arson fire, including one where an explosive reaction may have occurred.
  2. Identify the role of the fire department personnel and their authority at an arson fire.
  3. What is the authority of the state fire marshal’s office or its equivalent? Explain.
  4. What specific responsibilities does this agency have? Explain.
  5. Explain to the investigators under your command what role the medical examiner or coroner has when a body is discovered at an arson scene.
  6. Once the scene is declared safe by the fire department and the crime scene search can commence, under what circumstances can the investigators conduct a search? Explain.
  7. What is to be done with a warrant if no property owner is available? Explain.

Be sure to reference all sources using APA style.

SARA Model – Crime Prevention

Four Components of the SARA model

The four components of SARA are scanning, analyzing, responding, and assessing. “Scanning refers to identifying problems in the community and understanding their nature and extent. Analysis refers to learning the causes of sources of the problem and researching what has been done to intervene in the past (so one can know what has worked and what has not worked). Response involves designing and implementing a policy or program to address the problem and ideally reduce it. Finally, assessment means making sure the plan was properly implemented, collecting data to see whether goals and outcomes were achieved, and making needed changes to the policy or program to make it more effective (Center for Problem-Oriented Policing, 2011) (Robinson, M. B., 2013).”

Role SARA Plays In Identifying An Appropriate Crime Prevention Program.

The SARA model contributes to identifying and narrowing crime by identifying risk factors for crime and then addressing those risk factors. “POP relies on intelligence generated by patrol officers as well as crime analysts to pinpoint where problems are most likely to arise or have already arisen and then directs resources at those places. It also frequently involves other agencies in the community to help reduce the problem before it leads to serious crimes (Robinson, M. B., 2013).”

It is important to follow each step consecutively and not skip steps because that could lead to incorrect analysis of crime and incorrect development of pragmatic responses. It can also lead to the misuse of strategic resources which could have a negative effect on how law enforcement agencies respond to crime. It would definitely lead to pitfalls when trying to combat crime.

This is a program set up for you to follow certain steps to help you obtain the information that you were looking for. SARA is set up to hopefully help you when studying your crime. Using SARA helps us narrow down the specific crime and we do not waste valuable time. If using SARA correctly it can prove to be very helpful and a very good tool. By using SARA you will be able to just worry about what is important you won’t have to mess around with unnecessary data. It is important that you follow every step even if you think that it is not important or does not pertain to the crime you are studying that way you are sure that you do not miss anything. Because skipping around on steps on thinking you do not need to do one is not good because you could miss valuable steps you did not think you would need or that would be helpful.

  1. Scanning- is the process of scanning through all the information to see what is going to be helpful into the study of this specific crime
  2. Analysis- Is analyzing all the data that you got and start to piece things together
  3. Response- How we respond to the information that we found out and how we will proceed
  4. Assessment- After we have gathered everything now we need to assess what the outcome will be of this and how we will carry on from there.

OECD Convention Obliges Member To Make The Bribery, Corruption and Extortion A Crime Under Their Laws

Assignment Instructions

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Convention is an unusual international agreement in that it seeks to coordinate disparate legal and ethical systems in order to arrive at a minimum standard with respect to an important form of white collar crime. It obliges signatory countries, which now include all 30 OECD member countries plus a growing number of non-members, to make the bribery, corruption, extortion, and/or insiders trading of a foreign public official a crime under their laws. Why is this such a difficult policy to implement?

Sample Answer – The Organization for Economic Cooperation And Development

Many countries especially the developing countries have showed much interest in plans to combat corruption thus echoing the OECD Convention. This has however been very difficult to implement because of several reasons. Most of these developing countries have corruption going on as normal in their everyday life. The society has adapted and learnt to live with it and have considered it as part of their culture. This can be seen even in the government during the award of tenders and government contracts. This are bought and sold. Obtaining the civil documents also have to be paid for(Stasavage,& Daubree, 1998).

Another reason why the implementation has been difficult is also because several mechanisms in several countries help in the spread of corruption. The civil servants who are resistant to toe the line are actually sent away from the office. This forces most of them to play 0alongside the corrupt members so as to be able to at least get their monthly income.

The environment in which the public servants operate also helps to boost corruption. Public administration in most countries is in most cases inefficient and bureaucratic. There is also a very large number of the complex and restrictive regulations which are in most cases coupled with the inadequate controls(Stasavage, & Daubree, 1998). This sponsor’s corruption.

In most countries, the process of allocation of political powers is in most cases not fair. In some countries, political power has to be linked with economic power. In Morocco for example, once one has been able to access political power, they also have the chance to have economic privileges. In other countries as well, the political power can be bought or sold. In Philippines for example, political power such as a privileged-position in the patronage-based system can either be bought or sold. To sum this up, the process of allocation of administrative or political posts, in most cases the people with the power over decisions dealing with the importation of licenses or export of the natural resources is in most cases influenced by the gains that the person in power is likely to make from them(Stasavage, & Daubree, 1998).

These are basically the reasons that make the implementation of OECD very difficult in most countries.

Cybercrimes Development Chronology – Hacking, Email Wiretapping, Phishing And Vishing


Hacking is has pained the computer industry in terms of security. Hacking started in the 1960s when computers were starting (Maggi, 2010). Hacking had a different purpose as it was used to improve on the performance of the computer systems. 1971 saw the rise of the blue box by MIT. The art of phreaking developed in 1972 by Steve jobs and Steve Wozniak. In 1981 the hackers association in Europe was formed. In 1984, the 2600 was published. In 1986, the law against abuse and computer fraud was passed in the US. The first hacking case was in 1989. E gold digital currency suffered phishing attacks after the September 11 attacks.

Wiretapping is involves communication interception. It started in 1997 where the FBI created the carnivore. The FBI changed from using carnivore to the private sector, which had the latest technologies in wiretapping. Wiretapping is mostly done by security agencies.

Phishing is a method that uses illegal means to get personal information of a person like financial details, passwords and usernames among others especially by disguising as trusted entities and using the information maliciously (Jakobsson & Myers, 2007). It has occurred from 1987 to date. China has been accused of phishing Gmail accounts. AOL had a problem with phishing where users could open accounts with credit numbers that were fake. AOL therefore had to fish out illegitimate accounts and leave the credible ones.

Vishing involves the use of phishing and voice to carry out malicious acts especially on the telephone in obtaining financial and personal information and using it for financial reward. Vishing uses automated voice instructions to request personal information from the person like credit card details. Vishing was detected in 2006. The vishing mostly happened on landline telephones.

Law: Reducing Juvenile Weapons Crimes – Youth Firearms Violence

Youth Firearms Violence Initiative

Youths at their adolescent stages are always associated with delinquent behaviors and this has remained a serious problem in many cities in the US. However, although the problem is risky, it can be solved, (Hemenway, 2006). Youth violence remains a complex issue, which requires the intervention of the society before the problem becomes entrenched. The Youths Firearms Violence Initiative is a programme especially designed for law enforcement agencies in order to help them to develop some strategies of dealing with the use of firearms by youths in solving of conflicts. Many strategies can be employed in the reduction of juvenile firearms crimes.

Strategies for Prevention of Youth Firearms Violence

            The Youth Firearms Violence Initiative  was developed in 1995 and COPS provided funding to over nine police departments in the United States in order to help roll the initiative. This program developed many strategies and tactics, which included partnerships, crime prevention, community policing, civil abatement and enforcement of zero-tolerance laws, (Koper, Woods & Kubu, 2013).

Community Policing Partnerships to Reduce Juvenile Crimes

            Premise of success of juvenile prevention relies on the fact that the police can perform effectively if they get the necessary cooperation, assistance and trust of the citizens that are affected. The main roles of the police under this strategic capacity are to make the community feel safe in addition to encouraging them to cooperate with local police agencies. Many, due to a number of reasons regard this strategy as a success.

The community policing strategy provides direct engagements between the police and the community and thus allows the police to get information on the immediate problems facing such a community. Therefore, the police will be proactive in their engagements in crime prevention since they are free from their emergency centers. This strategy in freeing police officers from their confines allows them to be more accountable for their roles in the community, (Fagan, Hanson, Hawkins & Arthur, 2008). This program in decentralizing and allowing police officers to mingle and patrol the community makes them understand better the community.

One such program of community policing is the Youth Firearms Violence Initiative (YFVI), which as mentioned above, is run by COPS and it major aim is to reduce gun violence among the youth. Working in over ten 9 cities in the US, COPS provided each city with 1$ million to develop Youth Firearms Violence Initiative strategies that included development of cooperation with other cities in education, prevention and other intervention programs regarding safety and use of guns among the youths.

The other strategic focus of  Youth Firearms Violence Initiative relates to the development of programs which are community based and that are designed to address youth violence and use of guns. In additions, the community benefits from programs that assists families in addressing youth gun violence. In addition, some special departments and surveillance units were set up within the police departments in order to assist in curbing youth violence.


The success of Youth Firearms Violence Initiative cannot be underestimated since it has achieved notable success since its inception. Although assessment was conducted in only five of the ten cities that benefited from this initiative, it has been able to reduce youth gun crimes in Cleveland from 3149 to 2672 in just 12 months.

Cyberbullying : An In-Depth Analysis of Cybercrime

In the present world, the interaction of people has improved due to the advancement in technology. People are able to communicate easily irrespective of their distances and location in the world. Computers and mobile phones have provided the avenue for the increased interaction. People as social beings are interacting virtually through social media and other technological tools (Tardanico, 2012). However, people with malicious intentions use the technological tools to bully other people. This is referred to as cyberbullying.

Cyber bullying is a premeditation and malicious antagonistic activity that is demonstrated by a perpetrator towards a victim (Hendricks, 2012). Many young people spend more time texting and on the internet and, therefore, they are culpable to be victimized by their friends and others who have malicious intent and are intent on intimidating and harassing the teens or preteens. The cyber bullies anonymously attack their victims by forging their information on various social sites to cover their tracks.  Bullying in schools has traditionally taken the form of aggression acts that are repetitively perpetrated by students on their fellow students (Kowalski et al., 2014). With the introduction of computers and smart mobile devices, bullying has taken a new turn.  The acts of cyberbullying have led to suicides among many teens who cannot take the stress and pressure associated with being maligned by their peers or anonymous people.  As a result, cyberbullying is a vice that should be stopped completely.

Evolution of Cyberbullying

Cyberbullying has evolved from the use of text to the advanced use of various apps on smartphones that lead to the character assassination of the victims. In the 1990s, more people had cell phones and to some extent, some children owned cell phones especially those in middle and high schools. In 2010, more than three-quarters of the teen populations had phones and 2014 evidenced 78 % of teens owning a cell phone. More teens have access to the internet as compared to the last decade. Computers and other mobile devices have evolved greatly, and more information can be shared on the net than before. Cyberbullying got national attention in 2007 after Megan, who was a teenager from Missouri, was hoaxed and repeatedly attacked online by her reportedly fictitious boyfriend and her friends (Mirsky & Omar, 2015). The perpetrators of the cyberbullying were the mother and sister to a classmate of Megan. Such instances have shown the extent to which society has sunk in terms of cyberbullying. A middle school student that targeted the principle and an algebra teacher reportedly created a website. It had threatening and uncouth statements about them.

The digital age has enabled not only texts to be longer and accessed by many people but also pictures. Some teens have been bullied with pictures that are defamatory and have led to some of the teens committing suicide. Jessica Logan is a teen who committed suicide after nude pictures of her were posted on the internet and were circulated throughout among her fellow students in Cincinnati (Carpenter & Hubbard, 2014). A mother and her child perpetrated the act. Such an act to a teen is rather traumatizing, and she lacked the courage to face the students after the posting of the nude pictures. The cyberbullying incident led to the Jessica Logan Act that seeks to encourage schools to prohibit cyberbullying. The ABC news has highlighted the plight of cyberbullied victims recently by airing a documentary titled Bullied to Death in America’s Schools”. The documentary shows the various sad actions that have led to the deaths of teenagers due to cyber bullying. The documentary pointed to the fact that some 14 teenagers had lost their lives by committing suicide. Cyberbullying is an international problem. It is not simply limited to the North America. Bylluing is characterized by an imbalance of power. Therefore, to tackle bullying effectively several measures that would help in tackling the imbalance of power should be implemented.

People are victims of cyberbullying exhibit certain characteristics. The U.S. Secret Service detailed the characteristics of people who are victims of cybercrime after undertaking extensive investigation. The Secret Service claims that bullying is one of the major factors that make people engage in criminal activities. The shooters who engaged in 12 of the 15 campus shootings in the 1990s had a history of being bullied. Previously, bullying mainly involved intimidation, manipulation, and physical aggressiveness against a weaker individual. It was common in schools. Confiscation of an individual’s lunch money was one of the most common forms of bullying (Peterson, 2012).

However, in the contemporary world, victims of cyberbullying are usually humiliated in public. This makes certain victims of cyberbullying to formulate a plan by committing a stronger negative action against the bully. The campus shootings discussed above may have been motivated by an individual being bullied. In the contemporary world, a rumor can circulate in a school of community within a matter of seconds due to various technological tools. The spread of the information may be so fast that millions of people across the globe may have viewed the information prior to its removal. For instance, some years ago a Freshman from Rutgers University jumped from the George Washington Bridge after his sexual activities with another male student were videotaped and put in the internet. People who put the video may have thought they were simply having fun or bashing the student for engaging in homosexual activities. However, the impact of the activities was severe to both the victim and themselves (Peterson, 2012).

There has been a significant increase in bullying in the U.S. in the last 30 years. This may be linked to the increase in the number of suicides and homicides cases in certain areas. The motive of bullying is usually about something that the victims cannot change. For instance perpetrators of bullying may dislike individuals due to their hair color, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, and appearance.

There is a significant difference in the physical, psychological, and behavioral characteristics of victimization vary in elementary, middle and high school. Bullying in elementary school usually involves name calling and hitting each other. Students in middle school usually have mobile phones, which the parents have purchased for them. The students may use their phones to engage in cyberbullying. Children in high school have access to various electronic devices. They may use computers for educational programs. They also interact with various websites. As such, limited access to electronic devices in elementary schools make bullying of students be restricted to physical and verbal bullying of other students. Students in middle and high school have access to various electronic devices. Therefore, they may start engaging in cyberbullying (Peterson, 2012).

Technology and Evolution of Cybercrime

Computers had the monopoly of posting more content through emails and social sites in the past, but that has changed drastically. The digital age has brought about portable devices that can be carried around quite easily and used for any one’s convenience. The mobile devices have evolved greatly to incorporate various features like cameras and apps that can instantly post any information on the social media that includes Gmail, Yahoo, Facebook, Twitter among many other which have millions of users (Kowalski et al., 2012). Many apps have access to social media sites, which are linked to the camera, and pictures can be posted instantly without the use of a computer. Also, smartphones have led to a revolution in communication not only in using text messages and calls but also in using pictures taken at a specified time. Therefore, cyberbullying can bring on board many users who know the person and who can post negative comments about him or her. As such, one person can start the cyberbullying while bringing others into it. For example, malicious content can be posted about someone in school and everyone in the school can be able to see the content and even make comments to the victims who as explained above had led to many undesirable actions that have led to death (Schneider et al., 2012). The stressful conditions that occur have often led to suicides or the victim withdrawing him or herself from her peers. Some people may even hack into other accounts and use them in bullying their fellow students without the knowledge of the account user. Various incidences have been reported in social media where unrated content has been posted on their walls that have led to a barrage of unwarranted comments from users of the specific social sites.

The internet and technological tools are suitable for non-violent forms of bullying. Students in a learning institution may be classified into four categories. These include students who are neither bullies nor victims of cyberbullying, students are only victims of cyberbullying, students who are perpetrators of cyberbullying, and students who are both perpetrators and victims of cyberbullying. A significant proportion of students do not have any involvement with cyberbullying. However, students are either victims or perpetrators of cyberbullying are less likely to notify their parents or other adults about cyberbullying. Parents of the above students do not also know the internet activities of the students. People who are high internet users are more likely to be both cyberbullies and victims of cyberbullying than low internet users.

Technology has helped in democratizing bullying since one does not have to physically overpower the victim. One can simply log on, create a fake identity, and start bullying others. Instead of whispering behind the victim, the insults can be posted on social networking sites for everyone to read. Instead of an individual having to silently listen to a phone conversation, the individual can watch incriminating videos of the individual on a computer screen. In addition, instead of a popular clique in school refusing to let a certain student sit with them during lunch, people in the clique may use various technological tools to ensure that the victim is not in anybody’s list.

Despite the fact that a significant number of 14 to 24 year olds acknowledge the fact that digital abuse is a serious problem to people in their age bracket, very few of them believe what they post online can hurt them in the future. In the contemporary world, a significant number of 14 to 24 year olds engage in naked sexting. Sexting refers to sending nude sexually suggesting pictures using a phone or online. Time Magazine ranked sexting as the number one buzz word in 2009 (Stephey, 2009). Females are more likely to send naked pictures of themselves to other people. On the other hand, males are more likely to receive the nude pictures of the females. According to a study undertaken by MTV and AP in 2009, 61% of people who send naked pictures have been pressured by other people to also send them nude pictures. In addition, approximately 20% of people who receive sext messages pass them along to other people (AP-MTV, 2009).

The snowballing effect of sexting may be severe. For instance, an 18 year old Ohio girl committed suicide after her ex-boyfriend shared nude photos that she had sent him to other students. The students distributed it to other people. When the girl reported to authorities in an attempt to stop the distribution of the photos, the harassment of the girl by other students increased. The parents of the girl filed charges against the ex-boyfriend, several classmates, and the school for failing to prevent the harassment.

Legislation Related to Cyberbullying

Despite the fact that cyberbullying does not involve physical contact or audible insults, it may be very traumatizing to the victim. Use of of social media and mobile communications makes the offensive statements be viewed by all friends, family, and acquaintances of the victim. Therefore, the embarrassment and shame make cyberbullying have severe consequences.

Until recently, there were no laws that focused on addressing cyberbullying. However, legislators have not been blind to the significant increase in the number of cyberbullying incidences, which have been highlighted by the media. Some of the instances have resulted in tragic consequences such as suicides and shootings in school. This has led to the passing of laws in some states. However, the laws usually leave the implementation of various measures prescribed in the letter of the law in the hands of school officials. Therefore, in most instances, cyberbullying is treated as a civil case instead of a criminal case. In 2014, 49 of the 50 states had laws on cyberbullying. 20 of the states specifically stated cyberbullying in the laws. In addition, there are very few state policies that address cyberbullying that occurs outside the school. However, there are various laws that enable schools to intervene in instances where cyberbullying occurs outside the school but interrupts leaning in the school (Michelson, 2015).

Currently, there are no federal laws on cyberbullying. However, this does not imply that Congress has not tried to pass legislation on the crime. In 2008, Congress’ attempt to pass the Megan Meier Cyberbullying Prevention Act failed. However, federal civil right laws that prevent discriminatory harassment apply to federally funded schools (Kenley, 2012).

It is difficult to understand state laws on cyberbullying. Most state laws on cyberbullying claim that cyberbullying should be tackled at the school level. They require schools to implement policies that would help in stopping the occurrence of cyberbullying. The state laws acknowledge that it is the authority of schools to discipline students who engage in cyberbullying. As such, there are very few criminal codes that specifically deal with cyberbullying (Kenley, 2012).

Limitations and/or Gaps Related to Legislation on Cyberbullying

Most U.S. states have enacted laws that require schools to create or update their policies to help in tackling cyberbullying. However, schools can only the students who engage in cyberbullying. Certain states allow students to discipline students who engage in cyberbullying if there is evidence to suggest that the cyberbullying interrupts the school environment. However, the laws have various limitations. This is due to the fact that the American criminal justice system is very protective of an individual’s right to freedom of speech. Therefore, courts rarely term cyberbullying as sufficiently disruptive. This implies that in most instances, schools do not have the authority to discipline students who engage in cyberbullying (Michelson, 2015).

Japanese, Canadian and British authorities have various statutes that facilitate the prosecution of children who engage in various criminal activities related to cyberbullying. These include nuisance, communication threats and use of obscene communications. In the U.S. several individuals have been charges in instances where there is severe bullying. However, authorities are usually unable to prosecute the cases. This is due to the fact that criminal statutes for the laws specify the types of contacts that the perpetrator should have with the victim to be prosecuted for the alleged crimes. The laws have added electronic communication in an attempt to tackle this problem (Holt, Bossler & Seigfried-Spellar, 2015).

However, law enforcement agencies can only prosecute people only in severe cases of cyberbullying. Most cases of cyberbullying do not reach the high levels required for them to be termed as criminal harassment or stalking. This is because criminal harassment and stalking require the victims to fear that they would be physically harmed. Therefore, since cyberbullying does not involve physical violence of the victim it is difficult to prosecute the perpetrators (Michelson, 2015).

Cyberbullying may be tackled using two strategies. The internet-real name is one of the strategies that would help in tackling cyberbullying. This requires individuals to provide their identification to the website operation prior to posting comments. Therefore, if there is a lawsuit, the website operation would provide the information to the relevant authorities. Howe, the major limitation of this strategy is that it suppresses free speech and increases the risk of identity theft. Enactment of laws that criminalize cyberbullying would also help in tackling cyberbullying. For instance, after Megan Meier committed suicide due to being bullied online by a mother of one of her former friends, several towns and cities in Missouri enacted laws that addresses cyberbullying in response to the suicide. However, the laws simply implied that the victims of cyberbullying and their families have limited legal rights to prevent cyberbullying (Holt, Bossler & Seigfried-Spellar, 2015).

Penalties for Engaging in Cyberbullying in California

California defines cyberbullying as any form of harassment, intimidation, or annoyance of an individual through electronic means. It is a crime under certain instances. According to the California law, there are two types of online or electronic conduct that are classified as criminal. These include posting personal information to cause feat and use of electronic devices to harass. According to the California law, any person who posts or transmits information on the personal identification data of another individual or a harassing message on another individual to case unreasonable fear for the safety of the individual or his or her family is committing a misdemeanor. The California penal codes 422, 653.2, and 653m prescribe the punishment that the perpetrator should be subjected to. The penal codes also detail the punishment for an individual who uses obscene language or threatens to injure an individual or the property of another individual (Michelson, 2015).

As such, California classifies both forms of cyberbullying as misdemeanor. An individual convicted of misdemeanor in California faces a punishment of imprisonment for a maximum period of one year, a maximum fine of $1,000 or both. California Assembly Bill 86 gives schools also have a right to suspend a student or recommend the expulsion of a student who engages in cyberbullying in California (Michelson, 2015).

Degree to Which the Penalties Are Adequate For Penalizing the Offender

The penalties on cyberbullying are not adequate in penalizing the offender. They require the involvement of schools. Schools can only suspend or expel students who engage in cyberbullying. This is despite the fact that cyberbullying may have severe consequences on the victim. The Megan Meier case highlights the severe consequences of cyberbullying. Simply suspending or expelling a student who engages in cyberbullying would is not a sufficient penalty is the consequences of cyberbullying on the victim are severe. It is also wrong for the criminal justice system to classify cyberbullying as a misdemeanor that attracts a punishment of a fine of not more than $1,000, a jail term of not more than one year, or both. The life of an individual who commits suicide due to cyberbullying is not worth a mere $1,000 if it is possible to quantify it in monetary terms.

Challenges Law Enforcement Face in Their Efforts to Prevent and Address Cyberbullying

The internet enables people in different locations to communicate as if they were net to each other. As such when one of the parties engages in a crime it would be difficult for law enforcement agencies to prosecute the individual to jurisdictional issues. Jurisdictional issues are some of the major challenges that law enforcement agencies face in their efforts to tackle cyberbullying. An act that is illegal in one state may not be illegal in another state. Living in a location where the activity is not even a crime complicates the issues. Law enforcement agencies can only arrest people who are within their jurisdiction. For instance, a police officer in California does not have the authority to arrest an individual in Texas. In addition, the FBI does not have the authority to arrest an individual in Italy (Kowalski, Limber & Agatston, 2012).

Law enforcement agencies also have different job responsibilities, missions, and cultures that provide different expectations on the definition of cyberbullying, how to prevent it, and the most appropriate responses to bullying. Schools and law enforcement agencies have different laws that control their operations. For instance, law enforcement agencies ensure that people uphold the law whereas schools have a school code of rules. This poses a huge challenge since schools play a critical role in addressing cyberbullying. Therefore, it is vital for schools and law enforcement agencies to have agreements that detail the measures both school personnel and law enforcement agencies should take to tackle law enforcement agencies (Kowalski, Limber & Agatston, 2012).

People engage in cyberbullying anonymously. Screen names and fake e-mail accounts block the identity of the bully. This makes it difficult for law enforcement agencies, the bullied individual and schools to determine the identity of the perpetrator (Kowalski, Limber & Agatston, 2012).

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The National Response Plan for White Collar Crime

This is a financially motivated mostly nonviolent crime that is committed by government and business professionals. It is a crime committed by persons of a high social status that happens in the course of his/her occupation(Nelken, 1994). White collar crimes are committed mostly for financial gain. These crime is quite complex to prosecute since the people involved use very sophisticated means to conceal their activities(Friedrichs, 2009). The most common of the white-collar crimes include: government fraud, securities fraud, tax evasion, money laundering, public corruption among others.

The General Strain Theory gives an explanation of white-collar crimes. According to the classic strain theory, individuals, regardless of the social class are encouraged to focus on monetary success or rather a middle-class status (Langton & Piquero, 2007). The lower class individual however, have a great challenge in achieving this through the legitimate channels. The frustration from this results to crime which may be used to obtain status, achieve monetary goals and also seek revenge from the perceived goal blockage.

Another theory that best explains this is the rational choice theory. This theory mainly refers to a framework for understanding and properly molding both the social and economic aspects of the human behavior. According to this theory, people who commit crimes make rational decisions. This is by reviewing all the outcomes and possibilities. The outcomes are mostly from the benefits that the offenders hop to get from the crime. They also consider the chances of being imprisoned and thus decide consciously on how to commit the crime.

White collar crimes are very different from the conventional or the blue collar crimes.  White collar crimes are closely associated with the values and attitudes of culture in a society. This is because the white collar criminals are stable, intelligent and successful people of high status. The white collar crimes are committed in the commercial world and are anonymous, difficult to detect, indirect and impersonal. The ordinary criminals who are said to commit the conventional crimes on the other hand commit direct crimes and in most cases might involve physical action such as beating and this can be easily detected (Friedrichs, 2009).

The ‘blue collar crimes’ are mostly committed with persons who can be categorized as underprivileged while the white collar crimes are committed by people who come from the upper strata of the society(Friedrichs, 2009). However, status alone cannot be a differentiating factor of these two types of crimes. In some cases, the persons from the high status in the society can commit some conventional crimes such as murder, kidnapping, rape and assault. In this case, these crimes are taken seriously and are punished severely. On the other hand, the underprivileged persons can be at times involved in the crimes categorized as white collar such as tax evasion or corruption which in this case may not be handled as a serious offence(Friedrichs, 2009). This does not however guarantee that the white collar offences are petty. There is also some similarity between the white collar and the conventional crimes. Both of them have their origin to a common law and they also are an adaptation to the principles of fraud and theft among others.

Whistle blowers in this case can be very important people as they may help the authority to address more white-collar crimes. The problem with this is that their motivation is mostly by personal gain or revenge(Friedrichs, 2009). They may have known the plan from the time it was executed but they say it later after the damage has been done.

It is quite hard to measure the prevalence of the white collar crimes. However, there have been several reports that have been done by collecting data on the public perceptions of the white collar crimes and surveys on the white collar crime victimization(Friedrichs, 2009). This is however not very reliable.

Better laws and regulations thus have to be employed. Like in the US, the US Congress was able to pass some laws and statutes between 1970’s and 1980’s. The Racketeer Influence and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) was associated originally with the mafia-related crime. It was then applied to the white collar crime. This made it easier to make prosecutions on the corrupt individuals and organizations as well as seize the assets that have been acquired through corruption. Regulations involving crimes have to be put in place. They have been evolving in many countries in the US. Such as the Western and Eastern Europe(Katz, 1979). Policing intelligence has to be improved so as to be able to confront these cases well. This will also enable the storage, application and retrieval of information resources.

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Should Juveniles Be Sentenced To Life For Heinous Crimes?

In almost all states of the United States, thousands of juveniles have been sent to adult prisons without considering the fact that they are not mature enough to undergo similar court proceedings as adults. Furthermore, nearly four thousand children who commit heinous crimes nationwide have been sentenced to life imprisonment without any possibility of parole (Equal Justice Initiative, 2014). Majority of children who are sentenced to life imprisonment for committing heinous crimes in the United States are aged between 12 and 17 years. This means that the juvenile justice system of the United States forces children to die in prison without considering their age and the nature of impact that such sentencing brings into their lives. Although many juveniles who commit heinous crimes have been sentenced to life imprisonment, states should consider making changes in their constitutions to give juveniles a change to undergo rehabilitation and to live spend their adulthood lives outside prison (Equal Justice Initiative, 2014).

The Constitution should agree with the both scientific and common sense concepts by considering the fact that, children are not biologically similar to adults. In many states, the law prohibits young children under the age of eighteen from using alcohol or cigarettes, signing property leases, joining the military, and voting (Calvin, 2016). This indicates that the law recognizes that juveniles are not mature enough to make complex decisions and to have certain responsibilities. Surprisingly, the same countries that recognize the level of immaturity of juveniles are the same ones that sentence children to life imprisonment without careful analysis like they do to adults. According to Calvin (2016), certain parts of a child’s brain that are used for decision-making are always not fully developed until the child reaches age 20. Gradual growth and maturity of these parts of the brain continue until late 20’s and this is when the child can make decisions like adults. This is clear evidence that states that sentence juveniles to life imprisonment tend to ignore the scientific that a child aged between 12 and 17 is not mature enough to make the right decisions (Calvin, 2016).

Many nations that sentence juveniles to life imprisonment ignore the capacity of a child to change after being trained to do so. According to Calvin (2016), juveniles below 18 years should not be sentenced to life imprisonment because they have the capacity to change with time and to become good people. This does not mean that juveniles should not be held accountable for their own actions. By giving them an opportunity to undergo rehabilitation, it is clear that the children have been held accountable for their actions and are given time to change their behavior to become goo people in the society. Every form of punishment that juvenile offenders are subjected to must reflect the child’s capacity to change and mature whether the committed crime was heinous or not. As Calvin (2016) points out, criminals aged below 18 years are still developing and the court does not have the capacity to judge the direction of that development. Courts that sentence juveniles to life imprisonment behave as if they already know that children will continue to make crime-related decisions even during adulthood. State laws should be changes to give the judge an opportunity to assess the juvenile’s life after he or she has properly matured and have the capacity to prove their actions. Laws that allow judges to sentence juveniles to life imprisonment should be considered unconstitutional (Calvin, 2016).

Just recently, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that juvenile offenders who have been convicted of murder should not be sentenced to life imprisonment. According to the United States Supreme Court, it is completely unconstitutional to sentence a minor to life imprisonment without the possibility of parole for crimes that do not involve homicide. The Supreme Court emphasizes on the need to consider the fact that children are different from adults because they are more likely to be rehabilitated than their adult co-defendants. This makes in clear the significance of incorporating the rehabilitation factor into sentencing when handling juvenile offenders (Hannan, 2016). The new ruling made by the Supreme Court will require many juveniles across the United States to be re-sentences despite the severity of crimes that they might have committed. It is important to remember that the new ruling by the Supreme Court does not prevent juveniles from being sentenced to life imprisonment, but prohibits states from forcing children to spend the rest of their life in prison without a chance at parole. Although giving juvenile offenders a chance to defend themselves may save them from being detained in prison for life, those who are found guilty may still face life imprisonment which is completely unconstitutional (Hannan, 2016).

According to Agyepong (2010), there are severe racial disparities in the manner in which juveniles who commit heinous crimes are sentenced to life imprisonment in the United States. Throughout the United States, more than 70 percent of juveniles who are serving life sentences without parole are Latino and Blacks. Out of all the states of the United States, California is considered as the state with the highest number of juvenile prisoners serving life imprisonment without parole. In Michigan, more than 25 percent of juvenile offenders come from minority groups. In the year 2009, 65 percent of juveniles serving life imprisonment without parole were of African-American origin (Agyepong, 2010). These figures show that race is one of the factors that are used in the United States to determine the types of juvenile offenders who are subjected to life imprisonment. The disproportionate rate of juvenile offenders that are sentenced to life imprisonment in the United States clearly shows existence of high levels of discrimination the juvenile correction system. It can therefore be concluded that sentencing juvenile offenders who commit heinous crimes to life imprisonment is not only unconstitutional but also unethical (Agyepong, 2010).

Sentencing juvenile offenders who commit heinous crimes to life imprisonment can be explained using Rights Ethics, the ethical principle of Benefice, and social learning theory. According to Rogers (1999), beneficence is an ethical principle that emphasizes that people’s actions are considered moral if they remove harm and improve the life situations of others. This means that an action is considered ethical if it maximizes benefits and minimizes harm to others. Similarly, the manner in which United States courts handle juvenile offenders who commit heinous crimes will be considered ethical if they help eliminate harm for children by helping them to improve their situations. On the contrary, sentencing juveniles of life imprisonment tends to increase harm to the children rather than maximizing benefits for them. This makes such actions unethical with reference to ethical principle of beneficence (Rogers, 1999).

Rights ethics emphasizes on respect for humanity and it holds that a person’s actions are considered ethical if they allow people to exercise their rights freely without discrimination (Stopler, 2014). As Stopler (2014) explains, everyone has a moral responsibility to respect the legal rights of others. The specific legal rights as stipulated in the Bill of Rights and in the United States Constitution include the right to life, the right to free speech, the freedom of choice, the freedom of expression, the right to make decisions, and the right to fair treatment, among others. Sentencing juvenile offenders to life imprisonment without parole is a complete violation of the requirements of Rights ethics because it denies the children their freedom of expression, the right to fair treatment, and the right to life. The United States courts should compare the impact of sentencing juveniles to life imprisonment and how the lives of those children will be affected if they were allowed to serve in prison for a short period of time. It is important to give priority to actions that protect the rights of juvenile offenders and those that improve their situations (Stopler, 2014).

The ability of juvenile offenders to change and become good people in the society after committing heinous crimes can be explained using social learning theory. According to Miller (1990), social learning theory is largely focused on socialization concept. The process by which the society attempts to teach young children and youths to live according to its customs and beliefs is known as socialization (Miller, 1990). Social learning theory postulates that the type of behavior that a child develops depends on the nature of training received from parents. In this regard, parents play a very crucial role in assisting their children to develop positive behaviors. Therefore, allowing a child to stay close to his or her parents contributes greatly in positive behavior reinforcement while withdrawal of parental love can make a child suffer emotional, social, and mental problems. Sentencing juvenile offenders to life imprisonment denies them the parental love and attachment, a factor that can make them to develop mental and emotional problems when they become adults (Miller, 1990).

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Social Class And Unemployment: Relationship To Crime

Crime is basically a human phenomenon. Every human being is bound to commit crime at any one point. There is a popular perception though that the poor people and the unemployed are bound to commit crimes more than the rich.

Before we get to the issue of social class, we need to understand what social class is. When talking about the matters of social class, we can hear terms such as lower class, middle class and upper class. Terms such as underclass and working class also come in. all these terms differentiate the social groupings in relation to their social, economic, cultural, and political and also lifestyle resources. Attempt to understand the social class can briefly fall under some two groups. These include the Weberian model and the Marxian model(Marshall,1950). The Marxian model is concerned with the identification of individuals within well know groups in relation to their m means of product. These include those who earn through wages and also those who earn through ownership of productive wealth. The Weberian perspective views class as a matter of the relative income levels(Marshall, 1950).

As per the statistics carried out, social class can have some impact on the criminal activities. The poor people are more likely to commit street crime more than the wealthy. Some scholars however attribute the great arrests made on the poor people as bias over the social class. Putting aside this possibility, most criminologists agree that criminal offending differs with the social class differences and view this as being “unmistakable”(Braithwaite, 1981).

One sociologist has even gone ahead to note that people are aware of the parts of town not to stroll once darkness had set in. they do not even risk to park there. These areas of the city that frighten these people are normally not the parts where people who have high income reside. Social class thus seems to be associated with crime where the poor people in the society participate more in crime.

The explanation on this relationship is majorly centered on the impacts of poverty. Poverty is said to be associated with frustrations, anger, economic needs and also the need to be handled with respect. Poor parenting skills of the poor coupled with other criminal activities put make the kids more likely to develop antisocial behaviors for the better part of their lives. All these effects together make the poor people prone to committing more street crimes(White,& Cunneen, 2006).These problems that they face make people have the perception that they can commit these crime which in some cases might not be entirely true.

Research carried out on the relationship that exists between social class and crime, it was discovered that although criminal activities especially street crime mostly are related to the poor, the rich in the society are most likely to commit white-collar types of crime. This type of crime can end up being harmful, much more than street crime. When comparison is doneon both the poor and the street crimes and the white collar crime, then the social class crime-relationship does not appear (White, & Cunneen, 2006).  This is so because the poor have high rates of the former type of crime and the rich have high rates of the latter type of crime.

The general area of concern or basically the rationale of this study will be to determine whether there is a relationship that exists between social class, unemployment and crime. If there is a relationship, several researches done will be looked at one by one so as to determine the validity of this statement. People’s perception on the same will also be analyzed.

Despite the fact that the relationship between social class and criminality remains very unclear, it has not prevented a number of theoretical explanations mostly which have the perception that poor people are the ones who commit crime at a higher rate than the rich.

In the existing researched undertaken, there are suggestions that high street crime that is existent among the poor can be attributed to personal morality and family failings. There has been arguments that crime is as a result of moral poverty. It is claimed that crime rates rise when the parents fail to enable their kids understand the difference between right and wrong to their kids(White, & Cunneen, 2006). They thus commit these crimes without understanding that it is wrong to do so. When the focus is set on the street crimes, the researchers argue that there is concern on the moral poverty of the poor people other than the moral poverty from families producing political criminals and production of corporates.

The researchers also suggest that discrimination is what places the poor on the position they are in. If there was no discrimination in the judicial system, they we would come to realize that the poor are more or less equal to the affluent. An explanation to this is that the criminals are shown up in the statistics as being very poor because the judicial system has put more focus on the control of the poor communities. The practice also puts the residents of that area at the risk of being labelled with such types of crime(Braithwaite, 1981). An example is the cases where a college student might be found with drug offence and ends up serving a shorter term than those from the neighboring poor communities. This is mostly because they are not the targets of “war” on drugs, which is basically war on the poor people.

The scholars were further able to analyze that the poor people also suffer from the high rates of crime just the same way they suffer from other problems that face them such as ailments, drug abuse, stress and so much more. This is majorly because of the emotional and physical pressures of inequality and poverty.

All these are as a result of the material desires that the poor have coupled with the access of the legitimate ways of fulfilling these. As one of the researchers stated, the desires of all the “good things” in life are equally distributed among all the social classes, it is unfortunate that the poor have limited access to resources to enable them fulfil these desires. This leads to some of them resolving this type of pressure by resorting to committing criminal activities so as to fulfil their desires (Braithwaite, 1981).

According to the above discussion, the debate as to whether social class is a determinant to criminality is still ongoing. It is however clear that social class contributes in shaping the type of the types of crimes that an individual commits.

Unemployment on the other hand is viewed as a criminal factor. This is because the said person is normally marked by deterioration or poor living standards. They are assumed to have unstable emotional structure. The family too might get affected and the person might fail to control their desires(Tarling, 1982). This might influence them to go ahead and commit crimes.

While the politicians have put a lot of focus on crime-fighting, the following study shows clearly that the labour market should not at any one time be overlooked. The public officials can go ahead and pass really tough laws, increase the number of the cops on the beat and also take more additional steps to aid in crime reduction. There are however limits of how much of these that we can undertake.

A bad labour market has very adverse impacts on crime rates. Research carried out by the federal statistics between 1979- 1997 indicated that inflation led to the wages of the people who did not have a collage education to fall by 20%. Despite having the declines in 1993, the violent and property crime rates increased by 35 and 21 percent respectively during that period of time(Rupprecht, 1977). In the then research, there was a relationship that evidently existed between the drop in the wages and the criminal activities such as burglary.

This study was also able to find a relationship that existed between some violent crimes and wages – such as robbery and assault. In this case, money is always a motive. Some criminal activities however do not have any money motive or might be less related to money. These include some such as rape and murder. These two have minimal connection with unemployment and wages. This is a clear indication that most criminal activities are motivated by the poor economic conditions that may be in existence for a particular period of time(Rupprecht, 1977).

The theory that exists between falling wages and crime is quite simple. According to the previous research, the moment wages decline, there is an increase in the relative payoffs of the criminal activities. According to this, it may seem obvious that a shift in the economic conditions have an impact on crime. Very few studies have been done on this issue.

According previous researches, the national crime rates rose between the years of 1979-1992 when then there was a decrease in the wages for the less skilled personnel. Crime rates however declined between 1993 &1997. This can be attributed to the slight increase that was made on the wages of the less skilled workers and also the levelling off of the wages(Tarling, 1982).

Weinberg during his research was able to carry out several analyses that would aid in studying the relationship between the unemployment, wages and crime between 1779 &1997. This was to be done on the men and women with no college education. In one of the analyses, they were able to examine the crime rates in seven hundred and five (705) counties all across the country. All these counties had a population that was greater than 25,000. A comparison was made to the state wages.

The second type of analysis was carried out on statistics of the 198 metropolitan areas. This is as per the definition given by the U.S Census. The researchers put into consideration factors such as number of police and also the arrest rates that might have influenced the crime rates.

In the first analysis, the researchers came up with a conclusion that with 20% fall in the wages of the people who didn’t have college education, it can account for 10.8% rise in the property crime and also 21.6% rise in violent crime(Tarling, 1982). This thus is a clear indication that decline in wages is mostly responsible for the increase in both the violent and property crime.

According to this research, wages had more influence on crime than unemployment rates. This is so because unemployment is viewed as being cyclical and does not have any long-term trend. The wages on the other hand fell in a steady manner during the better part of the period when the research was being done(Rupprecht, 1977). It is clear that the trend in wages brought about a clear factor of crime all through this period.

A third and final analysis was carried out, the researchers were able to examine data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth which was carried out in 1979. This was so as to assess whether the economic conditions experienced in the areas occupied by the participants of the survey could be linked to their criminal behavior. The survey inquired from the participants whether they had participated in some forms of crime such as robbery, shoplifting and much more during the previous year.

Just as expected, the economic conditions in the area had no influence on the criminal practices for the highly educated residents of the area. This was not the case for the less educated. It was more likely that the lower wages and high unemployment rates among the less educated made them prone to committing crimes(Tarling, 1982). This remained to be use even after factors such as family background and cognitive ability were taken into account.

From the research that was undertaken, it was clear that the low skilled workers were more prone to the changes that might occur in the labour opportunities. This situation remains constant even after the factors such as wealth of family and personal characteristics are controlled.

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Ramifications In Cyber Crime Legislation

Ramifications  refers  to consequence arising from   failure of  legislation or plan, internationally, cyber came has become   a hindrance in development because of  the offences that are committed against groups, individuals with a motive of causing harm  to a victim both physically and mentally, there are rampant  frauds that involves  depressing  or  altering the  data. Which also become difficult to detect hence there is need to facilitate sustainable solution,

However, other forms of legislation by the relevant authorizes has hindered the effectiveness of reducing various internet scams, cyber criminals in the United States  has had  weakness in legislation of cyber crime ,This  has further culminated  the aid of law enforcement  agencies  to  deal  with  illicit activities hence necessitating the development of international  networks aimed in cyber crime prevention.

Ways of Ramifications

The  laws that  deals with crime  do not  fully  identify the coverage of  crime detection  resulting from the internet, it  cannot serve the foreign commerce, the  existing legislation covers the local human right violation  exclusive of  international cases, here, when electronic devices  and  other forms communication  are be subjected to a  combined form of detector, it will fully curb the magnitude of the offence, such  posting from the internet inform of messages or any form of harassment  from the  system cannot be  detected neither can it   identify the location or the name of the  person causing harm, also the law therefore lacks    clear punishment based on the diverse categories of cyber crime. For instance the offences committed in different countries between he offender and the victim,(Gregor 2005).

In order  for this law to be effective in  hand ling the form  of crime ,It must be upgraded to  detect the telephone  and the person so that it can effectively reveal the details thus facilitating  easy  arrest of the culprit, if convicted  under this form of legislation, the hacker  will face  court charges and  proper punishments will be rendered   thus  it streamlines the  future  investigation of cyber crime,

The other impediment in   dealing with cyber crime is the  lack of cooperation  from the complainants  or witnesses  thus  in carrying out investigation , this result from infants lured to participating or taking obscene pictures  becomes a challenge  in  cyber crime reduction, this nature of reluctant   to report cases  warrants the police to believe that the offence is not  serious.

Moreover, the other challenge experienced in tackling cyber crime issues is lack of clear legislation in conducting investigation across the borders, the increase in cost delays the investigators in having contact with the victim on the different side of the globe. This inconvenience translates to having considerable arrangements with the diplomatic institution to help in easy access to arrest victims in the region. (Ruibin,2005) ,Also the language barrier can be experienced hence the interpreters can be mobilized to fasten the investigation process.

Impact to the community

Having known the shortcoming of cyber crime laws, The increasing rate of computer technology has resulted to increase in antisocial behaviors like prostitution, robbery and early school dropouts, there is need  therefore to  improve technology policies  by restricting access  of children to aggressive  videos, also   proper formulation  policies to prevent the exploitation of   young   children to irresponsible acts must be emphasizes in the society so a s to  reinstate dignity of the culture  in the society,(Russell & Peter 2004).

White Collar Crimes According To Edwin Sutherland

According to Edwin Sutherland, white collar crimes breeds’ distrust, lowers social morale while representing attacks on social institutions. He argued that the public did not see the act as a crime at all as it was thought of as “victimless” or non-violent nature. The unlawful activity fall into a number of categories; first being looting or collective embezzlement where insiders rob funds from the institutions they are put in charge of.

White collar crimes are being treated with respect in our governments. This probably is likely to make the future generation chose these types of crimes because they know they won’t be charged. White collar crime is one kind of corporate crime. But why should the government delay to punish those convicted with such acts? (Podgor & Ellen, 2014).

Preventing Juvenile Crime Through Social Process Theories

The following are the five selected programs and initiatives supported by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention: Truancy Reduction Demonstration Program, Tribal Youth Programs and Services, Program of Research on the Cause and Correlates of Delinquency, Juvenile Drug Courts/Reclaiming Futures Program and finally, the Crimes against Children Research Center.

The Program of Research on the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency is a program that seeks to establish the causes of the onset of delinquency among people. It is entirely a research program that is geared towards the ultimate goal of preservation of the societal structure and the entire social organization. It is based on the study of the social interactions and its repetitive patterns to improve and impart the understanding of violence, serious delinquency and drugs. It examines how youths develop within the socialization agents like the school, family, peers and the community. The entire program is therefore based on the social process principle with the analysis of the youth’s social developmental concepts (Cressey et al., 1969).

Truancy Reduction Demonstration Program is a program that incorporates the following social processes; community collaborations, family continuum services, public awareness as well as successful system reforms. The program is targeting the school as a major socialization element. It seeks to reduce the number of truant children that do not stay in school as expected of them. This is yet another program based on the social process principle.  It seeks to point out the key causative social factors to truancy both in school and in the community (National Advisory Committee, 1976). Its ultimate goal is preventing the truant from graduating into delinquency. This program is again built on the assumptions based on the social structural approaches. It describes the school and the whole community’s social structure in relation to truancy.

Tribal Youth Programs and Services is a program based on the tribal approaches involving the youth tribal governance coming up with prevention measures for delinquency. It is built on the assumptions of the social structure of particular tribes. It aims at preservation of the tribal social structures and the tribal cultures thereby reducing violent crimes and improving the tribal juvenile justice system. Theoretically, this program is categorized under the socio-cultural theory.

Juvenile Drug Courts/Reclaiming Futures Program provides interventions, treatment as well as structure to the youths involved in delinquency and substance abuse. The program is built on the societal reformations that limit and discourage substance abuse and delinquency (Agnew, 2009). The program views delinquency as a product of people’s interactions with one another, institutions as well as other processes in the society that give room for substance use and abuse. It can be classified as a result of social-behavioral theory.

Crimes against children research center deals with crimes against children.  It focuses on both inside and outside the family as a socialization element. Examines the family’s interactions with the child and majors on prevention of child victimizations.  Theoretically, this program has its origin from the social process theory.

In summary, the following programs from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency are based on the social process principle; the Formula Grants Program, Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws, National Gang Center, National Juvenile Information Sharing Initiative, Safe Start, Tribal Youth Program and Truancy Reduction Demonstration Program. These programs are built on the assumptions drawn from the social structural processes. They all suggest the role of social interactions with socially deficit individuals in the onset of delinquency or criminality (Simpson, 2002).

Impacts Of Cybercrime At The National, Local, And Individual Levels – Computer Hacking

Impacts Of Computer Hacking At The National, Local, And Individual Levels

As internet usage is growing, so is the world coming closer. The World Wide Web brings the world closer making it a very small place for all its users. Sadly, something really good often at times comes with some problems. Likewise, the World Wide Web has also come with some problems, which is cybercrimes. The law and enforcement officers have been working a great deal to tackle this issue but its keeps growing at a steady state. Many people are also falling victims of cybercrimes such as hacking, identity theft and also malicious software.

Cybercrime basically any crime that is committed that involves a network of a computer. In some cases of cybercrimes, the computer or network might be used to commit a crime or in some cases the while in some cases, the computer might be a target of the crime (Wall,2003).

There are several types of cybercrimes. These include; computer viruses where one creates a computer virus and disseminates it. Another type of a cybercrime is cyberstalking. A person may use electronics or the internet to stalk or harass an individual or an organization. Another form is identity theft where one may steal a person’s identity and pretend to be that person so as to access some information and also access some financial resources(Wall,2003).

In this text, we are going to look at one type of a cybercrime. Computer hacking is a type of cybercrime where a hacker involves him/herself in the modification of the computer software and hardware so as to achieve a certain goal that it was not originally created to perform(Bossler, & Burruss, 2011). Computer hacking is mainly done by young adults and also teenagers. A hacker is a person who is involved in computer hacking and they are mostly very good at computer programming. They enjoy learning about how a computer works. They consider this as an “art” form. They usually see this as a way of expressing their skills and abilities. A number of hackers have taught themselves to do this mainly through interests in computers.

Computer hacking can be used by individuals for some beneficial purposes. Since most of the hackers are self-taught prodigies, they get the chance to be hired by the companies and organization to be part of their technical staffs. They showcase their capabilities in the organization so as to help the company identify any flaws in their systems and find a quick remedy. In this type of cybercrime, the individual helps the organization in preventing the identity theft and also prevent any form of serious computer-related crimes in the organization (Bossler, & Burruss, 2011).

On an individual level, computer hacking can lead to loss of an individual’s life savings and case their entire financial status to be ruined for quite a long time. Someone can have bank accounts hacked and thus their credit history will be ruined and it may take quite a long time to get it back to their previous state (Bossler,& Burruss, 2011). In the previous years, a hacker could create viruses for the fun of it but nowadays they create these viruses in order to make money and also gain the financial info.

A negative impact on the local level might involve a situation where a company’s reputation and the brand image may be spoilt. This may be through the introduction of false information or services that a company might not be offering. This may also lead to disruption in the company’s services and also interfere with the opportunity costs. It may also lead to employment disruptions. The disruptions caused in the company may also lead to compensatory payments to customers and penalties to the company(Broadhurst, 2006). This is mainly for consequential loss and any inconveniences that are caused and also the contractual compensations for the delays that might have been caused due to the miscommunications.

In some serious cases, the local companies might have their corporate information stolen and sold to other competitors. In this cases, one may have their company fail completelyif the issue is not discovered and handled fast. The company will thus have to go an extra mile and incur costs of insurance and also the cost of counter measures. They may also need to spend a fortune to invest on the security software so as to monitor regularly any intrusion attempts.

Cybercrimes has an impact at the national level.  In this case, computer hacking can impact a nation in that their sensitive data and their intellectual property may be interfered with. The nation might also face loss of trade and also loss of competitiveness. This might happen especially when the national website has been hacked into and their reputation spoiled. The nation might also face data theft cases where their crucial security information or strategies set in the country might be accessed tampered with or even taken to be used in other countries(Broadhurst, 2006). They may also use their security information to fight against them as they have an idea of their plans. In this case, the nation will incur very high costs of mitigation strategies that have to be set to counteract the issue and also the cost of recovery from the cyber-attacks.

Cybercrime is posing a very great impact to the law and enforcement. This is because the hacker or every person involved in cybercrime is upgrading every day in their techniques. This has forced the law enforcement to reset their strategies in handling this issue. They have been forced to employ more Information Technology experts to work on the cases of cybercrimes especially at the national levels (Yar,2005).

Before handling any cybercrime issue, the law enforcers need to know the identity of the person so that they may know who they are dealing with before they can make an arrest. This has proved to be very difficult as there are so many ways of hiding a person identity(Wall,2004). There are so many ways in which a person can mask their identity by routing the traffic through various servers thus tracking down the individual becomes quite problematic.

The nature of the evidence handled in by the officers makes it harder to deal with the crime. This is because the evidence is composed of some light pulses, numbers represented by magnetization and some radio signals which can easily be changed or even erased (Broadhurst, 2006). This makes it very hard to handle.

Despite the fact that cybercrimes have a great impact on and individual when caught, so many people are not frightened by this. In most countries, a person involved in cybercrime can face up to 20 years jail term. It has however been so difficult to get people involved in this type of crime due to consequent change in technology.

Application: Evolution of Cybercrimes – Cyber Bullying


Cyber bullying is a premeditation and malicious antagonistic activity that is demonstrated by a perpetrator towards a victim (Hendricks, 2012). Many young people spend more time texting and on the internet and, therefore, they are culpable to be victimized by their friends and others who have malicious intent and are intent on intimidating and harassing the teens or preteens. The cyber bullies anonymously attack their victims by forging their information on various social sites to cover their tracks.  Bullying in schools has traditionally taken the form of aggression acts that are repetitively perpetrated by students on their fellow students (Kowalski et al., 2014). With the introduction of computers and smart mobile devices, bullying has taken a new turn.  The acts of cyberbullying have led to suicides among many teens who cannot take the stress and pressure associated with being maligned by their peers or anonymous people.  As a result, cyberbullying is a vice that should be stopped completely.

Evolution of Cybercrime

Cyberbullying has evolved from the use of text to the advanced use of various apps on smartphones that lead to the character assassination of the victims. In the 1990s, more people had cell phones and to some extent, some children owned cell phones especially those in middle and high schools. In 2010, more than three-quarters of the teen populations had phones and 2014 evidenced 78 % of teens owning a cell phone. More teens have access to the internet as compared to the last decade. Computers and other mobile devices have evolved greatly, and more information can be shared on the net than before. Cyberbullying got national attention in 2007 after Megan, who was a teenager from Missouri, was hoaxed and repeatedly attacked online by her reportedly fictitious boyfriend and her friends (Mirsky & Omar, 2015). The perpetrators of the cyberbullying were the mother and sister to a classmate or Megan. Such instances have shown the extent to which society has sunk in terms of cyberbullying. A middle school student that targeted the principle and an algebra teacher reportedly created a website. It had threatening and uncouth statements about them.

The digital age has enabled not only texts to be longer and accessed by many people but also pictures. Some teens have been bullied with pictures that are defamatory and have led to some of the teens committing suicide. Jessica Logan is a teen who committed suicide after nude pictures of her were posted on the internet and were circulated throughout among her fellow students in Cincinnati (Carpenter & Hubbard, 2014). A mother and her child perpetrated the act. Such an act to a teen is rather traumatizing, and she lacked the courage to face the students after the posting of the nude pictures. The cyberbullying incident led to the Jessica Logan Act that seeks to encourage schools to prohibit cyberbullying. The ABC news has highlighted the plight of cyberbullied victims recently by airing a documentary titled Bullied to Death in America’s Schools”. The documentary shows the various sad actions that have led to the deaths of teenagers due to cyber bullying. The documentary pointed to the fact that some 14 teenagers had lost their lives by committing suicide.

Technology and Evolution of Cybercrime

Computers had the monopoly of posting more content through emails and social sites in the past, but that has changed drastically. The digital age has brought about portable devices that can be carried around quite easily and used for any one’s convenience. The mobile devices have evolved greatly to incorporate various features like cameras and apps that can instantly post any information on the social media that includes Gmail, Yahoo, Facebook, Twitter among many other which have millions of users (Kowalski et al., 2012). Many apps have access to social media sites, which are linked to the camera, and pictures can be posted instantly without the use of a computer. Also, smartphones have led to a revolution in communication not only in using text messages and calls but also in using pictures taken at a specified time.

Therefore, cyberbullying can bring on board many users who know the person and who can post negative comments about him or her. As such, one person can start the cyberbullying while bringing others into it. For example, malicious content can be posted about someone in school and everyone in the school can be able to see the content and even make comments to the victims who as explained above had led to many undesirable actions that have led to death (Schneider et al., 2012). The stressful conditions that occur have often led to suicides or the victim withdrawing him or herself from her peers. Some people may even hack into other accounts and use them in bullying their fellow students without the knowledge of the account user. Various incidences have been reported in social media where unrated content has been posted on their walls that have led to a barrage of unwarranted comments from users of the specific social sites.

Conclusion and Recommendations

Cyberbullying is an evil that has greatly affected most teens and should be brought to a stop to prevent any undesirable acts like suicides from taking place (Slonje et al., 2013). Social sites should educate teens, encourage them to report any user who posts malicious content that is not true, and ensure that the teens know how to block such users should they surface on their walls. Initiative should thus be taken to deal with the vice and prevent further accidents involving teens.

Cyber Crime Vulnerabilities And Examples

Cybercrime refers to criminal activity involving computers and other internet networks, it comprises of distant theft of the government or individual citizens. Perhaps,external cybercrimes are increasing in high frequency causing extensive damage to the companies and organization. Most of the crimes committed could to be internal whereby the employees collaborate with the gangs by giving internal and sensitive information which facilitate easy attacks with the exchange of money. Forinstance, the gang groups or individuals who break into the computer do so because of excitement or they want to challenge the intelligence of an organization.

The  cyber incident has greatly incurred to the public in spite of everyone having a right to  be respected and free from  violence or harassment, cyber bullying has greatly affected growing children especially during leisure time when the use social media, at some point, I can  receive threats from the emails or texts, this threats lead to  highest  attainable standard   physical  and mental health, bullying can impact  negatively  leading to depression, moreover  a child  or young person’s right  to leisure  and play must not be infringed in all the  social and networking  sites.

According to Furnell, (2010) ,All children are to participate in leisure  and play  in safe environment, as a  less cost effective  measure, there  is need  for proper legislation  by raising concerns  about  bullying and the significance  of protecting  children  and any other young person from exposure  to violence, pornography and racism through the mobile phones  and other  form  of technologies .it further impacts on feelings or opinions of someone. Just as the members of the public are required to enjoy their freedom, they too have the responsibility to   respect the rights of others   the universal calling enables the community to strive for the promotion and observance of human rights.(Mann, and Sutton,1998)

On the other hand, business is one phenomenon that we daily engage as a platform of embracing the global market. However, wecannot escape the online transaction fraud whereby there is false credits done though online banking,

It can result to a great loss to my business and other related investments, as a form of mitigation,  the cost measure I can take is having    special insurance  to protect  against  the impact of theft, itcouldalso be significant if I can configure my personal accounts with  a  high level security  to frustrate the user and possibly  prevent them from  accessing my bank information,(Wilson and Hembury,2006).

Moreover reviewing credit card  and  financial statement regularly can help me  reduce the impact though is expensive and time consuming activity .it will enable  me  identify  theft  shortly after the  data has been stolen or when the first use of the information  is attempted by the fraudster. This alerts will enable me identify  unusual activity occurring  on my account, for example ,purchases in geographical  distant location or a high volume  of purchase .in general . While doing online business .we   need to take sensitive precautionary measures and precautions so as  to stay safe in all our  online  transactions that we always undertake.

Does Education Enable Reduction in Crime? – Journal Analysis


There have been a number of measures employed to fight crimes in the society. Education has been identified as one of these measures. Hypothetically, there are various reasons that makes education be related with crime reduction. These reasons include the fact that education rises wages and thus the opportunity cost of being involved in a crime. Education also teaches young individuals to learn to be extra patient via schooling and put more weight on the possibility of good earning in the future. School also helps individuals to understand the consequences of a crime. Moreover, education might directly augment the psychic cost of being involved in crime. In this regard, a number of criminal justice researcher and policy makers are encouraged to consider promoting education among all especially less advantaged in the society and minorities to reduce their involvement in crime. This paper analyzes two journals that support that education reduces the rate of crimes in a region.

Machin, S., Marie, o., & Vujic, S. (2011). The crime reducing effect of education. The Economic Journal, 121(552), 463-484.

The article evaluates the relation between the rates of crime with increase in education and school leaving age. This evaluation is based on a case study conducted in Wales and England. The rates of crimes are evaluated against the level of the population in the education sector. The collected data are analyzed using regression discontinuity environment. Causal statistics estimates are presented founded on a law that altered the compulsory age of leaving school in Wales and England. The analysis establishes decrease in property crime with increase in the number of people with education and professional qualifications in the society. In addition, increase in the school leaving age also reduced the level of crime in both Wales and England. The limit put in the minimum school entry and an increase in the number of years to spend in school.

According to the analysis, time spends in education reduces the time available for young people to think and to be involved in crime related behaviors. Moreover, the ability to obey the school regulation and policies increase one’s ability to understand the law and its consequences and also to be guided by the law. This enables educated individuals to be easily guided by the laws developed for a country and thus, increasing their ability to avoid crimes and other behaviors that may easily promoted incarnation or conflict with the law. In this regard, it is clear that education improvement can significantly result to social benefit and can act as the main policy making tool in drive to lower crime rate in a region. According to this article, increase in education reduces the level of crime. Therefore education promotion in a region enhances the reduction of individuals involved in crimes. Therefore, education can be used by criminal justices system to develop policies that will lower the rate of criminal activities.

Hjalmarsson, R., & Lochner, L. (2012). The impact of education on crime: International evidence. CESifo DICE Report, 2, 49-55.

This article is a literature review focusing on the previous researches conducted to establish the relation between education and crime reduction in the world. The article evaluates journals from Europe and America which are two continents where this research has been taking place. The research is based on journal materials that were published from 1997 to 2011. The article is guided by subheadings that are well developed to establish the association between education and crimes. According to the article, different researches have demonstrated an inverse relation between education and the level of crime. A number of recent studies conducted in the United States and Europe demonstrates the strong link between crime and education. For instance, in 1997, about 59% of federal and 75% of state prison inmates in the United States did not have a diploma in high school. In 2001, over 75% of Italian convicts had not attained high school qualification. Moreover, incarceration rate of uneducated men aged between 21 and 25 was eight time more as compared to educated men in the United Kingdom.

All these statistics demonstrated an association between education and crime such that, the rate of imprisonment and conviction increases with decrease in the level of education. It also demonstrates that attainment in high school education reduces individual chances of being involved in crime. The research also established the economic benefit of education in reduction of crime. Although education reduces chances of being involved in street crimes, it increases the chances of individuals being involved in white collar crimes for instance embezzlement fraud. In addition, education increase chances of being involved in cybercrimes. However, despites of the negatives involved of education in crimes, the level of benefits enjoyed for promoting education to reduce crimes is much higher as compared to the negatives. The paper also established that education is important in reducing the rate of education even where the quality of education is low or the student score is low. The paper therefore concludes that, education is highly associated with reduced rate of crime in different parts of the world, since its positive social and economic benefit are much higher than its negatives in the criminal justice system. Thus, education based policy can highly be used by criminal justice system to lower the crime level in the world.

Organized Crime and Street Gangs Research Paper


There has been a significant increase in criminal activities in the contemporary society and within schools. The number of people who are turning to crime to escape the pressures of their daily lives and their future, which they perceive as bleak has increased significantly. The increase in criminal activities is manifested by the increase in street gangs and organized crime. People are usually attracted to street gangs by the prestige and cash, which is usually glamorized by the street gangs. Street gangs engage in various criminal activities, which include burglary, gun and drug trafficking, and homicides. Street gangs are not simply a criminal justice problem; it is also a social problem, which is fueled by poverty, peer pressure, and despair.

When people hear about organized crime, they usually think about gangs and mafias. However, there are various aspects of organized crime. People usually engage in organized crime by using criminality, violence, and ability to corrupt various officials to gain and maintain power and profits. Organized crime is usually global. In the recent past, it has become more difficult to tackle organized crime. In addition, the threat of organized crime has widened. Organized criminals have become smarter. Technology plays a critical part in their operations. Technology savvy organized crime groups can attack various parties in distant locations through a simple click of the mouse. They also use technology to conceal their criminal activities. Some of the organized crime groups in the contemporary world include Hispanic Crime Groups, Jamaican Poses, Russian Mafia, Asian Crime Groups and La Costa Nostra. (Wright, 2013).

Street Gangs

It is difficult to determine a concise definition of street gangs. This is because there is no general definition of a gang. Academics and practitioners provide different definitions of gangs. They both provide differences in the number of people who are necessary for the formation of gangs. For the purpose of this paper, gangs would refer to a group of at least three people who collectively engage in criminal activities. The group may have a common symbol, sign, or name. There are more than 30,000 gang members spread across the U.S. The gang members are located in inner cities, suburbs, and prisons. In the contemporary world, gangs have embraced technology. They use the internet to recruit and radicalized its members. This enables the gangs to spread their reach. Most street gangs have been in existence for more than 20 years. The gangs keep regenerating themselves as the years progress (Klein & Maxson, 2006). Each gang has a unique organizational structure.

Organized Crime

There is no definite definition organized crime. However, the tentacles of organized crimes are usually spread over a wide geographical area and legitimate business enterprises. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime defines organized crime as “a structured group of three or more persons, existing for a period of time and acting in concert with the aim of committing one or more serious crimes or offences established in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit” (Wyngaert & Dewulf, 2011, p.1025). Organized crime includes political corruption. Organized criminals participate in legitimate business ventures. They also have various innovations that enable them not to be detected by the criminal justice system. Most organized crime groups evolve from their beginnings as street gangs. Organized crime groups are usually formed by small gangs that were previously autonomous.

Factors that lead to the formation of organized crime and street gang

The major factor that leads to the formation of organized crime and street gangs is the existence of a power vacuum and lack or shortage of enforcement. However, this explanation raises more questions than answers.  One of the questions is how a power vacuum is created and how does it persist. It also raises the question as to why the state or federal authorities do not intervene to fill the power vacuum. From an economic standpoint, it raises the question as to why the power vacuum is not good since it would facilitate the spontaneous exchange of goods and services. Ethnic and social distance and prohibition are some of the major factors that lead to the formation of organized crime and street gangs (Wright, 2013).

Ethnic and Social Distance

Youth gangs are predominant in low-income areas that are populated by a homogenous ethnic group. These groups may include Hispanic, Irish, and African American. Most residents of the area feel that they are disenfranchised by the larger society. They view the police as indifferent to their plight. In worst case scenarios, they may even view the police as the agents of repression. This makes it difficult for the police to control ordinary crimes in these areas, which further contribute to the prevalence of crime in an organized manner. The townships in apartheid South Africa highlight this feature of street gangs and organized crime. Alienation of the townships led to the escalation of levels of insecurity and violence (Papachristos, 2014).


Legal prohibition of the production and distribution of certain goods and services is one of the major factors that lead to the development of organized crime and street gangs. Drugs are the major example of how prohibition leads to the formation of organized crime and street gangs. Government monopolies on the sale and distribution of certain goods and services also lead to the formation of organized crimes and street gangs. This is because they lead to smuggling and protection of the smuggling by organized crime groups (Klein & Maxson, 2006).

Economic Costs of Street Gangs and Organized Crime

The presence of street gangs and organized crime lead to the unproductive deployment of the economic resources. The resources could be used in other areas where they would have direct production purposes. It is a fact that street gang members of members of other organized crime groups spend their time defending each other and preparing to fight against other groups. These activities may be considered as leading to the improvement in the security of the area in an indirect way. However, the security employed by competing gangs involves expenditure. Therefore, in an area where there are competing gangs, the gangs spend more resources than if there was only one gang controlling the region. The resources spent by competing gangs are significantly higher than the resources that an efficient police or judicial system would spend to ensure the security of a certain region.

Street gangs and organized crime has a significant impact on the economic activity in a certain area. It necessitates legal businesses to pay protection fees, which increases their operational costs. It also makes investors invest less. Investors also tend to make investments in assets that cannot be destroyed easily. It is difficult for businesses that enjoy protection from organized criminals and street gangs to use contracting through the legal channels. This is because the organized crime groups may discourage the businesses to pursue this channel as it challenges their authority. This reduces their importance to the business. As such, organized crime groups strive to enforce contracts. They are capable of enforcing contracts more effectively than the government. This is because they can impose stiff penalties to people who breach the contracts. The penalties may include physical punishment or in some instances even death. However, the uncertainties that surround the fulfillment of the contracts usually cannot outweigh the severity of the penalties. Violence, destruction of property and death are more likely to occur in areas that are controlled by organized crime groups (Cloward & Ohlin, 2013).

Organized crime has more devastating long-term impacts on a certain area. It may make the most entrepreneurial youth of the region join the organized crime groups. However, in different circumstances the people may have provided leadership that would have helped in improving the welfare of the community. Joining the organized crime groups would make it difficult for them to change later in life. The dismantling of the organized crime groups may make them turn to robbery or other crimes since they are unfamiliar with conventional lives and occupations. From the above examples, it is clear that organized crime has high economic costs. The costs may relegate a region to remain in perpetual poverty (Cloward & Ohlin, 2013).

Tackling Organized Crime and Street Gangs

Getting Hold of Reality

Prior to the discussion of the methods of tackling organized crimes and street gangs, it is vital to assess reality. This is because discussions on street gangs and organized crime are surrounded by a cloud of rhetoric and ideology that makes it difficult to understand it well. The mass media tries to use a simple approach to explain the existence of organized crime and street gangs. They claim that there are people who are inherently evil and thus become gangbangers. Therefore, according to this approach, getting rid of a few evil people would help in solving this problem. However, this approach disregards the conditions that make people join organized crime groups since their view the lives of gangbangers and mafioso as being more attractive due to their material rewards. The strategy also disregards the importance disregards the code of silence of members of organizes crime groups. It is vital for various parties to acknowledge the fact that people engage in organized crime to make a living like other people. However, organized crime does not improve the material welfare of a certain region like other economic activities. People engage in organized crime simply because there are conditions that make the behavior favorable. Institutional design may encourage people to engage in organized criminal activities (Wright, 2013).

Professionalization of the Police and State

Professionalization of the hiring and training of police and providing them with various civil protections and privileges would help in reducing extortion in the society. However, implementation of this measure may face resistance due to various factors. It would necessitate the state to hire fewer policemen who would receive a significantly higher pay. This would face resistance from policemen who would become unemployed. Corruption may also be so profitable that professional policemen may still engage in activities that facilitate the existence of organized crime groups (Klein & Maxson, 2006).

Careful Analysis of Impact of Prohibition

Prohibition is one of the major factors that lead to the development of organized crime. It creates a power vacuum that organized criminals strive to fill. Various factors make the government prohibit certain goods and services. However, it is vital for the government to weight the costs and benefits of prohibition. It should put special emphasis on the impact of prohibition on organized crime. According to policy experts, the availability and consumption of drugs is the major factor that leads to the development of organized crime. However, according to economists, it is impossible to eradicate drugs. Prohibition increases various problems, which include organized crime. However, the government may not lift the prohibition of all drugs. It should only legalize certain softer drugs. It should also use a different level of control to regulate other drugs. Netherlands provides a clear example of how the legalization of certain drugs would help in reducing organized crime. The government legalized the possession of certain quantities of cannabis. However, hard drugs such as cocaine and heroin are still prohibited. Legalization of cannabis led to the reduction in the prices of the hard drugs. Since organized crime cartels could not make money in the Dutch market, they shifted to other areas. In so doing, they reduced the problem of organized crime associated with drugs (Abadinsky, 2012).

Incorporation of the Efforts into the Mainstream

It is a fact that most organized crime groups are usually more prevalent in low-income neighborhoods that feel disenfranchised. Provision of economic opportunities in the areas would help in tackling organized crime and street gangs. Efforts should also be made to integrate the areas into the mainstream society. Population in these areas may be integrated into the mainstream through the education system and the police (Wright, 2013).

People that feel disenfranchised do not usually resist the use of force by the police provided that they perceive the police action to be legitimate. The police should not also target them specifically due to other reasons apart from security. However, in most instances the police are outsiders. Therefore, they have limited success in tackling organized crime in the areas since local residents distrust them. Having policemen who reside in the areas would significantly help in reducing the tension that exists between members of the community and the police. However, there are various political constraints in the police department that shape the behavior of the police. It is vital for the police to be accountable the political authorities, which represent the local community. This would ensure that they provide security instead of facilitating the activities of members of organized crime groups.

Education may also play a critical role in the integration of people who feel disenfranchised from the mainstream. This is due to the fact that education plays a critical role in the endowment of human capital in a certain area. The educational system also provides immigrants and low-income groups with a location where they may socialize with members of the mainstream society. This makes them feel as if they belong to a larger community. Schools provide most children with the first opportunity to interact with the government. It also provides them with an opportunity to know issues relating to business. Most regions teach in a manner that leads to the transmission of the culture of the dominant culture. This strategy has been relatively successful. However, in the recent past, it has faced various challenges. One of the major factors that have to the challenges is that this approach leads to the alienation of certain cultures. People in these cultures feel disenfranchised and dislike the education system.

Therefore, it is vital to ensure that the educational system acknowledges the multiplicity of cultures and languages. The educational policy should reflect the cultures and languages. Incorporation of bilingual studies and linking them to the universal values would help in bridging the gap between the mainstream and the minority groups (Abadinsky, 2012).

Saint Leo University strives to uphold the above values. The university strives to ensure that it provides minority groups with a good environment that would help them interact freely with other members of the society. The university strives to ensure that all students acknowledge certain universal values. In addition, the university treats all students equally. It does not discriminate minority groups or people from the mainstream society differently. This helps in their integration into the community of the university. It provides with a common sense of belonging. It is the duty of Saint Leo University to ensure the safety of its students and staff on campus. The university police ensure that gangs do not operate within the university. It also strives to prevent the radicalization of students.

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Sport Crime – Athletics Crimes

A sport crime is a sport action that is offensive or against the sports set of rules. The offense is punishable by the laws of the offended sport or game. Athletes may engage in crimes such as cheating or doping. Doping over years has been the worst crime in athletics. Doping is the act of using drugs by an athlete before or during a sporting activity in order to enhance the athlete sporting performance.

Marion Jones Thompson a former athlete renown for track and field events and also professional basketball was born in 12, October, 1975. She won three Gold medals as a junior champion from 1997 to 1999. Furthermore, Marion won various Gold medals up to 2000 during the Olympic Games. However, in 2001 claims spread around that Jones was using drugs to bust her performance.

In 2003, Jones married Montgomery who was later banned for two years and charged with doping scandal. Marion Jones doping allegation when she had been accused of doping in high school after winning all competition. When jones ex-husband Hunter was banned he testified that he had seen Marion Jones injecting the steroid into her stomach in Sydney. However, Jones denied the claims but after various tests she was caught in positive tests for steroids. In 2007 she confessed for using the steroid and was sentenced six months imprisonment. Moreover, she was stripped all her titles that she had won after 1999. Additionally, she admitted that she had engaged in check-fraud schemes. As a result of this, Marion Jones was given a two year ban by United StatesAnt-doping Agency. In her book “Life in the First Lane” she blames Hunter for making her name image unworthy in public and this led her to use drugs.


Jones crime of doping is beyond the athletic norms. Each athlete is required to use their bodies in a normal form rather than inducing drugs so that they are stronger than others. The steroid enabled Jones to perform better than her colleague by sprinting faster. It is therefore a selfish act that not only evokes measures of discipline but also damages the athlete’s image in public by destroying once reputation. All athletes should keep off doping as it has side effects to the functioning of their bodies. Charges of doping results to banning and imprisonment. John Ridley states that “if Olympic Games ever served a true altruistic purpose, they have long since outlined it. The pursuit of athletic excellence, sportsmanship and international goodwill is plenty noble. But the modern Olympic are at best a vehicle for agitprop at worst, a scandal.”

Spectator violence is any violent activity or behavior that occurs among the spectator. The violence can be directed at players, spectators or even at the officials. A good example of spectator violence in Kenya is between Gormahia and AFC Leopards teams. In a recent match, an AFC player was given a red card which led the other team’s spectators throwing stones to the other spectators. As a result of this commotion many fans were injured while the stadium as damaged to losses of millions.

In conclusion, spectator’s violence and sporting crimes are actions that lead to social and economic devaluation. Therefore, that should be controlled to ensure healthy sporting activities.