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Creating and Implementing An Agency Policy on Ethics In A Criminal Justice Agency

Assignment Instructions – Creating and Implementing An Agency Policy on Ethics

There are ethical challenges in every aspect of the criminal justice system. Administrators are responsible for setting the tone for ethical conduct in the administration and operation of their agency. You are to assume the role of the head (Chief, Director, Warden, etc.) of a fictitious criminal justice agency; e.g., police department or sheriff’s office, local detention center (adult or juvenile) prosecutors’ office, trial court, probation agency, correctional institution, parole board, parole agency, etc.

As the head administrator, you decide it is in the best interest of your agency to have a policy that sets forth how the agency will operate in an ethical manner…. similar to a Code of Ethical Conduct

In your paper you are to describe in detail your plan to insure ethical practices in your selected agency.

  • How will your ethical policy be established? (Who will be involved in drafting the document? What resources will be drawn on or references? etc.)
  • How will it be communicated to the members of the agency to ensure awareness and adoption?
  • How will it be inspected to ensure compliance?
  • How will it be reinforced so that members of the agency clearly understand your seriousness?

NOTE: The content of your ethics policy or code is irrelevant and, but for clarification or reference purposes should not be included in this project paper. Instead, the paper should concentrate on your plan to create and Implement it.

Format Requirements

The paper should be a minimum of 1,000 words, Double space , 12 pt. font, 1” margins. A minimum of 3 supportive resources from course materials or outside sources and use American Psychological Association (APA) citations for all narrative and reference sources. Include a separate Reference Page (not included in word count)


Sample Solution – Creating and Implementing An Agency Policy on Ethics In A Criminal Justice Agency


Human resources are regarded as the most important stakeholders in any organization. Their work related behaviors which include their interaction with each other and the people they serve, their commitment into following the production procedure strictly, and their utilization of the company time and other facilities or resources among others highly determines the organization performance. To enhance positive performance any institution need to develop a code of conduct that will guide workers while performing their daily operations. A code of conduct contains value as an external corporate commitments and values statement and as an internal guideline. A code of ethics that is well written clarifies the principles, values, and mission of an organization, connecting them with professional conduct standards. The code pronounces the values that an organization needs to nurture in employees and leaders and, thus, delineates desired behavior. Therefore, a written code of ethics can develop standards against persons that organizational and individual performance can be assessed. This paper describes ethical practices to be employed in a virtual police department.

Development of the Ethical Policy

The described ethical standards in this case will focus on a virtual police department. Police officers have a number of duties that should not be compromised by unethical behaviors. They also need to protect their relation with the community, which entrust them in maintaining peace and order and upholding the rule of the law. The mission of this code of conduct is to ensure that the department workers maintain high level of integrity and credibility while performing their daily activities.

The ethical policy will be developed in a systematic way, where various stakeholders will be involved. The process will involve a few steps which will ensure that the policy clearly addresses the crucial operational and behavioral aspects of the department. The first step will involve the conduction of a research to determine ethical problems affecting the department. This will be done by the senior officials in the department, leaders of community policing, and human rights organization in the area. The main aim is to determine the most abused police power and other forms of misconduct that may need to be regulated. The research will also involve the review of the literature regarding other related police misconducts that have been recorded in other regions. This will ensure that the policy covers all possible situations and hence serves its purpose effectively. This research will be conducted by human rights department and community policing leaders. The obtained data will be used to define the aspects to be included in the code of conduct (McDevitt, Farrell& Wolff, 2008).

The code of conduct will define how the officers should behave based on the use of the power given to them by the constitution. Thus the new code of ethics will be based on the constitution and other laws that govern police conducts and other similar government agencies. Drafting of the police will basically involve all stakeholders affected by police conducts. This includes the department officials who are likely to lose their dignity following police misconduct (Whitton, 2001). Other includes the community leaders who are the direct receive of police brutality, discrimination, and the effect of the police corruption. Other stakeholders include the human right activists who are always in the forefront condemning police brutality and other police misconducts. A few police officers and member of the community should also be consulted and their views collected before making the draft. The main reference will include any other code of conduct written in police department in other parts of the country or across the world. While selecting references, the stakeholders need to ensure that the policies have been demonstrated effective results in places where they have been implemented. Meaning they should be evidence based.

Communication of the Policy to the Agency

Effective implementation of any policy is highly determined by how the police are communicated to the affected parties. In this case, the entire police department needs to be aware of the policy and how it is likely to influence their workability. The initial communication about the police will be done in the initial policy development stages. The department will inform the all member of the department that it intends to establish a new employees’ code of conduct and they are all welcomed to make contributions. In addition to this, the department will then provide a platform where individual views will be collected, for instance a suggestion box. The department will keep on updating other members of the department on the policy development process through internal memos.

The first policy draft will also be released to all to read through. To facilitate accessibility, the department will give a copy in the joint printing section where any interested member can get own copy. Any question, concern or contribution regarding the policy by the officers should be channeled to the department in writing or via email. After the final draft has been made, the department will make a copy for each member of the department. These copies will be used to facilitate training where all members will be taken through the policies with clear explanation on what each aspect means, action that would be said to break the law, and dictated acts and behavior (Orrick, n.d.). The training may take a while. It should also be provided in groups to ensure clear understanding of each section especially based on individual unit of operation. The end of the training will be crown by signing of the code of conduct declaration form which will clearly acknowledge that the officer is aware of the ethical law governing his or her conduct in his or her unit of operation. One copy will be filed in the employee’s file with each worker keeping a signed copy. The signing will take place in the presence of the department lawyer and another witness, mostly a personal lawyer or any other appointee from the department.

Inspection to Ensure Compliance

The aim of the training offered to the officers and other members of the department will be ensuring that each member in the department understand the new ethical provision and hence change their behaviors to avoid any related punishment. In this regard, the policy will be created to define anticipated officers’ conduct, what they are not allowed to do, and the punishment resulting from doing contrary to the set code of conduct. The punishment will also be provided as per the broken law, and individual offense record (Orrick, n.d.). Senior officers in each department will be required to keep a close supervision of their juniors to ensure that they comply. The department will open regular investigation on the police conduct in the surrounding community. Community complains box will be open to facilitate this activity. The officers will be required to clearly display their work badge to show their employee’s number while operating. This will facilitate the collection of data on individual officer misconduct by the department. The public will also be allowed to report police misconduct to the human right office and community policing leaders’ office. This will be done throughout. Officer will also be allowed to report each other using anonymous reporting style to avoid internal conflict and victimization. Regular review of the collected information from all the above mentions sources will be done; mostly on monthly basis.

Reinforcement to Enhance the Understanding of the Seriousness of the Policy

The review will assist in identifying officers that have managed to break the set code of conduct. The initial review will provide a written warning to all officers who will be featured to behave against the set standards. All these warnings will be filed. The warning which will be initialed for the first six months will clearly instruct the officers to revise their code of conduct and rectify their behaviors. Frequent training will be provided on the policy to all, with more emphasis put on the most frequently broken laws, in the first six month. After the grace period, the law will be fully implemented such that, anyone found behaving against the set standard will strictly be punished as provided by the defined policy (Whitton, 2001). This will make the officers understand the seriousness of the new policy. All previously reporting system will remain opened throughout, and close supervision by the seniors at all level remain strict.  This will ease the process of the law implementation through punishing those found to do contrary to the provided code of conduct.

Corruption in Los Angeles Police Department – Ethics and Morality in Criminal Justice System


Criminal justice system is one of the most important governmental systems in the country. It is involved in the reinforcement of the law in the country, and hence determining the general harmony in the operation of other governmental agencies, public and private institutions, and all citizens in a country. Police officers are the primary actors in the enforcement of the law. Their efficiency in doing this is highly determined by a number of factors, with individual morality and institutional ethical values playing the main role in determining their behavior and conduct.Morals and ethics associate to what can be considered to be wrong or right conduct. The two phrases are mostly applied interchangeably, though they are different. Morality denotes individual’s personal principles about what is wrong and what is right.  Ethics on the other hand denotes rules given by an exterior source for instance religious principles, or workplace code of conduct (Caplan, 1983). This paper evaluates an ethical event that takes place among some police officers and how it is influenced by various factors that include culture, history, politics and Moral courage.

Selected Event

The selected event in this case is corruption in a police department featuring Los Angeles police department. Los Angeles police department has maintained corruption legacy for a considerable time period. This has been undermining the officers’ ability to enforce law effectively (Caplan, 1983). By being corrupt, police officers become the law breakers rather than the protector of the law. They undermine the honor of their colleagues and of the region they are supposed to protect. Corruption normally happens when officers receives money gift or any other form of incentives to allow criminals to continue with their activities without being arrested.

The gifts and incentives are taken as criminal protection fees. This arrangement happens mostly with drugs traffickers and gangs criminal operations (Winton, 2016). Other cases of corruption are seen in the traffic where motorists give money to avoid arrest or issuing of traffic ticket. The police in return act by directing them on the routes they can use to pass without being stopped. They therefore manage to continue with their operations comfortably under the protection of the law enforcement officers that are required to stop them. This goes against the police duty and against their moral duty of upholding the law, and being devoted in the protection of the citizens and their country. It also goes against individual morality.

Drug use affects life of youths and other users negatively. Promoting drug trafficking for personal gains is immoral. Anyone who embraces morality should not support such acts. The act of supporting crimes for the sakes of personal gain is against the police code of conduct.  Normally in such cases, the involved police officers tend to be strict on the drug users, while they collaborate with the drugs traffickers. The frequently arrested individuals include young males and females from minority groups who are most likely to be involved in drug use. These drug users are mostly poor people living in the streets or with low life; school dropouts, unemployed, and young children experiencing family problems.

Conclusion Based on the Research

Unethical behaviors are very costly to the justice system. They are highly responsible of the broken trust between the public and the law enforcement agency. The public lose faith in the law enforcement agency and start seeing them as criminal and more dangerous to them. They stop running to them for protection and instead, they tend to avoid them for they are not reliable. Unethical practices in criminal justice system also reduce the system efficiency (Chappell, &Piquero, 2004). In this case, the police department will not ever manage to fight drug trafficking, drug use, and gang activities due to internal sabotage.

The problem of police corruption especially in Los Angeles has been there for a long time; in the early to mid-90s. It was initially associated with top officials in the system especially chief police officers and mayors of the city, before it progressed down to the general police officers.  One of the most commonly used theories to explain police corruption situation poor police payment, poor work condition, or the presence of some kind of unethical people who are bound to be involved in criminal behaviors (Domanick, 1998). The latter can be explained by the theory of rotten eggs where corruption is said to be the work of some immoral, dishonest police officers. The involvement of police officers in corruption especially in the US is also explained by the application of criminal law to enhance morality. Inability to enforce laws controlling moral standards enhances corruption since they provide unlawful organizations with a financial attentiveness in undermining the enforcement of the law.

Mayor Richard J. Riordan acknowledged there being corruption in the Los Angeles police department and called for the right measures in fight it. He specifically recognized that this act has cast a dark shadow over the city police department. This happened during graduation ceremony at a police Academy in 1999.  His courage played a great part in initiating reforms in Los Angeles police department (The New York Times, 1999). Nevertheless, the matter was not that easy. The corruption network in the department included senior individuals who tried to use their influence to undermine the process of the reforms. Many involved persons tried to use their power to acquire immunity, and this made it hard to discipline police officers in the low lane.

Real Ethical Concern or Event Related to Criminal Justice – Assignment Instructions

This assignment will define and compare ethics and morality. Research, select, and describe an incident involving a real ethical concern or event related to criminal justice (e.g., corruption in a police department, judicial bribery, smuggling contraband into prisons by correctional officers, etc.). Students must utilize the Library Subject Guide for Criminal Justice (See Content) to conduct independent and unique research.


  • Part One: An opening paragraph describing your topic and ultimate conclusion
  • Part Two: Brief description of the selected event and the ethical issues involved you choose to write about
  • Part Three: Conclusions based on your research and class readings as to the consequences of unethical behavior to the system, the society, and the individual. The following issues must be covered within the report:
    • Cultural issues, (may include all areas of diversity including race, gender, sexual orientation and occupational culture)
    • Historical context, include your theories on why the situation occurred
    • Moral courage, (For example, – was there a particularly courageous individual involved?)
    • Politics (Note, in this context “politics” referrers to the personal and/or group dynamics within a particular organization, community or similar setting. It does NOT relate to political parties or affiliation with any political party.)

Format Requirements

The paper should be 750 to 1,000 words, double spaced, 12 pt. font, 1” margins. Use APA narrative and reference page citations for all sources and include reference page using American Psychological Association (APA) format guidelines (not included in word count)

View a sample answer to this assignment based on Corruption in Los Angeles Police Department or order a unique answer written by our professional writers at an affordable price.

Texas Department of Criminal Justice – Correctional Agency Exploration

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) is the state correctional agency of the administration of the U.S. state of Texas. According to Texas Sunset Advisory Commission, (2012) the TDCJis accountable for the maneuver of protectedcorrectional institutions for adult criminals. The accountability comprises managing criminals in state jails, state prisons and private correctional amenities, funding and particular oversight of publicregulation, and supervision of criminals discharged from jail on parole or obligatory supervision. The TDCJ runs the major prison structure in the United States.

Dailymaneuvers at the agency getaccomplished by a policymaking director, who masterminds more than 30,000 workers. The TDCJdepartment has three mainpartitions: parole, correctional institutions, and community justice assistance.

The parole divisionoversees convicts who are serving out their sentences in Texas communities after being discharged from prison. The Division also accomplishes some pre-dischargepurposes by exploring the parole strategiesprojected by convicts and by following parole qualified cases and surrendering them for appropriatecontemplation by the Board of Pardon and Parole. The Division does not make dischargeverdicts; neither does it choose whose parole ought to get canceled or what distinctcircumstancesmust get placed on discharges. Right for those verdicts rests with the Board of Pardons and Paroles, but the Division operates closely with the Board and offers Board members with the documentsrequired to make well-versedconclusions.

The Correctional Institutions Division (CID) is accountable for the imprisonment of adult felony and governmentprison felony convicts who getcondemned to confinement in a protected facility(Robert, 2013). The CID supervisesgovernment prisons, pre-discharge amenities, psychiatric amenities, medical amenities, Developmentally Disabled Offender Program (DDOP), Substance Abuse Felony Punishment Facilities (SAFPF), handover facilities, government jails, and aged facility. The CID is also accountable for support rolesfor examplecataloging and records, synthesis center, Correctional Training and Staff Development (CTSD) among others.

Community Justice Assistance Division (CJAD) manages community supervision in Texas. Convicts on community supervision complete their condemnations in the community in place of prison (Robert, 2013). CJAD works with the convicts indirectly, but work directly with Community Supervision and Correction Departments (CSCDs) that oversee the convicts.

Cultural Diversity in Criminal Justice – Assignment Instructions

Labeling theorists are adamant about the labels that offenders are given throughout the criminal justice system. Labels, such as ex-felons, are deepening the very behavior that they are meant to halt because of stereotypes that incite an individual trying to recover after a prison term. The labeling theory argues that the criminal justice system is limited in its capacity to restrain unlawful conduct but also is a major factor in anchoring people into criminal careers. The cultural deviance theory explains the causes of criminal behavior in urban areas are not about the poverty suffered in those areas but the product of a distinct lower-class culture whose focal concern is deviance against the norms of society.
The theory identified 3 influential versions:
  • Lower-class culture as a whole is responsible for generating crime in urban areas.
  • Urban lower-class areas produce subcultures that are responsible for the rise of crime.
  • Subcultures of crimes in which individuals come together to band in creating crimes for their own personal gain and satisfaction in urban areas

Write a 5-6 page paper answering the following questions:

  • What would be another theory and strategy to avoid stereotyping individuals in the criminal justice system?
  • Is there a legitimate reason to consider labeling theory a legitimate crime causation theory? Why?
  • In your opinion, where do gangs fit in the 3 influential versions of cultural deviance theory? Why?
  • Which one of the two theories would you use to explain the following problem:
  • The number of youths joining gangs in the inner city has doubled, while the number of gang leaders serving time in prison and being released after good conduct has increased. The crime rate for gang violence has risen 20% from last year.


  • Your opinion statements must be justified by theory or real-life strategies and practices of law enforcement activity.
  • The explanation of cause of criminality in question 3 must use the case provided.
  • You must use the labeling theory or cultural deviance theory in answering questions.
  • You must use APA style in citing and creating your reference page.

View a sample answer to this assignment Labeling Theorists And Cultural Deviance Theory In Criminal Justice System  or order a unique solution at an affordable price. 

Human Services Practice in Criminal Justice versus Mental Healthcare Settings


  •  While the human services practice’s subjects, or clients, in mental healthcare settings seek and get specific human services out of own volition, the clients in criminal justice contexts are obligated to get services (Cohen, 1985).
  •  While the human services practice’s subjects, or clients, in mental healthcare settings have no motivation, or interest, to lie to human service practitioners about own investments, goals, conduct, or related variables, those in criminal justice contexts are keen on presenting themselves as favorably as possibly to the practitioners.



  • The same cadres of paraprofessionals and professionals offer human services in both criminal justice environments and in mental healthcare environments (Abramsky, Fellner, Saunders & Ross, 2003).
  • The paraprofessionals and professionals in the two environments hold the same generic skills, attitudes, and knowledge. For instance, they all appreciate human systems’ nature and appreciate the circumstances that limit or enhance the systems’ performances

Benefits of Using Statistical Data in Criminal Justice

Assignment Instructions

Write a 500- to 750-word paper describing the benefits of using statistical data in criminal justice. Special attention should be given to the following:

  • Mean
  • Median
  • Mode
  • Sample
  • Population

When are inferential and descriptive statistics appropriate in criminal justice statistics? Include at least two peer reviewed references. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

CRJS 101 Foundations of Criminal Justice Systems Discussions – Order Unique Answers

CRJS 101 Foundations of Criminal Justice Systems Unit 2 Discussion Board

Assume you are a campus security coordinator and have observed an alarming rise in sexual assault in and around an area with nightlife popular to local college students. Many of the victims are local students, and they have been assaulted between the hours of 12:00 a.m. and 5:00 a.m. in the vicinity of the schools.
Please post an answer to the following questions. Also support your answers with academic or real-life criminal justice examples to support your point.

  • If you were approached to make a public service announcement that might be issued to help other students avoid being victimized, what would be your message? Why?
  • What types of proactive measures may be taken to address this situation? Why?


CJUS685-1501A-01 Graduate Criminal Justice Capstone Individual Projects

Task Name: Phase 1 Individual Project

In this assignment, you will identify issues confronting modern law enforcement, corrections, and the court system; reflect on policies that currently impact those components of the criminal justice system; and point out problems that exist in today’s criminal justice system.

Consider situations in the criminal justice system that have developed in the past 10 years. These situations will have surfaced in public media pertaining to issues, problems, and policies of law enforcement, corrections, and the court system.

*Tip: Finding these concerns is easily accomplished using media search engines of major news publication archives. The hardest issue will be to decide which ones to read. You can search for death penalty, juvenile boot camps, or plea bargaining, for example.

Think of a topic and then evaluate whether or not it is a public concern. If you begin to research a topic and can only find 4 or less articles on it, then do not select it for a research concern. You will need to select a topic for this assignment where sufficient information exists to research. There are a number of large newspapers and online news archives. Also, the major news agencies will have online archives for issues they have reported on. These are just a few suggestions. The limitations on this project are determined by your own creativity.

Assignment Guidelines

  • Address the following in 5–7 pages:
    • Identify at least 2 issues, problems, or policies in criminal justice for each of the following 3 components:
      • Law Enforcement
      • Corrections
      • Court System
    • This should result in the identification of a minimum total of 6 issues, problems, or policies. Relate whether the areas identified are an issue, problem, or policy, and explain why.
      • Keep in mind they can be a combination.
      • The amount of attention paid by the media to the topics you selected may be an indicator of the level of concern the public holds regarding these topics.
      • However, it could also be an indicator of the agenda of that particular media outlet. Be careful, because the media outlet can be the driving force behind the issue, trying to make it a public concern.
    • Select 2 (out of the 6 or more you identified from the media search) of the issues, policies, or problems you found in terms of current public interest.
      • Select 2 topics that actually interest you, just to make the assignment more fun. There is nothing wrong with enjoying your research. You will find your end product is enhanced when you like what you are doing.
    • Create an annotated bibliography for the 2 research topics.
      • Find 10–20 peer-reviewed scholarly references (total) that pertain to your 2 topics.
      • Following each one of the individual references, prepare 2–3 sentences that describe what each reference is expected to contribute to your research.
      • It is not expected that you will read every word, but the abstracts should give you an idea of the content, and skimming through the document might also be helpful.
      • You may find other references later that better support and define your logic, but this is a start.

Be sure to reference all sources using APA style.

Task Name: Phase 3 Individual Project

In last week’s Individual Project you selected 1 of the 2 topics that you surmised were critical issues in the modern criminal justice system. The topics were to come from issues, problems, and policies in law enforcement, corrections, or the court system. Consider that you are working toward a final capstone project position paper, and research and analyze your second topic.

Tip: If your second topic is somehow related to your first topic, then you will be ahead of the game. By selecting integrated topics, you may ultimately combine your position papers into a document that will be part of your capstone final project.

Assignment Guidelines

  • Address the following in a literature review of 4–6 pages:
    • What second topic have you selected for this assignment? Explain.
    • How did you select the topic that you are researching?Explain.
    • Now, select 10–15 scholarly sources, and conduct a literature review for this second topic.


  • Address the following in 2–3 pages:
    • Why is this topic important to the criminal justice system and the citizens of the United States? Explain.
    • What are the various topic issues, problems, or policies associated with your selected topic? Explain in detail.
    • What do you propose as the changes to these topic issues, problems, and policies? Explain in detail.
    • Defend your changes with articulated support from legitimate peer-reviewed reference sources. This is absolutely critical for your paper to be taken seriously.

Task Name: Phase 4 Individual Project

Key Assignment Draft

For the Key Assignment Draft, you will identify and fully analyze the topic(s) you have selected to address within Weeks 2 and 3. You may exceed the 20 pages if necessary. You will identify the problems associated with the topic as well as a specific method of change implementation. You will defend your recommended changes and outline the anticipated outcome of the promulgated actions.

Note: It cannot be stressed enough the need for defending the actions advocated as well as ensuring that facts stated are well-supported and based on appropriate references and not emotive responses.

Assignment Guidelines

The outline of the paper will contain a breakdown of, but is not limited to, the following questions:

  • How did you select the topic in terms of its importance to the social community?
    • Did it come from the media? Why or why not?
  • What are the issues, problems, or policies that need to be addressed?
    • Is it an issue, problem, or policy? Explain.
    • Is it a combination of an issue, problem, or policy? Why or why not? Explain.
  • What implemented changes are proffered to affect the topic(s) selected?
    • Be specific with recommended changes.
    • Match recommendations with the specific component that you are intending the implementation to affect.
  • How are the changes valid for the topic(s)? (This is the defense portion and should be significant.)
    • The positions and changes recommended must be defended with logic and facts.
    • Facts must all be supported with adequate research sources from legitimate references (cite the facts in APA style in the outline). ◾Without defended recommendations, this paper will have no merit.
  • What is the anticipated outcome of the changes for the research topic(s)?
    • Use logic and deductive approaches to the anticipated outcome.
    • If you can show something to be so, and it relates to the next step, then the deduction will be strong.
    • Remember that if any of the arguments in deductive logic are false, then the outcome cannot be valid.
  • A minimum of 10–20 appropriate references must follow the outline.
    • This is the backbone of your decision-making process
    • It cannot be stressed enough that your references need to be from legitimate academic and scholarly sources and must be sound in their scientific acceptance.
    • Use academic search engines if you are using the Internet.
    • Do not use simple Internet searches.
    • Do not limit yourself to Internet-only resources if possible.
  • The references must be written in APA style for a reference page. Each reference should be followed by a short paragraph that describes what this reference source is going to contribute to the research.
  • Citations are appropriate in the outline from the references that you have provided. Citations will be in APA format.

Note: If you are able to do this outline in just 10 pages, then the quality needs to be extremely high. While it is a 10–15 page minimum, it is recommended that you stop when you meet the goal, not just because you got to 10 pages.


Task Name: Phase 5 Individual Project

Key Assignment

In the previous assignment, you developed a position paper for the research topic that you have identified and explored. You have recommendations for change, revocation, modification, and addition to the research topic. Your research topic has come from an issue, problem, or policy of law enforcement, corrections, or the court system. In this assignment, you will revise your Key Assignment Draft based on instructor and peer feedback and you will evaluate an alternative position to your selected topic that was not addressed in your original Key Assignment Draft.

Assignment Guidelines

  • First, revise your Week 4 Key Assignment based on instructor feedback and peer responses.
  • Next, add to your final Key Assignment draft by addressing the following in 4–5 pages:
    • Select 1 alternative to your position addressed in the Week 4 Key Assignment regarding your selected topic:
    • What major points are argued by proponents of this alternative position? Explain in detail.
    • Conduct research on this alternative position and evaluate the arguments.
    • Do the arguments hold any merit? Why or why not?
    • What policies currently exist that support these arguments? Explain in detail.
    • Which position is more significant for improving the current state of the criminal justice system? Explain in detail.

•Remember to use academic and scholarly sources to support your arguments and be sure to reference all sources using APA style.

CJUS685-1501A-01 Graduate Criminal Justice Discussions

Task Name: Phase 1 Discussion Board 2

The Tenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution pertains to states’ rights. It was ratified on December 15, 1791. The Tenth Amendment explicitly states the Constitution’s principle of federalism by providing that powers not granted to the federal government nor prohibited to the states, but by the Constitution are reserved, respectively, for the states or the people.Currently, there are a number of states in contention with the federal government over immigration reform and enforcement of immigration laws.

Please include answers in your main posting for the following questions. Support your answers with your research on states’ rights. You must provide a meaningful main topic supported by references.

Primary Task Response: Within the Discussion Board area, write 400–600 words that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. This will be the foundation for future discussions by your classmates. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas.

  • Do you think the states should have a sovereign right to enact laws that mirror the federal law for the purpose of immigration violations? Why or why not? Explain in detail.
  • In your interpretation, how has the U.S. Supreme Court dealt with this issue? Explain.
  • In your own words, how does a federal republic function? Does the majority rule? Explain in detail.

Task Name: Phase 3 Discussion Board

On April 23, 2008, the United States Supreme Court, without dissent, determined in the case of Virginia v. Moore that despite unprofessional conduct on the part of the police, there was no violation of Mr. Moore’s civil rights when the police profiled him because they knew that he was driving under a suspended license. A subsequent arrest and search for the suspended driver’s license resulted in the finding of controlled substances and additional charges. Essentially, the court ruled that if the police knew a defendant was committing a motor vehicle violation, regardless of their personal bias, then they had the right to stop that person and check to see if probable cause existed to arrest him or her.

Primary Task Response: Within the Discussion Board area, write 400–600 words that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. This will be the foundation for future discussions by your classmates. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas.

  • Under what conditions do you think, if any, racial profiling should be clearly illegal? Explain your position.
  • What is your opinion about the decision that even if an officer was racially profiling, if the stop was based on a motor vehicle violation, then there is no issue?
  • Is there a legitimate reason at any stage in an investigation for racial profiling? Explain.
  • What impacts on the community do you think can proracial profiling policies have? Explain in detail.