Tag: Criminal Justice

A Student Studying Criminal Justice Could Recreate New Techniques on how to Reconstruct Crimes and Analyze Physical Evidence

Criminal justices students are engaged in studying how to investigate crimes by reconstructing the scene of crime and gathering all possible evidence at the scene of crime and also recording verbal statements from suspects and witnesses. They also work closely with forensic science specialists who are involved in investigating the collected evidence for fingerprints, and DNA patterns among other important analysis that can help in linking the suspect to the crime or the crime scene. Reconstruction of crime scene refers to the process of eliminating and determining the actions and events which took place at the crime scene via analysis of pattern of the crime scene, the position and location of the physical evidence, and the forensic or laboratory assessment of the physical evidence. Reconstruction of crime scene also entails systematic study of logical theory formulation and related information (Chisum & Turvey, 2011). This paper investigates between criminal justice/forensic science and crime scene reconstruction and analysis of physical evidence.

Effective criminal justice personnel should be able to study a crime scene and reconstruct it to come up with theory of what could have transpired in the crime scene. This always acts at the first step to the case investigation. Crime reconstruction needs the aptitude to put a puzzle together using unknown dimensions pieces with no guiding picture. Reconstruction of crime is the observational outcome of an action or act, which assist in the hypothesis of the results cause (Chisum & Turvey, 2011). Crime reconstruction can be done using scientific method. This is a method that is founded on the principles of hypothesis and experimental test to determine if the hypothesis explains the cause of the event. The definition of possible hypothesis depends mostly on individual experience, or creativity in crime solving. Thus one can test as many hypotheses as possible until a viable explanation of the event is acquired. To settle for any hypothesis, the criminal justice specialist must be able to provide supporting data, which in this case is the collected physical evidence. Only the theory that accounts for all collected physical evidences can be used as the true representation of what transpired during the crime (Fisher &Fisher, 2012). To be able to do this, the criminal justice investigating personnel must be a keen observer, be logical and critical thinker, must understand science, and be able to recognize evidence. Logic, critical thinking and clues are normally used by criminal justices investigator in crime reconstruction process. Normally, it is considerably hard to acquire all the needed information to fully reconstruct the crime by scene analysis. However, the scene should clearly tell what happens even with lost details of the sequence of events. The analysis requires both deductive and inductive logic in the crime analysis testing all formulated hypothesis, where most viable are kept for further analysis after more information on the crime is obtained, while the impossible are eliminated (Chisum&Turvey, 2011).

Collection and analysis of physical evidence play a great role in promoting accurate crime reconstruction. Basically, the crime scene is secured immediately after the arrival of the right personnel including criminal justice and forensic science officers.  Pictures of the crime scene are taken from different views that include the aerial view and on the ground. Sketches of the crime scene are also developed. The crime scene identification is mostly directed by physical evidence that may include breakage of the doors, scattered things, blood stains, dead body, clothes with blood stain, and murder weapon among other things, based on the specification of the crime. The data gathering should consider all aspects that can results to reconstruction of crime which include physical evidence condition, impressions and patterns, victim’s condition, position of the evidence based on the visible reference feature, and any other small detail that can explain the situation (Kumar & Goyal, 2017). A search should be conducted around then crime scene to determine if anything else could be find such as any lost item from the offender during the struggle with the victim or when running away, any item that can assist in identifying the victim, or any other physical thing that can aid in giving more clues.

Physical evidence according to Chisum andTurvey(2011) is simply one puzzle piece when investigators are attempting to solve a case. In some forms of crimes for instance sexual assault and homicide, physical evidence might be the most vital aspect in proving the connection between the victim and the suspect. Physical evidence might also be significant in proving that the same suspect is connected to series of crimes.  Some of the physical evidence likely to be found in the crime scene include drugs, semen, blood, saliva, fiber, fingerprints, glass, hair, organs, explosives paint, petroleum products, powder residue, minerals, soil, tool marks, vehicle parts, and plastic bags among others. One way to identifying all possible physical evidence is by being careful and searching keenly to anything unnatural in the crime scene, this include trails, broken pieces of trees, disturbed shrubs and the likes (Jblearing, n.d.). Criminal justice personnel should know that physical evidence found at the crime scene can be utilized to determine some of the events that happened during, immediately after, or before the crime. The evidence might be able to assist investigators to establish the order in which the incidences took place. The crime scene assessment is followed by physical evidence gathering and analysis. Analysis of collected physical evidence plays a great role in solving the puzzle. With this information, the investigator can conduct deductive and inductive reasoning, pattern, statistics, and probability analysis to evaluate the data offered by the physical evidence. More information from the eyewitness, photographs, sketches and reports writing can also help in reconstructing the crime (Jblearing, n.d.).

According to Fisher andFisher (2012), physical evidence recognition is an important step in the crime reconstruction. If possible physical evidence is not identified, properly collected, tested and preserved, the evidence forensic value might be reduced greatly or lost forever. Distortion of physical evidence may also result to punishing innocent people while the criminal remain free and boost about their success. Thus, it is important for criminal justice and forensic science personnel to the required integrity and knowledge be able to collect, preserve and analyze the available evidence effectively. This includes identifying and recording transient evidence which is temporal evidence that can be easily lost or changes (Parmar, 2015).  To ensure efficiency such kind of evidence which can include some physical and biological phenomenon such as drying blood, color, and temperature, recorded as soon as it is noticed. The investigator should also notice conditional evidence and record it to ensure that it is not lost since it is also temporal. This can include smoke, lighting, TV settings, position of the window, victim’s condition or condition of the victim’s body, or specific position or location of certain evidence in the room or crime scene. This kind of evidence speaks a lot about how the crime took place and if lost, it may become hard to reconstruct the crime. Pattern evidence should also be documented immediately. This can include depositions or fractures, imprints, striations or indentations. Some of possible patterns in the crime scene include blood stain of spatter pattern, article or clothing pattern, glass fracture, position of the furniture among others. This evidence can also be lost and hence need to be documented immediately (Fisher& Fisher, 2012).

Investigator should also consider transfer or trace evidence which is normally created by physical contact between objects, persons, or objects and persons. This evidence includes chemicals, blood, drugs, fingerprint, soil, hair, body fluid, and fiber. This kind of evidence normally requires forensic assessment and it can be used to link the victim to the offender or the crime to the offender. Another form of evidence is medical evidence which consist of injuries of witness, suspect, and victim, the injury degree and type, the wound condition and location, the size and number of the wounds, and individual medical history. Associative evidence refers to particular items positioned at a crime scene, which might be utilized as evidence to relate a suspect or victim with a specific scene. This evidence can be used to link the suspect to the victim. Some of these evidences include vehicle of the suspect, victim’s properties in possession with the suspect or suspect’s property left at the crime scene. Electronic evidence can also be found which include audio recording, video from mobile devices or from surveillance camera among other thing. According to Lee and Pagliaro (2013), any qualified criminal justice officer should be able to classify these forms of evidence and be able to prioritize on the most volatile evidence in the crime scene. These evidences can be easily gathered by taking photographs which preserves the appearance of the crime scene for future reference especially during analysis. However, a more effective investigation should use photographs, sketches and crime scene notes to ensure all details have been grasped and preserved for future analysis. Different types of evidence are anticipated to lead the investigation team to the suspect after understanding what transpired. The criminal justice officer should thus be able to integrate all the available evidence to bring out the events that took place to the crime and get bases to determine the involved suspects using this information (Parmar, 2015). Being systematic in gathering the evidence based on their level of volatility is the key secrete to acknowledging of all available evidence and preserving it to nub the suspects and to reinforce the case during trial.

It is important to note that each crime is unique even when committed by the same person. Each crime thus has its own features that may guide in the investigation process. However, an intelligent criminal justice officer can easily relate similar features of different crime to relate crimes done by a network of criminals. Nevertheless, one should not come with set mind on what to expect in a crime scene. The scene should work as the guide to crime reconstruction, after which, the investigator can conclude whether the crime was committed by a serial criminal, a master criminal or a novice. The scene should also give clue on where to start questioning investigation. In most cases, the questioning starts with the victim if alive or the family of the victim if dead and after the victim identification. High level of creativity, critical thinking and logical deduction is needed to be able to reconstruct the crime. Complete scene reconstruction is a major step in solving the crime misery (Fisher& Fisher, 2012).

Criminal investigation which includes analysis of the crime scene, identification of physical evidence, and reconstruction of the crime scene has for long been based on a systematic approach that employ scientific methods of investigation. This kind of investigation has been proved to be effective since it is the main referred method of crime investigation. However, it is important to note that the success of any criminal investigation resulting to crime scene reconstruction is highly determined by the level of knowledge, creativity and intelligence of the investigator and also on the investigator’s ability to use logic and critical thinking to solve problems. This implies that, even without changing the techniques, a qualified specialist can easily define workable theories to explain the crime and manage to nub the criminal and ensure their prosecution. One of the best technique that an intelligent criminal investigator should use include identifying and recording evidence on a priority basis by focusing first on the most volatile evidence to the least volatile. Another technique is working as a team. Normally,acrime scene can contains a number of volatile evidences that can be hard to be noted by a single person. Thus, working as a team to ensure each one record any seen volatile evidence immediately after arriving and the scene and also in volatile evidence can be quite fruitful. Collaborating even with forensic scientists in collecting and preserving samples and in making analysis is quite important since their findings play a major role in making the first leads to crime scene reconstruction. Thorough search of the crime scene surrounding after recoding everything visible can also play a great role in identifying some of the most important evidence to link the suspect to the crime. Thus, a criminal justice student can enhance the crime scene reconstruction and physical evidence analysis by employing intelligent procedure, and advance knowledge on what to prioritize over the other in evidence collection.

Analyzing Unethical Behavior In Criminal Justice – The United States v. Jerry M. Bell, Darryl M. Forrest, and Dustin Sillings

Analyzing Unethical Behavior

Over the past three decades, the criminal justice system has received a tirade of criticism owing to a spike in cases of unethical behavior amongst persons expected to serve the citizenry under various capacities. A typical reason cited to explain this phenomenon is the supposed disillusionment that often plagues persons in this line of work. They are constantly in an environment where they wield immense power which is, in some cases, abused resulting in unethical behavior (Stering, 2012). In other occasions, continued exposure to this type of behavior leads the players to develop a jaded view of specific social constructs while normalizing unethical conduct.  They are continuously in tempting situations, with a few succumbing to their insatiable appetites. Nonetheless, it is vital to acknowledge that failing to uphold the oath of office is an infraction that is punishable by law. The case study in this analysis is that of The United States v. Jerry M. Bell, Darryl M. Forrest, and Dustin Sillings; an indictment for going against their oath of office and instituting theft. The said individuals also violated the U.S Constitution when carrying out their unreasonable seizures of property while using police badges.

The police have been accorded with a unique mandate that sees the citizenry cede a considerable amount of their power to these officials. They are therefore obligated to serve and protect a country’s greater population from any homegrown threat (Kargin, 2011, p. 67). It is pursuant to this requirement that member of law enforcement are given the power to enter and search homes of persons of interest provided they come armed with a valid warrant. Magistrates have had to provide warrants for a wide range of reasons that may include suspicion of drug dealing (Misuse of Drugs Act 1971), having stolen property (Theft Act 1968) or firearms (Firearms Act 1968). Section 8 of the CALEA Law Enforcement Standards and the Criminal Evident Act therefore allows these individuals to legally enter homes while seeking evidence that will come in handy in an indictable offence once it gets to the trail case (Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies, 2013). Additionally, these raids can also be carried to stop a crime that is in progress which will ultimately ensure property is protected and damage minimized. As members of the Kansas Police Department Score unit, Jerry M. Bell, Darryl M. Forrest, and Dustin Sillings were indicted for unethical behavior by stealing property when executing warrants.

The behavior of these three police officers was both appalling and a classic example of impunity. It is expected that law enforcement officers will often be the first to uphold the constitution and protect the citizens that they serve. This responsibility and the power given to them were abused when the officers took it upon themselves to deprive residents off their property during raids. The items in question were not seized and booked in as evidence as the law requires, but were obtained by the said persons for their own personal use. Ethical responsibility requires police officers and other law enforcement agents to practice truth and integrity when discharging their duties. The three indicted officers failed to live up to this requirement since they conducted illegal activities that led to the loss of property amongst residents of Kansas City.

Creating and Implementing An Agency Policy on Ethics In A Criminal Justice Agency

Assignment Instructions – Creating and Implementing An Agency Policy on Ethics

There are ethical challenges in every aspect of the criminal justice system. Administrators are responsible for setting the tone for ethical conduct in the administration and operation of their agency. You are to assume the role of the head (Chief, Director, Warden, etc.) of a fictitious criminal justice agency; e.g., police department or sheriff’s office, local detention center (adult or juvenile) prosecutors’ office, trial court, probation agency, correctional institution, parole board, parole agency, etc.

As the head administrator, you decide it is in the best interest of your agency to have a policy that sets forth how the agency will operate in an ethical manner…. similar to a Code of Ethical Conduct

In your paper you are to describe in detail your plan to insure ethical practices in your selected agency.

  • How will your ethical policy be established? (Who will be involved in drafting the document? What resources will be drawn on or references? etc.)
  • How will it be communicated to the members of the agency to ensure awareness and adoption?
  • How will it be inspected to ensure compliance?
  • How will it be reinforced so that members of the agency clearly understand your seriousness?

NOTE: The content of your ethics policy or code is irrelevant and, but for clarification or reference purposes should not be included in this project paper. Instead, the paper should concentrate on your plan to create and Implement it.

Format Requirements

The paper should be a minimum of 1,000 words, Double space , 12 pt. font, 1” margins. A minimum of 3 supportive resources from course materials or outside sources and use American Psychological Association (APA) citations for all narrative and reference sources. Include a separate Reference Page (not included in word count)


Sample Solution – Creating and Implementing An Agency Policy on Ethics In A Criminal Justice Agency


Human resources are regarded as the most important stakeholders in any organization. Their work related behaviors which include their interaction with each other and the people they serve, their commitment into following the production procedure strictly, and their utilization of the company time and other facilities or resources among others highly determines the organization performance. To enhance positive performance any institution need to develop a code of conduct that will guide workers while performing their daily operations. A code of conduct contains value as an external corporate commitments and values statement and as an internal guideline. A code of ethics that is well written clarifies the principles, values, and mission of an organization, connecting them with professional conduct standards. The code pronounces the values that an organization needs to nurture in employees and leaders and, thus, delineates desired behavior. Therefore, a written code of ethics can develop standards against persons that organizational and individual performance can be assessed. This paper describes ethical practices to be employed in a virtual police department.

Development of the Ethical Policy

The described ethical standards in this case will focus on a virtual police department. Police officers have a number of duties that should not be compromised by unethical behaviors. They also need to protect their relation with the community, which entrust them in maintaining peace and order and upholding the rule of the law. The mission of this code of conduct is to ensure that the department workers maintain high level of integrity and credibility while performing their daily activities.

The ethical policy will be developed in a systematic way, where various stakeholders will be involved. The process will involve a few steps which will ensure that the policy clearly addresses the crucial operational and behavioral aspects of the department. The first step will involve the conduction of a research to determine ethical problems affecting the department. This will be done by the senior officials in the department, leaders of community policing, and human rights organization in the area. The main aim is to determine the most abused police power and other forms of misconduct that may need to be regulated. The research will also involve the review of the literature regarding other related police misconducts that have been recorded in other regions. This will ensure that the policy covers all possible situations and hence serves its purpose effectively. This research will be conducted by human rights department and community policing leaders. The obtained data will be used to define the aspects to be included in the code of conduct (McDevitt, Farrell& Wolff, 2008).

The code of conduct will define how the officers should behave based on the use of the power given to them by the constitution. Thus the new code of ethics will be based on the constitution and other laws that govern police conducts and other similar government agencies. Drafting of the police will basically involve all stakeholders affected by police conducts. This includes the department officials who are likely to lose their dignity following police misconduct (Whitton, 2001). Other includes the community leaders who are the direct receive of police brutality, discrimination, and the effect of the police corruption. Other stakeholders include the human right activists who are always in the forefront condemning police brutality and other police misconducts. A few police officers and member of the community should also be consulted and their views collected before making the draft. The main reference will include any other code of conduct written in police department in other parts of the country or across the world. While selecting references, the stakeholders need to ensure that the policies have been demonstrated effective results in places where they have been implemented. Meaning they should be evidence based.

Communication of the Policy to the Agency

Effective implementation of any policy is highly determined by how the police are communicated to the affected parties. In this case, the entire police department needs to be aware of the policy and how it is likely to influence their workability. The initial communication about the police will be done in the initial policy development stages. The department will inform the all member of the department that it intends to establish a new employees’ code of conduct and they are all welcomed to make contributions. In addition to this, the department will then provide a platform where individual views will be collected, for instance a suggestion box. The department will keep on updating other members of the department on the policy development process through internal memos.

The first policy draft will also be released to all to read through. To facilitate accessibility, the department will give a copy in the joint printing section where any interested member can get own copy. Any question, concern or contribution regarding the policy by the officers should be channeled to the department in writing or via email. After the final draft has been made, the department will make a copy for each member of the department. These copies will be used to facilitate training where all members will be taken through the policies with clear explanation on what each aspect means, action that would be said to break the law, and dictated acts and behavior (Orrick, n.d.). The training may take a while. It should also be provided in groups to ensure clear understanding of each section especially based on individual unit of operation. The end of the training will be crown by signing of the code of conduct declaration form which will clearly acknowledge that the officer is aware of the ethical law governing his or her conduct in his or her unit of operation. One copy will be filed in the employee’s file with each worker keeping a signed copy. The signing will take place in the presence of the department lawyer and another witness, mostly a personal lawyer or any other appointee from the department.

Inspection to Ensure Compliance

The aim of the training offered to the officers and other members of the department will be ensuring that each member in the department understand the new ethical provision and hence change their behaviors to avoid any related punishment. In this regard, the policy will be created to define anticipated officers’ conduct, what they are not allowed to do, and the punishment resulting from doing contrary to the set code of conduct. The punishment will also be provided as per the broken law, and individual offense record (Orrick, n.d.). Senior officers in each department will be required to keep a close supervision of their juniors to ensure that they comply. The department will open regular investigation on the police conduct in the surrounding community. Community complains box will be open to facilitate this activity. The officers will be required to clearly display their work badge to show their employee’s number while operating. This will facilitate the collection of data on individual officer misconduct by the department. The public will also be allowed to report police misconduct to the human right office and community policing leaders’ office. This will be done throughout. Officer will also be allowed to report each other using anonymous reporting style to avoid internal conflict and victimization. Regular review of the collected information from all the above mentions sources will be done; mostly on monthly basis.

Reinforcement to Enhance the Understanding of the Seriousness of the Policy

The review will assist in identifying officers that have managed to break the set code of conduct. The initial review will provide a written warning to all officers who will be featured to behave against the set standards. All these warnings will be filed. The warning which will be initialed for the first six months will clearly instruct the officers to revise their code of conduct and rectify their behaviors. Frequent training will be provided on the policy to all, with more emphasis put on the most frequently broken laws, in the first six month. After the grace period, the law will be fully implemented such that, anyone found behaving against the set standard will strictly be punished as provided by the defined policy (Whitton, 2001). This will make the officers understand the seriousness of the new policy. All previously reporting system will remain opened throughout, and close supervision by the seniors at all level remain strict.  This will ease the process of the law implementation through punishing those found to do contrary to the provided code of conduct.

Corruption in Los Angeles Police Department – Ethics and Morality in Criminal Justice System


Criminal justice system is one of the most important governmental systems in the country. It is involved in the reinforcement of the law in the country, and hence determining the general harmony in the operation of other governmental agencies, public and private institutions, and all citizens in a country. Police officers are the primary actors in the enforcement of the law. Their efficiency in doing this is highly determined by a number of factors, with individual morality and institutional ethical values playing the main role in determining their behavior and conduct.Morals and ethics associate to what can be considered to be wrong or right conduct. The two phrases are mostly applied interchangeably, though they are different. Morality denotes individual’s personal principles about what is wrong and what is right.  Ethics on the other hand denotes rules given by an exterior source for instance religious principles, or workplace code of conduct (Caplan, 1983). This paper evaluates an ethical event that takes place among some police officers and how it is influenced by various factors that include culture, history, politics and Moral courage.

Selected Event

The selected event in this case is corruption in a police department featuring Los Angeles police department. Los Angeles police department has maintained corruption legacy for a considerable time period. This has been undermining the officers’ ability to enforce law effectively (Caplan, 1983). By being corrupt, police officers become the law breakers rather than the protector of the law. They undermine the honor of their colleagues and of the region they are supposed to protect. Corruption normally happens when officers receives money gift or any other form of incentives to allow criminals to continue with their activities without being arrested.

The gifts and incentives are taken as criminal protection fees. This arrangement happens mostly with drugs traffickers and gangs criminal operations (Winton, 2016). Other cases of corruption are seen in the traffic where motorists give money to avoid arrest or issuing of traffic ticket. The police in return act by directing them on the routes they can use to pass without being stopped. They therefore manage to continue with their operations comfortably under the protection of the law enforcement officers that are required to stop them. This goes against the police duty and against their moral duty of upholding the law, and being devoted in the protection of the citizens and their country. It also goes against individual morality.

Drug use affects life of youths and other users negatively. Promoting drug trafficking for personal gains is immoral. Anyone who embraces morality should not support such acts. The act of supporting crimes for the sakes of personal gain is against the police code of conduct.  Normally in such cases, the involved police officers tend to be strict on the drug users, while they collaborate with the drugs traffickers. The frequently arrested individuals include young males and females from minority groups who are most likely to be involved in drug use. These drug users are mostly poor people living in the streets or with low life; school dropouts, unemployed, and young children experiencing family problems.

Conclusion Based on the Research

Unethical behaviors are very costly to the justice system. They are highly responsible of the broken trust between the public and the law enforcement agency. The public lose faith in the law enforcement agency and start seeing them as criminal and more dangerous to them. They stop running to them for protection and instead, they tend to avoid them for they are not reliable. Unethical practices in criminal justice system also reduce the system efficiency (Chappell, &Piquero, 2004). In this case, the police department will not ever manage to fight drug trafficking, drug use, and gang activities due to internal sabotage.

The problem of police corruption especially in Los Angeles has been there for a long time; in the early to mid-90s. It was initially associated with top officials in the system especially chief police officers and mayors of the city, before it progressed down to the general police officers.  One of the most commonly used theories to explain police corruption situation poor police payment, poor work condition, or the presence of some kind of unethical people who are bound to be involved in criminal behaviors (Domanick, 1998). The latter can be explained by the theory of rotten eggs where corruption is said to be the work of some immoral, dishonest police officers. The involvement of police officers in corruption especially in the US is also explained by the application of criminal law to enhance morality. Inability to enforce laws controlling moral standards enhances corruption since they provide unlawful organizations with a financial attentiveness in undermining the enforcement of the law.

Mayor Richard J. Riordan acknowledged there being corruption in the Los Angeles police department and called for the right measures in fight it. He specifically recognized that this act has cast a dark shadow over the city police department. This happened during graduation ceremony at a police Academy in 1999.  His courage played a great part in initiating reforms in Los Angeles police department (The New York Times, 1999). Nevertheless, the matter was not that easy. The corruption network in the department included senior individuals who tried to use their influence to undermine the process of the reforms. Many involved persons tried to use their power to acquire immunity, and this made it hard to discipline police officers in the low lane.

Real Ethical Concern or Event Related to Criminal Justice – Assignment Instructions

This assignment will define and compare ethics and morality. Research, select, and describe an incident involving a real ethical concern or event related to criminal justice (e.g., corruption in a police department, judicial bribery, smuggling contraband into prisons by correctional officers, etc.). Students must utilize the Library Subject Guide for Criminal Justice (See Content) to conduct independent and unique research.


  • Part One: An opening paragraph describing your topic and ultimate conclusion
  • Part Two: Brief description of the selected event and the ethical issues involved you choose to write about
  • Part Three: Conclusions based on your research and class readings as to the consequences of unethical behavior to the system, the society, and the individual. The following issues must be covered within the report:
    • Cultural issues, (may include all areas of diversity including race, gender, sexual orientation and occupational culture)
    • Historical context, include your theories on why the situation occurred
    • Moral courage, (For example, – was there a particularly courageous individual involved?)
    • Politics (Note, in this context “politics” referrers to the personal and/or group dynamics within a particular organization, community or similar setting. It does NOT relate to political parties or affiliation with any political party.)

Format Requirements

The paper should be 750 to 1,000 words, double spaced, 12 pt. font, 1” margins. Use APA narrative and reference page citations for all sources and include reference page using American Psychological Association (APA) format guidelines (not included in word count)

View a sample answer to this assignment based on Corruption in Los Angeles Police Department or order a unique answer written by our professional writers at an affordable price.

Texas Department of Criminal Justice – Correctional Agency Exploration

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) is the state correctional agency of the administration of the U.S. state of Texas. According to Texas Sunset Advisory Commission, (2012) the TDCJis accountable for the maneuver of protectedcorrectional institutions for adult criminals. The accountability comprises managing criminals in state jails, state prisons and private correctional amenities, funding and particular oversight of publicregulation, and supervision of criminals discharged from jail on parole or obligatory supervision. The TDCJ runs the major prison structure in the United States.

Dailymaneuvers at the agency getaccomplished by a policymaking director, who masterminds more than 30,000 workers. The TDCJdepartment has three mainpartitions: parole, correctional institutions, and community justice assistance.

The parole divisionoversees convicts who are serving out their sentences in Texas communities after being discharged from prison. The Division also accomplishes some pre-dischargepurposes by exploring the parole strategiesprojected by convicts and by following parole qualified cases and surrendering them for appropriatecontemplation by the Board of Pardon and Parole. The Division does not make dischargeverdicts; neither does it choose whose parole ought to get canceled or what distinctcircumstancesmust get placed on discharges. Right for those verdicts rests with the Board of Pardons and Paroles, but the Division operates closely with the Board and offers Board members with the documentsrequired to make well-versedconclusions.

The Correctional Institutions Division (CID) is accountable for the imprisonment of adult felony and governmentprison felony convicts who getcondemned to confinement in a protected facility(Robert, 2013). The CID supervisesgovernment prisons, pre-discharge amenities, psychiatric amenities, medical amenities, Developmentally Disabled Offender Program (DDOP), Substance Abuse Felony Punishment Facilities (SAFPF), handover facilities, government jails, and aged facility. The CID is also accountable for support rolesfor examplecataloging and records, synthesis center, Correctional Training and Staff Development (CTSD) among others.

Community Justice Assistance Division (CJAD) manages community supervision in Texas. Convicts on community supervision complete their condemnations in the community in place of prison (Robert, 2013). CJAD works with the convicts indirectly, but work directly with Community Supervision and Correction Departments (CSCDs) that oversee the convicts.

Cultural Diversity in Criminal Justice – Assignment Instructions

Labeling theorists are adamant about the labels that offenders are given throughout the criminal justice system. Labels, such as ex-felons, are deepening the very behavior that they are meant to halt because of stereotypes that incite an individual trying to recover after a prison term. The labeling theory argues that the criminal justice system is limited in its capacity to restrain unlawful conduct but also is a major factor in anchoring people into criminal careers. The cultural deviance theory explains the causes of criminal behavior in urban areas are not about the poverty suffered in those areas but the product of a distinct lower-class culture whose focal concern is deviance against the norms of society.
The theory identified 3 influential versions:
  • Lower-class culture as a whole is responsible for generating crime in urban areas.
  • Urban lower-class areas produce subcultures that are responsible for the rise of crime.
  • Subcultures of crimes in which individuals come together to band in creating crimes for their own personal gain and satisfaction in urban areas

Write a 5-6 page paper answering the following questions:

  • What would be another theory and strategy to avoid stereotyping individuals in the criminal justice system?
  • Is there a legitimate reason to consider labeling theory a legitimate crime causation theory? Why?
  • In your opinion, where do gangs fit in the 3 influential versions of cultural deviance theory? Why?
  • Which one of the two theories would you use to explain the following problem:
  • The number of youths joining gangs in the inner city has doubled, while the number of gang leaders serving time in prison and being released after good conduct has increased. The crime rate for gang violence has risen 20% from last year.


  • Your opinion statements must be justified by theory or real-life strategies and practices of law enforcement activity.
  • The explanation of cause of criminality in question 3 must use the case provided.
  • You must use the labeling theory or cultural deviance theory in answering questions.
  • You must use APA style in citing and creating your reference page.

View a sample answer to this assignment Labeling Theorists And Cultural Deviance Theory In Criminal Justice System  or order a unique solution at an affordable price. 

Human Services Practice in Criminal Justice versus Mental Healthcare Settings


  •  While the human services practice’s subjects, or clients, in mental healthcare settings seek and get specific human services out of own volition, the clients in criminal justice contexts are obligated to get services (Cohen, 1985).
  •  While the human services practice’s subjects, or clients, in mental healthcare settings have no motivation, or interest, to lie to human service practitioners about own investments, goals, conduct, or related variables, those in criminal justice contexts are keen on presenting themselves as favorably as possibly to the practitioners.



  • The same cadres of paraprofessionals and professionals offer human services in both criminal justice environments and in mental healthcare environments (Abramsky, Fellner, Saunders & Ross, 2003).
  • The paraprofessionals and professionals in the two environments hold the same generic skills, attitudes, and knowledge. For instance, they all appreciate human systems’ nature and appreciate the circumstances that limit or enhance the systems’ performances

CRJS 101 Foundations of Criminal Justice Systems Discussions – Order Unique Answers

CRJS 101 Foundations of Criminal Justice Systems Unit 2 Discussion Board

Assume you are a campus security coordinator and have observed an alarming rise in sexual assault in and around an area with nightlife popular to local college students. Many of the victims are local students, and they have been assaulted between the hours of 12:00 a.m. and 5:00 a.m. in the vicinity of the schools.
Please post an answer to the following questions. Also support your answers with academic or real-life criminal justice examples to support your point.

  • If you were approached to make a public service announcement that might be issued to help other students avoid being victimized, what would be your message? Why?
  • What types of proactive measures may be taken to address this situation? Why?


CJUS685-1501A-01 Graduate Criminal Justice Capstone Individual Projects

Task Name: Phase 1 Individual Project

In this assignment, you will identify issues confronting modern law enforcement, corrections, and the court system; reflect on policies that currently impact those components of the criminal justice system; and point out problems that exist in today’s criminal justice system.

Consider situations in the criminal justice system that have developed in the past 10 years. These situations will have surfaced in public media pertaining to issues, problems, and policies of law enforcement, corrections, and the court system.

*Tip: Finding these concerns is easily accomplished using media search engines of major news publication archives. The hardest issue will be to decide which ones to read. You can search for death penalty, juvenile boot camps, or plea bargaining, for example.

Think of a topic and then evaluate whether or not it is a public concern. If you begin to research a topic and can only find 4 or less articles on it, then do not select it for a research concern. You will need to select a topic for this assignment where sufficient information exists to research. There are a number of large newspapers and online news archives. Also, the major news agencies will have online archives for issues they have reported on. These are just a few suggestions. The limitations on this project are determined by your own creativity.

Assignment Guidelines

  • Address the following in 5–7 pages:
    • Identify at least 2 issues, problems, or policies in criminal justice for each of the following 3 components:
      • Law Enforcement
      • Corrections
      • Court System
    • This should result in the identification of a minimum total of 6 issues, problems, or policies. Relate whether the areas identified are an issue, problem, or policy, and explain why.
      • Keep in mind they can be a combination.
      • The amount of attention paid by the media to the topics you selected may be an indicator of the level of concern the public holds regarding these topics.
      • However, it could also be an indicator of the agenda of that particular media outlet. Be careful, because the media outlet can be the driving force behind the issue, trying to make it a public concern.
    • Select 2 (out of the 6 or more you identified from the media search) of the issues, policies, or problems you found in terms of current public interest.
      • Select 2 topics that actually interest you, just to make the assignment more fun. There is nothing wrong with enjoying your research. You will find your end product is enhanced when you like what you are doing.
    • Create an annotated bibliography for the 2 research topics.
      • Find 10–20 peer-reviewed scholarly references (total) that pertain to your 2 topics.
      • Following each one of the individual references, prepare 2–3 sentences that describe what each reference is expected to contribute to your research.
      • It is not expected that you will read every word, but the abstracts should give you an idea of the content, and skimming through the document might also be helpful.
      • You may find other references later that better support and define your logic, but this is a start.

Be sure to reference all sources using APA style.

Task Name: Phase 3 Individual Project

In last week’s Individual Project you selected 1 of the 2 topics that you surmised were critical issues in the modern criminal justice system. The topics were to come from issues, problems, and policies in law enforcement, corrections, or the court system. Consider that you are working toward a final capstone project position paper, and research and analyze your second topic.

Tip: If your second topic is somehow related to your first topic, then you will be ahead of the game. By selecting integrated topics, you may ultimately combine your position papers into a document that will be part of your capstone final project.

Assignment Guidelines

  • Address the following in a literature review of 4–6 pages:
    • What second topic have you selected for this assignment? Explain.
    • How did you select the topic that you are researching?Explain.
    • Now, select 10–15 scholarly sources, and conduct a literature review for this second topic.


  • Address the following in 2–3 pages:
    • Why is this topic important to the criminal justice system and the citizens of the United States? Explain.
    • What are the various topic issues, problems, or policies associated with your selected topic? Explain in detail.
    • What do you propose as the changes to these topic issues, problems, and policies? Explain in detail.
    • Defend your changes with articulated support from legitimate peer-reviewed reference sources. This is absolutely critical for your paper to be taken seriously.

Task Name: Phase 4 Individual Project

Key Assignment Draft

For the Key Assignment Draft, you will identify and fully analyze the topic(s) you have selected to address within Weeks 2 and 3. You may exceed the 20 pages if necessary. You will identify the problems associated with the topic as well as a specific method of change implementation. You will defend your recommended changes and outline the anticipated outcome of the promulgated actions.

Note: It cannot be stressed enough the need for defending the actions advocated as well as ensuring that facts stated are well-supported and based on appropriate references and not emotive responses.

Assignment Guidelines

The outline of the paper will contain a breakdown of, but is not limited to, the following questions:

  • How did you select the topic in terms of its importance to the social community?
    • Did it come from the media? Why or why not?
  • What are the issues, problems, or policies that need to be addressed?
    • Is it an issue, problem, or policy? Explain.
    • Is it a combination of an issue, problem, or policy? Why or why not? Explain.
  • What implemented changes are proffered to affect the topic(s) selected?
    • Be specific with recommended changes.
    • Match recommendations with the specific component that you are intending the implementation to affect.
  • How are the changes valid for the topic(s)? (This is the defense portion and should be significant.)
    • The positions and changes recommended must be defended with logic and facts.
    • Facts must all be supported with adequate research sources from legitimate references (cite the facts in APA style in the outline). ◾Without defended recommendations, this paper will have no merit.
  • What is the anticipated outcome of the changes for the research topic(s)?
    • Use logic and deductive approaches to the anticipated outcome.
    • If you can show something to be so, and it relates to the next step, then the deduction will be strong.
    • Remember that if any of the arguments in deductive logic are false, then the outcome cannot be valid.
  • A minimum of 10–20 appropriate references must follow the outline.
    • This is the backbone of your decision-making process
    • It cannot be stressed enough that your references need to be from legitimate academic and scholarly sources and must be sound in their scientific acceptance.
    • Use academic search engines if you are using the Internet.
    • Do not use simple Internet searches.
    • Do not limit yourself to Internet-only resources if possible.
  • The references must be written in APA style for a reference page. Each reference should be followed by a short paragraph that describes what this reference source is going to contribute to the research.
  • Citations are appropriate in the outline from the references that you have provided. Citations will be in APA format.

Note: If you are able to do this outline in just 10 pages, then the quality needs to be extremely high. While it is a 10–15 page minimum, it is recommended that you stop when you meet the goal, not just because you got to 10 pages.


Task Name: Phase 5 Individual Project

Key Assignment

In the previous assignment, you developed a position paper for the research topic that you have identified and explored. You have recommendations for change, revocation, modification, and addition to the research topic. Your research topic has come from an issue, problem, or policy of law enforcement, corrections, or the court system. In this assignment, you will revise your Key Assignment Draft based on instructor and peer feedback and you will evaluate an alternative position to your selected topic that was not addressed in your original Key Assignment Draft.

Assignment Guidelines

  • First, revise your Week 4 Key Assignment based on instructor feedback and peer responses.
  • Next, add to your final Key Assignment draft by addressing the following in 4–5 pages:
    • Select 1 alternative to your position addressed in the Week 4 Key Assignment regarding your selected topic:
    • What major points are argued by proponents of this alternative position? Explain in detail.
    • Conduct research on this alternative position and evaluate the arguments.
    • Do the arguments hold any merit? Why or why not?
    • What policies currently exist that support these arguments? Explain in detail.
    • Which position is more significant for improving the current state of the criminal justice system? Explain in detail.

•Remember to use academic and scholarly sources to support your arguments and be sure to reference all sources using APA style.

CJUS685-1501A-01 Graduate Criminal Justice Discussions

Task Name: Phase 1 Discussion Board 2

The Tenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution pertains to states’ rights. It was ratified on December 15, 1791. The Tenth Amendment explicitly states the Constitution’s principle of federalism by providing that powers not granted to the federal government nor prohibited to the states, but by the Constitution are reserved, respectively, for the states or the people.Currently, there are a number of states in contention with the federal government over immigration reform and enforcement of immigration laws.

Please include answers in your main posting for the following questions. Support your answers with your research on states’ rights. You must provide a meaningful main topic supported by references.

Primary Task Response: Within the Discussion Board area, write 400–600 words that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. This will be the foundation for future discussions by your classmates. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas.

  • Do you think the states should have a sovereign right to enact laws that mirror the federal law for the purpose of immigration violations? Why or why not? Explain in detail.
  • In your interpretation, how has the U.S. Supreme Court dealt with this issue? Explain.
  • In your own words, how does a federal republic function? Does the majority rule? Explain in detail.

Task Name: Phase 3 Discussion Board

On April 23, 2008, the United States Supreme Court, without dissent, determined in the case of Virginia v. Moore that despite unprofessional conduct on the part of the police, there was no violation of Mr. Moore’s civil rights when the police profiled him because they knew that he was driving under a suspended license. A subsequent arrest and search for the suspended driver’s license resulted in the finding of controlled substances and additional charges. Essentially, the court ruled that if the police knew a defendant was committing a motor vehicle violation, regardless of their personal bias, then they had the right to stop that person and check to see if probable cause existed to arrest him or her.

Primary Task Response: Within the Discussion Board area, write 400–600 words that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. This will be the foundation for future discussions by your classmates. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas.

  • Under what conditions do you think, if any, racial profiling should be clearly illegal? Explain your position.
  • What is your opinion about the decision that even if an officer was racially profiling, if the stop was based on a motor vehicle violation, then there is no issue?
  • Is there a legitimate reason at any stage in an investigation for racial profiling? Explain.
  • What impacts on the community do you think can proracial profiling policies have? Explain in detail.



Gratuities And The Slippery Slope – Criminal Justice

Gratuities for public officers usually lead to a slide down the slippery slope for the individual, department or society as espoused by the rotten apple, affiliation and society-at-large hypotheses. Gratuity refers to a benefit or discount that one receives because of their profession and is considered unethical and is a violation of most law enforcement and political party policies (Normoreand Fitch, 2011). This is so as to safeguard against corruption among public officers.In consequentialism, slippery slope avers that a fairly insignificant first step primes a sequence of linked events that culminate to significant effect. One may engage in a seemingly innocuous act such as accepting a gratuity from a grateful client but the act leads to a habit that eventually snowballs to be harmful to the individual, organization and the society. For example, a police officer may start by accepting a coffee from a grateful café that gradually leads to them expecting a free or discounted dinner from the institution every day. In turn, this may lead to the officer looking the other way when the owner of the café who offers the gratuity parks wrongly or speeds.

However, in actual practice, it is advisable to use personal judgment on whether to accept a gratuity as it may cement the relationship between the law enforcer and the public they serve. Indeed, in some instances refusing gratuity may seem impolite and lead to tense relationships(Petrocelli, 2006). For example, an officer may be offered coffee after defrosting an elderly woman’s car in which instance refusing the coffee may seem rude and may lead to hurt feelings. On the other hand, it may lead to the officer expecting coffee every time they do their duty and giving preferential treatment to people offering gratuities.

Hence the slippery slope argument underscores a no-gratuity policy so as to curb a slide towards corruption noting that accepting a coffee and accepting $1000 are both wrong, with the difference being the degree of wrongness. And if the officer develops the habit of receiving gratuities, they will find it easy to accept big bribes. On the slippery slope, acceptance of coffee as gratuity may seem insignificant but the constant acceptance of coffees will push the officer towards unethical behavior.  Starting on the slippery slope means one insignificant step leads to more significant steps that have an accumulated negative effect and that are unstoppable(McCartney and Parent, 2015).

Issues that Criminal Justice Managers Will Face in the Future


The United States criminal justice system has undergone many changes in the past centuries. For instance, the change in the American case law, offered new perspectives upon which the police could use deadly force. The growing technology, the increased media scrutiny and the increasing roles of civil society groups, will significantly affect the roles of the justice managers in future. The future justice managers will face a number of issues, such as ethical failures, police use of force, technology, media attention, ethnic, and race and community relations.

Excessive Use of Force and Police Brutality

One of the controversial attributes of the American criminal justice systems is the police misuse of power (Maguire & Radosh, 1996). There are numerous instances where the police are televised using excessive and brutal force on subdued suspects. These cases of police brutality, although they are rare, are common and continue to occur now. The cases of police brutality affect the American population from all ethnic backgrounds. According to (Hall, 2015), cases of police brutality have been on the increase. For instance in 2015, the deaths that arose from police brutality were higher than those reported the previous year. Most of the cases involve minors, unarmed individuals and those in police custody. These cases of police brutality and excessive use of force will recur in future.

Although the police are obliged to employ deadly force while carrying their duties, they are responsible for upholding law, respecting citizens and protecting lives (Olson, 2015). Regardless of whether the police are lawfully allowed to use lethal or deadly force, there is often a tendency for police officers to wrongfully use deadly force. For example, (Erez, 2002) reports cases where police officers wrongfully use deadly force in making arrests for domestic violence victims. Accordingly, the criminal justice managers are evaluating the strategies for reducing the use of excessive force and homicides that result from police brutality.

According to (Kania & Davis, 2011), the deaths that occur owing to police brutality is estimated to exceed those that occur due to lawful executions of convicts in the country. Almost all cases of police brutality are captured by media outlets, protests and often instigate the development of laws that govern changes in the training of police. The problem is exacerbated by the difficulties in measurement of excessive use of force by the police. It is inherent that such issues are of profound effect on the delivery of justice, which the criminal justice manager must tackle, as the issues will be felt in future.

The 1985 change in the case law, as asserted by (Kania & Davis, 2011) saw the alteration of the standards upon which the police officers would adopt deadly force while making arrests. The authors further assert the anticipation of the International Association of Police, of the future implications of use of deadly force by the police. Such changes are likely to arise in future and the criminal justice managers must anticipate such developments and embody progressiveness. As more future changes will arise in the police use of deadly force, the criminal justice managers will be faced with the issue of making relevant changes in the police training.

Moreover, public scrutiny shall increase in future and criminal justice managers must be adept in developing acceptable methods of handling issues such as protests. According to (Olson, 2015), there is a need for a nationwide review for the existing laws that govern the use of lethal force, policies and the police training practices. The criminal justice manager must show oversight and accountability, envision them and adopt them in the criminal justice system. The managers in anticipating the police use of lethal force must work in line with other justice agencies in developing laws that prohibit police use of lethal force, except in cases where there is imminent threat of death or serious injury.

Ethical Shortcomings

The criminal justice system serves four major ideals of promotion of secure communities, restoration of crime victims, deliverance of justice and promotion of noncriminal actions (DiIulio et al., 1993) and (Maguire & Radosh, 1996, p. 65). The authors further assert that justice is defined as the quality upon which individuals are treated according to their civic rights and the relevant conduct. However, (Kania & Davis, 2011) asserts that there are some instances that the criminal justice system officials are faced with scandals, which arise owing to their participation in immoral or corrupt activities. The author enlists the seven failures inherent in the justice system as the bias and favoritism, flawed personal life, deceit, abuse of power, pursuit of power for personal gains, neglect of duties and the denial of due process to the individuals involved in the criminal justice. These shortcomings present the challenges that the criminal justice system managers are likely to face in future.

The other aspect of ethical shortcomings is the issue of roles of correctional officers in the criminal justice system. The United States has the largest number of incarcerated individuals in the world. Many prisoners continue to be subjects of numerous ethical dilemmas while serving their prison terms on during their probation (Dolovich et al., 2006). Although the modern prisons in the United States have seen its transformation from the early perception of being brutal and constituting of uneducated officers, a number of ethical dilemmas are still inherent. According to (Restellini & Restellini, 2014) the prisons remain congested and minimal changes continue to be done, while the number of prisoners increase every year. This can lead to spread of diseases, causing ethical dilemmas such as infringement of individual prisoner rights to proper health.   The criminal justice manager must conduct his/her duties in an ethical manner, which avoids involvement in the seven categories of failures identified above (Kania & Davis, 2011). Most ethical shortcomings that affect the criminal justice officers have often involved one or two of the failures. As these issues are likely to be faced in future, the criminal justice manger must anticipate the occurrence of each of the failures.

Although these failures may be reduced or mitigated, the criminal justice manager has a duty to ensure that they do not occur. The reduction of criminal activities and promotion of noncriminal activities must not impede justice delivery. Therefore, owing to the growing pressure for delivery of justice and the increased scrutiny of the way justice officials carry their roles, the issues of ethical shortcomings are likely to face even greater public scrutiny in future, which calls good anticipations from the criminal justice managers.

Moreover, there is need for the criminal justice manager to anticipate the impact of increased prisoners and the required changes. Similarly, a progressive manager has to take into consideration the ethical dilemmas faced by the prisoners while serving their prison terms or during their probation. Police brutality in prison and unethical behaviors like colluding with prisoners serving their probation are inherent and such issues are bound to occur in future. Therefore, the criminal justice manager must plan on such issues and develop appropriate strategies to mitigate them. There is also the need for the criminal justice system manager to anticipate the increasing number of incarcerated individuals and develop appropriate policies to decongest the prisons.

Ethnic, Community Relations and Race

The criminal justice officials who participate in the impediment of due processes, display bias while performing their duties and those who abuse power, often create public dissatisfactions with the criminal justice systems. According to (Pollock, 2011), the community-police relations are dependent on the conduct of the police agencies. The author notes the little progress in the development of good relationships between the police and the community despite efforts by the justice agencies to develop programs to bolster the relations. Moreover, the author notes that the community oriented policing programs have been implemented, but there are still many questions about issues of race and ethnic. These inherent issues are likely to be faced by the criminal justice managers in future.

There is a clash between the criminal justice values, the laws of the United States and the community. According to (Thurman, & Zhao, 2004), sometimes the criminal justice agencies are posted to serve in the communities whose values do not align with those of the agency officers. In such cases, a misunderstanding often arises, placing the justice agencies officers, such as the police, in a dilemma. There is need for a criminal justice manager to stay abreast in order to address such issues. In confronting these future issues, the criminal justice manager must develop training for the police officers on meeting the demands of the minority people in order to foster understanding and effective communication. Similarly, the train must focus in minimizing the influence of cultural differences between the police officers and the communities they serve.

The community-police relations in the United States have been that of resentment. The justified and unjustified police forces towards the minority groups in the community have created a lack of trust between the minority groups and police agencies (Maguire & Radosh, 1996).  The minority groups often feel that they are a target of police use of force and this severely threatens the police-minority group’s relationships. Although community oriented policing has been developed to address the problem, there are still more issues that points to the gap in the culture of the police and the community (Thurman, & Zhao, 2004).  According to the authors, the difference in the police and community culture is the major cause of bias, unfair justice treatment and racial and ethnic discriminations. These kinds of relations will still be profound in future and the criminal justice managers must adopt proper strategies.

The presence of prejudice, bias and injustice requires the prompt and judicial response of the criminal justice manger (Thurman, & Zhao, 2004). While these community resentments towards the police will continue to be felt in the American communities, the criminal justice manager must anticipate and prepare for these challenges. The complexity of the challenge is evident due to the existence of the communities in flux. The cultural variations such as beliefs and value variations are some of the issues that remain rooted in the communities and are transferred from one generation to the other. Since it would be hard to attain community homogeneity, the only feasible solution is for the criminal justice system to change the approach that is currently in force. This calls for a progressive criminal justice manager, with greater anticipation for these future challenges.

Technology and Globalization

            Technology continues to develop and many people continue to adopt technology. The rapid growth and adoption of technology influences the administration of criminal justice at all levels (Holt, 2013). The modern criminal justice system has evolved and adopted various forms of technology. The use of technology has an effect of influencing the policies and the practices of the criminal justice systems. For example, the adoption of the telephone and automobiles increased police response and consequently changed the public calls for the service of the police. Therefore, technology has a profound impact of the delivery of justice. However, the question remains, “what will be the new technologies of 2030, 2040, and 2050?”

According to (Kania & Davis, 2011), the CompStat and the Geographic information Systems provided the criminal justice system in the United States with managerial and crime fighting equipment. The author further notes that technology keeps changing and improving, which will see the integration of new technological innovations into the criminal justice system. The technologies of 2040, 2050 and so on will be different from what is being used now.

The growth in technology in the future will have a great impact in crime fighting. Crime fighting and solving will be enhanced with the developments of radio frequency identification chips, DNA analysis, increased surveillance and biometrics. As common with sex offenders now in the country, the public and criminal justice officials will use an increasingly sophisticated intelligence databases. Similarly, interoperability between criminal justice official will be enhanced in future, allowing the officials to communicate directly with one another.

These changes in technology that are foreseen, calls for a criminal justice manager who has foresight. The criminal justice managers with foresight must be informed on the changing technologies, anticipate the new changes and integrate them into the new roles in the justice system. (Kania & Davis, 2011) points that highly progressive criminal justice managers are behind the adoption of technologies in the justice department in the United States. Similarly, a progressive criminal justice manger must think of ways of adopting and using technologies in the current and future criminal justice dispensation. Technology has a profound impact on the roles of the justice officials in many ways, which require adequate preparation by the criminal justice managers in order to prepare for these future issues.

The other most notable implication of developments in technological innovations is the widespread adoption and use of the information technology by the criminals. America continues to be the destination for many people around the world, who migrate into the country in search of better opportunities. The migration will continue to lead to growth of multicultural societies (Ritter, 2004). New global trends will be observed in the coming decades, where movement of people are likely to disrupt harmony, affecting criminal justice system in the United States and all parts of the world. Moreover, developments in the age-composition demographics and globalization will have profound effects on the criminal justice system in the country over the coming decades.

According to (Ritter, 2004), as the society becomes more reliant on information technology, the criminals find it easy to use information technology in their activities. Fraud, theft, moral offences, terrorism, kidnapping and extortions shall increase as technology advances. In addition to focusing on the adoption and implementation of technology in the criminal justice system, the criminal justice manger should prepare for the impact of such technologies on crime and prepare accordingly.

(Ritter, 2004) notes that as the society evolves criminals just as viruses evolve as people adopt new preventive measures. Moreover, the author notes that regardless of the coevolution in crime, the crime preventive measures will generally be categorized into altering the fundamental values of people, reduction of opportunities for crime and changing the motivation of people who commit the crimes. As the country approaches 2040, the demographics will alter substantially. The males aged 15-29 (who are prone to crime) will decrease as those who are aged over 30 increases. This is particularly true because the American population will constitute mainly of the aged population in the coming two decades. The impact of this is that more people will become victims or solutions to criminal activities. For example, the increase in the number of the elderly people will increase the number of victims to criminal activities. Alternatively, the increase in the number of elderly could lead to their use of their discretionary time to guide young people and report crimes.

These changes in demographics, technology, global trends and the coevolution of crimes will have significant impact on the criminal justice system in the United States. The criminal justice manager must anticipate the impact of the population growth and the evolution of crimes. A progressive criminal justice manager ought to adopt better technology within the criminal justice system in order to be in a better position to counter criminal activities. Moreover, the criminal justice manager must anticipate the global trends and initiate mechanisms for global initiatives, such as developing alliances with nonprofit organizations and academic institutions in other countries to carry out the evaluations of policing and sentencing in the criminal justice system.

Mass Media Attention

            It is impossible for a criminal justice manager to determine or predict when a case within their jurisdiction will grab the attention of the mass media. As the world evolves, so does the public scrutiny on the roles of the criminal justice and how such roles are carried out.  The scope of media attention varies with the type of crime and those who are involved in the crime. For instance, a serious crime is will receive a lot of media attention; similarly, a crime that involves a socially important people will attract a lot of media attention (Kania & Davis, 2011). A lot of media attention in case of crime, is likely to cause an onslaught on the criminal justice system. There is need for the criminal justice manager to be prepared any moment for media onslaught in case of a major crime. Moreover, he/she must be prepared to face crimes even in the smallest communities.

Although the criminal justice manager must be prepared for the increased media scrutiny, the manger must also envision the roles of the media and equally develop strategies for dealing with them. In most of the instances, the media care more about the stories and not helping the victims of crime. Therefore, it is important that as the manager anticipates the increased media attention, a preparation for stopping media invasion be made.

Download full research paper on the issues that criminal managers are likely to face in future or order a unique paper written according to your instructions at an affordable price. 

Evolution of Law Enforcement And Criminal Justice

Introduction to Law Enforcement

The field of law enforcement has twigs that keep an eye on a variety of jurisdictions, every with a similar rationale: to defend citizens and put into effect the laws approved by legislators at the government levels of federal, state, and local (Cole & Smith, 2004). Diverse categories of law enforcement mediators may take an attention in your activities, depending on wherever a person is at, and what a person is doing.

Local level is the mainly widespread and noticeable law enforcement, and its officials are the municipal police officers in place of villages, cities, and rural communities. The major dissimilarity flanked by these officers and those at the federal or state level is they are the preliminary enforcement frontage for every criminal law (Cole & Smith, 2004). With chiefs who get typically selected by the mayor, although on occasion designated for office, these officers’ labors get strengthened by a variety of hold up staffers, beginning from police officers to correspondents to jailers, who defend citizens and implement laws approved at the entire levels of government. Their actions are normally incomplete to the authority they get allocated to, as disagreed to officers at the federal and state level.

Nevertheless, frequently found in and designated by county electorates in nearly all American states, sheriffs and their second-in-command are habitually accountable for watching a part of the state and federal itineraries, on top of its unenclosed towns (Cole & Smith, 2004). These officers, like local police, frequently get themselves putting into effect state, local, or federal laws on the facade lines. Numerous states encompass state law enforcement officers, also, who normally get found along highways putting into effect state travel or civil laws. Officers in state prisons get well thought-out as putting into effect state laws in the imprisons of a state establishment.

The federal government makes use of a range of categories of law enforcement mediators, every putting into effect laws and rules recognized at the uppermost rank of the government. These comprise exceptional representatives and subordinate staff for agencies counting the Federal Bureau of Investigation (Cole & Smith, 2004). The federal officers don’t put into effect state or local laws, except would be pertinent to advise the right local or state powers once expect doings gets speckled. Federal prosecutors frequently organize the labors of agents from a number of agencies promptly to put up cases and put on trial in federal crimes.

At diverse levels of law enforcement, officers interrelate and share data and witness in a variety of cases. All levels of law get put into effect by officials at local, however the court of law that puts on trial and chastises suspected violators depends on the kind of regulation or rule that gets violated. Moreover, it is at  the local level a lot of local laws that get violated at the transgression level get handled at. A county circuit law court will put on trial even more solemn crimes, by means of state statutes. The federal crimes get handled at the federal court districts where in every district a prosecutor gets based there.

Methods In Which Penology Could Be Used To Obtain More Effective Outcomes In The Criminal Justice System

They are varied methods, or strategies, via which penology can be employed in enhancing the criminal justice system (CJS) outcomes (Scott, 2008). The outcomes include fewer recurring crimes, reduction of crime levels, and decimation of number of the ones who are incarcerated for specific crimes. The methods are probation, offender training, community service, and the imposition of mulcts, or fines, on offenders according to Clear (1994) and Scott (2008).

Probation entails the rehabilitation of those who breach the applicable laws and conventions. It is rather effective in enhancing the outcomes since rehabilitated offenders have markedly reduced persuasions towards re-engaging in crime. The offenders are less likely to be involved in the CJS again, hence freeing up its resources. Offenders who are on probation are helped in solving their social, as well as psychological, problems, reducing their likelihood of re-engaging in criminal exploits.

Offender training, or penitentiary science, is rather effective in enhancing the outcomes since it support their rehabilitation via training. Penitentiaries are facilities in which offenders are held for purposes of reforming their conducts, imprisonment, or punishing according to Scott (2008). The offenders are taken through reformatory discipline regimes according to Clear (1994) and Scott (2008). That markedly reduces their persuasions towards re-engaging in crime (Sharma, 1998).

When judges sentence offenders to given community service, he or she helps the CJS improve by way of ensuring that prisons are not overcrowded. Community service helps significantly in reducing the recurrence of given crimes, reducing crime levels, and decimating the number of the ones incarcerated for specific crimes. It helps reduce the development of career criminals (Scott, 2008). Fines help significantly in reducing the recurrence of given crimes, reducing crime levels, and decimating the number of the ones incarcerated for specific crimes as well.

Ethics and Professional Behavior in Administration of Criminal Justice

More often organizations demand that their employees carry out their duties in very professional manner so as to meet the demands and the expectations of the customers. The same expectations are laid on the law enforcement officers who are expected to be ethical and professional in their daily lives.

The definition of ethics can be given as the set of values either written or unwritten that are used to act as guidelines for an individual’s conduct of life. Once one becomes ethical in their daily lives then it means that such individuals can easily distinguish between what is wrong and right. Moreover, one can easily lead a good life once they have the good ethics with them because they will always be in a position to make rational decisions. For one to be able to make the rational decisions then he or she must a critical thinker who can easily identify and distinguish between issues of varied degree of importance.

Ethics and professionalism is an important part of the law enforcement officers because in the current society everyone looks for some inspiration from the officers (Roufa, 2012). On the contrary, there are those who strive to get the officers into mistakes so that they can use them as examples. Friends, relatives and even strangers do monitor almost every move that the officers make irrespective of whether they are on duty on not. It is for a fact that the officers get the highest percentage of scrutiny from the public more than any other profession in America. One of the reasons is because the public expects that officer to falter at some point so as to use them as bad examples. On the other hand, it could also be argued that the officers are under such radar because the society holds them in high esteem and as such view them as leaders. The police officers therefore have a great responsibility of ensuring that they remain above reproach at all times irrespective of whether they are at work or otherwise (Delattre, 1994).

Ethics as has been defined earlier is basically doing the correct or right thing. What is right in one society may however not necessarily be right in another society, so it all depends on the values that the society holds. However, ethics is glued on the principle of right being always right irrespective of where it is committed and a wrong thing will always remain to be wrong. Law officers have the moral responsibility of acting the most professional manner as described in their code of ethics. Once the officers do the wrong thing then they easily lose the trust of the public and the whole society at large and that might just be dangerous. Losing the trust of the society is considered dangerous because such officers may find it difficult in working in such communities because of the suspicions and non-trust from the residents (Kelly, 1997). It goes without saying that the officers have a legal duty to adhere to their code of ethics so as to be able to achieve their goals of modern policing within the communities where they carry out their daily mandates. The unit might as well employ other tactics and techniques when carrying out their duties but the ultimate goal remains being professional and ethical in their work (Roufa, 2012).

Critical thinking is equally importance for the success of the police officers in their careers because they get faced with a myriad of situations on a daily basis and the only way out is to think critically. For instance, officers face a lot of risks when carrying out their duties along the streets especially during night hours. In such a situation, one needs to know and critically think about the best options that are available to them. Once that is known then the officers should weigh out and determine whether the risks are manageable or otherwise. If the risk is low enough then the officers should embark on the mission and complete it successfully.

Another important aspect to consider when determining whether to go for a mission or not is the need for an officer to make such a move for the mission. For instance an officer can move to a given location with a need of arresting criminals or even conducting a drug raid. It is possible that officers can get to certain locations with the sole aim of conducting safety operations or prisoner snatch. Before an officer decides to make such moves he needs to think critically about such needs so as to make his mission successful.  Similarly, officers need to know that critical decisions are made based on the time factor. Every mission that is carried out by the law enforcers have to be planned in advance and a time frame given for such a mission to be complete. One thing that is important in such cases is the timeframes available for the missions to be carried out. The shorter the time frame, the more risky the mission is and vice versa (Kelly, 1997). Finally officers need to make critical decisions based on the resources that they have within their disposal. For instance a decision is made based on the time available and the ability of the resources to help in completing the mission at hand. If the resources that they have cannot help them complete their mission then the best option is to drop such a mission before it backfires.

Based on the dynamics that faces the law enforcement unit on a daily basis, there is a proposal to conduct a training seminar on ethics and professionalism for the law enforcement officers. In that seminar one of the topics of discussion will be on the service to mankind and its relation to ethics. An officer’s mission is to safeguard the lives of every citizen that lives within their areas of jurisdiction. The missions should be carried out without any fear or favor to any party irrespective of their relation to the officers. At times nepotism might come to play in situations where the relatives of the officers are found in criminal activities and the officers might feel obliged to cover them up. Such a cover of criminals based on blood relations should never be tolerated within the police force. Apart from that, protection of the humanity will entail protecting the peaceful residents from the violent residents. Officers should move swiftly in such cases and ensure that the peaceful citizens do not get harmed by the violent citizens. The officers should ensure that they do not use excessive force when trying to liberate the peaceful citizens from the violent rioters otherwise their ethics will be questioned.

Secondly, the seminar will touch on keeping the lives of the officers in public limelight and ensuring that the officers remain good examples to the rest of the society members. At times the officers might just be faced with a lot of ridicule or scorn from the public but the officers must learn to remain sober and calm during such times. The main mission here is to remain as good examples to the rest of the society. Similarly, the officers must be in the forefront in ensuring that they obey the law to the latter so that the rest of the community can emulate them (Delattre, 2006). There is no way that law enforcers can be arresting law breakers on a daily basis while they (law enforcers) keep breaking the same laws with impunity.

The third point of discussion in the seminar will be about honesty that will always be expected from the law enforcers irrespective of their positions within the unit. Honesty demands that one becomes truthful to whatever they speak and also through their deeds. Officers will be taught on the importance of issuing true statements especially on cases that are under investigations (Kelly, 1997). The officers will not be expected to issue false statement that might compromise investigations conducted on criminals or even fellow officers. The fourth and fifth areas that will be touched are: use ofexcessive force when on duty and accepting bribes so as to cover up cases for some criminals.

The above areas have been chosen for the seminar because they act as the backbone for the success of the operations of the law enforcement unit. Without the above mentioned factors then the law enforcement unit might as well be headed in the wrong direction.  Both the law enforcersand the community are expected to benefit because the community members will have confidence in the police officers and vice versa.

Criminal Justice Peer-reviewed Journal Articles Annotated Bibliography

Beckett, K. (2012). Race, drugs, and law enforcement toward equitable policing.

Criminology & Public Policy, 11(4), 641-653.

The research study by Katherine Beckett, a distinguished law professor and author, explores the racial discrepancies that define the enforcement of the drug law in the US. The discrepancies are rather pronounced in some states, including Seattle. In almost all the states, Blacks are more likely to be arrested for drug-related offenses than Whites. The study investigates the reasons between the race-based composition of drug users and deliverers on one and the race-based composition of the individuals arrested for being drug users and deliverers. Besides, the study sheds light on the patterns and practices that may be helpful in explaining the discrepancies. In particular, the study establishes that there is a significant overrepresentation of Blacks in drug-related arrests compared with the number of persons breaching drug laws within Seattle. Besides, the study establishes that, within Seattle, the discrepancies are fueled by law enforcers’ concentration on cocaine, especially crack cocaine, elementarily.

The study is rather relevant to the upcoming research since it brings to light some significant concerns regarding criminal justice systems. Ideally, the systems should serve all populations equitably. Even then, the study makes it clear that particular considerations lead to inequalities in how criminal justice systems deploy particular resources to serve given populations. The considerations may relate to race, gender or related attributes. Notably, in the study, Katherine Beckett demonstrates that criminal justice practices are political, as well as institutional, political choices and not structurally established outcomes.

Jang, H., Lee, C. & Hoover, L. (2012). Dallas’ disruption unit: Efficacy of hot spots

deployment. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 35(3), 593-614.

Elementarily, the research study seeks to investigate police operations in areas designated as hotspots of given crimes to establish the effect of rotation-based police deployment on particular crimes. The data used in the study was supplied by the Dallas Police Department. The study establishes that rotation-based police deployment in the hotspots has instantaneous impacts on total index offenses, nuisance offenses as well as violent crimes. In Dallas, the deployment was rather effective in manning pedestrian and automobile stops, arresting those suspected of specific crimes like nuisance offenses and violent crimes, and the issuance of citations. Even then, the study establishes that the deployment does not have residual effects in relation to deterring subsequent criminal activities in the hotspots.

The study is rather relevant to the upcoming research since it gives ample insights into police operations. Notably, the foremost contact between those breaching particular laws and a given criminal justice organization, or system, is commonly the police. Ideally, policing operations, which are criminal justice resources, should be made available in all areas where crimes are or may be reported. Even then, the operations are most required in areas designated as hotspots of given crimes. The study is clearly demonstrates that the deployment of criminal justice resources should be well-considered since they are rather limited.

Stoicism and Criminal Justice


In a world struggling to balance technological advancements and morals, stoicism seems to be rebirthing. Societies are in need of rules that are virtue-based and they also want justice to be applied fairly. Strangely enough, the stoic way of thinking is, to many, as applicable and relevant in today’s world, as it was about two millenniums ago (Stephens, 2000). Living a good passion-free life, in accord with nature sounds appealing. Stoics believed that one cannot become just if they behave unjustly or cowardly (Banks, 2012 p.304). They also believed that people can behave virtuously if they were led by rational thoughts, which in turns would make them take rational decisions (Stephens, 2000). However, although all about Stoicism sounds almost ideal, the biggest challenge is how one can reach virtue and live a life of complete rationality.  To Stoics, if only one could withdraw and stay away from passions and desires; hence emotion, one could become just and virtuous, in other words, wise or “sage” as they used to say (Banks, 2012 p. 303). Ethics and criminal justice are closely related and people expect justice practitioners to be of high morality, perhaps higher than anyone else, so they infuse confidence to the rest of society (Worley &Barua, 2009 p.861). For that reason, stoicism might sound like an appealing theory to apply in the criminal justice system of modern societies.

Stoicism teaches about making the right decision. If one has the power over events that occur in life and might affect their judgment, then all will be good (Banks, 2012 p.303). So, basically, good and evil is up to the individual. If that individual is freed from the influence of events that could as well pervade their moral view, then those individuals would have reached the high morals expected from a criminal justice practitioners, be they police officers, judges or anyone else involved. It is commonly known that criminal justice professionals reach a point in their career when they need to exercise the use of discretion, (Worley &Barua, 2009 p.861). Criminal justice practitioners may need to take significant decisions in regards a specific ethical dilemma and their emotions might get in the way, blocking their decisions. To them, Stoicism can offer a good way out.

The Criminal Justice System is defined by the National Center for Victims of Crimes (2008) as a set of agencies and processes established by governments to control crime and impose penalties on those who violate laws.  The essence of the Criminal Justice system is service and protection of society. If the Criminal Justice System is to carry out its mission of service and protection of society, it is imperative that the people who are part of it are professionals of high moral character and ethics, at all times (Worley and Barua, 2009). The police should fight and control crime as a public service to the community.  The criminal is seen as just somebody who goes astray (Pollock, 2007).  The principles and practices of Stoicism would be very compatible with the Criminal Justice System for two reasons.  First, its adherence to high moral standards and integrity of the person goes with the “need for ethical codes and leadership, as well as pride in their profession and the spirit it upholds” (Worley and Barua, 2009).  On the other hand, being stoic, hardened, and emotionless protects the law officer, whether he is a policeman, a detective, a lawyer, a judge, or a prison officer, from being emotionally entangled on the consequences of his actions while enforcing the law or carrying out justice.

The Criminal Justice System is riddled with decisions every step of the way, many of them moral in nature.  The law officer has to consider the consequences of every action because of the very nature of their calling as protectors of the community.  From the moment a crime is reported, the police officer has to see to it that the rights of the suspect are protected.  Sometimes the manner of arresting brings harm to the suspect, especially when there is resistance.  The stoic will not hesitate to hurt the suspect who has been “caught in the act” but tries to elude arrest.  On the other hand, just because they have a preponderance of evidence -which however cannot be presented in court- some investigators may arrange some evidence to be “found conveniently” to warrant an arrest.   The prosecutor and/or the defense lawyer use every trick they have to get a conviction or an acquittal, as the case may be, though it can work unfairly to somebody’s disadvantage, because they truly believe that the defendant is guilty/innocent. The judge, following his clear conscience, metes out a sentence which he believes is most proportionate to the crime, even if it will outlast the defendant’s lifetime. Finally the correction, probation, and/or parole officer operates on the principle that the prisoner has his rights to constructive citizenship (Eaton, S 2008), but follows prison rules and policies to the letter at all times.

However, Stoicism, when carried out in extreme, will defeat the very purpose of the Criminal Justice System, which is to protect the individual and the community. Stoicism will be the law enforcer’s shield as he carries out his duties day in and day out, because no matter what he does, there will always be consequences, some of which may be detrimental to some parts of society.  Stoicism will help him steel himself against these feelings, regrets, and anxieties.

Ideally, the Criminal Justice System that exists in all societies should uphold the dignity of the person, even if he is a criminal. Unfortunately, this kind of system does not exist in some societies. Some are controlled by the rich and powerful to the detriment of the poor and the powerless (Burke 2013). This is where Stoicism can really come to the fore.  The stoic, truly believing that he is doing something good for himself, his family, or society, can deliberately look the other way, and engage in corruption.The drug lord can have a competitor investigated for drug trafficking.  The policeman or investigator can easily help him for the financial rewards that will bring economic relief for his family. In the name of the “search for the truth”, the victim may suffer from “secondary victimization” – first from the injury caused by the crime, and second from the injury coming from the criminal justice authorities in the course of their investigation. A classic example of this is the way rape victims are grilled by either, or both, the prosecuting and the defense lawyers (Wemmers, 2013). The judge can very easily render a decision that will benefit a conglomerate even if it will mean the laying off of hundreds of employees, for   the sake of the country’s economy.  The correction, probation, or parole officer can decide to implement stringent though inhumane policies in the name of penal reforms.

Maybe critics of Stoicism say that it is just a coping strategy (Stephens 2001), most probably to escape the negative emotions that go with unpleasant circumstances. Nevertheless, advocates of Stoicism are still able to function productively in society, particularly within the criminal justice system. The criminal justice system can be benefited by Stoic theories and together they can exist hand in hand like sparring partners in building and maintaining a secure and happy community for all, without taking anything into extremes;and the person is the key behind both of them.

Download full sample paper on Stoicism and Criminal Justice or order a plagiarism free paper at an affordable price.

Summaries for Criminal Justice Articles

  1. “Changes in Mental State Associated with Prison Environments: A Systematic Review”


In the “Changes in Mental State Associated with Prison Environments: A Systematic Review” study, Walker, Illingworth, Canning, Garner, Woolley, Taylor and Amos (2014) spelt out a distinct purpose. They sought to develop an appreciation of mental health stability during incarceration via reviewing the then extant, relevant body of research evidence. Especially, the evidence related corporeal prison milieus to changes in prisoners’ mental states.

Study Subjects

In the study, Walker, Illingworth, Canning, Garner, Woolley, Taylor and Amos (2014) studied the then extant available, relevant literature systematically. They studied literature examining the changes and how they related to diverse imprisonment aspects. Especially, they focused on research articles exclusively focusing on the prison milieu and incarceration itself as oppose to individual factors like resilience and support.


Walker, Illingworth, Canning, Garner, Woolley, Taylor and Amos (2014) found 15 longitudinal studies, which they used to delineate three key themes: prison regime aspects and being incarcerated; prison sentence duration and imprisonment stage; and societal density. They established from the studies that being incarcerated heightens psychiatric symptoms, which improve over time. From the review of the studies, it was clear that there is only highly restricted evidence suggesting that those who enter prisons have own mental states worsening at a faster rates that the rate at which they deteriorated just before entering prison.

Prison sentence durations do not affect mental states significantly.  Walker, Illingworth, Canning, Garner, Woolley, Taylor and Amos (2014) established from the studies that the states get better and better as one continues with his or her stay in prison. As well, the researchers established from the studies that social density extremes and large prisons have a correlation with more unfavorable mental states. The extremes are either overcrowding or isolation. The isolation of prisoners has a strong correlation with more unfavorable mental states. As well, the overcrowding of prisoners has a as a strong correlation with more unfavorable mental states.

Rationality of Findings and Conclusions

The findings made by Walker, Illingworth, Canning, Garner, Woolley, Taylor and Amos (2014) and the conclusions that they drew were rational and sound. They are wholly in agreement with the data that the researchers gathered in the course of the study. As well, they are wholly supported by the studies that Walker, Illingworth, Canning, Garner, Woolley, Taylor and Amos (2014) reviewed systematically.

  1. “Foot Patrol in Violent Crime Hot Spots: The Longitudinal Impact of Deterrence and Posttreatment Effects of Displacement”


In the “Foot Patrol in Violent Crime Hot Spots: The Longitudinal Impact of Deterrence and Posttreatment Effects of Displacement” study, Sorg, Haberman, Ratcliffe and Groff (2013) aimed at exploring foot patrols’ longitudinal deterrent impacts in hot spots of violent criminal acts. As well, Sorg, Haberman, Ratcliffe and Groff (2013) aimed at revisiting the renowned Philadelphia Foot Patrol Experiment to gain further insights into the impacts. They sought to explore the impacts via the concepts of residual, as well as initial, deterrence decay, which are associated with Sherman (1990). As well, they sought to establish if the displacements made out in the course of initial appraisals decayed following the experiment’s conclusion.

Study Subjects

Sorg, Haberman, Ratcliffe and Groff (2013) studied the renowned Philadelphia Foot Patrol Experiment. They studied the concepts of residual, as well as initial, deterrence decay, which are associated with Sherman (1990). As well, they studied the proposal made by Durlauf and Nagin (2011) in a study that they executed jointly. Durlauf and Nagin (2011) proposed that incarceration sentences should be reviewed with the aim of shortening them, obligatory minimum sentence laws should be repealed, and the associated cost savings should be committed to conveying detection certainly more effectively. Durlauf and Nagin (2011) held that the committing of the savings to policing budgets could convey detection certainly more effectively


Sorg, Haberman, Ratcliffe and Groff (2013) established that 22-week patrol beats had significant decaying deterrent impacts when the experiment was underway. On the other hand, Sorg, Haberman, Ratcliffe and Groff (2013) established that 12-week patrol beats lacked significant decaying deterrent impacts when the experiment was underway. There was no beat registering the impacts as regards particular control areas. Notably, the displacement made out had decayed within three months following the experiment’s conclusion. Sorg, Haberman, Ratcliffe and Groff (2013) established that the proposal could only turn into success if more all-round policing approaches were adopted. According to the researchers, foot patrols are suitable for diverse policing paradigms.

Rationality of Findings and Conclusions

The findings made by Sorg, Haberman, Ratcliffe and Groff (2013) and the conclusions that they drew are rational and sound. They are wholly in agreement with the data that the researchers gathered in the course of the study. As well, they are wholly supported by the studies reviewed by the researchers.

Current Issues in Criminal Justice

Since 9/11, the U.S. government has passed a variety of laws designed to protect the country against terrorists. In this assignment, you will consider how these laws, which are in place to protect U.S. citizens, affect the rights of those citizens.

Write a paper in which you complete the following:

  • Select two Constitutional freedoms described in the Bill of Rights and explain how U.S. legal responses to terrorism have altered or otherwise affected each freedom.
  • Summarize the recent decline in the U.S. crime rate. Explain how this decrease has affected law enforcement in the fight against terrorism.
  • Consider what might happen if local crime rates were to increase rather than decrease. How would such an increase affect America’s ability to devote resources to fighting terrorism?

Labeling Theorists And Cultural Deviance Theory In Criminal Justice System

There are many theories as well as strategies that help in avoiding stereotyping individuals in the criminal justice system. Among the theories are the controlled social control theory, labelling theory suggests that most people would commit or be willing to commit crime because of the many controls and limitations that the society has on these people(Link et al., 1989).

These limitations are widespread and are of different dimensions in the society. The society therefore posts these controls through the social institutions such as the schools, churches, workplaces among others. The theory works in conjunction with the social learning theory. The societal control on individuals may dictate where the individual victims of crime would be and the people they will associate with thereafter in the criminal justice system.

Social control theory would always explain why people commit crime; a strategy can therefore be developed from this theory that would avoid stereotyping individuals in the criminal justice system by counteracting this theory. The society would therefore instead of effecting the controls and limitations to these individuals can be optimistic minded towards these individuals, otherwise called societal optimize theory. This simply means that the society should become hopeful and optimistic that someday with the correct legal punishment; the individuals would again become law abiders(Adam, 1978).

The society would look at the past offenders are people with great potential of doing all good and with great influence to others in the society. These people can be subjected to some duties higher than their actual desires with an aim of making them aware that the society has higher expectations from them. Example of this scenarios would be, thieves from jails appointed as pastors in the local churches after confessions. Behavior modification theories would apply in making the criminals lesser and lesser criminals, these behavior modification techniques involve shaping, chaining among others. These are strategies as well as techniques aimed at decreasing the occurrence of undesirable behavior. For example, shaping involve a situation whereby an individual is reinforced for performing the required behavior step by step until the required behavior is fully achieved.

In the criminal justice system, a strategy whereby the offenders are assigned some roles that ensures that they show responsibilities to others who are also in the criminal justice system has always led to these criminals realizing that others still believe in them and would need them to be better citizens someday. The justice system would also employ a strategy derived from the social learning theory to avoid stereotyping individuals, like inviting the social good conduct personnel, people with traits that are so friendly to the society to spend some times with the offenders, this act would show love and concern thereby instilling some guilt to these offenders that despite their unfriendly criminal acts, the society still has hope that they will be better citizens.

Labeling theory is the most legitimate crime causative theory.  Labeling takes away a person’s opportunities, the society takes away a person’s opportunities once that person has been labeled a criminal. According to Frank  Tannenbaum  1938: 19-20, ‘a criminal can be made, and the process of making a criminal is  a process of tagging, describing, emphasizing, evoking the very traits that are complained of……the person becomes the thing he is described as being….’ Labeling theory basically illustrates harsh the societal response to deviance and crime is, mostly through the criminal sanctions(Matza, 1969).

It explains how the society has regarded criminals as those individuals who require insufficient attention and opportunities. In the criminal law justice, there are categories of deviant behavior, there is the primary deviant behavior and the secondary deviant behavior, labeling theory also explains that through labeling of the deviant, there are endless opportunities that the deviant might graduate from the primary stage to the secondary stage. In other words, a minor criminal, through labeling, with time might undergo transition from being a minor criminal victim to a major criminal.

A person who has been labeled a criminal by the people in power or any element of the society as a result of a minor criminal offence, would have his opportunities taken away from him by the society, the opportunities that would otherwise make him an independent and a better individual, for example, no one would like to employ a criminal, work with a criminal, be in the same school with a criminal or even worship with a criminal in the same church, people will always be very careful with such a person in the society. This reaction might and will definitely lead to that person having a low self-esteem and developing hatred to the society.  Due to the opportunities that the individual has been denied by the society as a result of labeling, the person might and will definitely resort to criminal activities for survival(Link & Phelan, 1999).

In the three influential versions of the cultural deviance theory, I would confidently classify gangs at the first influential version; the lower-class, gangs are just but the self-centered individuals who make sure they get what they want mindless of who they hurt or what they damage in the process. These are the selfish individuals driven by their selfish desires to do evils, thereby engaging in the major criminal activities in the urban areas.  Gangs do not exclusively involve the rural-lower class culture, or the urban- lower class but both.  These individuals turn to crime because they do not have access to the legitimate opportunity structures, they therefore form collective views which are completely different from others on the nature of the criminal behavior.

They are therefore led by their selfish gains and bitterness. Gangs therefore form their own norms as well as values that make their activities acceptable as well as rewarding. They therefore can falsely justify their activities and reinforce them according to their own constitution. This group evidently consists of the lower class mindless of origin, whether from the rural sector or the urban sector. Quite often we witness or hear of the youths who are members of a particular gang who have been ganged down; some are just the lower-class individuals from the rural areas who have been introduced by the lower-class individuals from the urban sectors.

They have their organized crimes which are so drastic upon happening. A gang member is knowledgeable of the possible drawbacks, repercussions when caught since they are all trained and all risks made clear to them upon membership of the gang. The lower-class group in general is responsible for organizing and creating crimes in urban areas. This group accuses the society for denying them access to the legitimate opportunities without considering justifiable the reasons behind their limited or non-existing access.

I will confidently use the cultural deviance theory; sub-cultural theory of deviance to explain why there are twice as many youths joining gangs in the cities while there is an increasing number of gang leaders released after good conduct. With the current world, the youths are exposed to a variety of sub cultural values as well norms. The youth’s focal concern is the adaptable values that do appeal to their particular generations. Culture is complex; it is transmitted to members of a particular group. When culture is transmitted, particular fundamental and dominant values and beliefs are as well transmitted alongside, these values and beliefs are deemed acceptable and normal to a particular group receiving them.

Download the full sample research paper or order a plagiarism free paper at an affordable price. 

CJUS675-1404B-01 Special Topics in Criminal Justice Task Name: P

CJUS675-1404B-01 Special Topics in Criminal Justice Task Name: Phase 2 Individual Project

Deliverable Length: 1,000–1,200 words + title page, abstract, and reference page Details:

Weekly tasks or assignments (Individual or Group Projects) will be due by Monday and late submissions will be assigned a late penalty in accordance with the late penalty policy found in the syllabus. NOTE: All submission posting times are based on midnight Central Time.

For this assignment, assume that, in fact, science has been able to identify the particular gene that is associated with an increased risk of adult antisocial behavior in that persons with this gene are four times more likely to commit a felony from the ages of 18–30 than are persons who lack this gene (call the culprit gene ASF, short for AntiSocial Factor). What should you do with this information? For this task, you may want to research how governments have used genetic information in the past (e.g, phrenology was routinely used in the 19th century in America and Europe, and has since been discredited).

Specifically, you are to create and justify a policy regarding how this knowledge should be used. Should people be tested for ASF? If they test positive for it, what should be done? It is permissible to answer in the negative: you can argue that people should not test for ASF and should not use that information for policy purposes.

Your response should address the following: 1.Should the government mandate testing for the ASF gene? Why or why not? 2.Answer the following questions even if you believe that the government should not test for ASF: ◦If the government does test for the ASF gene, what should be done about people who test positive for the ASF gene? For example, should they be denied a security clearance for sensitive jobs? Explain and justify your position. ◦What additional conditions or safeguards would you want in place if ASF testing were used? ◦If a person with the ASF gene is convicted of a crime, should his or her ASF status be considered as part of his or her sentencing? If yes, how so?

3.Include a title page, abstract, and separate reference page.

Benefits and challenges associated with biometric evidence in the criminal justice system

In a 10 –12 page paper, identify and analyze the benefits and challenges that are associated with biometric evidence in the criminal justice system. Include at least 3 techniques in your paper, and use at least 2 case studies to support your position. Consider the following questions when drafting your paper:

  • How do courts determine if evidence is reliable and valid before allowing it into testimony?
  • What is the role of the Frye standard or Daubert standard in determining whether or not the courts will accept biometric evidence?
  • What rules does your state use in this regard?
  • How reliable is fingerprint evidence? Consider examples of its use in criminal courts.
  • How do other biometrics compare to the reliability and validity of fingerprint evidence?
  • What are some of the challenges associated with lower forms of biometrics, such as facial recognition, and acceptance as evidence in court?
  • What is the role of the expert witness related to biometric evidence in court?
  • Need a Professional Writer to Work on this Paper and Give you Original Paper? CLICK HERE TO GET THIS PAPER WRITTEN

Criminal Justice Framework


This paper will be assessing the past, present, and future trends of the adjustments segment. It will likewise be examining the budgetary and administrative effect that it has on future trends including law authorization and the courts framework. The criminal justice framework will dependably be a noteworthy piece of social request.

Crime has no ontological reality; it is a “myth” of regular life. The defiance of any basic nature of which to convincingly characterize an occasion as crime is demonstrated by the mixed bag of crimes; burglary, charge card extortion, medication hawking, assault, insider exchanging, prostitution, plural marriage and endeavoured suicide to give some examples. They ought to involve discipline in the perfect circumstance. These circumstances can and do occur in amazingly different conditions and for clashing reasons. This stochastic variable makes it hard for the criminal justice framework to be foul confirmation and have a “perceived measuring standard” of crime to a level that fuses the aggregate viewpoint of different social gatherings (Digital Films, 2012). Any activity against the expression of God, the laws of a nation or one planned to cause damage and hardship to an individual or a general public is characterized as crime (Danny Dorling et al, 2005).



Two parameters decided general society’s impression of crime by and large; the most reported crimes in the standard media and the in all likelihood crimes they experience in their everyday lives. Most of the interviewees are more slanted to see a criminal in the terms of a “firearm – toting road criminal” not as a “perfectly dressed divider road investor”. Time and absence of information protects general society in terms of salaried, corporate and state supported crimes, which are more advanced and have much more extensive effect. As indicated by the Jones and Bartlett, a Gallup survey of 2009 discovered fifty percent of the respondents accepted road crimes, for example, theft, assault, homicide, medication hawking, attacks as the prompt genuine crimes they stress over most. Spending on security frameworks has been evaluated to be an upwards of ninety billion dollars and is regularly expanding (Jones and Bartlett Learning, 2011).

Crime is a mark of social collaborations. At the point when individuals cooperate, we defy occasions and through a methodology of comprehension, we take in the reasons and outcomes of enjoying certain human occasions. These occasions have uncommon qualities that stamp them for unique distinguish mint in the general public as crime. They cause unfriendly mischief and hardship to the general public all in all and stopped by burden of brutal punishments and withdrawal from satisfaction in certain societal freedoms, the idea of crime and discipline, the foundation of the advanced criminal justice framework (Morrison, 2005).

There exists an open misinterpretation that crime rates are higher among African American and Latino guys than the genuine real crime measurements on the ground authenticate. The media sustains this by depicting them as the guilty parties and the victimized person as white, and a ‘power of great’ in TV projects and crime stories despite the fact that most crimes include wrongdoer and casualty of the same race. A study by Los Angeles Times found that eighty percent of crime victimized people in LA were Latino or African American, homicides including a white exploited person emphasized all the more unmistakably in the news. The media reliably offers grub to the generalizations of racial profiling. This has prompted the misinterpretation by whites that they are much more secure around whites than African Americans or Latinos despite the fact that different whites perpetrate seventy-five percent of crimes against whites. In situations where the personality of a criminal was in uncertainty, seventy percent of white exploited people distinguished their guilty party as African American.

General society convictions about crime once in a while disregard the unpredictability of crime. People in general are more worried about road crimes than cubicle or corporate crimes, which are more destructive and cost more. The general public sees the discipline of a road criminal all the more as a vindication to a direct danger postured by the activities of his cooperation’s and sees this as more satisfying than pursuing the billions lost in cushy and corporate crime, which includes establishments instead of a solitary arrangement of people. Society sees crime as any human cooperation that tears the fabric of the general public. The media and the legislators have a tendency to “overdramatize” and put more accentuation on road crime, the savage nature, the racial generalizations and its consistency. The portrayal of crime shifts from area to locale however the shape sticks with it. Crime is anything that stances threat to the wellbeing and prosperity of people in general.

The world’s pioneer in detainment is the United States. Prisons and penitentiaries work around two rationalities of discipline versus restoration. The previous tend was isolation with no sympathy toward detainee recovery or any sympathy toward the prosperity of the prisoners. The majority of the increment has originated from the progressions in sentencing laws and approaches, however not in the wrongdoing rates. These trends have stemmed in jail congestion and money related weights on states to oblige a quick expanding corrective framework. The war on medications sentencing approaches brought about an extreme increment in imprisonment for medication offenses. There was additionally the “Three Strikes and you Out” laws. Serious sentencing laws, for example, compulsory essentials are in charge of wrongdoers to stay in prisons for a more extended times of time, likewise high recidivism rates. Lady in Federal and State prisons that have been detained for medication offenses has expanded. The ladies’ have histories of huge histories of physical, sexual ill-use, HIV, and substance ill-use. Despite the fact that fierce wrongdoing has been descending, the detainees that are serving life sentences keeps on growing (Carson & Sabol, 2012).

With the jail populaces expanding the new motivation is group adjustments. Over the previous decade the development of wrongdoer populaces has delivered changes in the way of discipline, which has an expanding request on the remedial order to create group based assents (Carson & Sabol, 2012). Option sentencing/group amendments is for peaceful criminals to have the chance to stay in the group and work. The judge can give a suspended sentences as well as probation, this is the point at which the litigant’s sentence is suspended penitentiary or jail time is put on hold. The respondent must agree to specific commitments of the suspended sentence or the judge can arrange the litigant to serve the first sentence. Some group rectifications projects are the work discharge programs, electronic observing/house capture. At the point when a judge sentences a guilty party to probation they must comply with all laws, report frequently to the probation office, no liquor or medication utilize just to give some examples. In the event that a man is gotten DUI, one of the option sentences can be is that the guilty party must introduce a Breathalyzer gadget in their auto, or they need to give addresses or go to addresses on the perils of liquor utilize and do weekend penitentiary time.

Jail security goes cutting edge, Prisons are assembled in a panoptic on plan. The jail incorporates a focal control room that furnishes the work force with a 360 degree perspective of prisoners. The new reconnaissance cams that screen prisoners are vastly improved than the used to be. These cams are shot safe and you can hit it with a sledge hammer. Observation makes jail more secure for prisoners and prison guards. New innovation in prisons are utilizing radio recurrence ID following. The detainees wear an electronic arm ornament that tracks his or her development all through the jail. On the off chance that a prisoner enters a restricted territory and is wearing an electronic arm ornament an alert will sound, it is additionally simpler to tally the detainees. This electronic arm ornament can give information on detainee’s development, so if there is a surprising measure of individuals setting off to one region it can alarm the staff. This information can be put away and utilized later to pinpoint who was available at a certain time and place particularly when researching an occasion. Biometric is an alternate propelled following instruments this sweeps the prisoners iris or fingerprints. Despite the fact that if there is a great deal of prisoners the expense could be high utilizing the biometric framework. A few prisons are utilizing electronic sound/feature innovation, video chatting and videoconferencing which permit detainees to show up in court remotely.

Budgetary and administrative effects that future trends will probably have on revisions: In this nation jail organization has changed the superintendent was the boss twenty five years back in the endeavour to attain to reorganization, disengagement, diligent work and contrition. The director of prisons today must oversee troublesome staff framework, packing foundations and cutting edge progresses in a viewpoint of expanded open and political examination. There are numerous difficulties of today with the expanding number of individuals entering prisons and correctional facilities. With the expanded utilization of illegalization of illegal medications, and privatizations of prisons. The prisons and the framework are much bigger today than they were twenty five years prior, there topping off with uneven number of minority detainees transcendently dark and Hispanic prisoners. In numerous locales jail packs have appeared with force and impact and is testing jail organizations the capacity to control jail environment (Riverland, 1999). Again expanded jail populaces, the real driver over the countries was an increment in law authorization regard for illegal medications particularly split cocaine, additionally expanded was the punishments for trafficking, and more sentences for fierce and sex wrongdoers. Not just does this support in the congestion of the prisons additionally to the budgetary and administrative effect and that is HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and hepatitis. The executives of prisons need to expect obligation regarding the recognizable proof, treatment, counteractive action and keep control of these illnesses in jail and correctional facilities (Riverland, 1999).

In the 70s and the 80s the courts assumed control as the real direction in jail organization. In the 90s the strategy creators assumed control from the courts. Jail overseer today arecantered around more extensive approach issues. The courts inclusion in prisons had a noteworthy impact on the jail organization in actuality and in observation. This activity remedied some genuine ill-uses and enhance the aggregate operations of prisons. It additionally constrained jail organization to meet sacred bits yet was extraordinarily affected and upgraded polished methodology at all levels of jail organization. The movement from a verbal to a composed approach and to a methodology situation improved the polished skill of amendments at all levels.

Electronic checking and its belongings, 5,034 medium and high hazard guilty parties. At that point there were the guilty parties that were not put on electronic observing 266,991. This was more than a six year period and the subjective information gathered through up close and personal meetings. It incorporated 105 guilty parties 36 regulating officers, and 20 overseers from fourteen areas in Florida. This shows that the quantitative examination the electronic checking lessens wrongdoer’s danger of disappointment by 31 percent and that worldwide situating framework observing results in 6 percent less supervision disappointments (Bales, Mann, Blomberg, Gaes, Barrick Dhungana, &Mcmanus, 2010).

In a late NIJ supported symposium, a few specialists offered their perspectives of what Criminal justice would look like in 2040. (Ritter, 2006) The specialists were Bryan J. Vila, a previous head of the NIJ’s Crime Control and Prevention Research Division; Christopher E. Stone, a teacher of practice of criminal justice at Harvard, and David Weisburd, educator of criminology at the University of Maryland. (Schmalleger, 2011) Vila said that he accepted that the future wrongdoing warriors will need to comprehend what he calls the co advancement of wrongdoing commission and wrongdoing battling. (Ritter, 2006) Technological advances will have a significant impact on wrongdoing battling, as per Vila. (Schmalleger, 2011). Improvements in reconnaissance, biometrics, DNA investigation and radio recurrence will have an incredible impact on wrongdoing battling. As indicated by Vila, the future will acquire upgrades frameworks that will permit authorities to talk electronically to each other in instances of crises and different circumstances that oblige the need. (Ritter, 2006). He has the conviction that the associations between the nationals and offices will prompt a decline in criminal open doors. (Schmalleger, 2011).

DNA profiling or DNA fingerprinting makes utilization of the human DNA for purposes of distinguishing proof. The DNA is found in individuals’ blood, spit, skin tissue, hair, bone and semen. The Justice Department takes note of that DNA confirmation is assuming a bigger part than at any other time in recent memory before in criminal cases all through the nation. This has been utilized to convict criminals as well as to permit the ones detained to be excused of unlawful acts they didn’t carry out yet were indicted. (ncjrs.gov). Through the years there have been numerous databases that have been produced to profile cases. This helps authorities discover a profile for a criminal that has been fingerprinted. The capacity to dissect DNA is getting to be more pervasive throughout the years. The capacity to have the capacity to confirm DNA relativity to a case in a timelier way will make for speedier conviction.

Some terrorist organizations are trying to get weapons of mass obliteration including conceivable concoction, natural radiological and atomic dangers. (Schmalleger, 2011). PC information robbery, and also endeavours to accumulate ordered information from the legislature’s PCs is extremely normal. There are various viral PC worms that terrorists endeavour to utilize attempting to close down government frameworks and military frameworks. (Schmalleger, 2011). There are better approaches for making weapons that are turned out to be harder to distinguish. It is getting to be simpler for criminals to get around the obstructions that we have now, and as time passes by it appears that there are dependably changes being made. It appears that the criminals are dependably one stage in front of the law implementation.

Recent Trends

The most recent innovation has moulded a complete new class for the different phases of crime. Police must utilize what is accessible with the innovation of today to proceed at the front line of potential criminals. Innovation has improved the capacity to perceive and take into guardianship people blameworthy of perpetrating crimes. Late trends, for example, correspondence methods have immensely expanded the cooperation identifying with law requirement and society.

There are a few improved gadgets that are utilized for the wellbeing of groups which are the Amber Alert and the Adam Walsh Act’s. These are strategies that each state partakes in the United States. These approaches make accessible to society the high need of information concerning tyke abducting. These strategies consider groups to draw together and help police in settling kid kidnappings. In spite of the fact that, criminals may advantage from innovation by utilizing it for criminal increase; law requirement likewise profit from the most recent innovation. DNA is an innovation that has built up a noteworthy effect on the perspective of the criminal justice framework. With DNA tests of a singular’s unique mark’s can be lifted from a crime scene. The achievement of DNA permits a man to be perceived through body liquid, hair, and finger impression tests to have the capacity to fathom a crime (Smith, 2004). DNA tests recognize associates yet one with the more constructive parts of DNA is demonstrating a man guiltless when he or she has been dishonestly detained. Contemporary issues are issues that have confronted the criminal justice framework.

Contemporary Issues

There are numerous contemporary issues confronting the criminal justice framework and effect has brought on issues, for example, with sentencing, courts, and rectifications. The congestion of prisons and more jail sentences are specifically identified with the “Three Strikes and You’re Out” laws (Muraskin& Roberts, 2009). Similar to the absence of restoration and re-entry preparing. There are hindrances that people must face when leaving jail and reappearing the overall population. These boundaries incorporate social, mental, and legitimate obstructions (Muraskin& Roberts, 2009). To totally comprehend what is required for detainees to reappear society and be fruitful, a gander at the past, present, and future of re-entry projects are required. The issues confronting sexual orientation separation in the middle of men and ladies; break even with security is obliged to dispose of any sex segregation.

Estimation of the Criminal Justice System

The estimation of the criminal justice framework in changing society is to present suggestions for ascending above injustice in the United States (Robinson, 2009). The criminal justice framework is to be fair-minded and diminish crime. Thusly, the criminal justice framework must change as society changes and keep on passing approaches when expected to battle new innovative crime. There must be a criminal justice set up to keep on being a feature of society that verifies justice is served, crime controlled, and break even with treatment to everybody.


What is corrections going to be in the year 2025, some say that the jail overseer still will be kept on being tested by staff limit issues. There will at present be issues of segregation, badgering and prisoner/staff connections. Privatization of prisons will be across the board in revisions when all is said in done. There will likewise be a ton of dependence on innovation in the organization of prisons. The impacts on today prisons organizations over the United States are comparative also are the difficulties. Could we expect that today’s issues will be significant drivers of tomorrow’s issues?

Throughout the following 50 years we could see numerous changes in the field of criminal Justice. There is no real way to anticipate the future, there are numerous things indicating toward change. There are such a variety of new improvements that occur in innovation, science and various instruments for examinations. These changes implies that we need to roll out improvements in the way we handle things, and this implies that the field of criminal justice have and will change with the times.

There are numerous changes that must be made in the future so as to stay aware of the changes in innovation and the persistent development in wrongdoing. As expressed before there are criminal acts that appear to be one stage in front of the arrangements. As law authorization has the capacity roll out the improvements with innovation and make things simpler for them, they will have the capacity to roll out improvements in the way we find the law violations and location them. I think there will be numerous things that will make law implementation more powerful. I believe that there is almost no change that will be impeding to law authorization. Nonetheless, I accept that with change there comes more change. There will never be an end to what needs to be carried out to take after the change.

Grant Writing in Criminal Justice – Assignment Instructions

Assignment Instructions 

Grant writing in criminal justice and related agencies is an acquired skill that is greatly underutilized today. Indeed, it is common for agencies to hire an outside consultant to write grant proposals or to have an officer with no formal grant-writing training improvise, often with very little success.

With regard to the neglected skill of grant writing in criminal justice, please research and then answer the following questions:

Primary Task Response: Within the Discussion Board area, write 400–600 words that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. This will be the foundation for future discussions by your classmates. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas:

  • Why do you think grant writing is an essential skill for criminal justice and related agencies? Explain.
  • Why do you think that this skill is underutilized today in criminal justice and related fields? Explain.
  • What are the potential benefits of having a skilled grant writer in a criminal justice or related agency? Explain.
  • How might the position of grant writer differ depending on the size of the agency?