Tag: Culture

Live Action Organization – Organizations Impacting Culture

The selected organization is the Live Action organization. Live Action is the leading national human rights and pro-life organizations in America. The organization is committed to stopping abortion and stimulating culture that defends and respects life. The organization was established in 2008, by Lila Rose when she was only 15, as a non-profit, non-partisan organization. The organization started its mission immediately after it formation, by conducting the initial nationally public undercover abortion industry investigation.  Today, Live Action focuses on changing the public opinion on preborn children killing and guards the rights of the most susceptible among us. The organization is achieving this by compelling investigative reporting, human interest storytelling, investigative reporting and educational media. The organization also uses the above means to reveal the preborn humanity and exposing the industry of aborting which exploits women for personal benefits (Live Action, 2018).

The Live Action focuses on preserving the culture of respecting life by making people understand that life brings conception till natural death. The organization focuses on ensuring that the God’s plan in creation is fulfilled by fighting killing of unborn babies for whatever reasons. It also exposes how abortion is an abuse of women’s rights and how it also endangers life (Live Action, 2018). The organization thus focuses on preserving religious cultural value that focus on respecting life the time the conception takes place since according to religious teachings, that God is involved in the life of a person since conception. Abortion is also a new act that was realized after women revolution. The organization thus focuses on fighting the act, preserving the culture of respecting life as it was when women’s role was to nurture the family. The main strength of the organization is that it is based on religious values and hence its activities are highly supported by religious organizations, especially Catholic church that advocate for pro-life.

Liberty Counsel – Organizations Impacting Culture

Liberty Counsel  is a non-taxable organization that supports litigation associated to values of evangelical Christians. The organization mission is to restore culture by fighting for the advancement of religious freedom, the holiness of the family and human life (Liberty Counsel, 2018). The organization has its headquarters in Virginia, the District of Columbia and Florida. However, they have attorneys that practices in all courts across the United States. The attorneys offer help in cases which uphold their mission. The organization has been in forefront in fighting uncultured practices especially in marriages that have eventually been upheld by the law.

Liberty counsel has been highly involved in fighting against legalization of gay marriage, with their clear stand that this kind of marriage should not be allowed since it interfere with family religious and moral values (Liberty Counsel, 2004). The organization has been using its resources to uphold Christians’ value in families and in human life by vigorously fighting what they consider to polarize these values using the country’s legal system. The organization also offers support to any citizens who have a case related to such issues and wishes to stand for traditional cultural values that are well known to respect human life and to uphold the sanctity of family. The main organization strength is its strong network of attorneys across the country and their rich knowledge in the laws of the culture, as well as the traditional cultural values of the people of the United States. The organization is also rooted in religious value and hence it has great support from the people who believe in respecting religious value and honor traditional practices that defined a family and human life.

Culture Shock Reflection Paper

Assignment Instructions

Think about a time when you were immersed in a new culture or co-culture. Write a 250-500 word reflection, addressing the following:

  • Explain the circumstances surrounding your immersion in a new culture/co-culture. What was the reason for your trip/experience?
  • Identify the stages of culture shock present in your experience of the new culture/co-culture.
  • Explain how you tried to cope with the culture shock.
  • Discuss how you might cope with the culture shock in a healthier way in the future based upon what you learned about culture shock in this topic.

Sample Culture Shock Reflection Paper

I experienced new culture immersion when I was sent back to my ancestral home to live with my grandparents for a while. My grandparents lived among individuals who practiced Chamorro culture, something I never knew anything about. I had a problem communicating and interacting with people, having been brought up in the United States. I could also not understand most of their daily life routines including dressing, behaving among different people or even interacting with those of my age. It was a great challenge to be there at first. While there I experienced different stages of culture shock.

The first stage was honeymoon stage which was highly adventurers to try new food, to see new forms of dressing and living and to try new language, though without being conversant with it. I then experienced the frustration stage where I could not understand what was being said, making it hard for me to walk around doing anything on my own. This was considerably frustrating since in most cases I could not even understand what my grandparents were saying to me and signs and gestures did not do me any better. This went on for more than three weeks before I started adjusting. In the adjusting stage, I was able to understand a few spoken words and I had understood their sign language and gestures. I had also developed some liking to different dishes that it was easy to know what I would eat and what I would not. Although my time of stay did not give me a chance to feel comfortable with this culture, I had at least managed to integrate with them and to learn a few things. I am sure that the next visit will be different, such that I will feel more adapted by the time I leave this place.

I tried to cope with culture shock using various methods. One involved the use of gestures while speaking to make others understand what I was saying. I also tried to learn the language. I identified a few young people who conversant with English and they played a great role in training me the basics of their language and culture. I also used to walk with them for interpretation which helped me a lot in coping. According to Anjalin, Mazumdar and Whiteside (2017), one can cope culture shock by being engaged in hobbies and other interesting activities to be distracted. One can also set personal goals in learning the culture to ensure that they understand it as soon as possible. It also helps to be patient with oneself and to be less judgmental. One should also use the available resources to learn and start a journal to write every new cultural aspect that is encountered.

Islam in the Seventh Century And The Early Muslim Culture

Islam religion was established by Muhammad in the 7th century in Mecca near the red sea. Muhammad who claimed to be God’s messenger similar to Jesus and Moses was receiving messages from God which he wrote in Quran. These messages acted as the law that governs Muslims’ ways of life today. Muslims believe is based on five pillars. The first one is known as shahada which is a testimony of oneness of God. They believe that there is no any other God other than Allah. They also believe in Muhammad as God’s prophet (Mckeefery, n.d). The second pillar is salat which is the prayer where every Muslim is required to pray five times a day including in the evening, early in the morning, sunset, noon and in the mid-afternoon. The prayer should be done while prostration and bowing to show submission to Allah, and facing Mecca. They also perform Dua which is impulsive private player though below the normal worship.  The third pillar is zakat that represents giving in charity. The fourth pillar is sawm which represents fasting in the designated month of Ramadan during the day with exception of the sick and pregnant women who are required to compensate while they can. Children are also exempted. Fasting is broken in the beginning of the following month at a feast known as Id al-Firt. The last pillar is Hajj which is a pilgrimage to Mecca which every Muslim is required to participate in Mecca pilgrimage at least once in their lifetime (Mckeefery,n.d).

Muslim culture changed the life of the people a great deal. It introduced the culture of women covering themselves completely and set other rule such as number of women to marry, how to handle various life related cases, gender role division and way of conducting business among other issues. Islamic established a law that governed its followers on how to live their life. The main Islamic culture accomplishment includes enhancing literacy to permit people to read the Quran and other religious stories written by Muhammad. They also made a great contribution to the industrial development, change of women life and spread of their religion (Mckeefery, n.d).

How did Greece influence the Culture of Rome

The early Rome development was highly influenced a great deal by Greeks and Etruscans who were its surrounding neighbors. The Romans copied many skills and ideas from Greece, especially the building culture. Romans assimilated Greek culture during Greek colonist development of towns on the Sicily Island and in Southern Italy. They also learned about ways of Greek from traders among other Greeks who migrated to Rome. The Rome borrowed Greek public buildings designs where they learnt to utilize concrete to develop larger structures. Initially Romans built using columns. Romans also admired Greek sculpture, painting, and pottery. Although they had art ideas of their own, they integrated it with Greek art to make it more appealing and sophisticated. They also adopted Greek mythology which influenced their ideas of gods (Greek Europe Reporter, 2013). Although early Romans had their own rituals and gods, they changed their ideas regarding gods as they interacted with other cultures. They blended the characteristics of similar gods from other culture. The adoption included adopting a new god but naming them with Roman’s titles. They also adopted related rituals increasing their number of gods and ritual celebration they had to perform for the same.

However, the main difference was that Roman did not like narrating about their gods as Greek did, despite observing all needed forms of worship. Roman also borrowed the democracy form of government from Greece an idea that Romans adopted and reinterpreted and expanded and went on using it as their own (Greek Europe Reporter, 2013).  Roman was considerably younger than Greece, and hence they had a lot to learn from it. This made them borrow a lot from them. They were also colonized by Greeks meaning that some of the changes were directly imposed on them. Rome admired Greek greatness which they tried to achieve by copying things they liked most about them. In most cases, Roman borrowed Greek idea and advanced it meaning that they were aspiring to use borrowed ideas and integrate them with theirs for better results.

Absence Culture Vs Absence Policy

Absenteeism is widespread in almost all sectors of a given economy. By and large, it is taken as hampering competitiveness, profitability as well as productivity. Often, it brings about overtime, dissatisfied clients, late deliveries, and injures staff morale among the employees expected to take up the duties of their absent colleagues. In due course, absenteeism affects organizations’ profitability adversely, with the related direct costs being exceeded by the related indirect costs (Jex & Britt, 2008). This paper demonstrates that absence policies, unlike the absence culture, are unlikely to stem employee absence. Many organisations remain bedeviled by staff absence despite having many well thought out, as well as clear, absence policies. Organisations are better served by developing the absence culture than putting in place absence policies. The absence culture helps manage staff absence proactively. It is essential in eradicating staff absence successfully.
Absence policies confer on organisations fewer benefits than the absence culture largely because of the considerable challenges that define the implementation of the former. Many organisations have developed well thought out and well planned absence policies, which unfortunately, are likely to fail to achieve the desired low levels of staff absence (Towers, 2004). The policies are likely to fail even when they are communicated to the targeted staff members persistently. Often, the implementation of the policies is challenging owing to organizations’ dependence on their line managers for the policies’ implementation. As well, organisations are highly dependent on the managers for the policies’ tracking as well ownership (Jex & Britt, 2008). As expected, the busy line managers find the role rather inconveniencing owing to their busy work plans. As well, they find the role inconveniencing as it is often not one of their principal performance indicators or key responsibilities. The line managers are usually not incentivized to focus on the role. Consequently, they rarely take action before staff absenteeism levels get out of hand.
Absence policies are unlikely to bring down staff absence rates as much as the absence culture does owing to other reasons. First, the policies and the related processes are often inconsistent, meaning that varied managers implement them in varied ways. Second, the manual tracking of staff absence is challenging. Consequently, many managers lack the enthusiasm to embark on it. They are likely to prioritize other tasks than the manual tracking of staff absence. Third, when organisations fail to track the implementation of their absence policies the rates of absence go up almost invariably. Fourth, in most organisations, senior managers are likely to be disengaged from the implementation of the policies.
Absence policies have varied downsides. Many employees are likely to find the implementation of the policies demeaning as they see them fit for very young, irresponsible persons. That is especially so when they suffer reprimands for staying away from their workstations. The reprimands are likely to bring about resentment. If organisations have absence policies that provide for the punishing of the staff who keep away from work but fail to provide for the rewarding of those posting commendable attendance rates, their employees are likely to view them as practicing double standards. As noted earlier, there are considerable challenges in the enforcement of the policies. Over and over again, the implementation of the policies is challenging owing to organizations’ dependence on their line managers for the policies’ implementation (Towers, 2004). Additionally, organisations are highly dependent on the managers for the policies’ tracking as well ownership. True to form, the busy line managers find the role rather inconveniencing owing to their busy work plans. As well, the implementation of the policies is defined by limited or no flexibility. The implementers of the policies are likely to fail to consider the many factors that define working adults’ lives, including sickness of loved ones, which can alter the adults’ schedules (Jex & Britt, 2008).
Even then, absence policies have various strengths over the absence culture. First, the implementation of the policies helps organisations in their allocation of their human resources in ways that are efficient (Towers, 2004). Second, the policies are rather effective in controlling costs since staff members who keep away from work cost their employers money. Third, the policies foster a sense of fairness: employees are unlikely to be asked to stand in for colleagues who absent themselves unjustifiably.
Even then, the absence culture has various strengths over the absence policies. The culture promotes staff wellbeing as employees have the confidence, as well as flexibility, to balance their individual and family needs devoid of worrying about finances or even work. Organisations that have the absence culture show a commitment to their staff members’ wellbeing and also bolster their engagement levels. Besides, the culture supports talent acquisition, demonstrating cutting edge ways of managing benefits (Jex & Britt, 2008). However, some employees may be tempted to abuse the culture, impacting on organizations’ profitability adversely.
By and large, practicing an absence culture confers more benefits to organisations than practicing an absence policy. Many organisations remain bedeviled by staff absence despite having many well thought out, as well as clear, absence policies. Absence policies confer on organisations fewer benefits than the absence culture largely because of the considerable challenges that define the implementation of the former. In most organisations, senior managers are likely to be disengaged from the implementation of the policies. The absence culture promotes staff wellbeing and allows organisations to show a commitment to the wellbeing.

Organizational Theory: The multiple Perspective on Organizational Culture

The Question To Be Answered:

‘What managers most often want to know about their organization’s culture is how to change it. Regardless of the perspective adopted, all organization culture researchers acknowledge that top managers are powerful members of an organization’s culture. And, because power grants them a disproportionate share of attention, their behavior becomes a role model for others, their words are carefully attended, and their directives are obeyed. But what is recommended to managers on the basis of culture theory differs markedly according to the perspectives adopted’ (Hatch and Cunliffe, 2013: 185).

Choose two of the four perspectives and discuss their different views on organisational culture and how their advice to managers who are seeking to influence organisational culture might be different.

  • The four perspectives are Modernism, Critical Theory, Symbolic Interpretive and Postmodernism.
  • I would pefer if focused on Modernism and Symbolic Interpretive.
  • Required word count 2000 words excluding the references.

Required readings (located on blackboard site):

  • Chapter 6 and pp 311-318 (Hatch and Cunliffe)
  • Fleming, P and Spicer, A. (2003) ‘Working at a cynical distance: Implications for power, subjectivity and resistance’
  • Wilson, F. (2014) ‘Chapter 11: Culture’ in Organisational Behaviour and Work, pp. 224-241.
  • Xu, Y., and Weller, P., Inside the World Bank, “The Staff and Their organizational Culture”, pp. 74-82.

Contributions of the Chinese Culture to the United States

The history of traditional Chinese culture extends over a span of five millennia and is renowned for its enormous diversity and variety. In fact, the complex Chinese civilization was characterized by arts and sciences, elaborate printing and painting techniques, and delicate sculpture and pottery. Chinese architectural techniques are much renowned and respected worldwide. In addition, Chinese language, literature, religion, politics and philosophy have left a lasting impression of the culture to this day. The philosophies of Taoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism continue to shape Chinese beliefs and culture immensely. This paper highlights significant contributions of the Chinese culture to the United States by elaborating on geographic location, population, and cultural traits.

Today, Americans of Chinese descent consist the largest group of Asian Americans, at a population of 3.8 million people. They are also the largest Chinese community overseas that resides out of Asia. As the third largest community in the Chinese diaspora, Chinese Americans only fall behind Chinese communities in Malaysia and Thailand in number. Americans with a Chinese ancestry constitute 1.2% of the American population. As of 2010, half of Chinese-born Americans resided in the states of New York and California(Census Bureau 18). Even so, a larger part of Chinese in the US live in five states namely Hawaii, Texas, Illinois, New York, and California.

The Chinese are heterogeneous with regard to religion, language, and socioeconomic status. As far as religion is concerned, the Chineseculture embraces traditional philosophies of Taoism, Buddhism, Confucianism, and ancestry worship(Giddens, Owen, and Sandra 12). Approximately a quarter of people practice Confucianism, Taoism, and traditional ancestry worship, although there are small numbers that identify with Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam. Very few Chinese have converted from traditional Chinese philosophies to catholic and protestant ministries. Indeed, many continue to follow Confucian values of “li” (rituals) and “love”, indicating respect for social hierarchy and society.

With regard to language, the Chinese culture adopts two major dialects, each of which has its own variations. The majority speak the Mandarin dialect while the others utilize Wu, Yue, Xiang, Min, Hakka, and Gan(Wang, William, and Chaofen 156).These dialects are considerably different owing to the fact that the Chinese language is perceived as a familylanguage rather than a single language consisting of different regional forms. In actual fact, the language is analogous to the Roman language family of Europe. For example the dialect of Peking, which is commonly used in Beijing, is much different from the dialect of Chaozhou in the same way French is different from Italian(Mullaney, Thomas, et al. 2). It is important to note, however, that the official language dialect in China is Pŭtōnghuà, a type of Mandarin dialect that is mainly spoken by residents of Beijing. Many chinse who reside in America are also fluent in the English language.

Just like other aspects of the Chinese culture, Chinese cuisine is heavily inspired by ethnic diversity and geography. The main styles of cuisine include Cantonese, which is mainly characterized by stir-fried dishes, and Szechuan, which depends heavily on the use of sesame paste, peanuts, and ginger(Shurtleff, William, and Akiko Aoyagi 569). The latter is mostly known for its spiciness. The Chinese culture is mainly affiliated with rice, which is not only a major food in mainland china but also a major factor that helped shaped the Chinese society. Notably, the Chinese word for rice isFan, which also denotes “meal”(Perkins 187). Rice is more of a staple diet like bean sprouts, scallions, and cabbage(Kuiper 42). It is also important to note that the Chinese do not consume a lot of meat. Occasionally, they take chicken and pork but largely prefer tofu (bean curd) as the main source of protein.

When it comes to art, the Chinese culture is influenced by China’s rich mystical and spiritual history. Many Chinese paintings and sculptures depict figures of Buddhism, Confucianism, and noble figures in ancient Chinese history. Several musical instruments are fundamental to Chinse culture, including the guqin(Jin 60) and the flute-like xun (Jin 11), which is categorized in the zither family of string instruments. Another major artistic trait of the Chinese culture is the eastern-style martial arts, which were originally developed in china, the birthplace of kung Fu(Active Interest Media, Inc. 94). The fighting style is based on animal movement and was invented in the 1600s. It is also worth noting that the Chinese culture is affiliated with writing and philosophy and this is reflected by the rich liturgical history.

Although modern Chinese do not stringently follow the traditional system of Chinese clothing, their clothes vary by religion and time. Traditionally, each social class, depending on status in the society, had a different sense of fashion(Yang 4)Most men wore black cotton shoes, but people from higher classes wore tough black leather shoes especially when attending formal occasions. The rich and the wealthy would wear beautiful and bright silk shoes with leather on the inside. On the other hand, women would wear silk and lotus shoes. By the same token, civil and military officials adopted different styles of clothing. These dressing customs are no longer prevalent in todays’ society and Chinese communities seem to have been influenced by world trends since the republican era.

In conclusion, the Chinese culture is white analogous when it comes to language, religion, arts, and other traits. Nevertheless, the culture is rich in many customs, particularly with regard to religion, philosophies, and way of life. Contemporary Chinese culture is an amalgam of westernized lifestyle and old world traditions. Still, the Chinese cultures is among the oldest cultures in the world.

America and Africa Culture Comparison Research Paper

Introduction

The book, Definition of Culture and society across the World defines Culture as accumulated knowledge, behaviour, experience, language, art, laws, morals, beliefs, attitude, customs and traditions that are shared by a particular society and can be passed down from one generation to the other (Terry, 2016). Culture therefore defines members of a given society. Terry also explains Society as a large group of people bound together geographically and live in an organized way by sharing work and following laws put in place. People living in a country are therefore considered a society. The American culture according to David refers to the way of life of the American people who comprise of different races, and speak different languages (David, 2011). This research paper seeks to compare the American and the African culture in terms of the family structures, education systems, traditions that include rite of passage and initiation, religious beliefs and practices, diseases and medical accessibility, sexual norms as well as death rituals. The paper will research broadly on the components of culture as highlighted above with an aim of comparing the American and the African culture. Norms, traditions and values are important aspects that not only characterize a society but also differentiate one society from another.

Literature Review

Culture is a broad subject in the world today. As defined by Terry in her book, Definition of society and culture across the world, it is evident that every person is defined by a culture that was passed down to them (Terry, 2016). According to what she explains, one’s geographical boundaries determine their culture. The American and the African culture vary in various ways. Religion as explained by both American and African scholars is a key factor that defines and differentiates the various cultures (David, 2011; Lateju, 2012 & Van, 2013). Books on marriage, family structures and child rearing will also be used to outline the difference between the American and the African culture (Karla, 2011 & Rekha, 2014). In the book, Religion, rituals and African traditions, Kofi explains how religion, as well as customs and traditions not only define but also distinguish one cultures from the other (Kofi, 2011). Books on contemporary issues in the society such as homosexuality, divorce and matriarchal family structures will also be used in this research paper to differentiate the two cultures. These contemporary issues exist in the American culture and not the African culture. The book, Marriage as a culture for divorce for instance will be used to highlight divorce incidences in the US (Karla, 2011), an aspect that is not found in an African traditional setting. With the help of the books stated above, this research paper will clearly distinguish the American culture from the African culture.

Discussion

The family structures of the people living in American and that of the African communities can be used to differentiate the two cultures. Troy defines family as a bounded set of a mother, a father and children who recognize each other through a set of emotions and love and are distinguished from other groups (Troy, 2014). Rekha also highlights that families are structured in two major ways: they are either patriarchal or matriarchal. Whereas patriarchy gives males primary power over the family, matriarchy allows the woman to be head and govern the family (Rekha, 2014) the woman in this case controls the property of the family. The African culture as described by Florence gives the power to govern a family to the father or any adult man while the women is given a subordinate role. Power and responsibility can only be transferred to the woman in the absence of the father (Florence, 2014). Most families in the American culture are matriarchal in nature. Education, women empowerment, laws that protect women and children rights, power and civilization in the US have boosted matriarchal family structures. Despite the rise of matriarchy in the world, patriarchy still exists in both the American and the African culture. Both societies are still male-dominated despite the American culture showing slight improvement on Matriarchy unlike the African culture (Rekha, 2014).

The difference in education trends and systems also distinguishes the American culture from the African culture. Education for children with special needs for instance, differentiates the two cultures. The American government has put a lot of resources into special education. The African culture on the other hand is still lagging behind in terms of provision of special education. Most African countries fall under developing countries that do not have much resources to pump into special education, needs and care. The education system in African is also that children are taught using foreign languages mostly of their colonialists and not their native language while the American children are taught with their native language, English. The education reforms that have been undertaken in most African cultures since after independence have not strictly addressed such issues making the quality of education extremely poor when compared to the American systems of education. The education system of a particular country therefore is not only a reflection of their culture but is also its distinguishing characteristic from other cultures (Kofi, 2011).

The rites of passage are another key distinguishing feature. The four rites of passage, birth, initiation, marriage and death are experienced in both cultures. In an African set up, these ceremonies are very important and every member of the society is invited. The community gathers in a specific place depending on the occasion. A burial ceremony must be carried out in every African culture (Fola, 2011). In the American culture, the dead are either buried or cremated. In cases of burial, there is normally a burial ceremony similar to that of the African arrangement.

The age groups and age sets in the African culture are formed during the initiation into adulthood. Oloo explains that a group of boys who are circumcised on the same day form an age set (Oloo, 2014). The American culture varies completely because circumcision is not considered a big deal. Initiation ceremonies are not carried out while can be done in various ways including in hospitals. This is considered a taboo in some African societies (Zuesse, 2013) Boys who do not undergo circumcision ceremonies in the African culture are considered outcasts in the society. African communities conduct customary marriages whereas the American culture allows any form of marriage. Wedding ceremonies are conducted in most American cultures while Marriage ceremonies that include marriage rituals conducted in an African set up. The birth rite of passage is also practised differently among the two cultures as explained by Bonnelle. The African community hold a celebration ceremony under a shrine while the American culture, involves baptism of the new born through a baby shower ceremony (Bonelle, 2013). Death and ritual customs are also performed in different ways in both the American and African culture. Death rituals carried out in American depends on the religious background of the deceased. The Catholic Americans for example, perform burial services in church, then the body is disposed of according to family decision. The African culture on the other hand buries their dead after a series of burial ceremonies that take up to a week (Mbiti, 2012).

Marriage practices, dating and divorce are practiced and viewed differently in both the American and the African culture. Marriage in the American culture for instance, can be done in church, by law or through the come we stay arrangement (Victoria, 2013). Multiple marriages are permitted in the American culture. Dating and courtship is also practiced in the American unlike the African culture whereby the African woman has no say in who she will get married to. Whereas dating and courtship is highly regarded in the American culture, the African culture does not recognize it. In the book, Marriage in a culture of divorce, it is evident that the American culture accepts divorce and recognizes it as part of the marriage process (Karla, 2013). The case is totally different in the African culture since divorce is considered a taboo. Marriage ties can only be broken by death. Polygamy on the other hand is recognized and considered a sign of wealth. Wife inheritance also take place in the African set up after the death of a husband (Mbiti, 2012).

Sexual norms and practices also vary in the American and African set up. Human sexuality in the African culture is considered sacred and only performed by the married. Ann explains that there are normally cases of divorce that are punishable by death. The American culture is a bit liberated. People are allowed to exercise their sexuality in whatever way. Violation of the minor, rape and any case of forceful sexual behaviour is punishable by law. According to David, different forms of sexuality is allowed in the US (David, 2013). Homosexual marriages are forbidden in the traditional African set up. It is seen as a curse and those that practice it are rejected by the community (Letaju, 2013). Morals and norms are highly upheld in the African culture compared to the American culture. The disciplinary bodies in the African set up include the chiefs, parents and community elders while in the American set up it includes the police, teachers, parents and the court.

There is also a huge difference in terms of child rearing. Sexual behaviours and attitudes of a particular culture determines the child rearing practices. In an African set up according to Florence, children are owned by the community and not by the parents as in an American culture. The children in the African culture therefore can be disciplined by any member of the community (Florence, 2013). The different ways of controlling child birth and population are considered a taboo in the African culture. Children are a sign of wealth (Evans & Matthew, 2013). These practices of population control are encouraged and accepted in the American culture. According to Mbiti, children that are born out of wedlock in the African culture are considered as outcast and are therefore rejected by the society. In the American culture as explained by Bonnelle, children are owned and brought up by individuals, mostly parents. Children born out of wedlock are accepted and treated like any other children (Bonnelle, 2013).

Diseases, disorders and access to medical care is another factor that distinguishes the American culture from the African. The traditional African set up uses traditional medicine extracted from trees and other natural substances. They do not belief in hospitals and modern medical care as explained by Matthew (Matthew, 2013). The American culture on the other hand embraces modern medical facilities with improved technology. According to Dr. Kate, the improved technology assists in detecting and curing most diseases that cannot be treated traditionally. Access to medical facility is also faster and more efficient in the USA compared to the developing countries. People with disorders and chronic diseases in the African set up are considered bad omen and are most times killed through rituals (Evans & Matthew, 2013). Due to availability of efficient medical care in the American culture, their elderly are better taken care of. Most of the aged in the USA according to Taylor are taken to the elderly facilities where their needs are met (Laurie, 2011). The African culture on the other hand is totally different because the elderly is considered and treated as a burden in the society. African communities such as the Nandi in Kenya throw their elderly of the cliff because they consider them inoperable (Awolalu, 2012).

In addition to that, the difference in religious practices differentiates the African and the American culture. The book, Religion and American culture, outlines so many religious beliefs in American ranging from atheism, to protestants, Catholics, Islam religion, Hinduism, Buddhism and many others (David, 2011). The African culture on the other hand comprises of a common religion that beliefs in a supreme being called God. According to Mbiti, the African societies worship God in different ways based on their belief in his capabilities and existence. There are so many ways in which Africans worship God including in shrines, others under specific trees, others while facing the sun and many more (Mbiti, 2011). As explained in the book, Religion and culture, the religious beliefs of a particular culture is very key in shaping the society’s behaviour and morality (David, 2011). Religion according to Mc Kate is the pillar of a society’s culture (Mc Kate, 2012).

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Anthropology Of Sexuality And Culture

Introduction

From time immemorial, sexuality has proven an integral component of any society. It’s this construct that defines individuals through gender subsequently assigned to them and the roles that they have to play. For the longest time, various tenets of sexuality and the assortment of accepted practices remained unknown to most of the world as researchers just didn’t see it as a discourse worth exploring. The formative years of the 20th century remain ground-breaking in history as anthropology chartered the way in making attempts to explain gender, sexuality and their relationship to culture from a broader scope. Prominent researchers such as Bronislaw Malinowski and Margaret Mead made comprehensive assessments of sexuality across various cultures across the world in a bid to have a better understanding of the subject.

Theirs was a quest to establish the cross-cultural comparisons of different societies and attitudes towards sexuality from a cultural context. Ethnography was emerging as an essential tool in making these studies viable and the primary reason why these pioneers intended to use anthropology as a fundamental methodological approach. These studies began in the 1920s and extended to the 1930s, with Malinowski traveling to the Western Pacific to study the customs and sexual mores of ethnic groups residing in the Trobriand Islands. Further research on sexuality and culture was at an all-time high during the 1970s due to the massive changes that were taking place in society. Social norms were changing dramatically especially with the rise of the gay and lesbian movement together with numerous scholarly works on ted emergence of feminism (Maed, 2001). The purpose of this research paper is to provide an in-depth evaluation of how an anthropological approach can shed light on the relationship that exists between culture, society, and sexuality.

Content Literature Review

            Understanding sexuality and its connection to culture were integral to early researchers since they now lived in a rapidly transforming society. Modernization was a force to reckon with since it was responsible for globalization, which subsequently led to numerous changes in the manner in which individuals viewed sexuality. Anthropology’s role was an important one since it sought to demystify the intricacies that existed in sexuality from one community to another. A study into the cultural constructs of sexuality would serve these researchers well as they would, for the first time, have a unique opportunity to review sexual diversity amongst cultures around the world and the social dimensions present. According to Vance (1991), the study of sexuality and its connections to culture is a central to anthropology, even though researchers seem to ignore the subject intentionally (p.1). The primary reason for this state of affairs is the complexity of the issue at hand and the attitudes of others in questioning the researcher’s motive.

Similarly, it was also noted that a considerable difference existed in how sexuality was viewed in the Western world and other cultures around the globe (Mead, 2001). During her 1928 study, Margaret Maed made it abundantly clear that there existed significant variations in how different cultures approached adolescence. An ethnographic fieldwork carried out in Samoa was instrumental in her work as it would reveal various nuances, such as sexuality and sexual relations together with how Pacific Islanders viewed this particular construct. According to Malinowski (2001), anthropology is best suited to investigate sexuality in different cultures around the world since a researcher can make use of a cross-cultural approach (p.43).  Malinowski is considered an anthropological great owing to his extensive research in ethnography and his unusual ideas. His views on sexuality were in direct contrast with those held by leading researchers such as Sigmund Freud. In particular, he sought to use his anthropological outlook to expose the intricacies of sexuality while challenging suppositions such as the Oedipus complex.

Researchers were also keen on solving various problems concerning sexuality using anthropology.  All this would be done by introducing a global lens to explore controversial issues such as homosexuality. Clasters (1969) sought to understand the intricacies surrounding homosexuality among the Guyaki, a native Amerindian tribe in South America (p. 147). His work soon revealed that, even for indigenous tribes that had little or no contact with the outside world, there was a transparent gender system. In other cases, individuals who would normally be considered as transgender would play a significant role in the community and how their acceptance was linked to that particular culture. According to Keller and Evans-Pritchard (1975), anthropology is one of the most fundamental disciplines in understanding the link existing between sexuality and a specific culture using an ethnographical research. On the other hand, perspectives such as those shared by Spronk (2014) during her study of sexuality and subjectivity in Nairobi, Kenya indicates the extent to which anthropology is useful to the subject at hand (P.2). She explores modernization and the effects it has on sexuality using body-sensorial knowledge, which ends up defining a whole generation.

Anthropologic Descriptions of Sexuality

Anthropology has over the years been concerned with sexual cultures of different communities across the globe. In particular, these experts wanted to focus on sexual practices as cultural constructs that appear specific for specific communities. Communities are diverse in their sexual relations and how they approach sexuality. In essence, their perspective on the issue differs significantly from that of the contemporary Western Society, hence the need to bring this point to the forefront and help elucidate it to this audience. The climax of this anthropological pursuit was during the 1980s when society had to deal with various drastic changes that were taking place. The cultural dimension of sexuality was, therefore, an integral piece of the puzzle as it would allow as it would allow for a more holistic view of the issue(Margaret Mead made me gay: personal essays, public ideas, 2001).  The practicality of various problems emerging during this period has also been cited as issues of significant influence on the anthropological view of sexuality and culture. Topics such as an increased rate of migration, globalization, same-sex marriages, awareness of the importance of sexual health and the changes in perspective brought about by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic were vital in creating these perspectives. It is for this particular reason that anthropologists opted for a paradigm shift in how sexuality was studied and how identities were forged.  In Margaret Mead made me gay: personal essays, public ideas (2001), Esther Newton makes mention of the importance of these changes and how they positively influenced her anthropological work

Theories influencing Sexuality and Culture in Anthropology

Making viable suppositions was the first step in ensuring that sexuality and culture were conclusively tackled. It was therefore imperative for lead anthropologists to come up with theories that would seek to break down this problem and ensure that that they put forth their unique views on the issue at hand. The Feminist perspective was one such deposition that mainly focused on this movement and how it had been used earlier on to end the oppression experienced by women. Many feminists have a unique view of womanhood and view it as a term driven by gender and the social position that a woman occupies in society. It becomes possible to make a clear demarcation between sex and gender which subsequently ensures that sexuality can be explained through anthropology. Feminists espouse these distinctions by countering biological determinism and establishing a clear perspective was therefore responsible for the widely accepted claim that gender was, indeed, a social construct.

Individuals are therefore socialized into their respective genders using various influences present in their separate environments. These acts of socialization might be carried out unconsciously by members of a particular society through the use of gender-stereotypical language. Women studies have also made massive contributions to the never-ending quest to explain sexuality and culture in anthropology. The Queer theory has emerged as one of the most widely known anthropological approaches in defining gender. Homosexuality is an issue of grave concern here with the assumption seeking to challenge gender as being part of the self. Identities feature considerably here as a society often attempts to assign them to different individuals while observing their behavior to determine which category they would fall under. The queer theory acknowledges that a state of divergence is standard in society and hence the existence of gender ambiguity and identities such those of intersex bodies.

The Relationship between Culture, Society, and Sexuality in a Contemporary World

Constructs such as sexuality in any culture have always been of great concern to researchers and notably how they would transform with time. Technological advancements and globalization have been citing as some of the leading causes of changes observed in sexual behavior and being honest about one’s orientation. Sexuality doesn’t take a linear path whenever changes occur. New ideas are easily combined with existing ones to create a fusion that now seeks to define them. Modernization has meant that individuals have had to travel from remote settings to new localities where they are free to make decisions for themselves especially about their sexual orientation (Spronk, 2014). Such is the case in Ho Chi Minh City, in Vietnam where life in the city has meant that more individuals are coming out openly to express their sexual orientation. Spronk (2014) carried out extensive studies in Nairobi Kenya on the effects of modernization on individuals in this population, and especially on the young professionals. Many of those featured in this review seeks an independence to express their sexuality and legitimize their sexual desires, even when fully aware that they are living in a deeply conservative society.

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Using Multiple Ethnographic Accounts to Study Human Behavior and Culture As An Ethnologist

Anthropologists are interested in framing broad hypotheses about human behavior. In order to do this, it is imperative to use examples from multiple cultures to ensure that their conclusions are not grounded in a single case.

In this assignment, you will be taking on the role of an ethnologist, using multiple ethnographic accounts to study human behavior and culture.

Do the following:

  • Identify two to three societies to compare such as African, Indian, Chinese, Korean, or Native American. Please note that these are suggested societies; you may choose something not on this list.
  • Choose one aspect of human culture discussed in the course:
    • Domestic life and kinship
    • Subsistence and economy
    • Religion
    • Culture change

Using the module readings, online library resources, and the Internet, write a research paper to include the following:

  • Describe the background information of each of the societies you have chosen. You need not analyze this background information, only provide details regarding these societies.
  • Analyze the aspect of human culture you selected for each of the societies.
  • Compare and contrast the similarities and differences between the societies in relation to the topic you chose—for example, standard of living, education, or employment opportunities.
  • Summarize and address human behavior in relation to your topic and based on your examples.
    • Address the realities of life for the cultures you have examined.
    • Examine some of the social problems and public policy issues that become apparent.

Your paper should have a title page as well as an introduction section. This introduction section should include the societies you selected as well as the human culture aspect you will be discussing and why it is relevant to anthropology. As an anthropologist, use relevant anthropological terms in your analysis.

Support your statements with examples and scholarly references.

Role Of The Leadership In The Innovative Culture Of An Organization

Leaders are greatly instrumental in driving the culture of a company innovatively. Leaders in this regard concentrate on unconscious messages, norms, values and unnoticeable behaviors of superiors and workers since they help in creating an organization’s culture, which may either enhance or decrease performance of workers (Martín-de Castro et al., 2013). Providing workers with free time at various intervals helps them greatly achieve new processes, products or technologies, which can help, enhance the activities in the organization. Leaders can further recognize employees how have made important contributions to the company while at the same time rewarding them for their efforts. Symbols can further be used by the leaders and may be in the form of acronyms, catchphrases, posters in the corridors, success stories and awards that will further help in boosting employee performance and their innovativeness at the workplace. As such new employees can be greatly impacted by the various symbols in the building, which will help them be more innovative and seek to achieve their best in their endeavors (Büschgens et al., 2013).

The role of the leadership in creating an innovative culture cannot be overlooked. If the leadership is not involved people, can stick to the status quo and operate averagely. Leaders therefore should set up various behavioral practices in the workplace that aim to challenge the workers in outperforming themselves and to focus on methods that increase productivity and encourage innovation in the organizational culture (Robbins et al., 2013). Leaders in this case should lead by example and further make frequent follow ups, which will, ensures that workers are on their toes to ensure perfection. Therefore, leaders are an important part of the company’s culture sand should ensure that they come up with various points that are thoughtful and that will help in developing an effective organization culture in the company.

Organizational Culture Concept – Assignment Instructions

For this final SLP, choose an organization that you currently work for or have worked for in the past.  You will be applying the concepts of organizational culture that you read about in the background materials to this organization.

Write a two to three page paper addressing the following issues:

  1. Describe how your organization rates on these cultural characteristics: detail-oriented, team-oriented, innovative, aggressive, outcome-oriented, and people-oriented.
  2. Discuss how strong the organizational culture is at your organization.  To what extent is the organization’s culture shared by employees and managers?
  3. What aspects of your organization’s culture do you think should be changed, and what steps would you recommend to change the culture?  Use concepts from Rao (2010) in forming your recommendations.

SLP Assignment Expectations

  • Answer the assignment questions directly
  • Stay focused on the precise assignment questions, don’t go off on tangents or devote a lot of space to summarizing general background materials
  • Make sure to use reliable and credible sources as your references. Articles published in established newspapers or business journals/magazines are preferred.  If you find articles on the internet, make sure it is from a credible source.

Culture Influence on Personality Development – Discussion Reflection

In the U.S., a psychologist cannot deny that different cultures (including ethnicity, age, gender, religion, and sexual affiliation) play a role in personality development.

Consider all you have learned throughout this course as well as how your culture has shaped your personality development. Use the Internet, Argosy University library resources, and your textbook to research the effects that cultures can play on personality development. Answer the following questions:

  • What aspects of your cultural upbringing have affected your own personality development?
  • Think about a friend who grew up in a different culture how did their cultural upbringing and traditions affect their personality development in a way that differed from your upbringing?
  • Considering everything you have learned in this course, how would you now analyze your own personality?
  • Relate this to the theories of personality development that apply in your case. How will you use these new competencies in your work and personal life?

Write your initial response in 3-4 paragraphs. Apply APA standards to citation of sources, and use vocabulary that reflects your understanding of the concepts covered throughout the course.

ENG 121 Gender Representations In American Pop Culture Essay

ENG 121 Comparison – Contrast Essay  – Gender Representations In American Pop Culture

As noted in the course philosophy, this course is set up so that each lesson and essay builds from the previous.  You learn skills throughout one essay unit and continue to build on those skills with each additional essay.  The first essay (E1) required you to develop the skill of exemplification – providing brief and extended examples to support a central idea.  For E2, you will work on examining similarities and/or differences on a topic.  You will use skills including illustration/example, description, categorization, and analysis to write an essay organized as a comparison – contrast.

Throughout this essay unit, you have been reading essays that address gender characteristics, whether socially constructed or biologically influenced/defined.  Several scholars have conducted numerous studies which reveal that traditional gender characteristics are consistently apparent among men and women.  Given that these behaviors still exist, the authors explore why they exist and how they impact interaction, communication, and relationships. Another author categorizes “traditional” gender roles, behaviors, and assumptions, arguing that these roles are social constructions but that in the present day these gender roles are or can be more fluid.  Another writer explores the impact of biology on gender roles. These articles will help to inform your understanding of gender roles and will give you a basis for your own analysis of gender representations in popular culture.

Assignment:

For E2, you will demonstrate the similarity or difference in the representation of females and males in American pop culture.  You will identify a specific area of pop culture (e.g., film, television, the music industry, music videos, advertisements, consumer behaviors, sports, and so forth) and 1) describe the ways that behaviors, roles, or visual images are presented. As covered in the E1 unit, you’ll want to provide representative examples, so you’ll provide several brief examples to demonstrate patterns and one or two extended examples to illustrate the differences or similarities.

In addition to providing examples, “showing what you see,” you will 2) analyze the part that gender characteristics or assumptions (masculinity and femininity) play in the representations of and messages about women and men, drawing on at least two credible secondary sources to support your points.  (You may use any of the assigned class readings or other secondary sources found through outside research.)

Goal:

  • develop a critical understanding of similarities or differences between gender representations in American culture/society;
  •  study and categorize “traditional” roles and assumptions about gender and determine whether differences still exist in gender representations or whether more equitable expectations and representations have developed;
  • work on organizing a comparison – contrast essay
  • work on the Research Process including research, evaluation, source use, and documentation.

Understanding the Assignment:

  • Rhetorical purpose – Compare and/or contrast representations of gender roles for a specific area of popular culture that may inform the decisions and actions of individuals invested in the topic
  • Audience – General public (because gender roles are an inherent part of society) but also an audience interested in your selected topic.  Assume you are engaging in a discussion with authors such as Devor, Pollitt, Tannen, and Blum.
  • Scope – This is a 3 ½ – 4 page essay.  You will need to be selective about addressing significant points that clearly relate to the issue and would be of greatest interest to your audience.  Your topic must be narrowed/focused enough so that it can be addressed within 3-4 pages.

 

N!ai Movie Review- Africa Cultures

This paper reviews the movie “N!ai” emphasizing on its relevance to the current society. The authors of this movie are John Marshall and Adrienne Miesmer .It was published in United States of America. The movie talks about the way of living of the Kung people while comparing the past and present lifestyles. It elaborates on the various changes in the Kung life over a period of thirty years with the life experiences of N!ai, a Kung woman. N!ai explains how they behaved before the arrival of the white people in their community (Marshall & Miesmer, 1980). The director of the movie is trying to portray changes in the Kung society within a period of thirty years, focusing more on the life history of N!ai. It explains the life and changes of a group of people in the society personified through the strand of actuality of one person, N!ai.

The movie begins with the explanation of N!ai early life, showing the way of living of the !Kung people in the past. It was that of hunting and gathering, shown by how she had enough knowledge about the bush life. With the elaboration of how she used to follow her mother when going to pick berries, roots and nuts while seasons changed showed that women had specific roles to play in the society, while men had the roles of hunting game meat for the family. The Kung people also encouraged early marriages to the ladies, exemplified by the dissatisfaction of N!ai to her husband of whom she was married to at the age of eleven (Marshall & Miesmer, 1980). The movies goes on to explain that N!ai eventually accepts her husband at a later stage of their lives when he becomes a healer in the society, showing a sign of changes in occupations and ways of living in the community.

The second part of the movie explains the changes in the Kung community upon the arrival of the white people. With the formation of government structures and administrations, they are restricted to live in sedentary camps formed by the governments of the day. The habit of hunting and gathering is prohibited, and they have to find alternative means of living. Their eating lifestyles changes from berries, fruits and game meat to maize meal, and they earn money from tourists who take their pictures upon visiting the community (Marshall & Miesmer, 1980). The men are forced to look for employment opportunities in the South African army, and they are forced to respect and remain loyal to the white men in the army since they really need food and money for their families back home. N!ai on the other hand because of her fame, and the quilt of not contributing anything in the family, is very ready to be paid by those who take photos of her. Other opportunities like healing are available, N!ai explains that she was comfortable with her husband when he became a healer.

The movie shows a community trying to adopt modernity while at the same maintaining their tradition, same as what is elaborated in the “Umgidi” movie. Despite of the men agreeing to live a sedentary life, they still have the desire for hunting which necessitates the use of horses. But since the officials argue that the use of horses while hunting causes harm to wildlife, they are restricted from doing that. It also shows the existence of social stratifications upon the arrival of the white people (Marshall & Miesmer, 1980). The white army employees are seen as superior or of a different class compared to the !Kung army employees. It is elaborated from the fact the white army employees were respected by the Kung who feared that they would lose their sources of income, if they disagreed with their seniors. The aspect of culture change is also elaborated in the movie. The Kung people have abandoned their past culture due to the influence of the white man. Roles for both men and women have changed due to the elimination of nomadic lifestyles and introduction of sedentary lifestyles. Due to the fact that they have to feed on maize meal, they have to practice crop farming.

Comparing this movie with the “Umgidi” it is seen that they have some similarities and differences. It is evident that the communities in both movies were influenced by the occurrence of colonization in Africa, and experiences changes in their cultural practices (Schuttle & Singiswa, 2011). Due to the colonization, and visiting of the white people, both communities encountered culture changes. The differences is that for the Xhosa people in the “Umgidi” they accepted the modern lifestyles but still practiced some of their cultural beliefs like circumcision despite the influence from the white man. The Kung people in the “N!ai” on the other hand completely left their behind their cultural practices with their past and adopted the white man’s culture.

In conclusion, it evident that changes in culture had more positive impacts to the African communities than the negatives, and that it promoted the level of growth and developments in the various communities.

Is Book of Khalid A Good Example Of Arab American Culture?

The book of Khalid represents the greatest works in Arab American literary. Ameen Rihani wrote it almost a century ago. Rihani takes us through the eyes of two characters who show the Arabic point of view of America. The book shows many instances involving the similarities and differences of culture associated with the Arabic and American culture. The writer uses two characters who travel from their home country to the United States to seek for greener pastures and thus obtain a better life. The setting is mostly in the American context where the book explores the lives of the two characters in the book who are Khalid and Shakib.

The author uses the two characters to give us a sneak preview of the immigration process and their life after that. The characters in the book pass through various events in America that change their mindset and the way of life. As they interact with the American society, they can note the differences that occur. The author uses Khalid experience mostly as he interacts more with the society. We learn about the significant variation in the cultures of America and those of Arabs. The book of Khalid thus brings out various issues that affected the relationship between Arabs and the Americans regarding differences in religion, culture and the immigration problem associated with the Arabs in American history. The author thus uses the two authors to explain differences associate with the Arab culture and the American culture and hence helps come up with the first Arab American literature piece

Therefore, the book of Khalid brings the Arabic aspect in the American culture and states to bring out the various interactions that the first Arabs had within the United States thus forming a historical background on how to view their immigration and whether there was any assimilation or not. The author uses two people who are of different origins as Shakib defines himself as a Christian while the author shows Khalid as a Muslim particularly when he refers to the al-hadith. Therefore, though both are from different religions they share a room and live together peacefully. Thus in focusing on religion from Christianity to atheism, the author shows how the American society is degraded. We see other strange practices carried by a medium who practices sorcery and where eventually works as an assistant. Khalid demonstrates a lot of naivety and, therefore, shows the gullibility of the immigrants in acclimatizing with the new culture and thus the different ways of life.

As an important book in American literature, the book of Khalid tends to enlighten the readers on the life of the Arabs and their cultural shock as they reach the new land. The Arabs have a different culture from that of the United States where most women are greatly related to the lowest position in society. However, the American society proved challenging regarding accepting the culture and the different religion they sometimes had no choice but to plan to go back. The two individuals interact with the culture in the American context which largely changes their mindset since they are facing a different culture from theirs. Rihani takes us through the eyes of the two individuals and the differences that they encounter while in the United States. He uses the various characters to show how there can be unity between people from very different cultures and mostly stark differences in religion (Bulshrui 39).

From the religion point of view, we see the various tensions through the eyes of Khalid. Khalid reads “Monsieur Pascal” which drives him to read the Bible, and he develops a liking for the book of Jeremiah. As such, the author brings out the theme of religion in a different manner about the Muslim and Christian. The various radical points of view associated with both of the religions mostly prevent them from interacting peacefully. Most of the interaction between Muslims and Christians are usually hostile. In this case, Rihani shows that Muslims can still read the bible and appreciate it while at the same time remaining Muslims. Therefore, he tends to imply that religions can coexist peacefully. The book further shows the culture in America that has evolved to non-believing people, which ascribe to atheism.

They do not believe in God. As such the book touches the various aspects of religion and the two characters take us thoroughly through the various adventures of religion pursuit especially that of atheist. Shakib is soberer than Khalid showing tow people who approach issues differently is. He warns his friend not to attend the atheistic meeting that taints the name of God and disrespects their original land, the holy land. They are Christians who have lived in the Arabic culture, which is quite different from that of the US.

Khalid is one such character who has embraced the western thoughts and ideas and wants to educate his friend Shakib on adopting the same viewpoint in achieving unity. He read many volumes and eventually burns them once he finishes reading them. He gets many insights into philosophy and politics, which broadens his mind and thus his perceptions of the world. He thus has a different viewpoint that is different from that of Shakib. Shakib mostly deals with poems and songs and thereof does not venture into much reading of the books, which speak most of the American culture. Through the various instances happening in the book about the politics, we are given a sneak preview of that time and how the society was run.

The write in these cases uses the various characters to deal with different issues that are prevalent in Americans and the Arab world. One such consistently conflicting issue is religion. Khalid focuses on adopting the western idea of tolerance in religion and, therefore, providing the world that has a peaceful coexistence regardless of the religion of the respective people. In America, their religion is tolerated while in their country they are not to tolerate other religions apart from their own.  Therefore, in the book we see the differences in how the Muslims view the world especially in the American context. Therefore, in his book he focusses on the various issues affects Muslims and what separates them from other societies especially with the West, particularly the United States.

The book further deals with American-Arab relations and the two characters substantially show the differences and the viewpoints of the American society towards Arabs. Therefore, as one reads, the book he can interact with the Arab side and the American side of society and Khalid and Shakib view the different features in America. For example, Khalid compares the statue of liberty with that of Eros and chooses the later as better than the former. The author takes through the immigration problems faced by the immigrants especially how they were frisked and the medical status checked. Some could not be allowed in the United States because of various complications like trachoma, which is linked to the eye. The immigration departments show the many nationalities who aspire to venture into the United States but most ultimately pass the checks in place to enter in the United States.

Therefore, the immigration one can determine the various countries and the respective people who want the United States and how the immigration system was working at the time. The history further goes to state and describe the living conditions of Khalid and thus show the sorry state of most emigrants though they have a chance of making a living selling fake holy land objects by exploiting the ignorance of their customers. As such, the author shows the various ways business is conducted and how the population, as a result, is deceived especially in buying goods from foreigners.  As such, we learn from the various interactions that America has a modest business environment. The two immigrants have great difficulty in obtaining their daily bread since they are new in the society and have to sell their wares to obtain a living. The culture, therefore, shows that those who are strong survive.

The book further uses poems and song that we see in both characters. Khalid specializes in poems while Shakib does the singing with his lute. One of the poems in the book that is composed by Khalid is “I dreamed I was a donkey boy”. Rihani further uses sayings in his book that are related to the American society. One such saying is used to describe Khalid’s adventurous exploits in America. The saying used by Rihani is “Cart before the horse”. There are many other saying that are employed in the book especially those with an Arabic origin and from their homeland. They associate the various situations they face with the sayings as a result. Such use of language adds to the richness of literature frequently used in American literature and, therefore, merging the two different cultures to make the American Arab literature.

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Helping Students Maintain and Extend Their Pride in Their First Languages and Cultures in Classroom Settings

Background

Ideally, every instructor should have in place a comprehensive plan, or outline, of how to help own students maintain, as well as extend, their pride in and relation to their first, or native, languages along with cultures in classroom settings. For a student, learning his or her heritage culture, as well as language, is important in the development of a sense of personal identity, or self. Notably, the language symbolizes or is an expression of the student’s personal and cultural identity. When a student maintains, as well as extends, own pride in and relation to own first, or native, language and culture, he or she does not become alienated from his or her community and language (Christensen, 2008). Indeed, the first, or native, language and culture are ways through which parents communicate to their children easily. As well, they are a way that the parents take absolute responsibility for socializing the children and readying them for the interactions that define schooling milieus. Families inculcate belief systems, as well as values, and other interpersonal competencies into their children via interacting with them using their shared native languages according to Tabors (1997).

Often, for a child, the native language, as well as culture, is commonly the only means of communicating with community members and family. Communication is thus vital for students’ appreciation of own native languages as well as cultures. Students who maintain, as well as extend, their pride in and relation to their first, or native, language and culture do not feel destabilized and disconnected (Hepburn, 2007). Notably, their destabilization and disconnection may be averse to their developing personal, as well as cultural, identities. Even as students learn second languages, there should be conscious efforts geared towards providing systematic exposure to their native languages, as well as cultures, always. Instructors should remain keen on ensuring that there are no radical transformations, or changes, in the students’ native language, as well as cultural, environments. Such transformations can harm language development languages according to Tabors (1997). As well as, they can create challenges for the students. Ideally, instructors and parents need to collaborate to make certain there is success along with consistency in students’ maintenance, as well as extension of, their pride in and relation to their first, or native, language and cultures (Bhatia & Ritchie, 2012).

There are numerous factors influencing students’ cultural, as well as language, development. Such factors include the students’ exposure to their varied quantities, as well as styles, which define how their native languages are used; practices that define child-rearing; parents’ linguistic and cultural backgrounds; and caregivers’ linguistic and cultural backgrounds. Others include whether the students have siblings and other relatives; and the students’ individual development. Every student is special, or unique, in how he or she develops his or her language. Families and schools with bilingual students should ideally learn and have plans for native language development ideally (Christensen, 2008). Moreover, instructors should readily support students in their acquisition of their native languages as well as cultures. The instructors should collaborate with the parents of the students in developing the students’ competencies regarding their native languages as well as cultures (Hepburn, 2007).

Plan for Supporting Students in Learning Their Indigenous Languages and Cultures

Children are entering educational environments when they are rather young (Hepburn, 2007). That means that instructors and caregivers will be quite influential on the students’ worldviews, perspectives regarding culture and community, and values. Besides, the instructors and caregivers impact on the students’ cognitive, emotional, and social development considerably (Christensen, 2008). Consequently, the instructors and caregivers need to adopt plans to support the students to maintain, as well as extend, their pride in and relation to their first, or native, language and culture in classroom settings (Crawford, 2008; Crawford & Crawford, 2004).

  • Collaboration between Instructors and Caregivers

To ensure that students maintain, as well as extend, their pride in and relation to their first, or native, language and culture in classroom settings, instructors and family members of the students should collaborate to ensure that their schooling environments are supportive and that they do not lose their native languages (Christensen, 2008). Such collaboration is important to ensure that the students do not cut links with the community and family languages according to Tabors (1997).

The collaboration and the related support ought to commence when the students enroll for their initial childhood language programs. To ensure that instructors have a good appreciation of the students’ native languages, they should make enquiries about their use. They should enquire about who utilizes the languages, the times the use the languages, and the reasons they use the languages. If the instructors become knowledgeable about the students’ native language acquisition at home, they serve the students properly (Hepburn, 2007).

  • Training

To ensure that students maintain, as well as extend, their pride in and relation to their first, or native, language and culture in classroom settings, those instructing them on the same should get professional training to ensure that they are knowledgeable about the languages and the related issues and benefits (Hepburn, 2007). They should learn and publicize the dangers that students may suffer from not learning the languages and the benefits they may gain from acquiring the languages. That especially makes minority languages welcome in classroom settings.

Notably, the training, as well as the related awareness, assists in creating continuing dialogues between the instructors and the students’ families throughout the periods when the students are acquiring the languages and the related cultural persuasions. When instructors become well-versed with speaking their students’ native languages, they should speak them with the students ideally (Christensen, 2008). That demonstrates to the students that other important persons use the languages as well. It increases the students’ pride in their indigenous cultures along with languages. Commonly, family feel obligated to ensure that their young ones assimilate, as well as learn second languages speedily to succeed, leading to the loss of their native languages (Crawford, 2008; Crawford & Crawford, 2004). That may damage the young ones’ personal identity and can be checked well through the training.

  • Teaching Students Tolerance

To ensure that students maintain, as well as extend, their pride in and relation to their first, or native, languages and cultures in classroom settings, those instructing them should ensure that they students are not discriminated against when using the languages. There should be mutual respect among the students and between the students and their instructors. Every student should be taught and implored to have deference for other cultures and languages. That will help the students to have positive views about themselves (Christensen, 2008). Each student will learn to work, as well as live, with others respectfully. Instructors should be keen on the establishment of classroom communities hinged on respect and support for one another.

Instructors should appreciate the legitimacy of their students’ native languages and esteem their native cultures. They should involve the students’ families in the settings respectfully. Each student should be allowed to share dances, stories, and songs from own culture with her or his classmates (Hepburn, 2007). That will make the student proud of his or native language and enjoy connecting with the classmates to celebrate their different cultural backgrounds devoid of fear.

Classroom Techniques

  • Translation Services

Instructors should allow students to use their native languages in the settings to ensure that they maintain, as well as extend, their pride in and relation to their first, or native, languages and cultures (Crawford, 2008; Crawford & Crawford, 2004). Instructors may need translators in acquiring information from their students’ families regarding the students’ cultural, as well as linguistic, backgrounds. Where instructors are incapable of accessing parent liaisons, they can opt for community members as translators (Christensen, 2008). Such members can be accessed from sources such as local stores, community media, community agencies, churches, and public schools. Such translators can be trained and employed to offer services in learning environments.

  • Body Language

To ensure that students maintain, as well as extend, their pride in and relation to their first, or native, language and culture in classroom settings, their instructors should utilize body language accordingly in communication. The instructors can add directed gazes, actions, or gestures to help the students’ understanding of their indigenous languages as well as cultures. They may repeat particular phrases or terms to emphasize them for improved comprehension by the students.

  • Expanding Students’ Vocabulary

Instructors should use words from their students’ native languages or cultures to help develop and grow their native vocabulary (Crawford, 2008; Crawford & Crawford, 2004). That helps to ensure that students maintain, as well as extend, their pride in and relation to their first, or native, language and culture in classroom settings. Instructors should take the words spoken by students using their native languages and expand the related ideas and vocabulary as well. Besides, the students should be challenged to gain, or develop, more and more vocabulary, especially the vocabulary utilized in describing the students’ wishes (Christensen, 2008).

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Cultural Ancestry, Practices and Communication : A Case of Cuban Culture

Introduction

Despite effects of globalization, there is still a persistence of deep cultural variation that does not seem to change. Culture encompasses the behavior, attitudes and values of social group, regional population or nations as regards to the way they deal with life environments including, among others, institutions and economic structures.  Interacting with another culture calls for the need to have the ability to communicate and negotiate cross-culturally as a vital ingredient for good coexistence as well as in a bid to avoid cross-cultural Faux Pas (Martin & Nakayama, 2010). The best way to avoid communication as well as cultural pitfalls keeping off from potential faux pas is preparation. Although it is not possible to foresee every possible scenario, there is need to have a basic understanding of a particular cultural background with an aim to avoid possible faux pas (Martin & Nakayama, 2010). This Paper highlights the cultural heritage and practices of the Cuban People. The Cuban culture represents a blend of diversified origins from Africa, Asia, America, as well as Europe. It enjoys a rich heritage in music, art and literature. The current Cuban culture has undergone a historically significant transformation and it now accentuates a friendly population that is very hospitable even to stranger.

 

Cuban People Willingness to Share Thoughts, Feelings and Ideas

The willingness of the Cuban people to share thoughts, feelings, information, as well as ideas is hinged on the tenet of trust. Individuals tend to share their feelings and ideas with people they trust especially family members and close friends. It is pertinent to note that sexuality debate and racism are considered taboo subjects with the Cuban people. Sexuality and racism, being taboos, form a complicated array of subjects (Mayo, 2015). In addition, expressing undesirable attitudes is evidently considered as taboo in the Cuban Culture.

Touching Practice and Meaning with the Cuban Culture

In Cuba, touching is deemed to be a demonstration of love and affection. Consequently, touching among family members and close friends is generally practiced and widely accepted in a bid to express one’s feelings and in demonstration of affection. While touch in the Cuban culture is not linked to a sexual context, touching among the opposite sexes is considered sensitive and thus it is checked subject to age groups of the individuals as well as trust between individuals. Healthcare providers are permitted to touch an individual and ought to be done appropriately and respectfully in the course of medical examinations (Brice, 2002). The Cuban individuals tend towards a formality in their mutual treatment. Firm handshakes are notable as a common practice with a hug and a light kiss on a cheek is common between women, as well as women and men of close relations (Brice, 2002). An embrace along with a few pats on the back is also notable. In addition, there are instances of an unusual addition for the handshake where the two people slid their hands upward in a bid to grasp each other’s thumb after gripping the palm. There is the lingering of the handshake and touching of elbow or forearm. Another gesture noticeable during greetings is the casual fingering the lapel of the other individual’s suits (Kirk & Padura, 2001).

Spatial and Distancing Strategies

As regards the spatial and distancing strategies for communication in the Cuban culture, different groups are not invariably allowed to mix freely and their interaction is subject to differences in sex, social classes and age groups. Being hospitable people, the Cubans are fond of using informal expressions such as ‘Carino’ (dear), ‘Mi diva’ (my life) and ‘Mi corazon’ (my heart) when addressing strangers (Mayo, 2015). Use of body language is a core feature in communication of the Cuban people. Use of handshakes represents a way of greetings as well as bidding farewells.

Use of Eye Contact

Eye contact in the Cuban culture is very crucial especially during greetings. The younger generation, for instance, are encouraged to invariably maintain eye contact particularly those taken to be of assertive representation as regards to communication and are in addition not submissive. Furthermore, eye contact is considered to be a sign of respect for young Cubans when dealing with older people as well strangers. However, there are varying perspectives as regards eye contact between the younger and the older Cubans. The variations occur subject to maintaining of eye contact among people of different age groups, family members, strangers and people of different sexes (Brice, 2002). Consequently, older Cubans are accustomed to limited eye contact in a bid to demonstrate a sense of respect.  This trait has been taken to infer enormous wisdom and portrays a sense of admiration. Older Cuban women tend to maintain a larger personal space and keeping distance from the men members of the community (Mayo, 2015).

Gestures, Facial Expressions, and Non-Verbal Communication

The Cubans are fond of indirect, high-context form of communication. They invariably infer and imply as opposed to verbalizing directly. In addition, the Cubans accords significant importance to the impact of body language, emotion, relationship and Para-verbal features of communication. It is a common occurrence in Cuba to employ lively facial as well as hand gestures while communicating as a way of non-verbal cues. In emotional circumstances, use of facial expression and hand gestures is preferred over speaking in loud voices. In a bid to gain better understanding of others, particularly strangers, Cuban heavily rely on non-verbal communication. The most common non-verbal communication cues include body and hand movement, physical touch, voice pitch, and emotional appearance (Saunders, 2008).

Non-verbal communication in Cuba largely involves sound and facial expression for purposes of conveying feelings and emotions. Handshakes are common during initial introductions. As greetings becomes more habitual, especially in the case of close friends and family members, hugs and kisses and cheeks are used. While speaking with a stranger, Cubans tend to maintain a relative distance (Saunders, 2008). This is also common while dealing with superiors within professional contexts.  In addition, standing with an upright posture is regarded important while communicating in professional settings, thus highlighting confidence, maturity and respect (Kapcia, 2005).

Past, Present and Future Perceptions of the Cuban Culture

It is vital to note that past perceptions and perspectives are majorly intended to examine the traditional cultural values with an aim to seek inspiration, direction and guidance. Being a past-oriented culture, Cuban society has invested substantially in its history in music, art, dance and literature. Having evolved over the decades, the Cuban culture is to some extent dynamic following the effects of globalization and the ever growing multi-cultural diversity. To this regard, it is pertinent to note that conventional archaic practices such as aggressive rebellion and social conservatism have been diluted over time, evident in the younger generations’ frequent use of technology and social media platforms (Mayo, 2015). While it is vital to view the Cuban culture from the past, present, and future, it is important to appreciate the optimism of the Cuban people as pertains to the future of their cultural heritage. It is reported that the Cuban thinking pattern calls for narration and a discourse of happenings and events as opposed to a logical linear sermon (Saunders, 2008).

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Analyzing The Culture in East-West Movie (Восток-Запад)

Primary culture

            The movie viewed was East-West which was directed directed by Regis Wargnier. The movie feature two prominent Russian stars Sergei Bodrov Jr. and Oleg Menchikov as well as couple of French stars including Catherine Deneuve and Sandrine Bonnaire. The primary culture presented in this movie based in Hofstadter’s five value of dimension of culture is autocracy(Wargnier, 1999). This is witnessed by the fact that citizens are accustomed to abide by the rules and orders given by the seniors in the society other than following a more democratic ways. For example, after World War II, Stalin formed a propaganda that enticed Russians who had fled Soviet Union for one reason to another to return back and actively participate in rebuilding the Soviet Union. Many return with hope to prosper and this was witnessed with celebration signified by vodka toasts and singing of patriotic songs.

The celebrations was ended by grim reality of death as they disembark from the steamship. They were separated into two groups by the government troops and no one could dare challenge these actions because they were afraid of consequence(Hofstede, et al., 2010). For example, a Jew baby was separated from his father and as he tried to run to the side of his parents he was shot in the spot for defying orders to remain in the section he was directed. After the incident, no one from the Russian émigré attempted to challenge the action because they were afraid of consequences.

Individualist or collectivist

            The primary culture presented in the movie inclined towards individualist rather than collectivist. The fact that Russian émigré were separated into two group fit and unfit to mingle with the society was clear indication that Stalin was fostering his personal interest and any foreigner entering the country was suspected to be a spies or CIA agent. Another example was the fact that Maria tried all means to return to French in whichever way possible. She in fact put more efforts to train a swimmer so that she will get a chance escape when the swimmer attended the European championship(Phuong-Mail, et al., 2010). These actions indicated that the primary culture in the movie was fostering contractual relationship which revolved around the benefits of exchange. Stalin and Maria focused on the personal enjoyment, pleasures and fun over social norms and duties. Particularly, Maria was portrayed to have a notion of holding unique beliefs.

High or low power distance

            The primary culture is presented as high power distance. The leadership is authoritarian and the authority is centralized. For example, in the movie it was observed that the old woman who was comforting Marie and singing French song together was arrested and imprisoned for indulging with foreigner. Later, the old woman was reported death and the case was not natural. This example signifies a culture that the power is exercised in a more supervisory manner. The security forces always wanted to know what is going in the society(Wargnier, 1999). Another example observed was that drunkards, black marketers and New Socialist snoops were kept in shared cramped quarters. This would allow the authorities to easily monitor their activities. There was clear indication in the movie that after World War II Soviet Union was not allowing her citizens to exercise their freedom freely. The fact that Russian émigré were send to hard labor camp site in the country side and other were executed signifies a closed society where the authority rules with iron fist and dictatorship(Phuong-Mail, et al., 2010). In addition, it was observed that one lodger was given a responsibility of possessing all the keys to the letter boxes for all the tenants so that he regularly check letters and ascertained there origin and content.

High or low uncertainty

            The culture presented in the movie was high uncertainty. For example, Marie husband decided to disregard the miseries of his wife despite of high intensities and acted like a good soviet citizen in order to protect his family. Also, Alexei attempted to conscientiously impose a minimal health and safety standards in the factory, where the management were explicitly concern with optimal productivity(Wargnier, 1999). These observation indicated that Alexei was trying to avoid risks of colliding with the authority and at the same time attempting to make sure workers operate in the safe environment with minimal risks of getting injured. In addition, the culture presented showed that workers respect the authority of the day. It was also observed that the authority had no or minimal tolerance for the deviants. As a result, everyone was trying to avoid being caught in the wrong side of the law because they risk the execution or send to the hard labor camps in the country side.

Competitive or cooperative

            The culture presented in the movie was cooperative in the sense that the Russian citizens cooperated with the authority. However, in the part of Marie she questioned that actions of the authority and wanted to return back to France. The Russian authority was suspicious, repression abound and paranoia. As a result, the newcomers were abused and some send into the dreaded gulags or deaths(Hofstede, et al ., 2010). This made the citizens to cooperate with the authority and minimize the competition as much as possible. For example, military officer, a tyrannical swimming coach and hospital bureaucrat believed that Alexei and Marie were good people due to Alexei dedication and talent. However, a vicious secret police-officer was convinced that Marie was a spy and should be monitored always. This moral complexity that exist in the Russian authority clear indicated that some section of the workers in the authority believes that some Russian émigré were genuine and should be allowed to participate in rebuilding the nation. While some section were completely convinced that émigré were threat to the authority and should not be allowed to exercise their freedom.

Based on these observation one could say that although the society perceives that action taken on émigré was unjust but they have no option of questioning the authority or providing a competitive platform to change the authority(Wargnier, 1999). As a result, they opted to cooperate with the authority and protect their families and loved ones.

Long-term or short-term

            The culture represented in the movie is long-term orientation in the sense that Alexei was ready to persevere the mistreatment in order to protect his family. In the other hand, Marie was looking for a way to return to the France. As a result, the relationship of the couple suffered and fall out. Marie started a relationship with Sergei a young Russian who was also desperate to run away(Hofstede, et al., 2010). These examples indicated that movie represented a culture that is futuristic in the sense that Alexei was futuristic and possessed a dynamic mentality. In addition, he focused on persistence and perseverance despite the stress on thrift. Alexei was inclined towards interrelatedness represented in sensitivity toward social contacts.

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Ethics as a Component of Organizational Culture

Introduction

Ethics is derived from the word the Greek word Ethos, which means character. Character in an organization is the decisions that employees or management have to make when under pressure especially when no one is looking at them. Character is not about how people behave, but in the context of an organization, it is part of organizational culture. It is a culture developed by a group of people that determines how they deal with problems both externally and internally. These people must adhere to a code of ethics which are standards of behavior that tell people how they ought to act, be they citizens, professionals, parents, family or friends (Bart, 2011).

A fire department has ethical rules which are behavioral guidelines on how all firemen are expected to conduct themselves. Firemen must promote an organizational culture of ethical integrity, high standards of professionalism, compassion, loyalty and honesty. Most fire departments have a code of ethics that includes the ethical rules or ethical conduct, medical code of ethics and an oath. The ethical rules define the Fire department’s values, moral duty and obligation of the firemen.

The following are some of the ethical rules that fire departments follow in their line of duty. Firemen must conduct themselves in a manner that creates respect for themselves as public servants. Fire fighters must always maintain public trust as they always have access to citizens’ homes and possessions while on the call of duty. Firemen are always in contact with the public, and should therefore show respect, courtesy and be impartial at all times. Firemen should not perform their duties while under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Firefighters will be expected to take an oath of service to show their commitment to providing high levels of customer service, and to place the safety and welfare of the public above everything else.

The ethical rules are reflected in the culture of the fire department through the respect of the profession. The citizens of any country hold the Fire department with very high esteem. Firemen are highly respected by the public because of the trust the public has entrusted in the firemen. This in turn leads to professional ethics and morality. The leadership of the fire department also reflects the culture of the department. The Fire Chief must lead by example by making ethical decisions. A fire department that is led by an ethical leader always leads to the success of that department. A fireman may make an ethical decision but fail the loyalty test when asked to do something unethical by the boss. Ethical leaders must ensure that they do not corrupt their legacy and whole organization by ensuring they do the right thing. Firefighters are faced with challenging situations everyday which test their character. Sometimes they must decide between loyalty and ethics, hence the importance of the ethical rules in a fire department (Bart, 2011).

The code of ethics reflects the culture of the fire department, and all members of the Fire services must adhere to it. It is referred to as the minimum standards and outlines the expected behavior and performance of the firefighters. The code of ethics also defines the way the firemen ought to act within the fire department. For example, it states that all firemen must be responsible for the actions and the consequences of the same. They must act in a professional manner exercising respect, competence and loyalty.     They must recognize that they serve due to public trust which requires honesty. The firemen must sign a code of ethics which becomes an acknowledgement of acceptance of their responsibility as firefighters.

The ethical rules of the fire department are not in conflict with my personal ethical rules because the ethical rules for firefighters are based on trust, honesty, integrity and team work. However, personal ethical rules may sometimes come into conflict with professional ethical rules. It is therefore important to understand the difference between personal ethical rules and professional ethical rules. For example, a judge is required to follow the law while exercising judgments on various cases. A judge may give the death penalty while following the law, but this may be in conflict if his personal ethics are against the death penalty. A doctor may prescribe the morning after pill professionally, but personally may be against it as he views it as terminating a life (Dion, 1996).

The easiest way to reduce the conflict between professional and personal ethical rules is that a person must always follow their professional code of ethics when acting in a professional capacity, even though it conflicts their personal ethical rules. In the case of ethical rules of firefighters, their ethical rules are first and foremost based on public trust. The public trust firefighters to come into their homes to save them irrespective of their possessions. Personal ethics are broad in nature, as every human being will want to be treated with respect and therefore will treat others with respect. People value honesty and courtesy on a personal level whether it is among friends or family members. In this respect, the ethical rules in the fire department are not in conflict with personal ethical rules (Dion, 1996).

The ethical rules for the fire departments are reinforced by particular expectations or behaviors reflected in the fire department culture. The ethical rules of the fire department are based on public trust and respect for the profession. The national firefighter code of ethics is a document that was developed for all fire service organizations regardless of size, type or position. It outlines the standards of behavior required of firefighters, and is designed in an effort to maintain the high level of respect the profession wishes to achieve. It is based on the expectations of the fire department. The code of ethics encourages all fire service organizations to support the standards in order to maintain a consistent organizational culture among all fire departments. The national firefighter code of ethics distinguishes the firefighter’s profession from other professions, and at the same time removes any behaviors that might compromise it in future. It is the minimum standards of expected behaviors of firefighters. It acts as a guide for all fire departments towards high levels of ethics and integrity.

In conclusion, the ethical rules in the fire department are reflected in the organizational cultures of all fire service organizations. The national firefighter code of ethics is based on particular expectations and behaviors reflected in the fire department culture. The ethical rules creates a legacy for all fire service organizations and ensure that all firefighters who leave the fire department, leave it in a better condition than they found it. Ethics is a component of organizational culture based on ethical integrity, professionalism, loyalty and honesty.

Culture Analysis Using Geert Hofstede’s 6 Dimensions – USA, Mexico, China, Israel And UAE

Six Dimensions on China, United States, China, United Arab Emirates and Mexico

Introduction

The six dimensions of Hofstede are individualism, power distance, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term orientation and indulgence. All the four countries, China, Mexico, Israel, UAE and the united have different ranks with regard to the six dimensions. The dimensions are gauged up to 100 according to the national cultures in the respective countries. The Hamburger business in New York should focus on the differences in the various cultures to ensure that it does not have difficulty in adjusting to the different cultures in the respective countries.

Power distance

Mexico on the six dimensions rates fairly when compared to the United States. The power distance of the country is 81 and as such, it is considered a hierarchical society. The people are assigned various roles especially in organization that they are to do in accordance with their level in the organization.  Israel scores below the United States with a value of 13 showing a society that is on the lower end with more equality and accessibility between those who are low and at higher positions. The power distance in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is higher than that of the US at 97 showing that the society is quite hierarchical. At 80 china exhibits a society that embraces a lot of inequality and is second to emirates and higher than the US. The United States at 40 shows a society that is mostly equal and people can have their roles defined differently according to various situations that may arise.

Individualism

On individualism, Mexico scores 30. As such, the society is termed collectivistic. Israel scores 54 the culture of Israel exhibits both collectivist and individualist aspects. UAE scores 25, which shows that it is a collectivistic society. Loyalty is highly regarded in the society among the groups. Strong relationships are thus considered in such societies that are collectivists between members of a group. China has a value of 30, which highly shows its collectivistic culture. The high score of 91 shows that is it is a hierarchical society and is higher than the three countries as people can do business with those they do not know.

Masculinity

Mexico has a value of 69, which shows that the society is masculine. At 47 Israel is near the middle of a masculine and feminine culture though it is mostly masculine, as such, success, achievement and competition are highly valued. The UAE scores 50 and, therefore, it is neither a masculine nor a feminine society. China scores 60 and encompasses masculine cultures that is oriented and driven towards success. Leisure time is not valued as such. The high score of 62 shows that, the United States has a high orientation and drive toward success, as compared to the other three countries. It can easily set up business in the three countries since there national culture is masculine in nature.

Uncertainty avoidance

Uncertainty avoidance deals with the unknown future and the country scores 82 meaning it has a great tendency in avoiding uncertainty. Israel scores 81 a higher value that the US. The people in the society value time, thus punctuality, and hard work together with together with security and precision that are motivating factors among individuals. The UAE scores 80 and thus exhibits a society, which greatly avoids uncertainty. China scores 30, which is very low when compared to the other countries. As such, truth is viewed in a relative manner and as such, it is considered as an ambiguous society. The united has a score of 46 and is thus second last with respect to the three countries. New ideas can thus be encouraged together with innovation and inventions.

Long-term orientation

Mexico scores 24 and, therefore, it is a normative culture where truth is highly regarded. Israel scores 38 in this dimension and shows that the society is highly normative valuing honesty while upholding traditions and respect for the various norms in the society. The UAE has no score for the dimension. China scores 87 showing that it is a significantly pragmatic. Truth is, therefore, dependent on time, context and situation. The United States has a score of 26, which shows that it is a normative society. Most Americans carry out analysis to prove whether the new information is true.

Indulgence

Mexico has a high score of 97, which shows that it a highly optimistic country. On indulgence, Israel has no score yet. The UAE has no score for indulgence. With a value of 24 china exhibits a society that is restrained. On indulgence, it has a score of 68 that exhibits a society that values hard work at the same time a society that embraces prudence.

Conclusion

The US, therefore, has to deal with power distance as most of the countries exhibit high inequalities about positions of people in the society. The United States ranks highly on individualism, as such, it has to work hard to create a culture in the companies in the three countries that will help foster strong relationships and thus teamwork and loyalty. On average all countries exhibit masculinity and thus the US will not have to struggle much with this dimension. The US ranks lowly with china while the other countries rank highly and thus more effort is needed in ensuring that a culture that is pragmatic and more optimistic is created in the hamburger business. The US has a low value on long-term orientation, this it is normative as compared to the other countries, and it needs to work on establishing a culture of honesty. The US is high indulgent and it will only need to work less to boost indulgence in china, UAE and Israel.

Comparison of United States and United Kingdom Cultures

The culture in the United States and the United Kingdom varies greatly with some few similarities. Both are English-speaking countries, and one country colonized the other. Though English is a common language in both nations, the way the words are spoken, especially the intonations and accents have led to the different meanings associated with words that may be similar in wording. Some of the words in American English differ from those of United Kingdom. The social life in both countries varies considerably, and so does the culture and the politics of the country. As such, the countries have different ways of interactions at social places and at the office, which further define the societies and their systems of governance.

Politics

Both countries differ significantly in politics. The politics of the United Kingdom is different especially since it follows a constitutional monarchy where the monarch is the head the state while the prime minister heads government.at the moment the queen is the head of state (Buckner 260).  The government of Her Majesty carries out the executive arm of the government. On the other hand, the United States uses is led by the president who is both the head of government and state at the same time. There is power sharing between the judiciary and Congress in the United States political system. The state governments together with the federal government share sovereignty. The monarchy has stayed in place for an extended period and had ruled Britain according to the constitution while the presidential system in the United States has been there from the start after the US got independence.

Religion

Religion plays a great part in both Britain and America. The two countries are mostly Christian though a vast majority of the United Kingdom is Christian and associated with the Church of England, which is Anglican. Christians in Britain from the majority or the religious groups. The church in England has representation in the parliament of the UK where the monarch assumes the position of supreme governor. On the other hand, most Americans identify themselves with Christianity. Catholics and Anglicans from the major Christian groups, and most of the country consider itself Christian. Other religious groups from the minorities and include Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism. Some other religious groups have cropped like the new age movement and Christian Science. As such, the US has more religious due to its large population when compared with the United Kingdom (Smith et al. 433).

Education

Further differences exist in education in the United Kingdom and the United States. A high school in the United States is known as a secondary school in the United Kingdom. A secondary school in the United Kingdom is further classified as a junior school while in the united states its referred to as middle school which is usually the transition period to high school from elementary which takes two to three years. Public schools hold a different meaning in both countries. In the United States,  the government owns public schools and taxpayers provide the financial support. However, in Britain they are referred to as private schools that are independent and are supported by student fees. Concerning tertiary education, the United States considers a student as one who is studying or majoring in an individual subject at the university while the United Kingdom defines a university student as one who is either reading or studying a subject. As a result, the education systems in both countries are different and thus the various definitions from elementary to high school or secondary school have different definitions.

Bartlett et al. (2006) describes IKEA’s growth and its strong culture as well as values development.

Bartlett et al. (2006) describes IKEA’s growth and its strong culture as well as values development. These culture and values consists of the company’s dedication to create a better daily life for many people. Bartlett and his colleagues also describe how IKEA developed some environmental policies—in reaction to a regulatory as well as public pressure–that expanded to include two stakeholders. One of the stakeholders is Greenpeace. The other one is WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature). In 1994, Marianne Barner—IKEA’s product manager– is surprised by a Swedish TV documentary about use of child labor in Indian carpet suppliers. This includes suppliers who supply IKEA’s rugs. As a result, Barner implements a strict policy providing for contract cancellation in case any IKEA supplier employs child labor. Subsequently, a German television producer confronts Barner. He advices Barner he is almost about to air an investigative program that documents child labor use in one major IKEA’s supplier. On her visits to suppliers, Barner learned of the formation of Rugmark foundation. It was formed in response to the use of child labor in the Indian carpet industry. Maintaining a monitoring as well as control process is important for IKEA. Despite this, the signing up to Rugmark would results to more sales, as this organization certifies if a carpet was manufactured with/without child labor use. This initiative creates transparency for both IKEA and its customers. Barner indicated that the Swedish Save the Children’s specialists taught her company a lot regarding the child labor issue. This specialist stressed that IKEA has to do what is in the most excellent interests of children. Clearly, therefore, IKEA has to get to the roots of the child labor problem it is experiencing.

Bridging Studies For Development of Drugs that Companies Plan to Market in Other Cultures

Do you think that bridging studies should be required for the development of drugs that companies plan to market in other cultures?

The bridging studies are fashioned to permit people to the conduit from the original population and region to a new area (Barron, 2015). Therefore, bridging studies are carried out in a new field to offer clinical data on dosage, safety, dose regimen, and efficacy in the new region, which allows extrapolation of the foreign clinical data to the populace of the new region. Consequently, drugs and medicines are grouped as insensitive to cultural factors. Hence, the type of bridging study that is required depends upon experience with extrinsic cultural factors and the drug class that affects medicine’s dose response, safety, and efficacy. However, bridging studies are not needed in two circumstances. These include firstly if the medicine is ethnically insensitive with similar extrinsic factors. Secondly, if the medicine is ethnically sensitive and the external factors are not similar, and there is knowledge with the related compounds of pharmacology.

Conversely, it is paramount to provide the Bridging study with pharmacologic endpoints. Since they are required when the region is ethnically dissimilar, the drug is ethnically sensitive, however with similar extrinsic factors (Gupta, 2011). Nonetheless, a clinical study in a new area using established surrogate endpoint or pharmacologic endpoint can bridge unrelated data.  Therefore, when there is some disbelief about insufficient clinical knowledge in medicine, drug class, or choice of the dose is strange, or different between two regions, then controlled clinical trial and bridging studies are very necessary. For instance, for medicines that may stimulate increased unpleasant drug reaction, then it is paramount to carry out a premarketing clinical trial to illuminate and explain local safety concerns.