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Alcohol Abuse Prevention In Minors – Assignment Instructions And A Sample Answer

Assignment Instructions

You have been working at the Wayne County probation office for approximately 6 months now. Your supervisor has given you your 6-month employment evaluation, which was excellent. As a result, your supervisor has informed you that he is to choose one of the probation officers on his staff of 45 to be appointed to a committee on alcohol use and abuse. This committee is being put together by the County Board of Supervisors. Your supervisor asks you to be part of this committee, which you excitedly agree to do.

At your first committee meeting, the committee chair divides the 30 individuals into smaller subcommittees to explore specific areas of alcohol use and abuse. You are assigned to the prevention and treatment committee along with eight other individuals. The committee is made up professionals from various disciplines, including probation, parole, corrections, addiction, substance/alcohol abuse, social work, psychology, psychiatry, and pharmacology. The board of supervisors has asked that your committee focus solely on prevention issues relating to minors (not adults).

  • Universal programs: are designed to address risk and use the protective factors that are common for all children in any given setting, i.e. school or community
  • Selective programs: this program targets groups of children as well as teens who have the risk factors of potential drug use
  • Indicated programs: this program is designed for youth who have already begun the path of using drugs (NIH, 2014)


  1. Which prevention strategy do you personally believe would be most effective, and why?
  2. Which prevention strategy do you believe would be the least effective, and why?
  3. Which prevention strategy would you recommend for the preteen population (defined as children ages 10–12)
  4. Do you believe that the strategy that you identified as the most effective is cost-effective? Support your position with facts.
  5. As a subcommittee member, rank the 3 prevention strategies in order of the most valuable to the least valuable, and explain your position.

Sample Answer

Preventing Alcohol Abuse Among Minors: The Best Strategy

Notably, drug abuse among the youth has seen tremendous increase in the recent past. The early use of drugs proliferate the chances of addiction to a person. Prevention is the key to eliminating drug abuse and thereafter tackling the problem of addiction. Conferring to the sentiments, in my opinion, I believe the universal programs are the most effective prevention strategy to solve the menace. Contextually, the universal programs are designed with consideration of the prevailing environment the minors are exposed. The program allows for detection and identification of the predisposing factors prior to actual damage. Remarkably, the causative factors of drug abuse in minors are socially borne. By preventing early use of drugs or alcohol the community will make impressive steps in reducing drug abuse risks. In the circumstantial event of preventing young persons’ from drugs experimentation, it is very possible to do away with drug addiction menace.

Among the prevention strategies, selective program is the least effective for me due to its confined nature. Despite the vulnerability of the teens and children exposed to risk factors, the approach neglects the bigger picture of the larger society. The problem of drug abuse calls for a holistic approach in dealing with situation something the program overlooks. Selective programs usually fail to willingly engage some youth and families at risk.

In the case of handling the preteens on the issue of drug abuse I would recommend the selective strategy as the most appropriate. This is because they are the target group and there is room for improvement and concentration to the individuals creates a connection with the facilitators and participants in sharing experiences.

Universal programs are cost-effective I believe. The whole populace of a society is included and engaged in the program to help in preventing and curbing drug abuse among the minors.

In the three prevention strategies universal programs are the most effective in my opinion as they are holistic, though perceptibly considered over-inclusive. I appreciate the fact that the risk factors are collectively identified in prior to allow the initiation of the apt corrective measures. Selective programs come as a second for me in that it has a limited scope on addressing only the target group. Lastly, the indicated programs dwell on healing rather than prevention. Recognizing that prevention is the key to drug addiction is imperative.


Birth Defects Associated with Substance Abuse – Alcohol

Women are in the know about the consequences of drinking during pregnancy but still statistics show that several women still use alcohol and other substances during such periods. The dangers of using alcohol and other substances during pregnancies is that the children can be born with a number of disorders. Additionally, using alcohol does interfere with the health of the mothers and the fetus they carry. One of the most common disorders that such children may suffer from is what is called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). When women consume more alcohol during pregnancy, the more fatal the effects become on their unborn children. Excessive consumption of alcohol results in a more severe effect referred to as Fetal Alcohol syndrome (FAS). Statistics in America indicate that today, for every one thousand babies born in America, two of them suffer from fetal alcohol syndrome. The statistics also show that ten out of every one thousand new born babies suffer from alcohol related problems (National Health Institute).

Alcohol consumption during pregnancy results in a number of birthdefects that includes the following, mental retardation where the mental capacity of the child remains so low. Due to the mental retardation problem, chances are high that such children will suffer from physical abnormalities as well as other behavior problems that can last their entire lifetime (Turney, 2011).  Fetal alcohol spectrum may also result in growth deficits where the children become unable to grow like the rest of their counterparts whose mothers do not take alcohol during pregnancy. Additionally, babies born of drinking mothers are most likely to suffer from neurological defects as well as other body malfunctions. Body malfunctions may include deformation of the head structures which also interferes with the face formation (National Health institute). Additionally, women who drink during pregnancy put their babies at a risk of suffering from abnormalities of the eyes.

Substance abuse and alcohol consumption during pregnancy does have an effect of impaired growth where such babies are born when they are physically small as compared to those born of non-drinkers.  In most cases, such small babies suffer from growth problems for a better part of their lifetime and they fail to catch up with the rest of their peers. Apart from that, alcohol consumption also causes problems on the organs of the babies where they cause disruptions on the formation process of the organs. For instance, defects in the heart formation, muscles and joint remain to be serious problems for infants. Additionally, such children suffer from kidney deformations and malfunctions due to the alcohol exposure they experience from their mothers (Turney, 2011). There are cases where the sex organs of such infants fail to develop properly.

According to statistics, it has been proved that the number of women who are exposed to excessive consumption of alcohol far exceeds the number of children born with alcohol related problems. It therefore shows that not every mother who consumes alcohol or uses other drugs during pregnancy will give birth to children with the above defects. Additionally, the extents to which children suffer the above defects differ from one child to theother. The difference in the defects variations are normally caused by a difference in a number of factors that includes the alcohol consumption patterns of the mothers. Additionally, the difference in the metabolism abilities of the mothers is also a factor that results in the defects variations. The genetic susceptibility of both the mothers and the babies also creates the differences in the defects variations.

Illegal Drug Use, Prostitution, And Money Laundering Problems In The United States

Illegal drug use, illegal prostitution, and money laundering are some of the vice crime that the American society is striving hard to fight every day (Mooney et al., 1997). Vice crimes are crimes often thought to go against morality. They are illegal activities that usually have no complaining participants and are simply regarded as victimless crimes.

To begin with, Illegal drug use is usually an underlying subject of moderate to severe abuse. Many people who take drugs are often involved in prostitution as well(Stout et al., 2004). What is more, even high-ranking or corporate businesspeople engage in money laundering, with the aims of getting rich. Illegal drug use is, therefore, the baseline to all these crimes, most of the times.

Illegal drug use typically leads to abuse of drugs in the long run, which in transit plays a big role in thecrime. Illegal drug abuse is the gateway to much more crimes and can destroy one’s life. Drug trafficking is a big ring that even the law enforcement agencies do not manage to crack down all the members. In fact, it is so intense that when several members get arrested, they still manage to run the business even from premises like prisons.

The United States government has recently increased interests in combating illegal drug abuse. By this, it has installed frameworks to help regulate drugs from the public, especially those that alter minds of humans like bath salts and PCP. However, the more the government attempts to regulate illegal drug use; the more people are involved in the abuse. The most commonly abused drugs include cocaine, DMT, alcohol, bath salts, marijuana, inhalants, methamphetamines, hallucinogens, LSD, salvia, and many other over-the-counter drugs. The main reasons for use are misconceptions of desires like sexual pleasure, tanning, and anapparent increase in concentration abilities.

Some of the possible solutions to these vice crimes include shifting resources to effective programs like public health approaches, making treatment available, investing in American youth and giving them accurate information, focusing on law enforcement resources on most dangerous criminals, demilitarization of drug control efforts, and respect state rights and allow new approaches to be tried.

CJM 309 – Drugs of Abuse and The Poly Drug User

Assignment Instructions – Drugs of Abuse and The Poly Drug User

Read about the Drug Categories on the DRE website. Using your textbook, the DEA Drugs of Abuse article, and two other sources, write a five (5) page (APA) formatted research paper. Five pages mean five pages of narrative text. The cover page, abstract and resource page does NOT count toward the length of the assignment.

Topic: Select two of the seven drug categories and compare and contrast the following issues:

  • Compare and contrast drug abuse factors between the two categories
  • Effects on the human body including symptomology
  • Identification and packaging
  • Methods of ingestion
  • Trafficking trends for the two drug categories
  • Issues in criminality

WARNING: Select two categories not two drugs; for example you cannot select cocaine and methamphetamine because they are both in the stimulant category.

Drug Control Policies Assignment And A Sample Answer

Assignment Instructions

The student will write a ten page, APA paper comparing and contrasting the current global debate centering on illicit drug decriminalization, legalization and stricter drug control policies.The paper will be double-spaced. The student may use the textbook and the DEA, Drugs of Abuse  journal article plus three (3) additional academic sources.

*****************Readings & Resources Materical******************

  1. Lyman, Michael, D., (2011), Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts, and Control, Anderson Publishing, Sixth Edition, ISBN: 978-1-4377-4450-7
  2. United States Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration, (2011), Drugs of Abuse-2011 Edition-Resource Guide, Washington D.C.,
  3. International Association of Chiefs of Police, (2013), The International Drug Evaluation & Classification Program-7 Drug Categories, Washington D.C.,
  4. National Institute of Drug Abuse, (2013), The Science of Drug Abuse & Addiction, Washington D.C.,
  5. Drug Recognition Expert Matrix; Indicators of Drug Influence, (provided by the instructor)

View a Sample Answer to this assignment or order a unique answer at an affordable price. 


Current Global Debate on Illicit Drug Decriminalization, Legalization and Stricter Drug Control Policies


There are increasing number of people involved in drug use and abuse. The United Nations Office on Drug and Crime estimates that between 172 million and 250 million people used illicit drugs in 2009 and close to 38 million of that segment of population were drug dependent (Abadie, Diamond, & Hainmueller, 2010). Indeed drug use and dependence is a threat to the global health, being one of the top ten risks in the developed countries. The social and economic costs associated with drug use have created intense global debate on use of illicit drugs. Many legislations and policies have been formulated across various countries to control, decriminalize and legalize the use of illicit drugs. The paper will focus on the contrast in the current global debate on illicit drug decriminalization, legalization and stricter drug control policies.

Comparison and Contrast on Current Global Debate on Illicit Drug Decriminalization, Legalization and Stricter Drug Control Policies

The global war on drugs can be considered as a failure, and has caused devastating consequences for societies across the globe. According to (Carlos et al., 2013), the illicit drug use strategies that have been implemented over the past decades have failed to work. Since the inception of the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs over half a century ago and the launch of war on drugs by president Nixon, 40 years ago, many policy makers believed that the implementation of harsh laws on those involved in drug production, distribution and use would lead to an ever-decreasing use of drugs.

However, over that course of the period, the production, distribution and use of illicit drugs has been on the rise globally. Despite the growing evidence of the failure of the policies in place to combat use of illicit drugs, the international and national policymakers have offered a deaf ear to the public scrutiny debates. This is evident from the varying policy frameworks that have been adopted in various countries, though some countries in Europe have tried other interventions such as decriminalization and legalization of illicit drugs with huge successes.

The alternative schemes of law enforcements on use of licit drugs that have been at the center of global debates are decriminalization, legalization and strict drug control polices. According to (Thompson, 2014), drug decriminalization is defined as the admistrative approach other than the criminal justice system, to drug use, for example, the use of community service, suspension of professional licenses and fines.  In contrast, the legalization involves the amendment of law in order to get rid of the criminal or administrative processes and any sanctions that govern the production, distribution and use of illicit drugs.

Many countries continue to pursue varying legislative perspectives on production, distribution, possession and use of illicit drugs. Some countries, such as the Portugal have decriminalized the use of illicit drugs, while the possession and use of illicit drugs remain strictly prohibited in the United States (Hughes & Stevens, 2010). Among the countries that have decriminalized the possession and use of drugs, their variations in the variables that define the maximum quantity thresholds distinguishes between drug trafficking, possession and use offences. For example, in Mexico, one cannot be prosecuted for being in possession of 0.5g of cocaine, while Spain allows possession of up to 6.5g. However, in other countries there are even harsher regulations on possession and use of illicit drugs. For example, in Singapore, South Arabia, Iran and China, the possession and use of illicit drugs such as cocaine is punishable through hanging sentence.

In 2001, Portugal became the first country in Europe to decriminalize the possession and use of any type of illicit drug. According to (Hughes & Stevens, 2010), the burden of the drug use and dependence of drug law enforcement on the criminal justice system saw the decriminalization of illicit drug. The country adopted the strategy of defining the quantity thresholds and use of therapeutic approaches to help the individuals who depend on drugs. Although many policymakers initially feared that the adoption of decriminalization of use of illicit drug would increase their use, current research findings have shown that it has greatly reduced the abuse of illicit drugs in the country.

Although other countries have adopted similar policies of decriminalization of illicit drugs, the use of Marijuana, for instance is decriminalized in the United States, while it remains legal in the Netherlands (Abadie, Diamond, & Hainmueller, 2010). However, some states, such as California have legalized use of Marijuana only for medical purposes, the possession and use of the drug remains illegal in the country. More states, led by the public interest groups continue to advocate for the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes, although the FDA research reveals the negative impact of the drug on health. Consequently, the federal government act (the Drug Control Act) makes the production and consumption of marijuana illegal despite the various state legislations that allow it to be used for medical purposes.

According to (Abadie, Diamond, & Hainmueller, 2010), there is a stark contrast in the regulatory environments between Amsterdam and San Francisco. In Amsterdam, there are “cannabis cafés” while in San Francisco; the use of marijuana is criminalized. According to the author, a research into the impact of legalization of use of marijuana in Amsterdam reveals no impact on the increase in the abuse of the drug. On the other hand, the author asserts that studies of the impact of criminalization of use of marijuana in San Francisco reveals no impact on the decrease in the abuse of the drug.

More states in the United States continue to legalize the use of marijuana for medical purposes. However, the federal laws prohibit the production, distribution and possession of marijuana. Similarly, the studies done to determine the impact of legalization of marijuana in the states that have policies that allow the use of the drug for medical purposes have revealed no significant increase in the use of the drug. In light of the findings in the states that have legalized the use of marijuana for medical purposes and in the countries that the drug remains legal, it is evident that the policy of harsh punishment on the use of marijuana has failed. It is also worth to note, as highlighted earlier in the paper that the use of illicit drugs has increased steady since the introduction of punitive measures by president Dixon, four decades ago. This further points the negative impact or perhaps the failure of harsh punitive laws that criminalizes the production, distribution, possession and use of illicit drugs. In fact, there is a stark contrast in the policy measures that have been adopted in the United States and countries that have decriminalized the use of illicit drugs.

There exist draconian laws, which prohibit the possession and use of the illicit drugs. In South Arabia, Iran and Singapore, the national laws not only prohibit the use of illicit drugs. The laws in these countries give harsher punishment, even death for possessing and using illicit drugs. However, people in these countries continue to use illicit drugs. The question remains, why would people still possess and use the illicit drugs even when they know they face death penalties? Perhaps, we should draw the attention to the approach employed in countries such as Czech Republic, whose rates remain low compared to those of the United States. Rather than criminalize the possession and use of illicit drugs, there is need to look at the problem as a health issue.

In as much as the possession and use of illicit drugs is a criminal offence in the United States, under the federal law, (Thompson, 2014) points the negative repercussions of legalization of illicit drugs. According to the author, the experiment by the Swedish government to legalize the use of opiates and amphetamines became botched and resulted in increased use and sale of the drug.  The Swedish government legalized the use of opiates and amphetamines for medical purposes, which were prescribed by doctors to groups of patients in the doses that they requested. The patients, who legally received the drugs from the doctors, distributed them to friends and relatives. In the end, it led to an increase in intravenous use of the opiates and amphetamines in the country.

The experiment further reaffirms the inability of criminalization in reduction of abuse of illicit drugs. The Swedish drug experiment was carried on a small segment of the population and involved only two forms of illicit drugs.  It is quite hard to imagine how legalized prescription of opiates and amphetamines to 150 people could contribute to the rise in use of the illicit drugs. Perhaps the prescription of the drugs to patients just amplified the problem of the use of the illicit drugs, which already existed within the population. Although the country’s population remains low, it still spends significant amount of its GDP on drug abuse prevention compared to its neighbours with relatively small population, where the use of illicit drugs is decriminalized (Thompson, 2014).

In as much as the United States still spends significant portion of its gross domestic product on drug abuses and related problems, the country scores significantly the same in other aspects of illicit drug regulations. In Peru, India, Spain and Turkey, cocaine is legally produced. Cocaine remains a schedule 8 drug in the country, which is regulated and is legally permitted to be cultivated, transported, sold and possessed on medical grounds. The drug remains illegal in various countries including Hong Kong, Bolivia, Bahamas, Australia and New Zealand. However, in light of the international experience, one can propose the drug to be legally produced.

According to (DiNardo, 1993), the legal production of cocaine that are dully registered and credited could help in meeting the international demands for the medical needs of its users. Cocaine production remains legal in Peru, with the author point to no impact of the production of the drug on the increase in the number of users. The possession of cocaine is classified as a criminal activity in the United States and one can face prison term of up to 20 years if convicted. In the United Kingdom, cocaine is classified as class A drug, which is prohibited for use even got medical purposes.

Despite the numerous evidence of success of the decriminalization policies, and the legalization of illicit drugs the Drug Enforcement Administration offers contrasting views on the legalization and decriminalization of illicit drugs. According to the (Drug Enforcement Administration, 2010) illicit drugs are dangerous and pose great danger to the United States if the country adopts more permissive policies. The author further points that the policies in place, in the United States were well developed based on the experience and that they are excellent in the fight against use of illicit drug use. This reflects a glaring difference from the points adopted by other countries, and has been proven to be effective in reduction of illicit drug use.

While reckoning that marijuana is not the only drug that moves between Mexico and the United States, (Drug Enforcement Administration, 2010) alludes the fact that just like the lifting of the alcohol prohibitions in 1933, the decriminalization of drugs will not control drug trafficking. A critical look at the position of the Drug Enforcement Administration shows a complete contrast to most European illicit drug control strategies. There are believes in the United States that the enforcement of harsh drug control policies will prevent the use of illicit drugs.

Moreover, the Drug Enforcement Administration argues that the Food and Drug Administration has reviewed all the available research evidence and concluded that marijuana is a mind-altering drug. Therefore, the Drug Enforcement Administration finds it impossible to understand how the introduction of a third substance through decriminalization and legalization would be beneficial. Indeed, according to the (Drug Enforcement Administration, 2010), over 12 million Americans are struggling with the problem of drug abuse and addiction, a fact that the Drug Enforcement Administration accepts.

The Drug Enforcement Administration asserts the need for the development of a health care strategy to deal with the individuals who have an addiction problem. While this might be a health approach towards the problem of substance abuse, it does not solve the cause of the problem, but rather cures the symptoms. The approach that was adopted by Portugal, Czech Republic and Greece among other European countries incorporates the health approach to the decriminalization of the illicit drugs. The arguments of these European countries are that there are no correlations between the increase in abuse of illicit drugs and its legalization. In contrast, the United States is of the view that the present data reveals no benefits of legalization of illicit drugs exists. Rather, the legalization of illicit drugs is meant to increase to the burden of the already huge demands of the substance addiction in the country.

There are global debates on the call for the legalization of illicit drugs as a means of generation of revenues. As highlighted earlier, many proponents of the decriminalization citing that legalization of illicit drugs does not pose any threat to the drug users, point the importance of legalization of illicit drugs for the purpose of generation of revenues. However, the Drug Enforcement Administration pursues a rather different perspective to the general global perspectives. The Drug Enforcement Administration asserts that the research on the revenues generated from the legalization of cigarettes in the United States consume more funds in the fight against problems associated to the smoking of cigarettes than the revenues from cigarettes provides (Drug Enforcement Administration, 2010). The authors point that the costs of rehabilitation and treatment because of consumption outweighs the revenues attained from the sale of the illicit drugs. This is contrast to the view of use of drugs as a health problem, as adopted by the European countries such as Portugal and Czech Republic.

Moreover, (Drug Enforcement Administration, 2010) points towards the ethical considerations of the legalization and decriminalization of the use of illicit drugs. According to the author, decriminalization of illicit drugs is equal to allowing for the producers and the distributors to profit from the addiction caused by the illicit drugs. According to the authors, the high number of deaths that result from addiction and overuse of illicit drugs is not worth the revenues attained from the decriminalization of illicit drugs.

Studies reveal that the legalization of use of marijuana in Netherlands and prescription of heroin in Britain was met with the rise in use of drugs across the segments of the population in the two countries. According to (Drug Enforcement Administration, 2010) the enactment of the strict drug control policies in these two countries helped the two countries to reverse the trends of new youthful use of the illicit drugs. In fact, the Drug Enforcement Administration asserts that marijuana remains schedule I drug, which is prohibited in the United States.

In addition, the country is bound by the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), which prohibits the production, distribution and consumption of illicit drugs. The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) asserts that no illicit drug must be produced and distributed unless there is scientific evidence that proves it does not affect the society. Moreover, such approvals must not be left solely to be determined by the interest groups, as is the case with the legalization of marijuana in the country. Therefore, regardless of the legality of marijuana in some states such as California remains illegal to be produced by individuals and is governed by the Drug Control Act.

The proponents of the prohibition of illicit drugs points to the increase in the organized crime owing to the prohibition of illicit drugs. However, the United States have contrary views, pointing to the historical developments that altered the voter priorities and that organized crimes existed even before the prohibition of illicit drugs. (Abadie, Diamond, & Hainmueller, 2010), points that the historical analysis on the impact of prohibition of production and distribution of illicit drugs shows that it led to a decline in the consumption of the illicit drugs until the great depression that altered the voter’s rights. During the prohibition, there was a decline in alcohol consumption and the number of people admitted due to cirrhosis dropped dramatically. Similarly, there was a decline in the number of arrests for disorderly conduct, while there was no rise in the organized crime during the same period.

Indeed, there is a glaring difference in the legalization and decriminalization of illicit drugs across the globe. The European countries that have successfully decriminalized and legalized drugs report a reduction in the number of people involved in drug abuse and reduction in organized crime. Moreover, the countries that have legalized or decriminalized the production, distribution and possession of illicit drugs have adopted the view of drug use as a health problem, incorporating the therapeutic process in their legislation processes.

One glaring difference between the European and the criminalization in the United States is that the perspective adopted by the United States is rooted to the scientific and historical findings. However, the European and United States still view the use of illicit drugs as a health problem, as evidenced by the huge amounts of money spend in the rehabilitation and treatment centers to assist the addicts.

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Assessing the Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program (D.A.R.E)

The United States has the highest number of drug abuse and addiction cases in the world. The rise of alcohol related problems in the country has seen adoption of various substance abuse models and programs to address the problems. While many young people in the country continue to reap the benefits of some of outreach programs, that seek to build highest ideals and character, some national programs continue to absorb huge national funds without measurable results. .Many critics have highlighted Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E) program as one such youth outreach program that have shown shortcomings (West & O’Neal, 2004). D.A.R.E program should be discontinued.

Reasons Why the Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program Should be Discontinued

The D.A.R.E program aims to impart skills that enable the learners to desist from violence, resist peer influence and live drug free life (Gorman & Huber, 2009). The program is led by police officers and is integrated in the learning process with a series of lessons that do not interrupt the learning process. Although the program appeals to parents due to the ideal results it alleges to attain, however, the Justice Department points that the program has insignificant impact on drug abuse. Moreover, the National Institute on Drug Abuse refers to evidence-based addiction and substance abuse programs such as the NIDA substance abuse preventions programs other than the D.A.R.E program.

According to (West & O’Neal, 2004), the D.A.R.E program costs the federal government millions of dollars annually with no evidence that it keeps the youth away from drugs. The evidence-based programs such as the National Institute on Drug Abuse have been shown to increase outcomes and contribute to reduced abuse of alcohol, smoking and other substances among the school-going children (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2003). The federal government spends more than $750,000,000 annually on D.A.R.E program with insignificant evidence of improvements in the outcomes (West & O’Neal, 2004). Such funds could be easily directed to NIDA programs, which are backed by evidence and whose program is comprehensive and involves the community, educators and parents in prevention of drug and deviant behaviors.

According to a research published by (West & O’Neal, 2004), the D.A.R.E program is ineffective, and is a source of interruptions to the school academic programs. Moreover, (Rosenbaum, Flewelling, Bailey, Ringwalt, & Wilkinson, 1994) asserts that inexperienced and unlicensed educators offer the D.A.R.E program. The program employs cops in classrooms as instructors, who merely give the instructions about the program to the learners, with no follow-up activities. It is from the lack of the follow-up that the authors assert that the program is loop-sided and needs licensed educators for it to be effective.

Unintended Consequences of the DARE Program That Should Be Considered When Assessing the Program

Although project Drug Abuse Resistance Education was developed primarily to assist in developing the skills and enhance a violence and drugs free life from those who graduate from the program, the project has had some indented consequences. The program was intended to keep kids away from drugs. However, the number of high school kids who use drugs has increase since its inception (Galloway, 2013). It is important to consider this consequence since it determines the effectiveness and ability of the program to meet is mission. Moreover, it is important to consider the consequence given the huge investment of school time, government enforcement efforts and the huge federal funding that the program consumes annually.

War On Drugs – Research Paper

Brief history of war on drugs

War on drugs begun over 50 years ago with the 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. The convention legalize the basis of the global war on drugs in two functional perspectives; it institutes a global prevention of some drugs for non-medical usage, it also stringently controls many of the equivalent drugs for scientific and medical usage. The studies have revealed that over the last 50 years, the danger to public well-being from drugs usage has been intertwined with the danger to public welfare such as national security from drugs war-related crime(Caulkins, et al., 2005). As a result, drugs and crime have turn out to be joined together in administrative rhetoric. Statistics have revealed that $60 billion annually supported by no less than 16 million Americans, 7 % of the U.S. inhabitants over the age of 12. This level of tradition evidently concerns the rest of the residents. For example, from 1985 until 2001, drugs was reliably 1 of the top 10 responses when Americans were enquired what they understood was the utmostimperativeproblematicincrustation nation.

In reaction to such worries, federal and state policymakers and administrative branch bureaucrats have legislated and effected policies that, whereasvaried in methodology, are slanted towardsexecution. These policies comprise the ban of virtually any usage or hold of hard drugs such as heroin, cocaine, marijuana and variedrange of other psychoactive constituent(Beittel, 2013). To make it extrahard to acquisitionof such drugs, policies have been executed that variety from obliteration of plants like coca in source nation state, by sentencing of traffickers, to interruption of street marketplaces and imprisonment of sellersinside U.S. borders. Simultaneously, constitutional agencies have pursued to decrease Americans’ urge for drugs by handling of substance addicts and deterrence programs presented through learning institutions and over the media. Nevertheless, most spending on drugs control at local, state and federal levels joint have been focused to execution. Over the past two decades, these measures have had theatrical bearing on some sections of the public. They have not though, steered to consider able reductions in the relentlessness of America’s drug interrelated complications, instigation vociferous condemnations of existing policy(Beittel, 2013). Many detractors dispute that increased sturdiness of that policy has done more destruction than worthy. Some go so far to propose that drugs should basically be permitted. Such spells have prompted correspondingly resilient justification of existing policy by execution advocates, who considers that miscarriage of the patient to recover is a pointer that even resilient medicine is necessary.

How prosperous has the war on drugs been?

            In order to accurately analyze if the war on drugs has been successful or failure, three points needs to be considered; first is the drug control rhetoric that is commonly known as “drug-free society.” Basic on this standard, the U.S. policy on drugs has botched and so will continuously be. Thus, it is not sensible to necessitate that the war on drugs eradicate drugs use to be considered as fruitful. It could be disputed that if the objective were not so aspiring, the war would accomplish even less(Caulkins, et al., 2005). On the contrary, impractical goals may oblige as the justification for policies that will then also flop at realizing more applied objective. Secondly, the term “war” is not an appropriate metaphor when recognized with policy on the lookout for the elimination of drug use. However, the crusade against drugs comprises the spending of considerable sums on such non-war-like undertakings as drug misuseprevention and treatment. Thus, the war on drugs metaphor has tumbled out of errand even among those most contented with existing execution attentive approach(Beittel, 2013). Thirdly, America’s drugs use delinquent spread beyond drugs whose usage by virtually anyone is unlawful, for example, heroin, cocaine and marijuana. Adult abuse alcohol, juvenile use of alcohol and tobacco, and prohibited use of recommendation drugs all carry infatuation risk and liability civilization with commercial and health costs.

Family Based Interventions In Substance Abuse Counseling


Drug abuse has been one of the major challenges for the American government over a very long period of time. The situation is at times made complex by the intensity with which the victims desire to use and abuse the drugs. For instance, in some cases, the victims get an uncontrollable desire to use the drugs, eventually leading to the abuse of the drugs even when it might result into dire consequences. The same problem is what faces our client by the name Julie. Probably her problem began with a voluntary action of taking the drugs and consuming excessive alcohol.. When the behavior is carried on for a long period of time, the urge to stop or walk away from the substance abuse becomes compromised.

An individual finds it difficult to eventually walk away from the substance abuse as a result of becoming a drug addict. For Julie, consuming the drugs, especially alcohol to an intoxicated capacity has been the major problem that has eventually led to her being arrested on a number of occasions. The problem is that she has been into the business of using drugs to an extent that it has affected the functioning capacity of her brains (Laureate Education, 2008).  The addiction has therefore affected a number of her brains circuits and cells so that she feels functionless without the use of the drugs. Moreover, her brain cells that are involved in creating rewards and motivation for her have been greatly affected by her use of the intoxicated levels of the drugs. Finally, her addiction has brought her to a level that she feels she no longer has control over her life and the use of the drugs. The suggested solutions and appropriate counseling that she deserves to get will be outlaid in the course of this paper.

Current symptoms

For most of the drug abuse victims, the problems start when the victims get into problems either at work or at home and a result of using the drugs. Additionally, there are those who even find themselves getting into problems in their relationships as a result of using drugs. For the case of Julie, the symptoms include letting her life revolve around the use of the alcohol. She openly claims that she likes frequenting broken spoke bar where she normally drinks with her father. Moreover, she insists that even after the counseling sessions, she would not want to stop her frequent visits to the pub due to the kind of satisfaction that she derives from that place. It therefore means that she will still be in a position to get access to the drinks making her more vulnerable to future problems. The problem is also made worse by the fact that it is her father who owns the bar, so it is easy for her to pop up at any time of the day. The only problem is that she takes the drinks in excess quantities to an extent that it forces Cathy and Alexis to carry her to bed.

Apart from that, Julie can also be seen to have withdrawn from her activities that she used to enjoy in the past. For instance, she has not been able to have a cloud of friends around her due to her alcohol addiction. As a result of that, she has had the lonely feeling that makes her want to get back to her social life where she used to meet friends and date. Julie’s problems may also be occurring as a result of the divorce she had to go through with her former husband who is currently re-married. It therefore means that the drugs addiction has taken her to worst levels where she cannot do without them and she therefore loses the urge of having a man in her life (Narconon).

Another symptom that she exhibits is her continued use of the alcohol despite the fact that she knows that alcohol causes a lot of trouble in her life. Her children have their own share of problems but she cares less about that. For instance, Joshua is being tested for ADHD and at the same time, he keeps missing his classes as a result of the same. On the other hand, Alexis tries to perform so well in school but she does not get the moral support she deserves from her parent. Moreover, Julie’s addiction has topped her from getting married despite the fact that her biological clock is quickly ticking away. Finally, it can be seen that the lady may have had the desire to stop using the drugs but she has been unable to do so due to the addictions. Probably, the counseling sessions and advice will act as the best solutions for her to get over her addiction practices.

Objectives/ Outcome criteria

The primary objectives of the treatment process will be to talk to the client and give her the best solutions that will enable her to stay free from her drug addiction and alcohol abuse. There will also be a need to get the lady to her right senses so that she lives a free life that is free from violent behavior. In most cases, when is under the influence of the drugs, their judgmental capacities normally goes down thereby making them prone to getting into violent acts. Such a move would ensure that she becomes free from being a threat to herself as well as the others. For instance, she has been accustomed to the behavior of getting back home late because of staying the broken spoke bar. Eventually she struggles to get back home, and it forces both Cathy and Alexis to intervene in order to help her get to bed.


Some of the methods that will be used in the treatment process include both the behavioral and medication therapy that have proved to be very effective in the past. A combination of the two processes will begin with a detoxification process so that her blood is freed from the contents of the alcoholic contents. Thereafter, a treatment and a relapse prevention process will follow so that she no longer gets the urge to use the drinks (Gordon and Marlatt, 1985).

Heroin Epidemic Substance Abuse in Dayton, Ohio – Evidence-Based Solution

Dayton substance abuse is tragic, epidemic, and requires a lot of solutions. While the treatments may vary, the government has provided the area residents with facilities and physicians who are dedicated to addiction free living and wellness. Some of the drugs or substances which are mostly abused included marijuana, heroin, cocaine, alcohol, depressants used for treating anxiety, opioids derivatives for pain relief and stimulants such as prescribed for ADHD.

Ohio’s model for drug fighting can be perhaps the most comprehensive in the entire nation. Almost billion dollars are being are being invested annually in helping the society to address the prevention, recovery, law enforcement and treatment. In addition to the funding, the leaders invest a lot of energy and time in order to create tools which can help in battling the epidemic.  The State has made huge progress in the fight against the deadly heroin epidemic and which largely has been responsible for a large number of deaths as a result of drug overdose. Due to the availability of the drug, there is a big challenge in the fight and this has to put strained the county’s capacity to provide recovery and detox services, and rehab (Ekeh, Akpofure  & et al, 2014).

In response to the community need, the state has already launched a new drug prevention programs which put their emphasize on adding the capacity for the recovery housing, medication assisted treatments, and putting in place innovative interdiction models based on the connectivity of people with the addiction treatment.

However, the region must go further to address the community needs and address them at the local level. Ohio must ensure that all the citizens are educated, especially the youth, so they can make responsible and healthy choices and avoid the risks of engaging into drugs and other substance abuse. If families and individuals are not aware of the powerful substances in their medicine cabinets, addictions and misuse may occur.

Helping parents and caregivers to start conversations with kids

To prevent drug use among the children in Ohio, a simple tool can be helpful; like a conversation. Parents who engage into talks with their kids on drugs are less likely to engage in substance abuse (Carlson, Robert & et al, 2014).


Deploying prevention programming in schools

Although, many schools already are using the evidence based prevention programs, the Ohio legislation should engage the education board of every local school district for the selection of healthy curriculum which includes the instructions on the dangers of substance abuse. Beyond the K-12 environments, Universities and colleges also have the mandate to promote the awareness.


Setting up local prevention coalition program with youth-led focus

The communities living within the Dayton region should develop an active drug prevention coalition. Having a youth peer to peer component can show kids that by choosing to be drug free, they are in the majority.

Developing a culturally relevant, age-appropriate communications

Whether the community requires reaching rural families, urban youth, or the returning veterans, a population segment must be identified which there is a need to reach and tailor messages and incorporate audience’s values and beliefs.

Promoting best practices and continuing education

The science which relates to medication has always been evolving. The provider may keep his knowledge current about evidence-based practices for opioid usage analgesics for pain management, as well as certain steps for preventing and managing opioid overdoses, through free federally funded continuing medical education.

Staying informed on prescribing guidelines

These are processes for avoiding contribution to opioid addiction through adjusting the pain management formularies especially used by the Bureau of works compensation and in the prisons. In assisting the prescribers in improving patient care, opioid prescribing guidelines must be developed to put the limits on the amounts which can be prescribed.

The community needs to decide and act on what possibly can be done in containing the epidemic. Unnecessary deaths may be averted and people can do better in protecting their community, personal and economic devastation where addiction wreaks in the community. For the success to happen, overdose deaths will be minimized by providing an easy access to naloxone available as a nasal spray and which is used against heroin by immediately blocking the deadly respiratory suppression caused by the drug.  Identifying and cracking down on prescribers and who provide a large number of quantity of narcotics in the pill mills, using TV, social media, and other channels in educating families on the prevention of substance abuse. Establishing and implementing medical guidelines for the chronic pain treatment. It can be done through quality technique improvement and the strategies for the performance improvement strategy.

Individuals who are going through the heroin and other substance abuse can recover. This takes hard work, good treatment, the ongoing support. People facing addictions do get on the recovery path. For others it may be early, even after one rehabilitation program while others it may take up to ten rehabilitation programs. The people who are affected, their clinical providers and families need to sustain hope that recovery is possible in which can be protracted and the darkest time (Falck, Russel & et al, 2014).