Tag: Drug Abuse

Alcohol Abuse Prevention In Minors – Assignment Instructions And A Sample Answer

Assignment Instructions

You have been working at the Wayne County probation office for approximately 6 months now. Your supervisor has given you your 6-month employment evaluation, which was excellent. As a result, your supervisor has informed you that he is to choose one of the probation officers on his staff of 45 to be appointed to a committee on alcohol use and abuse. This committee is being put together by the County Board of Supervisors. Your supervisor asks you to be part of this committee, which you excitedly agree to do.

At your first committee meeting, the committee chair divides the 30 individuals into smaller subcommittees to explore specific areas of alcohol use and abuse. You are assigned to the prevention and treatment committee along with eight other individuals. The committee is made up professionals from various disciplines, including probation, parole, corrections, addiction, substance/alcohol abuse, social work, psychology, psychiatry, and pharmacology. The board of supervisors has asked that your committee focus solely on prevention issues relating to minors (not adults).

  • Universal programs: are designed to address risk and use the protective factors that are common for all children in any given setting, i.e. school or community
  • Selective programs: this program targets groups of children as well as teens who have the risk factors of potential drug use
  • Indicated programs: this program is designed for youth who have already begun the path of using drugs (NIH, 2014)


  1. Which prevention strategy do you personally believe would be most effective, and why?
  2. Which prevention strategy do you believe would be the least effective, and why?
  3. Which prevention strategy would you recommend for the preteen population (defined as children ages 10–12)
  4. Do you believe that the strategy that you identified as the most effective is cost-effective? Support your position with facts.
  5. As a subcommittee member, rank the 3 prevention strategies in order of the most valuable to the least valuable, and explain your position.

Sample Answer

Preventing Alcohol Abuse Among Minors: The Best Strategy

Notably, drug abuse among the youth has seen tremendous increase in the recent past. The early use of drugs proliferate the chances of addiction to a person. Prevention is the key to eliminating drug abuse and thereafter tackling the problem of addiction. Conferring to the sentiments, in my opinion, I believe the universal programs are the most effective prevention strategy to solve the menace. Contextually, the universal programs are designed with consideration of the prevailing environment the minors are exposed. The program allows for detection and identification of the predisposing factors prior to actual damage. Remarkably, the causative factors of drug abuse in minors are socially borne. By preventing early use of drugs or alcohol the community will make impressive steps in reducing drug abuse risks. In the circumstantial event of preventing young persons’ from drugs experimentation, it is very possible to do away with drug addiction menace.

Among the prevention strategies, selective program is the least effective for me due to its confined nature. Despite the vulnerability of the teens and children exposed to risk factors, the approach neglects the bigger picture of the larger society. The problem of drug abuse calls for a holistic approach in dealing with situation something the program overlooks. Selective programs usually fail to willingly engage some youth and families at risk.

In the case of handling the preteens on the issue of drug abuse I would recommend the selective strategy as the most appropriate. This is because they are the target group and there is room for improvement and concentration to the individuals creates a connection with the facilitators and participants in sharing experiences.

Universal programs are cost-effective I believe. The whole populace of a society is included and engaged in the program to help in preventing and curbing drug abuse among the minors.

In the three prevention strategies universal programs are the most effective in my opinion as they are holistic, though perceptibly considered over-inclusive. I appreciate the fact that the risk factors are collectively identified in prior to allow the initiation of the apt corrective measures. Selective programs come as a second for me in that it has a limited scope on addressing only the target group. Lastly, the indicated programs dwell on healing rather than prevention. Recognizing that prevention is the key to drug addiction is imperative.


Birth Defects Associated with Substance Abuse – Alcohol

Women are in the know about the consequences of drinking during pregnancy but still statistics show that several women still use alcohol and other substances during such periods. The dangers of using alcohol and other substances during pregnancies is that the children can be born with a number of disorders. Additionally, using alcohol does interfere with the health of the mothers and the fetus they carry. One of the most common disorders that such children may suffer from is what is called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). When women consume more alcohol during pregnancy, the more fatal the effects become on their unborn children. Excessive consumption of alcohol results in a more severe effect referred to as Fetal Alcohol syndrome (FAS). Statistics in America indicate that today, for every one thousand babies born in America, two of them suffer from fetal alcohol syndrome. The statistics also show that ten out of every one thousand new born babies suffer from alcohol related problems (National Health Institute).

Alcohol consumption during pregnancy results in a number of birthdefects that includes the following, mental retardation where the mental capacity of the child remains so low. Due to the mental retardation problem, chances are high that such children will suffer from physical abnormalities as well as other behavior problems that can last their entire lifetime (Turney, 2011).  Fetal alcohol spectrum may also result in growth deficits where the children become unable to grow like the rest of their counterparts whose mothers do not take alcohol during pregnancy. Additionally, babies born of drinking mothers are most likely to suffer from neurological defects as well as other body malfunctions. Body malfunctions may include deformation of the head structures which also interferes with the face formation (National Health institute). Additionally, women who drink during pregnancy put their babies at a risk of suffering from abnormalities of the eyes.

Substance abuse and alcohol consumption during pregnancy does have an effect of impaired growth where such babies are born when they are physically small as compared to those born of non-drinkers.  In most cases, such small babies suffer from growth problems for a better part of their lifetime and they fail to catch up with the rest of their peers. Apart from that, alcohol consumption also causes problems on the organs of the babies where they cause disruptions on the formation process of the organs. For instance, defects in the heart formation, muscles and joint remain to be serious problems for infants. Additionally, such children suffer from kidney deformations and malfunctions due to the alcohol exposure they experience from their mothers (Turney, 2011). There are cases where the sex organs of such infants fail to develop properly.

According to statistics, it has been proved that the number of women who are exposed to excessive consumption of alcohol far exceeds the number of children born with alcohol related problems. It therefore shows that not every mother who consumes alcohol or uses other drugs during pregnancy will give birth to children with the above defects. Additionally, the extents to which children suffer the above defects differ from one child to theother. The difference in the defects variations are normally caused by a difference in a number of factors that includes the alcohol consumption patterns of the mothers. Additionally, the difference in the metabolism abilities of the mothers is also a factor that results in the defects variations. The genetic susceptibility of both the mothers and the babies also creates the differences in the defects variations.

Illegal Drug Use, Prostitution, And Money Laundering Problems In The United States

Illegal drug use, illegal prostitution, and money laundering are some of the vice crime that the American society is striving hard to fight every day (Mooney et al., 1997). Vice crimes are crimes often thought to go against morality. They are illegal activities that usually have no complaining participants and are simply regarded as victimless crimes.

To begin with, Illegal drug use is usually an underlying subject of moderate to severe abuse. Many people who take drugs are often involved in prostitution as well(Stout et al., 2004). What is more, even high-ranking or corporate businesspeople engage in money laundering, with the aims of getting rich. Illegal drug use is, therefore, the baseline to all these crimes, most of the times.

Illegal drug use typically leads to abuse of drugs in the long run, which in transit plays a big role in thecrime. Illegal drug abuse is the gateway to much more crimes and can destroy one’s life. Drug trafficking is a big ring that even the law enforcement agencies do not manage to crack down all the members. In fact, it is so intense that when several members get arrested, they still manage to run the business even from premises like prisons.

The United States government has recently increased interests in combating illegal drug abuse. By this, it has installed frameworks to help regulate drugs from the public, especially those that alter minds of humans like bath salts and PCP. However, the more the government attempts to regulate illegal drug use; the more people are involved in the abuse. The most commonly abused drugs include cocaine, DMT, alcohol, bath salts, marijuana, inhalants, methamphetamines, hallucinogens, LSD, salvia, and many other over-the-counter drugs. The main reasons for use are misconceptions of desires like sexual pleasure, tanning, and anapparent increase in concentration abilities.

Some of the possible solutions to these vice crimes include shifting resources to effective programs like public health approaches, making treatment available, investing in American youth and giving them accurate information, focusing on law enforcement resources on most dangerous criminals, demilitarization of drug control efforts, and respect state rights and allow new approaches to be tried.

CJM 309 – Drugs of Abuse and The Poly Drug User

Assignment Instructions – Drugs of Abuse and The Poly Drug User

Read about the Drug Categories on the DRE website. Using your textbook, the DEA Drugs of Abuse article, and two other sources, write a five (5) page (APA) formatted research paper. Five pages mean five pages of narrative text. The cover page, abstract and resource page does NOT count toward the length of the assignment.

Topic: Select two of the seven drug categories and compare and contrast the following issues:

  • Compare and contrast drug abuse factors between the two categories
  • Effects on the human body including symptomology
  • Identification and packaging
  • Methods of ingestion
  • Trafficking trends for the two drug categories
  • Issues in criminality

WARNING: Select two categories not two drugs; for example you cannot select cocaine and methamphetamine because they are both in the stimulant category.

Drug Control Policies Assignment And A Sample Answer

Assignment Instructions

The student will write a ten page, APA paper comparing and contrasting the current global debate centering on illicit drug decriminalization, legalization and stricter drug control policies.The paper will be double-spaced. The student may use the textbook and the DEA, Drugs of Abuse  journal article plus three (3) additional academic sources.

*****************Readings & Resources Materical******************

  1. Lyman, Michael, D., (2011), Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts, and Control, Anderson Publishing, Sixth Edition, ISBN: 978-1-4377-4450-7
  2. United States Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration, (2011), Drugs of Abuse-2011 Edition-Resource Guide, Washington D.C., www.DEA.gov
  3. International Association of Chiefs of Police, (2013), The International Drug Evaluation & Classification Program-7 Drug Categories, Washington D.C., www.dec.org
  4. National Institute of Drug Abuse, (2013), The Science of Drug Abuse & Addiction, Washington D.C., www.drugabuse.gov
  5. Drug Recognition Expert Matrix; Indicators of Drug Influence, (provided by the instructor)

View a Sample Answer to this assignment or order a unique answer at an affordable price. 


Current Global Debate on Illicit Drug Decriminalization, Legalization and Stricter Drug Control Policies


There are increasing number of people involved in drug use and abuse. The United Nations Office on Drug and Crime estimates that between 172 million and 250 million people used illicit drugs in 2009 and close to 38 million of that segment of population were drug dependent (Abadie, Diamond, & Hainmueller, 2010). Indeed drug use and dependence is a threat to the global health, being one of the top ten risks in the developed countries. The social and economic costs associated with drug use have created intense global debate on use of illicit drugs. Many legislations and policies have been formulated across various countries to control, decriminalize and legalize the use of illicit drugs. The paper will focus on the contrast in the current global debate on illicit drug decriminalization, legalization and stricter drug control policies.

Comparison and Contrast on Current Global Debate on Illicit Drug Decriminalization, Legalization and Stricter Drug Control Policies

The global war on drugs can be considered as a failure, and has caused devastating consequences for societies across the globe. According to (Carlos et al., 2013), the illicit drug use strategies that have been implemented over the past decades have failed to work. Since the inception of the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs over half a century ago and the launch of war on drugs by president Nixon, 40 years ago, many policy makers believed that the implementation of harsh laws on those involved in drug production, distribution and use would lead to an ever-decreasing use of drugs.

However, over that course of the period, the production, distribution and use of illicit drugs has been on the rise globally. Despite the growing evidence of the failure of the policies in place to combat use of illicit drugs, the international and national policymakers have offered a deaf ear to the public scrutiny debates. This is evident from the varying policy frameworks that have been adopted in various countries, though some countries in Europe have tried other interventions such as decriminalization and legalization of illicit drugs with huge successes.

The alternative schemes of law enforcements on use of licit drugs that have been at the center of global debates are decriminalization, legalization and strict drug control polices. According to (Thompson, 2014), drug decriminalization is defined as the admistrative approach other than the criminal justice system, to drug use, for example, the use of community service, suspension of professional licenses and fines.  In contrast, the legalization involves the amendment of law in order to get rid of the criminal or administrative processes and any sanctions that govern the production, distribution and use of illicit drugs.

Many countries continue to pursue varying legislative perspectives on production, distribution, possession and use of illicit drugs. Some countries, such as the Portugal have decriminalized the use of illicit drugs, while the possession and use of illicit drugs remain strictly prohibited in the United States (Hughes & Stevens, 2010). Among the countries that have decriminalized the possession and use of drugs, their variations in the variables that define the maximum quantity thresholds distinguishes between drug trafficking, possession and use offences. For example, in Mexico, one cannot be prosecuted for being in possession of 0.5g of cocaine, while Spain allows possession of up to 6.5g. However, in other countries there are even harsher regulations on possession and use of illicit drugs. For example, in Singapore, South Arabia, Iran and China, the possession and use of illicit drugs such as cocaine is punishable through hanging sentence.

In 2001, Portugal became the first country in Europe to decriminalize the possession and use of any type of illicit drug. According to (Hughes & Stevens, 2010), the burden of the drug use and dependence of drug law enforcement on the criminal justice system saw the decriminalization of illicit drug. The country adopted the strategy of defining the quantity thresholds and use of therapeutic approaches to help the individuals who depend on drugs. Although many policymakers initially feared that the adoption of decriminalization of use of illicit drug would increase their use, current research findings have shown that it has greatly reduced the abuse of illicit drugs in the country.

Although other countries have adopted similar policies of decriminalization of illicit drugs, the use of Marijuana, for instance is decriminalized in the United States, while it remains legal in the Netherlands (Abadie, Diamond, & Hainmueller, 2010). However, some states, such as California have legalized use of Marijuana only for medical purposes, the possession and use of the drug remains illegal in the country. More states, led by the public interest groups continue to advocate for the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes, although the FDA research reveals the negative impact of the drug on health. Consequently, the federal government act (the Drug Control Act) makes the production and consumption of marijuana illegal despite the various state legislations that allow it to be used for medical purposes.

According to (Abadie, Diamond, & Hainmueller, 2010), there is a stark contrast in the regulatory environments between Amsterdam and San Francisco. In Amsterdam, there are “cannabis cafés” while in San Francisco; the use of marijuana is criminalized. According to the author, a research into the impact of legalization of use of marijuana in Amsterdam reveals no impact on the increase in the abuse of the drug. On the other hand, the author asserts that studies of the impact of criminalization of use of marijuana in San Francisco reveals no impact on the decrease in the abuse of the drug.

More states in the United States continue to legalize the use of marijuana for medical purposes. However, the federal laws prohibit the production, distribution and possession of marijuana. Similarly, the studies done to determine the impact of legalization of marijuana in the states that have policies that allow the use of the drug for medical purposes have revealed no significant increase in the use of the drug. In light of the findings in the states that have legalized the use of marijuana for medical purposes and in the countries that the drug remains legal, it is evident that the policy of harsh punishment on the use of marijuana has failed. It is also worth to note, as highlighted earlier in the paper that the use of illicit drugs has increased steady since the introduction of punitive measures by president Dixon, four decades ago. This further points the negative impact or perhaps the failure of harsh punitive laws that criminalizes the production, distribution, possession and use of illicit drugs. In fact, there is a stark contrast in the policy measures that have been adopted in the United States and countries that have decriminalized the use of illicit drugs.

There exist draconian laws, which prohibit the possession and use of the illicit drugs. In South Arabia, Iran and Singapore, the national laws not only prohibit the use of illicit drugs. The laws in these countries give harsher punishment, even death for possessing and using illicit drugs. However, people in these countries continue to use illicit drugs. The question remains, why would people still possess and use the illicit drugs even when they know they face death penalties? Perhaps, we should draw the attention to the approach employed in countries such as Czech Republic, whose rates remain low compared to those of the United States. Rather than criminalize the possession and use of illicit drugs, there is need to look at the problem as a health issue.

In as much as the possession and use of illicit drugs is a criminal offence in the United States, under the federal law, (Thompson, 2014) points the negative repercussions of legalization of illicit drugs. According to the author, the experiment by the Swedish government to legalize the use of opiates and amphetamines became botched and resulted in increased use and sale of the drug.  The Swedish government legalized the use of opiates and amphetamines for medical purposes, which were prescribed by doctors to groups of patients in the doses that they requested. The patients, who legally received the drugs from the doctors, distributed them to friends and relatives. In the end, it led to an increase in intravenous use of the opiates and amphetamines in the country.

The experiment further reaffirms the inability of criminalization in reduction of abuse of illicit drugs. The Swedish drug experiment was carried on a small segment of the population and involved only two forms of illicit drugs.  It is quite hard to imagine how legalized prescription of opiates and amphetamines to 150 people could contribute to the rise in use of the illicit drugs. Perhaps the prescription of the drugs to patients just amplified the problem of the use of the illicit drugs, which already existed within the population. Although the country’s population remains low, it still spends significant amount of its GDP on drug abuse prevention compared to its neighbours with relatively small population, where the use of illicit drugs is decriminalized (Thompson, 2014).

In as much as the United States still spends significant portion of its gross domestic product on drug abuses and related problems, the country scores significantly the same in other aspects of illicit drug regulations. In Peru, India, Spain and Turkey, cocaine is legally produced. Cocaine remains a schedule 8 drug in the country, which is regulated and is legally permitted to be cultivated, transported, sold and possessed on medical grounds. The drug remains illegal in various countries including Hong Kong, Bolivia, Bahamas, Australia and New Zealand. However, in light of the international experience, one can propose the drug to be legally produced.

According to (DiNardo, 1993), the legal production of cocaine that are dully registered and credited could help in meeting the international demands for the medical needs of its users. Cocaine production remains legal in Peru, with the author point to no impact of the production of the drug on the increase in the number of users. The possession of cocaine is classified as a criminal activity in the United States and one can face prison term of up to 20 years if convicted. In the United Kingdom, cocaine is classified as class A drug, which is prohibited for use even got medical purposes.

Despite the numerous evidence of success of the decriminalization policies, and the legalization of illicit drugs the Drug Enforcement Administration offers contrasting views on the legalization and decriminalization of illicit drugs. According to the (Drug Enforcement Administration, 2010) illicit drugs are dangerous and pose great danger to the United States if the country adopts more permissive policies. The author further points that the policies in place, in the United States were well developed based on the experience and that they are excellent in the fight against use of illicit drug use. This reflects a glaring difference from the points adopted by other countries, and has been proven to be effective in reduction of illicit drug use.

While reckoning that marijuana is not the only drug that moves between Mexico and the United States, (Drug Enforcement Administration, 2010) alludes the fact that just like the lifting of the alcohol prohibitions in 1933, the decriminalization of drugs will not control drug trafficking. A critical look at the position of the Drug Enforcement Administration shows a complete contrast to most European illicit drug control strategies. There are believes in the United States that the enforcement of harsh drug control policies will prevent the use of illicit drugs.

Moreover, the Drug Enforcement Administration argues that the Food and Drug Administration has reviewed all the available research evidence and concluded that marijuana is a mind-altering drug. Therefore, the Drug Enforcement Administration finds it impossible to understand how the introduction of a third substance through decriminalization and legalization would be beneficial. Indeed, according to the (Drug Enforcement Administration, 2010), over 12 million Americans are struggling with the problem of drug abuse and addiction, a fact that the Drug Enforcement Administration accepts.

The Drug Enforcement Administration asserts the need for the development of a health care strategy to deal with the individuals who have an addiction problem. While this might be a health approach towards the problem of substance abuse, it does not solve the cause of the problem, but rather cures the symptoms. The approach that was adopted by Portugal, Czech Republic and Greece among other European countries incorporates the health approach to the decriminalization of the illicit drugs. The arguments of these European countries are that there are no correlations between the increase in abuse of illicit drugs and its legalization. In contrast, the United States is of the view that the present data reveals no benefits of legalization of illicit drugs exists. Rather, the legalization of illicit drugs is meant to increase to the burden of the already huge demands of the substance addiction in the country.

There are global debates on the call for the legalization of illicit drugs as a means of generation of revenues. As highlighted earlier, many proponents of the decriminalization citing that legalization of illicit drugs does not pose any threat to the drug users, point the importance of legalization of illicit drugs for the purpose of generation of revenues. However, the Drug Enforcement Administration pursues a rather different perspective to the general global perspectives. The Drug Enforcement Administration asserts that the research on the revenues generated from the legalization of cigarettes in the United States consume more funds in the fight against problems associated to the smoking of cigarettes than the revenues from cigarettes provides (Drug Enforcement Administration, 2010). The authors point that the costs of rehabilitation and treatment because of consumption outweighs the revenues attained from the sale of the illicit drugs. This is contrast to the view of use of drugs as a health problem, as adopted by the European countries such as Portugal and Czech Republic.

Moreover, (Drug Enforcement Administration, 2010) points towards the ethical considerations of the legalization and decriminalization of the use of illicit drugs. According to the author, decriminalization of illicit drugs is equal to allowing for the producers and the distributors to profit from the addiction caused by the illicit drugs. According to the authors, the high number of deaths that result from addiction and overuse of illicit drugs is not worth the revenues attained from the decriminalization of illicit drugs.

Studies reveal that the legalization of use of marijuana in Netherlands and prescription of heroin in Britain was met with the rise in use of drugs across the segments of the population in the two countries. According to (Drug Enforcement Administration, 2010) the enactment of the strict drug control policies in these two countries helped the two countries to reverse the trends of new youthful use of the illicit drugs. In fact, the Drug Enforcement Administration asserts that marijuana remains schedule I drug, which is prohibited in the United States.

In addition, the country is bound by the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), which prohibits the production, distribution and consumption of illicit drugs. The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) asserts that no illicit drug must be produced and distributed unless there is scientific evidence that proves it does not affect the society. Moreover, such approvals must not be left solely to be determined by the interest groups, as is the case with the legalization of marijuana in the country. Therefore, regardless of the legality of marijuana in some states such as California remains illegal to be produced by individuals and is governed by the Drug Control Act.

The proponents of the prohibition of illicit drugs points to the increase in the organized crime owing to the prohibition of illicit drugs. However, the United States have contrary views, pointing to the historical developments that altered the voter priorities and that organized crimes existed even before the prohibition of illicit drugs. (Abadie, Diamond, & Hainmueller, 2010), points that the historical analysis on the impact of prohibition of production and distribution of illicit drugs shows that it led to a decline in the consumption of the illicit drugs until the great depression that altered the voter’s rights. During the prohibition, there was a decline in alcohol consumption and the number of people admitted due to cirrhosis dropped dramatically. Similarly, there was a decline in the number of arrests for disorderly conduct, while there was no rise in the organized crime during the same period.

Indeed, there is a glaring difference in the legalization and decriminalization of illicit drugs across the globe. The European countries that have successfully decriminalized and legalized drugs report a reduction in the number of people involved in drug abuse and reduction in organized crime. Moreover, the countries that have legalized or decriminalized the production, distribution and possession of illicit drugs have adopted the view of drug use as a health problem, incorporating the therapeutic process in their legislation processes.

One glaring difference between the European and the criminalization in the United States is that the perspective adopted by the United States is rooted to the scientific and historical findings. However, the European and United States still view the use of illicit drugs as a health problem, as evidenced by the huge amounts of money spend in the rehabilitation and treatment centers to assist the addicts.

Download full sample paper Comparing and Contrasting Current Global Debate on Illicit Drug Decriminalization, Legalization and Stricter Drug Control Policies or order a unique paper at an affordable price.

Assessing the Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program (D.A.R.E)

The United States has the highest number of drug abuse and addiction cases in the world. The rise of alcohol related problems in the country has seen adoption of various substance abuse models and programs to address the problems. While many young people in the country continue to reap the benefits of some of outreach programs, that seek to build highest ideals and character, some national programs continue to absorb huge national funds without measurable results. .Many critics have highlighted Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E) program as one such youth outreach program that have shown shortcomings (West & O’Neal, 2004). D.A.R.E program should be discontinued.

Reasons Why the Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program Should be Discontinued

The D.A.R.E program aims to impart skills that enable the learners to desist from violence, resist peer influence and live drug free life (Gorman & Huber, 2009). The program is led by police officers and is integrated in the learning process with a series of lessons that do not interrupt the learning process. Although the program appeals to parents due to the ideal results it alleges to attain, however, the Justice Department points that the program has insignificant impact on drug abuse. Moreover, the National Institute on Drug Abuse refers to evidence-based addiction and substance abuse programs such as the NIDA substance abuse preventions programs other than the D.A.R.E program.

According to (West & O’Neal, 2004), the D.A.R.E program costs the federal government millions of dollars annually with no evidence that it keeps the youth away from drugs. The evidence-based programs such as the National Institute on Drug Abuse have been shown to increase outcomes and contribute to reduced abuse of alcohol, smoking and other substances among the school-going children (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2003). The federal government spends more than $750,000,000 annually on D.A.R.E program with insignificant evidence of improvements in the outcomes (West & O’Neal, 2004). Such funds could be easily directed to NIDA programs, which are backed by evidence and whose program is comprehensive and involves the community, educators and parents in prevention of drug and deviant behaviors.

According to a research published by (West & O’Neal, 2004), the D.A.R.E program is ineffective, and is a source of interruptions to the school academic programs. Moreover, (Rosenbaum, Flewelling, Bailey, Ringwalt, & Wilkinson, 1994) asserts that inexperienced and unlicensed educators offer the D.A.R.E program. The program employs cops in classrooms as instructors, who merely give the instructions about the program to the learners, with no follow-up activities. It is from the lack of the follow-up that the authors assert that the program is loop-sided and needs licensed educators for it to be effective.

Unintended Consequences of the DARE Program That Should Be Considered When Assessing the Program

Although project Drug Abuse Resistance Education was developed primarily to assist in developing the skills and enhance a violence and drugs free life from those who graduate from the program, the project has had some indented consequences. The program was intended to keep kids away from drugs. However, the number of high school kids who use drugs has increase since its inception (Galloway, 2013). It is important to consider this consequence since it determines the effectiveness and ability of the program to meet is mission. Moreover, it is important to consider the consequence given the huge investment of school time, government enforcement efforts and the huge federal funding that the program consumes annually.

War On Drugs – Research Paper

Brief history of war on drugs

War on drugs begun over 50 years ago with the 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. The convention legalize the basis of the global war on drugs in two functional perspectives; it institutes a global prevention of some drugs for non-medical usage, it also stringently controls many of the equivalent drugs for scientific and medical usage. The studies have revealed that over the last 50 years, the danger to public well-being from drugs usage has been intertwined with the danger to public welfare such as national security from drugs war-related crime(Caulkins, et al., 2005). As a result, drugs and crime have turn out to be joined together in administrative rhetoric. Statistics have revealed that $60 billion annually supported by no less than 16 million Americans, 7 % of the U.S. inhabitants over the age of 12. This level of tradition evidently concerns the rest of the residents. For example, from 1985 until 2001, drugs was reliably 1 of the top 10 responses when Americans were enquired what they understood was the utmostimperativeproblematicincrustation nation.

In reaction to such worries, federal and state policymakers and administrative branch bureaucrats have legislated and effected policies that, whereasvaried in methodology, are slanted towardsexecution. These policies comprise the ban of virtually any usage or hold of hard drugs such as heroin, cocaine, marijuana and variedrange of other psychoactive constituent(Beittel, 2013). To make it extrahard to acquisitionof such drugs, policies have been executed that variety from obliteration of plants like coca in source nation state, by sentencing of traffickers, to interruption of street marketplaces and imprisonment of sellersinside U.S. borders. Simultaneously, constitutional agencies have pursued to decrease Americans’ urge for drugs by handling of substance addicts and deterrence programs presented through learning institutions and over the media. Nevertheless, most spending on drugs control at local, state and federal levels joint have been focused to execution. Over the past two decades, these measures have had theatrical bearing on some sections of the public. They have not though, steered to consider able reductions in the relentlessness of America’s drug interrelated complications, instigation vociferous condemnations of existing policy(Beittel, 2013). Many detractors dispute that increased sturdiness of that policy has done more destruction than worthy. Some go so far to propose that drugs should basically be permitted. Such spells have prompted correspondingly resilient justification of existing policy by execution advocates, who considers that miscarriage of the patient to recover is a pointer that even resilient medicine is necessary.

How prosperous has the war on drugs been?

            In order to accurately analyze if the war on drugs has been successful or failure, three points needs to be considered; first is the drug control rhetoric that is commonly known as “drug-free society.” Basic on this standard, the U.S. policy on drugs has botched and so will continuously be. Thus, it is not sensible to necessitate that the war on drugs eradicate drugs use to be considered as fruitful. It could be disputed that if the objective were not so aspiring, the war would accomplish even less(Caulkins, et al., 2005). On the contrary, impractical goals may oblige as the justification for policies that will then also flop at realizing more applied objective. Secondly, the term “war” is not an appropriate metaphor when recognized with policy on the lookout for the elimination of drug use. However, the crusade against drugs comprises the spending of considerable sums on such non-war-like undertakings as drug misuseprevention and treatment. Thus, the war on drugs metaphor has tumbled out of errand even among those most contented with existing execution attentive approach(Beittel, 2013). Thirdly, America’s drugs use delinquent spread beyond drugs whose usage by virtually anyone is unlawful, for example, heroin, cocaine and marijuana. Adult abuse alcohol, juvenile use of alcohol and tobacco, and prohibited use of recommendation drugs all carry infatuation risk and liability civilization with commercial and health costs.

Family Based Interventions In Substance Abuse Counseling


Drug abuse has been one of the major challenges for the American government over a very long period of time. The situation is at times made complex by the intensity with which the victims desire to use and abuse the drugs. For instance, in some cases, the victims get an uncontrollable desire to use the drugs, eventually leading to the abuse of the drugs even when it might result into dire consequences. The same problem is what faces our client by the name Julie. Probably her problem began with a voluntary action of taking the drugs and consuming excessive alcohol.. When the behavior is carried on for a long period of time, the urge to stop or walk away from the substance abuse becomes compromised.

An individual finds it difficult to eventually walk away from the substance abuse as a result of becoming a drug addict. For Julie, consuming the drugs, especially alcohol to an intoxicated capacity has been the major problem that has eventually led to her being arrested on a number of occasions. The problem is that she has been into the business of using drugs to an extent that it has affected the functioning capacity of her brains (Laureate Education, 2008).  The addiction has therefore affected a number of her brains circuits and cells so that she feels functionless without the use of the drugs. Moreover, her brain cells that are involved in creating rewards and motivation for her have been greatly affected by her use of the intoxicated levels of the drugs. Finally, her addiction has brought her to a level that she feels she no longer has control over her life and the use of the drugs. The suggested solutions and appropriate counseling that she deserves to get will be outlaid in the course of this paper.

Current symptoms

For most of the drug abuse victims, the problems start when the victims get into problems either at work or at home and a result of using the drugs. Additionally, there are those who even find themselves getting into problems in their relationships as a result of using drugs. For the case of Julie, the symptoms include letting her life revolve around the use of the alcohol. She openly claims that she likes frequenting broken spoke bar where she normally drinks with her father. Moreover, she insists that even after the counseling sessions, she would not want to stop her frequent visits to the pub due to the kind of satisfaction that she derives from that place. It therefore means that she will still be in a position to get access to the drinks making her more vulnerable to future problems. The problem is also made worse by the fact that it is her father who owns the bar, so it is easy for her to pop up at any time of the day. The only problem is that she takes the drinks in excess quantities to an extent that it forces Cathy and Alexis to carry her to bed.

Apart from that, Julie can also be seen to have withdrawn from her activities that she used to enjoy in the past. For instance, she has not been able to have a cloud of friends around her due to her alcohol addiction. As a result of that, she has had the lonely feeling that makes her want to get back to her social life where she used to meet friends and date. Julie’s problems may also be occurring as a result of the divorce she had to go through with her former husband who is currently re-married. It therefore means that the drugs addiction has taken her to worst levels where she cannot do without them and she therefore loses the urge of having a man in her life (Narconon).

Another symptom that she exhibits is her continued use of the alcohol despite the fact that she knows that alcohol causes a lot of trouble in her life. Her children have their own share of problems but she cares less about that. For instance, Joshua is being tested for ADHD and at the same time, he keeps missing his classes as a result of the same. On the other hand, Alexis tries to perform so well in school but she does not get the moral support she deserves from her parent. Moreover, Julie’s addiction has topped her from getting married despite the fact that her biological clock is quickly ticking away. Finally, it can be seen that the lady may have had the desire to stop using the drugs but she has been unable to do so due to the addictions. Probably, the counseling sessions and advice will act as the best solutions for her to get over her addiction practices.

Objectives/ Outcome criteria

The primary objectives of the treatment process will be to talk to the client and give her the best solutions that will enable her to stay free from her drug addiction and alcohol abuse. There will also be a need to get the lady to her right senses so that she lives a free life that is free from violent behavior. In most cases, when is under the influence of the drugs, their judgmental capacities normally goes down thereby making them prone to getting into violent acts. Such a move would ensure that she becomes free from being a threat to herself as well as the others. For instance, she has been accustomed to the behavior of getting back home late because of staying the broken spoke bar. Eventually she struggles to get back home, and it forces both Cathy and Alexis to intervene in order to help her get to bed.


Some of the methods that will be used in the treatment process include both the behavioral and medication therapy that have proved to be very effective in the past. A combination of the two processes will begin with a detoxification process so that her blood is freed from the contents of the alcoholic contents. Thereafter, a treatment and a relapse prevention process will follow so that she no longer gets the urge to use the drinks (Gordon and Marlatt, 1985).

Heroin Epidemic Substance Abuse in Dayton, Ohio – Evidence-Based Solution

Dayton substance abuse is tragic, epidemic, and requires a lot of solutions. While the treatments may vary, the government has provided the area residents with facilities and physicians who are dedicated to addiction free living and wellness. Some of the drugs or substances which are mostly abused included marijuana, heroin, cocaine, alcohol, depressants used for treating anxiety, opioids derivatives for pain relief and stimulants such as prescribed for ADHD.

Ohio’s model for drug fighting can be perhaps the most comprehensive in the entire nation. Almost billion dollars are being are being invested annually in helping the society to address the prevention, recovery, law enforcement and treatment. In addition to the funding, the leaders invest a lot of energy and time in order to create tools which can help in battling the epidemic.  The State has made huge progress in the fight against the deadly heroin epidemic and which largely has been responsible for a large number of deaths as a result of drug overdose. Due to the availability of the drug, there is a big challenge in the fight and this has to put strained the county’s capacity to provide recovery and detox services, and rehab (Ekeh, Akpofure  & et al, 2014).

In response to the community need, the state has already launched a new drug prevention programs which put their emphasize on adding the capacity for the recovery housing, medication assisted treatments, and putting in place innovative interdiction models based on the connectivity of people with the addiction treatment.

However, the region must go further to address the community needs and address them at the local level. Ohio must ensure that all the citizens are educated, especially the youth, so they can make responsible and healthy choices and avoid the risks of engaging into drugs and other substance abuse. If families and individuals are not aware of the powerful substances in their medicine cabinets, addictions and misuse may occur.

Helping parents and caregivers to start conversations with kids

To prevent drug use among the children in Ohio, a simple tool can be helpful; like a conversation. Parents who engage into talks with their kids on drugs are less likely to engage in substance abuse (Carlson, Robert & et al, 2014).

Deploying prevention programming in schools

Although, many schools already are using the evidence based prevention programs, the Ohio legislation should engage the education board of every local school district for the selection of healthy curriculum which includes the instructions on the dangers of substance abuse. Beyond the K-12 environments, Universities and colleges also have the mandate to promote the awareness.


Setting up local prevention coalition program with youth-led focus

The communities living within the Dayton region should develop an active drug prevention coalition. Having a youth peer to peer component can show kids that by choosing to be drug free, they are in the majority.

Developing a culturally relevant, age-appropriate communications

Whether the community requires reaching rural families, urban youth, or the returning veterans, a population segment must be identified which there is a need to reach and tailor messages and incorporate audience’s values and beliefs.

Promoting best practices and continuing education

The science which relates to medication has always been evolving. The provider may keep his knowledge current about evidence-based practices for opioid usage analgesics for pain management, as well as certain steps for preventing and managing opioid overdoses, through free federally funded continuing medical education.

Staying informed on prescribing guidelines

These are processes for avoiding contribution to opioid addiction through adjusting the pain management formularies especially used by the Bureau of works compensation and in the prisons. In assisting the prescribers in improving patient care, opioid prescribing guidelines must be developed to put the limits on the amounts which can be prescribed.

The community needs to decide and act on what possibly can be done in containing the epidemic. Unnecessary deaths may be averted and people can do better in protecting their community, personal and economic devastation where addiction wreaks in the community. For the success to happen, overdose deaths will be minimized by providing an easy access to naloxone available as a nasal spray and which is used against heroin by immediately blocking the deadly respiratory suppression caused by the drug.  Identifying and cracking down on prescribers and who provide a large number of quantity of narcotics in the pill mills, using TV, social media, and other channels in educating families on the prevention of substance abuse. Establishing and implementing medical guidelines for the chronic pain treatment. It can be done through quality technique improvement and the strategies for the performance improvement strategy.

Individuals who are going through the heroin and other substance abuse can recover. This takes hard work, good treatment, the ongoing support. People facing addictions do get on the recovery path. For others it may be early, even after one rehabilitation program while others it may take up to ten rehabilitation programs. The people who are affected, their clinical providers and families need to sustain hope that recovery is possible in which can be protracted and the darkest time (Falck, Russel & et al, 2014).

Drug Abuse And Overdoses And Treatment In Dayton, Ohio

In less than six months, nearly over 400 people in the Ohio have lost their lives due to drug overdose. Dayton, just like the rest of American cities has faced the synthetic opioid fentanyl flooding the society. In Ohio, predictions have suggested that the deaths as a result of drug abuse in the year 2017 are likely to double the number reported during the year 2016. Each and every day, the Montgomery County Sheriff’s office has been carrying about two doses of Narcan – the opioid antidote which is used in overdose treatments. At the moment, the concern has been that this is not enough for the community because the drugs are now getting stronger and potent. Officials suggested that if enough resources are not put in place in fighting the problem, then they are expecting a surge in the deaths related to drug abuse and overdoses (Ekeh, Akpofure & et al, 2014).

Substance abuse has continued to be an important public health issue and which has contributed greatly to mortality and morbidity rates through rout the United States of America and globally. The well established patterns of the beginning and progression of drug use and abuse during youth period has contributed to the growth of many preventive alternatives for the adolescents and adults. Many of adults facing substance abuse problems begin to abuse these substances during their adolescent age.

Recently, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, and sedative hypnotics have remained highly available in the Dayton region; also highly available have been Suboxone and prescription stimulants. Their availability changes include likely increase in the availability of powdered cocaine, Methamphetamine, and Suboxone, including decrease in the availability of synthetic marijuana and bath salts.

Community professionals and participants have reported that the availability of the powdered cocaine has drastically been increasing. Law enforcement professionals suggest that the increased availability has been due to the increased popularity of mixing heroin with the powdered cocaine and which is commonly known as the “Speedballing”. Young individuals have been the most affected by the cocaine usage due to the popular culture factors like the lyrics in most of music which have been glorifying and promoting the usage of the drugs. Professionals in the community have noted that among the typical powdered cocaine users are often white and also they have added that young individuals have been increasingly using the powdered cocaine. However, the participants discussed the strong connection between the powdered cocaine users and alcohol users by explaining that, the drug allows more alcohol consumption.

Law enforcement together with participants has reported that there has been an increase in the availability of the methamphetamine. The Miami Regional Valley Crime Lab has reported the occurrences of methamphetamine cases which are being processed have significantly been on the rise during the reporting period. It reported that many of the methamphetamine types and which are available in the region including the powdered and crystalline tan, brown and white. Treatment providers in the Dayton have commented that methamphetamine, in Ohio was not as available in Dayton as it was in the other regions, while the treatment providers reported high availability. People described methamphetamine as male, white and rural. Reportedly, methamphetamine is commonly being used in small social circles.

Law enforcements and participants have also reported a decrease in the availability of bath salts. Miami Valley Regional Crime Lab have reported that there is a decreasing number in the bath salt cases, a report it processed during the reporting period, however, the overall participants has reported that bath salts was not their drug of choice and that they did not pursue them.

Despite enacted legislations, synthetic marijuana has been available in the streets from the head shops as well as from dealers. However, participants together with the health professionals have reported a decreased availability of the synthetic marijuana. In addition, a treatment provider was discussing the information which was released recently regarding the dangers of the drug usage and cited that as having a positive effect of keeping its users from using the substance. They also noted that the users preferred to smoke the regular marijuana.

Lastly, Community professionals have also reported an increase in the availability of powdered MDMA (molly) as many people prefer to call it. The law enforcements have suggests that the substance has been more popular among the college community.

The knowledge gained from the research is very crucial especially in identifying and developing effective treatment and prevention approaches. From individual to individual, there exists great variability in their patterns of their substance use and abuse. Some people may face life-time addiction struggles while others live without experimenting with any substances (Cassidy, Budman & Butler, 2014).

However, from the perspective of population, the epidemiologic pattern is predictable and consistence. The officials in the Ohio health, addiction and public safety agencies together with its pharmacy board work to curb the drug abuse and overdose cases together with its deaths through implementation of a number of strategies which include;

Law Enforcement

This means working together with the law makers in order to stiffen penalties for the individuals who are illegally selling fentanyl, supporting the local drug task forces and stepping up the drug seizure efforts.

Emergency Response

This requires provision of resources in expanding public awareness campaigns on the opioid overdose reversal drugs, together with making more naloxone available.


This requires expanding the addiction treatment programs which are being offered through the drug courts to the areas with high number of fatal overdoses, and developing a tool kit which the hospital emergency departments can use in helping the direct overdose patients to the community resources and treatments.


Integrating the Ohio Automated RX Reporting System in to more electronic medical records; the pharmacy dispensing systems; as well as making the educational information over the opioids and their prescription part of the licensure process for the physicians.


Promoting drug take-back opportunities for safe disposal of the medications which are not required and getting more parents, community leaders and teachers signed up for emails which offer tips to talking to the youth over the substance abuse.

Heroin, prescription opioids, marijuana, prescription stimulants, Subaxone and sedative-hypnotics have remained highly available in the Dayton Region. This availability changes in the past months and including the availability increase for Suboxone and Heroin, and decrease in the availability for synthetic marijuana and bath salts (Howard, Matthew, et al, 2015).

Consent Form

The document will provide the information overview required in the consent form and optional sections. Information about participant may be disclosed when the individual has given informed consent, for the disclosure in a writing. A consent form which conforms to all the requirements has been designed and procedures clarified concerning the use of the form.

Focus Group Protocol Paper – Drug Abuse in Dayton- Ohio

The objectives of the survey are to help in reducing the rates of drug abuse and unintentional drug prescription overdose deaths in Dayton-Ohio. According to the current data, many people die from drug overdoses each and every day. The County Sheriff’s deputies respond to multiple of drug overdose calls and are equipped with either naloxone or Narcan, which is a nasal spray which counteracts the drug overdose effects. The survey aims at making a progress in the fight against the heroin epidemic which has become deadly and largely responsible for the recorded number of deaths related to drug overdoses in the state.

The survey will seek to stabilize the amounts of deaths resulting from drug abuse and reducing the number of fatal overdoses. In addition to that, it will identify the services being offered; look in to the existing gaps in services while exploring potentially new and expanded ways for combating the drug abuse and overdose menace (Ekeh, Parikh, Walusimbi, Woods, Hawk & McCarthy, 2014).

As part of the collaborative approach, over 100 community leaders from private and public organizations throughout Ohio are members of the survey team which will help guide the project. All the aspects of minimizing deaths as a result of drug abuse and overdoses will be included in the effort, with every specific team working on treatment, prevention, law enforcement, opioid prescription guidelines, the court system, education and outreach.

In providing an overview, the specific objectives of the survey will include;

  • Patterns of multiple drug usage both concurrent and non-concurrent.
  • Beliefs over the harmfulness of different types of drugs at various levels of use.
  • Extents of direct exposure to different forms of drug use.
  • Perceived availability of the various illicit drugs.
  • Describing current treatment practices.
  • Assessing the impact of the intervention.
  • Studying the causes and consequences of drug abuse and overdoses.

Traditionally, illicit drug usage mostly is associated with dense populated towns. But, a mounting evidence proofs that this is has been a significant issue in rural areas as well. Young individuals comprising both men and women in the age bracket between 18 – 65 years being the most affected. This population abuse not only tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana but also drugs like amphetamines and cocaine. Heroin injection including the plethora of issues which are associated with it now threatens public health the Ohio region (Cameron, Delroy & et al, 2013).

This regional survey will be based upon the qualitative data which will be collected through the focus group interviews. The participants will include the recovering and active drug users recruited from alcohol and other various drug treatment programs sin Dayton – Ohio region. The data triangulation will be attained through comparing the participant data and the qualitative data which has already been collected from the regional professionals, who are the law enforcers and the treatment providers, through the focus group interview and the data surveyed from the authorities.  All the secondary data are summaries of the cases which have been processed in the previous one year. In addition to these data sources, the Ohio media outlets will provide the most recent data regarding the drug abuse and overdose issue.

In an effort to understand the current drug epidemic in Dayton Ohio, the survey will summarize the drug related data collected in various different related organizations in to a one formal data report. The survey involves the related criminal justice data, the drug overdose responses by City of Dayton first responders, emergency and in-patient departments accidental overdose records, and the unintentional drug overdose death reports.

The survey conducted in the region can be used to inform the general public, the leadership as well as the organizations within the County as to the severity of the drug abuse and overdose menace. In addition, the survey report will be available to provide all the information required for the new program development, grant applications pertaining to the epidemic or informing policy decisions.

Qualitative interviewing technique will be used, ranging from informal interviews to semi structured interviews and life histories. Reason for applying interviewing technique is that, in an open-ended interview format, conversations are is allowed and can flow freely in reference to the topic. In contrast, a more structured interview a predesigned sets of discussion topics can be offered for one’s response. Interviewing technique generally, serves as means to determine how participants engage or talk about or perceive different aspects in their personal lives or how they categorize things. After the preliminary analysis, the information can be applied in creation of a more focused set of questions pertaining a certain research topic or problem.

Interviewing participants will play an important role of getting familiarity with how individuals perceive and express various dimensions regarding how they live. In particular cases, focus groups or group discussions comprising of four to six or more respondents, will be used in individual open-ended interviewing. Both techniques to be applied in the interviewing sessions will allow for the general discussion of the research questions. The focus groups will aim at exploring the research topics, refining interventions, obtaining feedback on the design, evaluating the quantitative survey instruments, guiding the refinement of more structured interviews and obtaining feedback on the preliminary analyses.

At least eight Ohioans die each day from accidental drug overdose and abuse. Communities and schools are in the frontlines of the crisis, and their efforts of educating the young generation over the dangers of drug abuse will help in building a better future. The survey includes various recommendations which will help in building a stronger drug-free generation;

  • By reducing the risk factors and the protective factors, the children will resiliency while making life decisions which are positive.
  • Screening for mental health issues and substance abuse require to be followed by the effective treatment and interventions.
  • A comprehensive, community-wide drug abuse prevention program should involve schools, caregivers, and parents, law enforcements, before and after school efforts, community coalitions and others to be effective (Carlson, Lane & Daniulaityte, 2014).


  1. Have you at anytime ever used drugs other than those required for the medication purpose________________?
  2. Have you ever abused subscription drugs ________________?
  3. Can you get6 through a week without using any type of drugs ________________?
  4. Have you ever abused more than one drug at a time________________?
  5. Are you always able to stop using drugs the time you want to________________?
  6. Have you ever had flashbacks or blackouts as a result of using drugs________________?
  7. Do you ever feel guilty or bad about your drug use________________?
  8. Does your spouse or parents ever complain about your involvement in using drugs________________?
  9. Have you ever lost a friend as a result of drug abuse or overdose________________?
  10. Have you ever been in trouble at work as a result of drug use________________?
  11. Have you ever neglected your family because of use of drugs________________?
  12. Have you previously lost a job as a result of drug use________________?
  13. Have you ever gotten into a fight when under drug influence________________?
  14. Have ever engaged into illegal activities in order to obtain drugs________________?
  15. Have you ever gone to anyone for help as a result of drug problems________________?
  16. Have you been in any treatment program specifically related to drug usage________________?
  17. Have you ever experienced any withdrawal symptoms or felt sick as a result of abusing drugs________________?
  18. Have you had any medical issues as a result of your drug usage (e.g. hepatitis, loss of memory, convulsion, bleeding, etc) ________________?
  19. Have you been arrested for possession of illegal drugs________________?

Drug Abuse in Teenagers – Research Paper


Drug abuse is also known as chemical abuse, or substance abuse, it is a disorder that is exemplified by a disparaging pattern of using a substance that leads to major problems or distress (Ozechowski, & Liddle, 2000). Teens are progressively more engaging in prescription drug abuse, predominantly narcotics, which are prescribed to relieve severe pain, and stimulant medications, which treat conditions like attention deficit disorder. Teenagers try out with drugs for many various reasons; out of inquisitiveness and curiosity, influence from peers, to progress with athletic performance, relieving stress, anxiety, and depression. Drug abuse is not automatically caused by drug use, and there is no exact stage at which drug use becomes problematic, but depends with the individual.  Drug abuse is not about the amount of substance used and consumed, but it is more to do with the effects and consequences of drug use.

Statement of the problem

Every day, thousands of teenagers try out illegitimate drugs. Although many of them do not take the illegitimate drugs beyond the try out stage, far too many teenagers are engaging in drug abuse, hence disrupting their lives. Similar to everything that identify life as a teenager, fashion and trends utter which drugs are highest abused. Commonly abused drugs among teenagers are; marijuana, alcohol, cocaine, ecstasy, inhalants, and heroine. It does not matter the kind of drugs teens abuse but they risk everything in their lives; education, future, integrity, self-esteem, and relationship with family and friends. Parents who detect, and notice any changes in the lives of their teenagers, should step in and get involved by setting limits and boundaries. Nevertheless, for teenagers who drug abuse has bloomed into drug addiction, the problem has changed from corrective issue to one that is medical in nature (Ozechowski, & Liddle, 2000). Drug addiction in teenagers should be responded with appropriate treatment that range from weekly drug counseling to rehabilitation services, and teenagers in any level of drug addiction can benefit from these treatments.

Literature review

In latest years, the tendencies and trends in drug abuse have turned out to be more intricate, and hence more difficult to explain (Hubbard, Marsden, & Racholl, 1989). The major reasons for this complexity are the gang, and group effects that have surfaced, hence increasing the rates of drug use. These effects have resulted in different groups and classes reaching their highs, and lows in various drug use. In America, multibillion dollar industries, promote the abuse of drugs among adolescents, and teenagers. Statistics show that 75-80% 0f teenagers aged 20years have tried an illegal drug, as well as 50-55% high school seniors have also tried other illicit drugs apart from marijuana. In 1985, one in each twenty high school seniors, smoked marijuana daily. About the same number of students drank alcohol daily, and 37% drank alcohol more than five times in a week. 30% of teenagers had smoked cigarettes, and 20% were daily smokers. Use of cocaine, one of the most addictive substances, has risen during the last decade; its price has also dropped, hence, being available to adolescents, and teenagers. Polydrug use, another startling trend, occurs when a person uses two or more substances at the same time, these results into harmful and dangerous effects, this has also been reported to be on the increase among teenagers.

Reasons why teenagers indulge in drug abuse

There are various factors that influence teenagers to indulge in drug abuse: these reasons affect the life, and the future of the teenager, and the people close to the teenager, parents can be able to help their children get out of drug abuse, when they understand the motives why teens use drugs.  Absentee parents have increased the rate of drug abuse among teenagers, since they are not present to; educate, discipline or support the teen already in drug abuse. Stress is the most vital reason why teenagers indulge in drug abuse, a recent study revealed that pressure from school, is leading teenagers in drug abuse (Naylor, Gardner, & Zaichkowsky, 2001).  Adolescent or teenage hood are usually rough years, since there are many changes happening, especially low moods; this causes a teenager to be angry, and frustrated. These closed up emotions lead to anxiety, and depression. Many teenagers don’t understand the mood disorders, hence causing them to use illegal drugs to self medicate themselves.

Misinformation and ignorance are also other reasons that have made teenagers indulge in drug abuse, 40% of teenagers don’t understand the dangers, and risks of using drugs especially heroine (Naylor, Gardner,  & Zaichkowsky, 2001).  In addition, 41% of teenagers incorrectly believe that it is safe to use over- the counter drugs, than it is to use illegal drugs. Easy access and availability of drugs have promoted the high rates of drug abuse among teenagers. Virtually, 50% of teens report that it is easy to get marijuana, 14% says it is easy to access and obtain heroin, and 17% of the teens say it is easy to get meth. Lastly low self-esteem and desire for acceptance, compels teenagers to engage in drug abuse, 65% of teenagers indulge in drug abuse to feel good about them, and be identified by their own peers.

Effects of drug abuse in teenagers

Drug abuse causes serious health, physical, and emotional effects in all age groups, however teenagers that abuse drugs are at a greater risk, and suffer from these consequences. They struggle with addiction, and may have lasting, and irreparable brain damage; impaired learning abilities, amnesia, brain shrinkage, changes in sexual libido, and memory problems. Secondly, teenagers who abuse drugs suffer from behavioral and emotional problems; suicidal thoughts, depression, early pregnancies, abortion, violence, mood swings, and delinquent behavior like fighting and stealing (Newcomb, 1995). Thirdly, absenteeism, and poor performance in academics are also effects of drug abuse, since abuse of drugs result to memory disorders.

Abuse of drugs also affects our physical health, injuries due to accidents, disabilities, weakened immune system, and diseases. Uneven numbers of teenagers involved in drug abuse face increased risks of death through illness, homicide, and suicides. Risks of being infected with sexually transmitted diseases, due to exposure of body fluids of infected people through, sharing of drug injections, and sexual contacts. In addition, families of teenagers indulged in drug abuse are greatly affected, and can result to dysfunctions in the families (Newcomb, 1995). Also teenagers who abuse drugs are estranged, and stigmatized by their peers. Finally drug abuse result into social and economic problems, because of losses incurred through crimes and violence. Also a lot of money is spent through rehabilitation programs.

Preventing teenage drug abuse

Persistent and reliable information to teenagers about drugs and alcohol can prevent drug abuse. Efficient and successful prevention of drug abuse will require manifold messengers; teachers, parents, peers and the community as a whole to pass the information to children at a younger age. The primary goal and objective of drug prevention is to delay the first use of drugs. Statistics indicate that teenagers, who start using drugs, before age 14, will experience drug dependence, than the individuals who start using drugs at the age of 21 years. However, other protecting factors like; practical parenting, and strong family connections delay drug experimentation among teenagers, hence reduce long –term problems. Lastly, for drug preventions to work well, attention should be given to preventing factors, in many areas of the teenager. Since, reducing one risk factor will result in reducing manifold problems in, school, community, and among peers, and friends.


The first method that was used to obtained information on, drug and substance abuse among teenagers was interviews (Dusenbury, Brannigan, Falco, & Hansen,  2003).Another form of methodology used was questioners; structured questioners were formulated to target teenagers’ between the ages of 14-18 years. The questioners aimed at gathering information on, how many teenagers have indulged in drug abuse. What type of drugs did they use, and the reasons why they indulged in drug abuse. From the questioners, it was ascertained that 50% of the teenagers that filled the questionnaires, had tried out one, or two types of drug abuse, alcohol and illegal drugs where the common used.

In conclusion, drug abuse in teenagers is on the rampant. It is mainly caused by, low self-esteem, desire for acceptance, absentee parents, self medication, misinformation, and ignorance. Having identified these causes, preventive measures and strategies, like practical parenting skills, establishing strong family bonds, and connections, need to be implemented. These will ensure that the problem has declined, and establishments of a drug free society.

Treatment Methods And Techniques For Drug Use

The following methods and techniques can be useful in the rehabilitation program for Tony, displacement of responsibility; Tony’s behavior and their corresponding consequence can be reduced by placing responsibility on an outward source rather than his parents. Another technique would be educating Tony on the adverse consequences of both alcohol and marijuana.  Exposure to alternative models would also work best for Tony.  Tony can also be help to conceptualize the process of recognizing that there is a drinking or drug problem and taking action to do something about it.

The parents also require treatment techniques though not necessarily the same techniques prescribed for Tony. The parents need to be exposed to good models like well established families with a clear cut stand against drug abuse. They should be helped to conceptualize the process of recognizing that there is a drinking or drug problem and taking action to do something about it. However, besides these techniques, the parents should also be channeled through the legal processing as the immediate response for drug abuse.  There is need for the parents to be part of the treatment in order to create a welcoming environment for Tony.

While undergoing the treatment, Tony should not be living in his home. Tony in the first place learned the behavior from observing his environment models (parents). Exposure to the same environment with triggers to undesired behavior will encourage the behavior. According to the social learning theory, Tony’s parents are the daily triggers in favor of drug abuse, if Tony remains in his home, the sight of his parents getting enjoyment from drugs will with no doubt trigger his desires for alcohol and marijuana.  This might have long term effects of delinquency.  He might suffer from psychologicaltrauma resulting from a deeply distressing experience of being away from the parents if he is forced to stay away from his parents; tony might also suffer from strained relationship with his new environment.

Alcohol addiction and narcotics recovery programs show the implementation of social learning theory as well as cognitive theory.  Victims get addicted by observing the daily triggers in their environment; therefore the treatment techniques include isolation from the environment with triggers.

PSYC 8728 – Substance Abuse Counseling Models and Theories


Jack is a 64 years old European-American man who is married to one wife. Jack was brought to a counselor for heavy drinking, a behavior he was involved in after his return from Vietnam War where he land on a mine and lost his legs. Jack is current in a wheelchair with his two legs amputated from the knees. Jack claim he did not receive a very good welcome after the war and based on the case study he feels rejected and useless. Jack was highly affected by the incident that led to the loss of his legs and he suffered a serious post-traumatic stress disorder. This initiated the need for alcohol as a way of running away from the problems and as a result, Jack is currently suffering from a co-occurring disorder which is preceded by PTSD and then alcoholism. This paper focuses on identifying theories and models to handle Jack’s condition.

Theories and Models

The two theories and models that would be appropriate to handle this case include cognitive behavioral disorder theory and primary co-occurring disorder and secondary substance use disorder model. This theory and model are selected because the model helps the counselor to understand the client situation which involves the primary occurrence of PTSD which resulted to the development of alcohol addiction. With this, the counselor will be in a position to develop psychopathological treatment that will cater for the two situations concurrently. The CBT theory on the other hand integrates both behavioral and cognitive techniques. This theory is used to teach clients on the manner in which they should change their expectations and thought and how to adopt effective relaxation methods (Miller, 2005).

Application of the selected Theory and Model on Jack’s Case

Jack is brought to the counselor due to the issue of alcoholism. However, the case study reports that the alcoholism issue started immediately after Jack returned from the Vietnam War with amputated legs. Moreover, Jack according to the case study report did not like the welcome he received. Therefore, the actual reason for Jacks alcoholic behavior is as a result of psychological distress that he witnessed during the war and the feeling of rejection that he experienced after returning home a different person. Jack also rejects himself for he feels dependent and useless. This made jack to use alcohol to run away from his problem. This condition makes primary co-occurring disorder and secondary substance use disorder model to be relevant to handle Jacks condition.  According to the model, the preexisting mental conditions are an essential cause of drugs abuse disorders. In this case, individuals choose drugs to lower their painful feelings caused by their mental condition. Jack in this case uses alcohol to relief his feeling of desperation and depression. This model is used to define the best psychopathological solution based on the abused drugs and the mental condition the initiated the alcoholic behavior.

CBT theory is founded on psychopathology cognitive theory. It describes how individuals’ spontaneous thoughts or perceptions situations impact their psychological, behavioral and emotional reactions. According to the theory, persons’ perceptions are frequently dysfunctional and distorted when they are distressed. This is the actual situation in which Jack is in and anytime he feels that his mental distress is overwhelming he tends to drink more. This theory provides a solution in which the client is assisted on how to evaluate and identify automatic thoughts and on how to adjust their thinking to be more close to the reality (Stevens & Smith, 2013).

Theories Strengths and Weaknesses

The major strength for the primary co-occurring disorder and secondary substance use disorder model is that, the model is clearly structured based on the actual problem the client is experiencing. This ensures that the identified solution is highly viable to each unique patient. Moreover, the model can easily be used in self-treatment. The major weakness for this model is that, it does not provide a procedure to be followed to identify the best therapeutic solution to the identified problem. The major strength for CBT theory is that the theory is very extensive and very detailed where 5 stages are employed to resolve the clients’ problem. In this regard a viable solution can easily be reached. The major weakness is that the theory is very detailed to be understood or effectively applied immediately. It will require a number of therapeutic sessions to be enhanced (Larkin et al., 2006).

Models and Theory to be more likely to Use

The CBT theory and the primary co-occurring disorder and secondary substance use disorder model will both be used. This is because the model acts as a way of identifying the client’s problem and understanding the actual reason for the client’s behavior. The CBT on the other hand will assist in resolving this problem by using its five stages to assist Jack to overcome his psychological condition. In this regard, the two selected techniques complement each other and thus they will very useful in this case (Kurtz, 2002).


Drug abuse and addiction is a problem that can be initiated by a number of reasons. In some cases the drug use can initiate a mental problem or a mental condition can initiate drug abuse behavior. If any of the two conditions takes place, a co-occurring disorder occurs just like in Jack’s case.  In this regard, counselors have a challenge of identifying the actual cause of the client’s behavior and identify the best solution based on the identified problem to ensure effective treatment of both the addiction problem and the psychological problem.

PJM 310- Special Project to Counsel Male Drug Addicts – Data Collection Methods


May Recruitment of staff
June –July Designing questionnaires and conducting surveys
August Analyzing data
September-December The first session of counseling
January-April The second session of counseling

Outlines the project

The project involves establishing a special project to counsel male drug addicts between 18 and 24 years of age, and to secure full-time employment for each client (or part-time employment for clients who were still in school).

Project start and end date

The project will take about one year beginning May 2015 and will run through to May 2016

Implementation and assessment of each element

Implementation of each element will be done by team leaders, following the agreed upon standards.

Data Collection Method

The method used to collect data include questionnaire, which according to Pawar (2004) is one of the most popular data collection methods. The other method is observation which involves collecting data by observing observable phenomena (Pawar 2004). Questionnaires will be administered manually and electronically via email.

Unbiased information will be collected and used

Collection of unbiased information will be achieved or at least process made right from the beginning through avoiding sampling bias. Causes of sampling bias which lies in the design of the study or data collection procedure will be avoided. In essence sampling strategies such as those based on judgment or conveniences will be given high priority and consideration. This means that avoidance of judgment or conveniences sampling and secondly ensuring that target population is properly defined and also that sampling frame matches it as much as possible (Panzeri, Magri&Carraro, 2008). After collecting the information, it will be analyzed and the findings used to bring or recommend the best strategies for counseling.


The budget for the will be enormous but its anticipated benefits are numerous as well.   The budget for the project will be as follows.  Data collection specifically administering questionnaire and conducting observation will be approximately $10000 and the entire project is expected to cost $100,000

Necessary project resources (people andproducts)

The necessary resources will include   people and resources. People would include counselors, researchers and medical specialist. Product would include facilities needed such as conference halls.

Quantification of how much identified resources would cost

The above identified resources and which include people and product will be approximately $85,000

Project Management Methods 

The project management methods will include borrowing from other project management techniques   of which the phases of project management will be as follows initiating the project, planning the project, executing the project and closing the project. This will also incorporate use of tools such as PERT and GANTT charts.

Project methods that you used to address theproblem

In order for the counseling program to be effective in accomplishing role, it is guided by clear goals and objectives. This is because the importance of objectives in any given program.  It provides directions.  For this program the goals and objectives are that the counseling should address the symptoms of the drug addiction and the content of the structure of the patient’s ongoing recovery program. There are also clear roles that the counselor will be responsible for and uphold as well. Throughout the counseling program the counselor shall assist the patient admit that they suffer from diseases of chemical addiction or can suffer  from it as well, the counselor shall point out the signs  and symptoms relevant to the patient experience, teach the patient to recognize and rechanneling urge to drug use, monitor and encourage abstinence, help in development of more effective problem solving strategies , encourage the affected to improve self-esteem  through practice of newly acquired coping skills and problem solving strategies (Archives.drugabuse.gov, 2015).

The essence of the project is not to provide medication for the affected but it tries to help the addicts realize that they have a drug problem and thus encourage them to do something about it.  It will therefore be both educational and directional in nature. The program will be a good program in the sense that it will offer options for the addict such as how to become involved in the program as well as how to end the program (Reed, 1994). It will offer addicts a number of positive options on how to fill any voids and avoid drugs use by making them undergo various stages which eventually will lead to termination of drug use.

The program will incorporate a number of prevention principles which can be applied to create effective family, school and community programs. Risks and protective factors, adaptation program are also adhered to while at the same time maintains fidelity to core elements. The important thing to note also is that risk and protective factors are primary targets of effective prevention programs.This prevention program also designed to reach specific populations in their primary setting for instance in school. The primary goal of the program is building new as well as strengthening existing protective factors and reversing or reducing modifiable risk factors in youth.

The program will also incorporate a number of core elements research based programs.  It is established that over the recent years, there have been a number of research based prevention programs have proven effective. They are tested with vigorous designs through diverse communities in a wide variety of settings and also with a wide variety of populations .The most rigorous of them all is that the design tests the program’s effects on a group which is receiving interventions otherwise known as the experimental group and compares it with control group or otherwise known as intervention (National Institute on Drug Abuse 2003).

The core elements of this program that will help in achieving the overall objectives include as follows, structure which is all about the program are structured and organized, content which is how the information, skills and strategies are presented and delivers, which entails how the program is selected or adopted and implemented, which also entails how the project will be evaluated. It is important to note also that program will be adapted to match the community of the particular group of interest. In doing so, the core elements will be retained in order to ensure that the effective aspect of the program remains intact (National Institute on Drug Abuse 2003)

The structure

Under structure, the things that are of concern include program type audience and settings. As National Institute on Drug Abuse (2003) explains, through research it has been proven that a project involving combination of two or more effective programs for instance family and school program is more effective as compared to having a single program alone. Thus in this kind of projects a multicomponent programs will be utilized.

Program Type



Community or universal All youth at the same time Different setting can be used such circular approach where they will sit in a circle  and each of them would be allowed to express their concerns,  state their progress and challenges that they face as well as making commitment on how they will forge ahead despite the challenges.
School based

This will be a selective approach

Different youth will be put under different category depending on their age or school and other factors This can work best after school



Family This will specifically designed in order to handle high-risk youth. Included in this approach are individual youths and their family members. The setting that will work for this kind of type is clinic as well homes



In order for the program to work, other than the structure, the content also should play an important role. The content is therefore composed of information, skills, development, methods and services. Information includes facts about drug abuse, drugs and their effects as well as drugs laws and policies. In essence a combination of information, skills, methods and services yield more effective results (National Institute on Drug Abuse 2003). In terms of methods, they are oriented towards structural change on the side of institutions such as schools and at home where things such as establishment and enforcement of rules on substance abuse. This also incorporate service which is counseling and assistance. One important thing to observe about this program is what Reed (1994) notes that counseling program should never try to offer treatment with medicine to patients; rather it should refer them to a healthcare institution whenever the need arises.

Since the counseling will have a clear structure, it is expected that within the framework of the structure, the content is will highly depend on the patient. The program as well as the counselors will however make effort to address effectively the patient individual’s needs at every point of the counseling stage and at the same time recognizes commonality of many issues in addition and recovery (Archives.drugabuse.gov, 2015).The program will have four different stages which include treatment initiation, early abstinence, maintenance of abstinence and advanced recovery.  In each of these sessions preparation will have to be made where each counselor shall prepare for each session at the beginning of each session,

What is Alcoholism And The Dangers of Alcohol Abuse

What is Alcoholism?

Alcoholism (also known as alcohol use disorder or alcohol dependence) occurs when your intake of alcohol is so high that your body eventually develops dependency upon alcohol. Alcohol becomes the most important thing in your life. Sadly, people with alcohol dependence continue to use it even when drinking directly brings negative consequences to them such as losing their jobs. These individuals might know how alcohol is affecting their lives adversely, but this is often not enough to compel them to stop drinking as it is the alcohol that is now controlling them.  In other scenarios, some individuals may drink alcohol until it reaches a point when it causes them to act like a typical alcoholic, but in reality, they are not a dependent on the alcohol. Authorities in the medical field refer to this as alcohol abuse and some even go to the extent of terming it as a disease.

The exact cause alcoholism is still unknown to many medical experts who seek to understand where alcoholism has its roots. Alcohol dependency on the other hand develops an individual addiction as they drinks so much causing their brains to undergo chemical changes in the brain. These particular changes increase, the feeling of pleasure that one gets when they drink alcohol. Such individuals drink more often even when they are fully aware of the harm it may be causing them. In the end, just like many other drugs that cause addictions, the feeling of pleasure that they usually associate with the use of alcohol goes away, resulting in the individual engaging in heavy drinking to avoid withdrawal symptoms. The withdrawal symptoms that a person with alcohol dependency develops are quite unpleasant and dangerous at times.


Dangers of Alcohol Abuse

Alcohol abuse is the highest number of addicts among all known drugs in the world. As per the World Health Organization figures, approximately more than two million individuals die yearly from alcohol abuse. By giving this staggering statistic, the World Health Organization was bringing to light an issue that many in the society trivialize tine and again. In the process, the World Health Organization also found an opportunity to create awareness about this affliction and to urge people to learn about ways to help those who might be struggling with alcoholism so that they can never again become part of that statistic. Movies and television shows often represent alcoholics as ‘funny’ people, but when you ask the family of a known alcoholic, they will tell you that there is nothing funny about alcoholism. There are functioning alcoholics who manage to behave well at work, but it’s normally within the confines of their homes that this big revelation occurs.

  1. Injury

As a type of hazard, injury can be as a result of alcohol use. It is important to note that injury is different from violence as injury is accidental. Accidental injuries that are as a result of alcohol addiction and abuse include injuries emanating from drunk driving, burns, injury from falling and drowning. Suicide and self-injury are common among persons that are under the influence of alcohol. These issues may be more frequent after intoxication as depressive-type feelings well-up in certain people after drinking heavily. To prevent these people from seriously injuring themselves, many professionals recommend alcoholic rehabilitation at treatment center for alcoholism. These facilities assist those suffering from alcohol addiction and assist them to live healthy lifestyles.

  1. Physical Violence

Intense alcohol is to blame for various acts of violence by otherwise calm people. Although not all people mete out violence on others as a result of alcohol use, this particular problem is most common among individuals that engage in heavy drinking. Acts of physical violence may include assault, homicide and even the abuse of immediate family members. To prevent these occurrences, most interventions seek out appropriate help for alcohol addiction from known drug and rehab centers. Many people argue that alcohol use cannot take all the blame for acts of violence but truth of the matter is that it directly relates to the presence of violence. Such is the case because alcohol has been known to lower individual’s inhibition making them prone to acts of physical violence. If both men and women frequently abuse alcohol, the women are oftentimes more likely to experience physical violence.

  1. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

When under the influence of alcohol, an individual is more likely to engage in reckless sexual behavior that may include sex without protection and having sex with multiple people. Such risky behavior increases the chances of contracting Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Additionally, pregnancy can be a consequence of consuming large quantities of alcohol and indulging in irresponsible behavior.

Alcohol abuse goes hand in hand with poor judgment and risky sexual behavior. Alcoholics often experience memory loss which is a common side effect of the heavy intake of alcohol and the main reason why STD testing rarely does occur. Lack of STD testing means that when there are complications, they gradually worsen the patients prevailing condition. Furthermore, those who test positive for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) typically turn to drinking alcohol regularly and become alcoholics. It is therefore important to prevent your loved ones from catching a harmful STD by seeking professional help at a drug and alcohol rehabilitation centre today.

  1. Risk of Developing Cardiovascular Disease

Heavy drinking leads to an alcoholic’s platelets becoming more likely to clump together, forming blood clots that can lead to a stroke or heart attack. In a major study undertaken in the year 2005, Harvard researchers came to the conclusion that binge drinking doubles the risk of death among initial survivors of a heart attack. Another consequence of heavy drinking is cardiomyopathy which is a potentially deadly condition that causes the hearts muscles to weaken and eventually fail together with heart rhythm abnormalities such as ventricular and atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation causes the heart’s upper chambers (the atria) to twitch chaotically instead of constricting rhythmically leading to blood clots that are capable of triggering a stroke. The ventricular fibrillation also causes chaotic twitching of the heart’s pumping chambers (the ventricles) causing rapid loss of consciousness which may lead to sudden death in the absence of immediate treatment.

Nonviolent Drug Offenders Should Not Be Imprisoned

Prisons, certainly, are essential. In all areas hosting people, there will always be crime, as well as conflict, thus a need for prisons. Even then, no nation should draw pride from establishing prisons. An oddly high number of correctional facilities in a country signal that the country is defined by curiously high levels of criminal activities and excessive punishment (Stone & Stone, 2003). Particularly, America has over the years put up more and more jailing facilities to incarcerate more and more nonviolent drug offenders (NVDOs). Apparently, the incarceration of NVDOs in America brings about more damage than benefits to individual offenders, their families, and the society in general. NVDOs should be committed to appropriate healthcare or related facilities rather than being imprisoned.

Why NVDOs Should Not Be Incarcerated  

  1. Incarcerating NVDOs is Unjustifiably Expensive

Jails are rather expensive compared to alternative facilities for holding NVDOs accountable. The alternative facilities, when run correctly, occasion greater possibility of the restitution of crime victims and public safety. Most importantly, the alternative facilities are cheaper to manage than prisons. Various states commit resources worth close to $60,000 in the incarceration of just one NVDO (Caulkins, Kilmer, Kleiman, MacCoun, Midgette, Oglesby, Pacula & Reuter, 2015, p.23). That figure is significant, and policymakers should, ideally, scrutinize public expenditure on the jailing of NVDOs just as they scrutinize public expenditures on various social programs.

Notably, many leading conservatives, including Grover Norquist, Bill Bennett, and Newt Gingrich are convinced that jails are rather expensive compared to alternative facilities for holding NVDOs accountable. They promote the view that criminal justice is effective when anchored on limited-government thinking. There are cheaper alternatives to jailing NVDOs. Serendipitously, technological and research developments in recent years have generated novel, cheaper strategies than imprisonment for dealing with NVDOs with the appropriate types, as well as levels, of public supervision. The strategies include actuarial needs along with risk appraisals, problem-solving courts, and electronic monitoring (Stone & Stone, 2003).

For instance, in Hawaii, the HOPE (Hawaii Opportunity Probation with Enforcement) Court that utilizes commensurate, sure, and swift sanctions against convicted NVDOs has proved to enhance markedly compliance with their probationary terms and drug test terms than imprisonment. In the court, it is decreed that every convicted NVDO be assigned a given color. The NVDO is required to place a call to the court’s registry daily to establish whether the color has been arbitrarily chosen. If so, the NVDO is obligated to move to the court and take a particular drug test. If he or she fails the drug test, he or she remains behind bars for some days. Owing to the court, Hawaii is now reporting marked declines in probation failure and substance abuse as regards NVDOs (Hess, Orthmann & Cho, 2012).

  1. Ruin of Families

The needless incarceration of NVDOs ruins their families and societies in general. Incarcerated NVDOs are less likely to marry not only because they may in prison but also since rap sheets are unsupportive of family-supporting and decently paying jobs. Obviously, communities that are defined by high levels of NVDO incarceration as well are characterized by numbers of troubled children and single-parent families that are strikingly higher than normal. That, consequently, gives rise to dysfunctional societies that mistrust the extant criminal justice resources, including police. Notably, in America, children are encouraged to ask for assistance from police. Even then, in some neighborhoods, children are discouraged from engaging police. That worsens the extant cases of recidivism, maladjusted families, and ruined families.

  • High Recidivism Rates

As indicated earlier, high rates of NVDO incarceration worsens the extant cases of recidivism among NVDO populations. NVDOs that are imprisoned have a quite high chance of reoffending compared to NVDOs who are not imprisoned. NVDOs who are imprisoned have a quite high chance of suffering unemployment compared to NVDOs who are not imprisoned (Stone & Stone, 2003). The oddly high recidivism rates among NVDO populations occasions cyclic burdens on states that are obligated to commit resources to the housing, feeding, monitoring, sentencing, and re-arresting of convicted NVDOs after completing their jail terms.

  1. Imprisoning NVDOs Defeats the Aims of Wars Against Drugs

The tough punishments decreed on NVDOs to do many years of imprisonment in hard conditions only motivate those criminally dealing with banned drugs to venture into more ethically disgusting markets such as sex slave business and human trafficking. They are motivated by the realization that the penalties for sex slave business and human trafficking are as grave as those of trading in the drugs (Kleiman, 2009). NVDOs realize that and resolve that they should into the most profitable crimes since the attendant risks are as severe as the ones they shoulder when pettily trading in drugs.

As well, the drugs that eventually land NVDOs in prison have the same effects as alcohol, whose usage and business are largely legal (Stone & Stone, 2003). Alcohol heightens the risk of persons becoming addicted and alcoholics just as the drugs handled by NVDOs pose health-related risks. In America, the government finds wisdom in not banning alcohol and not jailing alcoholics. It should employ similar reasoning when dealing with drug user as well as drugs. In that way, the government will be using reason consistently, hence becoming philosophically unswerving.


Those supporting the imprisonment of NVDOs contend that all criminal acts should be viewed similarly; thus all should attract similar punishment terms, including incarceration. Even then, that argument is unconvincing since obviously, every criminal act is handled uniquely by courts. For instance, a person convicted of murder is handed a graver sentence than a person convicted of perjury. When the same reasoning is adopted, it is logical that NVDOs should be handed less severe punishments, preferably to serve them outside prisons, than persons convicted of violent criminal acts (Stone & Stone, 2003). While NVDOs pose no violence-related threats to the larger community and thus should not be kept behind bars, the community is only safe when violent criminals are incarcerated.


From the mid-1980s, America has put up prisons at a seemingly incensed pace. Presently, America has the leading rate of incarceration among all developed economies. Especially, in America, the rate is far higher than that of Wales and England, Canada, and Australia. Notably, the incarceration rate of Australia is almost five-fold lower than that of America despite the fact that the former started as a jail colony. Even then, Australia registers fewer criminal acts than America annually. The pointless incarceration of NVDOs ruins their families. As indicated earlier, high rates of NVDO incarceration worsens the existing rates of recidivism among NVDO populations. The tough punishments decreed on NVDOs to do many years of imprisonment in hard conditions only motivate those dealing with banned drugs to venture into more ethically disgusting markets. NVDOs pose no violence-related threats to the larger community and thus should not be incarcerated.

Media Influence On Peoples Attitudes Toward Alcohol And Other Drugs

The media have an important influence on peoples attitudes toward alcohol and other drugs. With this assignment, you are tasked with watching television to determine how drug and alcohol use is presented to viewers. For example, you might note the number of males and females in beer commercials, the ways in which sexual images are combined with drinking beer, or the extent to which stars or athletic figures promote drinking in beer and wine commercials. Areas to pay particular attention:

The extent to which drinking takes place as a normal part of daily life (e.g., how often people are seen drinking, offered a drink, have open bars in their homes, drink with a meal, or drink and drive).

Non-prescription drugs like analgesics, diet pills, sleeping aids, etc. are often presented in a fashion that encourages the viewer to solve personal problems through the use of a pill.

Describe the types of programing you observed and summarize your findings by drawing some conclusions about the ways in which the media supports social definitions of alcohol/drug use and abuse.

Your paper should consist of 4 pages following APA style.

Prescription Fraud – Substance abuse or Substance dependence

Read the case below on prescription fraud and use Diagnostic Statistic Manual IV to determine if Fran has  substance abuse or substance dependence , then provide a summary of the symptoms necessary to diagnose the two disorders.

Fran S. was arrested for prescription fraud when she tried to obtain prescription painkillers at a pharmacy with a fake prescription.Fran S. is a 32-year-old employee at a local bank. She was briefly hospitalized after a car accident 14 months ago and sustained injuries to her neck and back. Her doctor prescribed painkillers for these injuries. He told her that she should only take the painkillers for a few months, but Fran found that she liked the feelings of calm and relaxation that the painkillers produced. Even though the pain from her neck and back went away, she kept telling her doctor that she was in pain so that he would continue prescribing the drugs. When her own doctor told her that he would no longer prescribe the painkillers for her, she found it difficult to go for more than a few days without the painkillers and found another doctor who would prescribe her painkillers.

Fran told herself that the painkillers helped her get through her day, but in fact, she started missing deadlines at work and repeatedly coming in late, putting her job in jeopardy. Her husband also noticed a difference in her behavior, saying that she was much more irritable and likely to start arguments over minor issues, which had not been a problem in the past. Fran started taking larger doses of the painkillers because she had stopped feeling their effects at the smaller doses. Her second doctor became suspicious of how frequently she needed prescriptions and refused to prescribe her any more drugs. Fran tried again to stop using the painkillers but found that she was experiencing problems, such as headaches, blurred vision, and anxiety, when she was not taking the painkillers. She could not find another doctor to prescribe her the painkillers, so Fran started submitting fake prescriptions to the pharmacy.

Assignment Instructions

The Diagnostic Statistic Manual IV (DSM-IV) lists the criteria for assessing whether a person involved in prescription fraud has a substance abuse disorder, which it divides into two classifications: substance abuse and substance dependence.

Use your available resources to research DSM-IV criteria for these disorders.

Assignment Guidelines

In a Word document of 1,000-2,000 words, address the following:
Provide a summary of the symptoms necessary to diagnose substance abuse or substance dependence.
Identify the differences in criteria for assessing substance abuse and substance dependence according to the DSM-IV.
Explain physiological dependence.
What is tolerance?
Why does tolerance increase?
What is withdrawal?
What are the symptoms of withdrawal? Select 2 drugs to analyze for this.
Why does withdrawal occur?
Would you diagnose Fran with substance abuse or substance dependence? Why?
Support your diagnosis with examples and research.
What are current demographics and trends in the abuse of prescription medication? Explain.
What are the contributing factors to these trends and demographics?
Give at least 2 suggestions for how a doctor might work to prevent a patient from becoming addicted to prescription drugs.
Compile your responses to the above information into your final Word document.

Substance Abuse and Child Maltreatment Awareness

Research clearly indicates a connection between substance abuse and child maltreatment. Among confirmed cases of child maltreatment, 40 percent involve the use of alcohol or drugs. An estimated 480,000 children are mistreated each year by a caretaker who has alcohol or drug problems. Additionally, alcohol and drug problems are factors in a majority of cases of emotional abuse and neglect.

Answer the following:

Given these statistics, why do you think a more concerted effort is not made in the media to make citizens aware of the association between substance abuse and child abuse?

Choose one of the following audiences, and describe a plan to heighten awareness of this problem: Grade and high school students Parent or child organizations such as Girl Scouts or Boy Scouts Welfare recipients Include three action points for implementing this awareness plan nationwide to the chosen audience.

Be sure to specify:

Who will deliver the information?

How will the information be delivered?

What systems will be put in place for support if needed by participants?

Include one additional action point to address prevention strategies in the population chosen above. Create a two- to three-page plan. What behaviors contribute to the development and maintenance of each of these boundaries? Which of these teens are at risk for future substance abuse and why? What can parents do to avoid or change any maladaptive boundary patterns in their families?


Analysis Paper on Health Policy Issue – Prescription Drug Abuse.

Analysis Paper on Health Policy Issue – Prescription Drug Abuse.

Objective: to identify and clarify policy issues and problems, their causes, their current and future effect on the community, and how problems become part of the policy agenda; to explore factors involved with the issue while remain objective; to identify key stakeholders in the issue and their relationships to possible outcomes; evaluate policy potentials and effectiveness; summarize benefits, tradeoffs, etc. for policy issues; and analyze the role of profession of nursing in the

topic; include the professional nursing literature.

Write your paper using the below order


  1. Problem identification: introduce and clarify/explain the underlying problem/issue (causes, current and future effects on the community, who raised and is now interested in it, how the problem moved to the agenda etc) 1 page
  2. Background: put the problem in context with specifics on social, economic, ethical, legal and political factors ~1 page
  3. Stakeholders: discuss parties having a stake in the outcome of the policy debate (who has proposals/a position related to the issue, who would be affected by the policy, who are the special interest groups~ 1 page
  4. Issue statement: a clear statement that summarizes the underlying problem and conflicting values based on the above information 1 paragraph
  5. Policy objectives/goals: stated specifically (you can list) ~half a page
  6. Policy options: Analyze the role of the profession of nursing in your topic, include the professional nursing literature.. Briefly discuss 2-3of the most relevant/realistic current proposals, or a new one using your literature review and in consideration of the above policy objectives/goals(consider necessary resources, program objectives and criteria, examine whether if X is done Y will result, consider the “do nothing” option) ~1 -2 pages
  7. Evaluation criteria: Analyze the role of the profession of nursing in your topic, include the professional nursing literature. Choose one policy that reflects its potential to achieve the policy goals (quality, access, fairness, cost, administrative feasibility, political feasibility, others identified) Explain your choice ~1 page
  8. APA format and following directions: the most recent publication format should be used, page limit must be adhered to (no more than 8 pages), paper must be submitted by the due date