Tag: Globalization

Globalization as an Important Phenomenon – Discussion Instructions

Globalization has been impacting business in a material way for the past 40 to 50 years. In recent years, this impact has been strengthening. Appreciating the impact of this trend and the driving forces is useful for today’s business professionals.

Respond to the following:

  • How important would you characterize globalization for developing business professionals? Take a position and provide evidence.
  • What do you believe is the single most important force driving globalization in business? Present an argument for your position as to the most important aspect and include a discussion of forces which you believe to be less important.

By the due date assigned, submit your assignment to the appropriate Discussion AreaThrough the end of the module, review and comment on at least two of your peers’ responses.

Write your initial response in 500 words. Your response should be thorough and address all components of the discussion question in detail, include citations of all sources, where needed, according to the APA Style, and demonstrate accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation

Impact of Globalization on U.S.A Businesses Assignment Instructions And Sample Answer

Assignment Instructions

Think about what you have read and seen in the news on globalization. Consider the fact that the clothing we wear, the cars that we drive, the cell phones we use to communicate and the computers we use to work, are each likely to have been manufactured in whole or in part in different parts of the world. While there are still companies and firms that maintain local and national borders, it is almost unheard of in the 21st century that an industry does not maintain an international strategic position.

  • From an executive’s position, identify and explain at least three challenges and opportunities that might face an international executive over the next five years. Provide possible solutions of how the executive might address these issues in order for their firm to maintain a competitive advantage.
  • Prepare a 4-6 page paper that describes the impact of globalization on U.S. businesses. In your analysis, please include information about the impact of at least four economic drivers that might impact globalization.


Sample Answer – Globalization in the United States

Globalization is not a new thing to businesses all over the world. With the ever advancing technology and growth of markets, globalization has generally become a staple for commerce. While globalization has brought about challenges to business that has perpetually attempted to bring them down in one way or another, it has equally provided opportunities for improvement and this has consequentially initiated growth.  For the United States, the term globalization is often associated with negativity apart from being a necessary evil the US must accommodate. Globalization has affected the US businesses in the following ways:

  • Increased cultural diversity

As globalization increases and becomes more prevalent, companies and businesses are forced to embrace cultural diversity especially at their workplaces. Businesses are obliged to understand, adjust and manage cultural diversity within their workforce. In light of cultural diversity, businesses have sought to develop policies and guidelines that control their workforce to ensure cultural diversity does work for the best interest of their businesses. Differences in work ethics and cultural inclinations have also opened up new frontiers in businesses especially in regards to management and marketing.

  • Changes in payments

Today, companies and businesses are outsourcing services from other countries. This has greatly affected the earnings of the US workers despite businesses making profits. For example, third world countries, given their low standards of living, can offer services in those countries that have high standards of living at reduced rates. This has reduced the earnings of US workers as well as other countries that embrace outsourcing.


  • Increased Standards

Globalization has enlightened the world and technological advancements have improved the status quo of businesses and livelihoods. Today businesses have heightened their working standards ranging from their methods of production to how they handle their employees. Employees today work under flexible working environments where they have a choice on when to report to work provided they accomplish their duties pursuant to the rules and regulations given by their employers. Manual labor is slowly being becoming extinct because mechanization has invaded businesses and this is increasing the standards of operations.

  • Increased competition

Consumers are always at the receiving end when every producer is competing for a share of the economy. This is because such competition results to improved quality of products and reduction of prices (Kate, 2014). The decision of businesses to venture into the international market only subjected them to introduce a new standard into the global market where consumers have more options to choose from. Globalization has therefore affected businesses because it has resulted to competition that has in turn ensured reduction in market share hence reduced revenues for these businesses.

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Role Of World Trade Organization In Acceleration of Globalization

The world trade organization has been instrumental in accelerating globalization. It deals with trade ensure where it aims to deal with barriers set by countries about trade between them and other countries. It tasked with the mandate of ensuring that trade is carried out freely, predictably and as smoothly as possible between countries. Furthermore, the body usually aims to reduce trade disputes between respective nations. As such the role of the world trade organization is to reduce barriers to trade in different countries and at the same time encourage them to conduct trade freely, foster fair competition among nations and promote liberalization of trade to quicken economic globalization and economic growth (Kaplinsky, 2005). World trade organization further engages in different strategies to alleviate poverty in developing nations. In carrying out its role of reducing barriers among countries regarding trade. World trade organization focusses on different protective measures by governments as barriers to trade with other countries, which include intellectual property, services and tariffs where it comes in between the respective countries in conflict to settle the matter and provide an agreement that will help both countries as regards to trade. Thus, the world trade organization helps in solving trade disputes between countries, offering trainings to developing nation and giving them some marketing knowledge and further assisting in coming up with economic policies while examining trade policies. As such the world trade organization deals with trade to ensure that international trade is carried out with as little barriers as possible thus accelerating globalization by allowing movement of capital, resources and people as a result.

Role of International Monetary Fund In Acceleration of Globalization

The international monetary fund is another body that was formed in 1944 with the World Bank. It was set up to help in increasing globalization throughout the continents regardless of the economic situation facing the countries (Rodrick, 2011). Since globalization deals with the accelerated movement of capital, services and commodities across country border the IMF has played a role of lending money and harmonizing the different economies especially in ensuring their currencies are stable. Moreover the IMF carries out the vital functions of lending, technical assistance and financial and surveillance.  Surveillance as a function of the IMF deals with advisory functions where governments are encourage to come up economic policies that are effective. Policy advice and regular dialogue with the respective governments is done to enable the countries to boost their economy.  Trainings are offered in form of technical assistance by the IMF to prepare the countries to deal issues that may affect the economy. The trainings are offered on various subjects like statistics, financial and banking system relegation and supervision, exchange rate and monetary policies together with fiscal policies to further accelerate globalization. Lending helps considerably in ensuring that the countries have enough foreign exchange to carry out international trade. As such the lend enables the movement of resources though, through loans and gives the respective counties buying power in the international market which helps them to develop their economies as facilitates the movements of resources thus facilitating globalization. As such, the lending contributes to the movement of capital while at the same time boosting international trade. Technical assistance enables the spread of ideas from different countries by the IMF and thus helps in boosting globalization. The IMF is thus an institution that is important in the globalization progression globally.

Role of World Bank In Acceleration of Globalization

The World Bank in this case has established itself as an international banker that has played a significant role in globalization. Since a lot of finance is needed in, conducting international trade together with the investments between nations and locally the world bank has helped greatly in lending to the respective nations (Lawrence & Weber, 2011). The World Bank has played a critical role in helping countries further development especially since its inceptions and after the Bretton Woods conference in 1944 that dwelt on globalization. The role of the World Bank in accelerating globalization is thus that of a lender to the different countries especially those that have low income while at the same time providing advisory services to those countries to further help the movement of resources, ideas and people to the respective countries (Yueh, 2009). As such in the advisory and lending function, the world has to work with the developing countries especially those that are low income to ensure that the respective governments strengthen their governance structures, ensure that the judicial systems are efficient and build strong economy as a result.

Since most of the poor live countries in the middle income category the world can further engage the government especially in strengthening their financial standing while at the same time pushing for social and structural reforms to ensure the countries develop and reduce poverty largely. In accelerating globalization the world thus focuses on coming up with various strategies associated with lending funds and working with governments. Such strategies involve longer-term finances that are secured, providing advice to the respective countries, and at the same time help in addressing issues associated with sectoral, structural and social policies (Abonyi & Van, 2010). Such measures will further enable the acceleration of globalization as they enhance the movement of resources in terms of finances together with ideas, people and the integration of trade as the respective countries develop. Furthermore, the World Bank will contribute greatly to the flow of resources including human and financial resources from different countries especially those that want to invest in the respective countries especially the low and middle-income countries. Therefore the World Bank has the role of lending and providing advisory services while working with the respective governments throughout the world to ensure that international trade is enhanced globally and investments across the borders boosted to further accelerate globalization.

Dimensions of Globalization


Globalization refers to an increase in the interdependence and interconnectedness of countries and people (Steger, 2003). Two inter-related elements define globalization, the opening up of international borders for an increase in the flow of services, goods, individuals or ideas and institutional changes at national or international levels to promote these flows (Steger, 2003). Most experts trace the origin of globalization to the European Age of Discovery together with the long voyages explorers made to the New World. It was, however, in modern times that globalization took different forms that now includes capital investment movements, trade transactions, and the migration of people, socio-cultural resources, and the natural environment. This essay will thus explicate four dimensions of globalization (economic integration, political integration, ideological globalization, culture, and communication) and how some social groups attempt to counter or develop their local interpretations of global developments.

Economic Integration

Economic globalization is a dimension that refers to the free movement of capital, technology, goods, and information (Steger, 2003). It primarily involves an increase in economic integration and the subsequent interdependence of regional, national, and local economies throughout the world after an increase in the cross-border movements. Economic integration often involves the globalization of finance, production, technology, institutions, corporations, and even organizational regimes (Steger, 2003). It is important to acknowledge that economic globalization has been on the rise since the cropping up of trans-national tradeб which have seen a steady increase in technological and communication advances as per the World Trade Organization and General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade frameworks (Gaston & Khalid, 2010). However, there are those who choose to resist this form of integration as they see it as a precursor for their loss of national integrity. Some blame it for increasing economic growth and incomes in the developing countries while simultaneously lowering the cost of consumer prices in developed countries. Member states have to cede a certain degree of control over important guiding principles, for instance, fiscal and monetary policies. The higher the level of integration, the higher the power that one might have to cede to the bloc.

Political Integration and Emergence of Transnational Governance

In the political integration, dimension involves components that are within the political systems together with other human systems. Political integration requires the relinquishing part of a nations national sovereignty or them to form a functional block.  Political integration often starts with free trade zones, as is the case of the European Union (E.U), and usually starts after decades of cooperation. As a result, it led to the formation of transnational governments as subsets of governance using the European Union (E.U) framework with applications outside its natural hierarchies, regional or national. The goal of transnational governance, especially in countries that were torn apart by the Iron Curtain, is to foster social and economic development by removing barriers to free trade (Ougaard, 2004). Critics of this system argue that it depletes political authority from member states and compels them to align themselves with a political organization that is the most dominant form. Member states also face constraints that, in a way, coerce them to conform and look like other countries. A common problem that these countries are bound to face is the view that governance changes jeopardize the nation’s ability to chart its course democratically.

Globalization of Culture and Communication

Culture is an amorphous system that includes symbolic notions of perception, cognition, and understanding. These issues serve to identify the social structure in place while articulating essential parts that human culture consists of; world view and ethos. Today’s globalization has become constantly irreversible. As a result, it influences the changing of cultural patterns from one form to another. There is also the mutual penetration of exchange and trends that are beneficial to the parties. These countries accelerate the subsequent entrance of a state into the global system which sees it in direct contact with a host of other nations. Moreover, it makes contributions to expanding existent cultural ties between immigrants and the local population. Globalization in this dimension will also result in a consumer class among a segment of the population which has led to Western consumerism. The message that these global firms pass spark fears among economic pundits that their rise will ultimately obliterate traditional cultures.

The “blind worship” of consumer goods from foreign lands compromises the national dignity of a country.

Ideological Globalization

Ideological globalization almost inevitably follows the economic and political ones with the transnational principles that legitimize them. It ends up justifying the minimization of the role of a nation and decreasing its sovereignty. Core to its dogma is economic independence and national sovereignty. International financial organizations, for example, the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF), have a globalization principle that is capitalist neoliberal in nature, which they expect member states to “directly” and “indirectly” participate in. In other cases, ideological globalization includes the spread of religion. Christianity is one such religion whose origin and spread people can genuinely call global. Its active association with military and political institutions is one of the reasons why it was easy for it to spread globally. Roman Emperor Constantine (272-337) would mark its beginning when he established his empire by converting to Christianity (Wilcox, 2013). It soon spread to Spain and Portugal where it became the official religion with most of the citizenry becoming Christians. It is for this convincing reason that there is a substantive population of adherents of Roman Catholicism in the Philippines and Latin America. A standard counter development measure that states use to combat ideological globalization is a total rejection of what they stand for. Other religions, for instance, Buddhism, were the victims of suppression with the state’s power (Swearer, 1997). During the 1980s, this was indeed the case in Pennsylvania Chester Counter when Philadelphia’s Thais attempted to build a temple where they could practice Buddhism. Their proposal would face sharp criticism from the locals who saw it as another occult-like esoteric religion that was bound to draw young people to it and erode their Christian values.


Over the centuries, globalization has been increasing at a steady rate, promoting the interconnectedness that people ought to enjoy in this new age. Globalization also includes significant factors, for instance, constant advances in transportation and telecommunication infrastructure that generate and independence of economic and cultural activities. It features economic integration, political integration, ideological globalization, culture, and communication as different dimensions functioning under it.

Globalization and Diversity Impact on Healthcare Organizations

Unit outcomes addressed in this Assignment:

  • Explain the attributes of a successful health leader.
  • Describe issues related to globalization, power, followership, and culture change from a health leader’s perspective.

Course outcome addressed in this Assignment:

  • Evaluate approaches to leading individuals and teams, and eliciting support from senior principles.
  • Identify change management practices by discussing change sponsorship versus agency of change theory.
  • Evaluate leadership strategies essential to successfully accomplish change including interpersonal, organizational, and cultural dimensions.


For this Assignment, outline issues related to globalization, power, followership, and cultural change from a health leader’s perspective. Identify at least three major global health issues that have impacted the U.S. health care system, and describe how this has affected and influenced stakeholders.

Relate the global leadership style differences and similarities within the constructs of transformational leadership. Discuss at least three critical elements of culture and diversity on the modern health care organization. Also, provide a table or list of cultural attributes to be cognizant of.

Finally, categorize global leadership differences according to a leader’s use of power, technology, and knowledge management. Provide at least two leadership approaches for implementing change.


  • Your paper must be at least 5 pages in length.
  • Use a minimum of three academic references.
  • Cite all references using APA format.

Financial Effects Of Globalization In Public Administration

Finance and budgeting for the public sector is not only about better measurement, but also understanding that we live in a complicated world and that we cannot produce predictable outcomes simply by better planning (Cayer & Weschler, 1988).  Instead, we need to create gather information, feedback loops, and adapt accordingly. In other words, we necessitate for social services to have an accurate model of learning that spawns knowledge that can get fostered and improved (Mikesell, 1986, p.38-83). However, the general path to getting there is not clear-cut.

It crosses my mind that there is no less than four products that can help move finance and budgeting for the public sector along this path; to support bringing outcomes into the financial and budgeting planning and management processes, to help bring outcome elements to contract renewals in a way that drives improved service, and procuring and contracting models that are capable of building feedback loops and an expectation that contracts will adapt over time.

Lastly, it is essential to have a better model for outcome work at scale than the current state-wide procurement process that people witness with such elements as work program or transforming justice. It would involve developing a model that allows learning and feedback, beginning experimentally in two or more areas. For instance, one could come up with a framework of sought after maximum values and outcomes that can be paid for them, an early community of providers, and a referral methodology. After that, the providers can get added to, say yearly, and the outcome values can also get altered by what results are generated for a particular value.

There would be transparency when it comes to what providers do and the results they achieve.  With the growing pressures for improved service delivery and the hardships of fiscal shocks and budgetary crises, the need for innovative financial management techniques and superior budget processes is critical in developing and rising economies (Simon, 1950). By applying the lines of attack mentioned earlier here, I believe I would effect positive social change in public administration.

P&G Japan : The SKII Globalization Project Case Study

Read :P&G Japan: The SKII Globalization Project case  and answer the following question.
       1.  Does SK-II have the potential to become a global brand within Procter & Gamble’s worldwide operations? Why or why not?
Please give a detailed answers for both why/why not.


SK-II is a cosmetic product that was developed by the P&G Japan local company to address the consumer taste and preference in the country. This product was adopted since the company lacked any good product that would suit the Japanese’s women way caring for their skin. It used in like 8 step procedures though its impact was found to be marvelous in Japan. The product was anticipated to be highly accepted in other global market, but after the women of other markets understand how it is used and its tremendous impact on their skin. In this regard, its expansion to other international market was always hindered by a long familiarization period before breaking even. This was witnessed in China and was still predicted to happen in Europe. However, after this period the product could be very profitable in any part of the world since it was result based (Bartlett, 2004).

In my opinion, the SK-II product has the potential of becoming the world cosmetic product. However, this may require time and patience from CEOs in the new market. The product can easily turn into an international cosmetic brand due to its quality and efficiency in restoring beauty in women. It effective use in Japan and China demonstrates the product ability to return good and desirable impact to its users. The fact that it brings changes gives it the potential to sell in any market. However, to manage that, the international market has to take it to spread customer awareness and to make the customers understand its use. This gives it a longer market entry and introduction period after which the company is assured of total profit. The fact that it guarantee great profit after creating awareness and making its use understood to the customers gives it a great potential as a global product (Bartlett, 2004).

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Globalization, WMS And Transportation In Global Supply Chain Management


Globalization is an integration and interaction process among governments, companies, and people of different nations. It is an investment and international trade driven process and it is supported by information technology. The globalization process has influences on the culture, environment, economic development, political systems, economic prosperity, and on human physical well-being in the international society. It therefore highly influence the supply chain management in different parts of the world as the companies try to adjust to satisfy consumers of different culture, and legal requirements of different societies in the world. Globalization has allowed the use imports to satisfy consumers demand and exports to reduce surplus in one market (Heaney, 2011).

Warehouse Management System

A warehouse management system (WMS) is application software that support warehouse daily operations. WMS programs permit tasks central management that include tracking stock location and inventory levels. WMS system might be part of the enterprise resource planning system or a standalone application.  The modern WMS application is more complex than the earlier version with high data intensity. They also have high-end system that include routing and tracking technologies that include voice recognition and radio frequency identification (RFID).


Transportation involves moving goods from one position to another in the supply chain system. It occupies a third of the total logistic costs and influence the logistic system greatly.  Transportation is needed in the entire production process from processing to delivery to the retail consumers and returns. It therefore requires a high level of coordination between every component to ensure transportation cost reduction and to maximize the company’s benefits (Tseng et al., 2005).


BZ480 – Strategies of Globalization and Regionalization

Globalization refers to the process of expanding business operations beyond the organization’s country of origin into worldwide markets. With declining markets in mostcountries and presence of highly advanced technology, businesses are being forced toestablish global presence (Rugman, &Verbeke, 2004).Among the companies with huge global presence include Apple Incorporation (Inc.), Amazon, and Samsung Inc. among many others. Globalization is seen as a tool of gaining competitive edge to the firms that expand their operations to global platforms as it offers numerous benefits that including establishment of global economies of scale.The two strategies employed by companies when globalizing their operations are forming partnerships with overseas marketsleaders, including customers, suppliers and competitors, and buying out businesses that are already in existence within a the country of interest (Deresky, 2000). The process of forming partnerships is referred to as merging while that of buying out businesses is known as acquisition.

Although Wal-Mart was performing well in the United States (U.S.) and had a business model that would help it stay ahead of its competition, it still needed to goglobal so as to survive in a competitive market. U.S. accounts for approximately 4% of the entire worldwide market and thus by going global, the company would be able to tap into the other 96% of the market population. Furthermore, Wal-Mart had saturated the local market and its competitors had started expanding into global markets. This made global expansion vital for ensuring the company’s survival.Wal-Mart entered some markets, such as Canada, through acquisition. This was possible due to the similarities between U.S and Canadian cultures and the availability of a poorly performing local company, Woolco. This mode of entry benefited the company by reducing resistance in the foreign market by both existing competitors and the consumers. Wal-Mart used a merging strategy to enter the Mexican market. The company formed a 50-50 merger with the largest Mexico’s retailer, Cifra.This was mainly because there are significant cultural and economical differences between the two countries and thus Wal-Mart required a partner who could offer operational expertise on the new market (Govindarajan& Gupta, 1999).


Regionalization refers to focusing competitiveness on region-to-region basis instead of focusing it on global basis like it is the case with globalization. This strategy is applicable in regions where the local markets are closely linked together hence allowing an organization to adopt a more localized responsive strategy (Rugman&Verbeke, 2004). In implementing this strategy, those charged with governance on the regional level run their branches as independent bodies hence different regional branches have different product mixes and competitive positions even though they belong to the same parent organization (Deresky, 2000). Most multinational organizations adapt this strategy in order to leverage the advantages of both globalization and localization strategies. Below are the five-regionalization strategies

The Home Base Strategy where companies initially serve their global markets from their home base. These companies locate most of their operations including their Research and Development and manufacturing in the company’s home country (Deresky, 2000). For 50 years, Toyota applied this strategy where its international sales were all direct exports originating from Japan(Toyota, n.d).

The Portfolio Strategy, which involves setting up the company’s operations outside its home region but all divisions report to the company’s home base. Companies that expand their operations beyond the markets that they can serve efficiently from their home base usually employ this strategy (Rugman&Verbeke, 2004). Toyota is among the companies that have employed this strategy effectively during its preliminary investments in the U.S. where the company founded a Toyota Production System in Northern America but the original plant maintained control(Toyota, n.d).

The Hub Strategy, which is merely a multiregional form of the home-base strategy. It involves building regional bases that provide a selection of shared resources to the company’s local operations(Rugman&Verbeke, 2004). A good example is the move made by Toyota in 1990s, where it began creating regional hubs so as to make its regional divisions more self-supporting and reduce the company’s dependency on Japan(Toyota, n.d).

The Platform Strategy where the platforms are used to spread fixed costs across a region with the aim of increasing variety and reducing production costs(Rugman&Verbeke, 2004). In its effort to increase its economies of scale, Toyota has been consolidating its brand platforms and investing more in global car brands(Toyota, n.d).

Lastly is the Mandate Strategy, which is very closely related toplatform strategy.This strategy allows certain regions to perform certain organizational roles, such as global consulting and financial service, in order to create economies of scale and specialization(Rugman&Verbeke, 2004). For this strategy, Toyota began awarding some of its plants regional mandates for the production of scale sensitive parts like engines and transmissions (Toyota, n.d). Today’s world is neither strictly global nor strictly local and thus organizations need to be able to combine both global and regional strategies in orderto gain powerful competitive advantage.


Globalization and Governance : How does globalization affect macroeconomic policymaking?

Public administration is an essential link between citizens and governments. With the rapid pace of globalization, the public sector is under even greater pressure to increase its capacity to deal with the new challenges and opportunities that globalization presents. The relationship of globalization and governance is multidimensional. States / countries with high levels of integration with the rest of the world tend to have better governance outcomes on the whole. Of course, the quality of governance can be directly related to the social and economic integration between states. The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, religion, natural resources, fractionalization, and government size largely decide the outcomes.

Like globalization, governance can be conceived broadly or narrowly. How does globalization affect macroeconomic policymaking?

In this assignment, you are expected to select one (1) country and:

  • Discuss a significant issue / challenge arising from globalization that has taken place in the last three to six (3-6) months.
  • Critically evaluate the current policy(ies) for the issue / challenge.
  • Consider possible alternatives.
  • Advocate a particular policy choice and provide rationale.

Use the Internet to conduct research for this assignment. Here are two (2) resources to get you started:

  • Scan the article titled, “Globalization and Governance: Definition, Variation, and Explanation” located
  • Review the slide show “Tips for Writing a Policy Analysis” located
  1. Provide an introduction and context for the issue / challenge.
  2. Summarize what existing literature says about the selected issue / challenge and the selected country’s policies impacting the issue.
  3. Suggest two (2) policy options that the selected country’s government could follow in order to resolve the issue / challenge.
  4. Recommend one (1) policy action based on your analysis of a set of alternatives. Provide a rationale for your recommendation.
  5. Provide at least three (3) reliable, relevant, peer-reviewed references (no more than one [1] used previously), published within the last five (5) years that support the paper’s claims.
  • Evaluate the major concepts and theories to international relations and politics.
  • Analyze the local impact of global public administration policies and relationships.
  • Analyze the core controversies, theories, and rationale surrounding global public administration.
  • Formulate domestic and international public policy alternatives and arguments.
  • Describe how policies shift over time when applied to global public administration challenges.