Immigration has been a serious problem to the U.S. government for a long time. This is due to the impact immigration creates to all forms of government in the country. Immigration affects the economy of the US at all levels based on the nature of immigrants in terms of level of education and their willingness to work at lower wages. Immigration is said to enlarge the GDP of the country. However, larger economy by itself is not an advantage to Native Americans. Immigrants create extra cost to the government by exacting more pressure on public services create for the locals. However, and the same time, they contribute to the governments revenue at all government levels through taxation. The difference between the costs and revenue is what determine whether their existence brings a positive or a negative effect to the budget of specific government, especially local and state government (Camarota, 2013). This variation is based on the kind of immigrants found in an area such that areas with lower-income, less educated immigrants are likely to experience net financial drain while higher-income, highly educated immigrants experiencing fiscal benefit. Immigrants also introduce job market competition where in most cases immigrants tend to offer their services at a cheaper price. This result to decline in the market prices of various jobs positions, resulting to decline in the government revenue collected from pay as you earn taxes at all levels of governments. Taking locals jobs also increases rate of poverty in a jurisdiction, especially since most employers prefer them to locals due to cheaper labor (Camarota, 2013).
Federalism refers to a system of government in which entities such as states or provinces share and excercise power with a national government. Federalism explains why each state has its own constitution and powers such as being able to choose what kind of of ballots it uses , even in national elections, but each state controls its own voting procedures.
A current event that is an example of federalism is on the immigration front. The representative of Oklahoma, Randy Terrill, sponsor of Oklahoma’s stringent 2007 immigration law points out that there’s no greater example of federalism in acion of late than on the immigration front. He adds that it is always states that have stepped in to fill the voids left by the federal government.
In the year 2007, the last major push on immigration failed in the U.S. Senate, states have since then enacted hundreds of laws aimed at making life less comfortable for illegal immigrants and their employers. The law restricts the ability of illegal immigrants to obtain IDs or public assistance. It also gives police authority to check the immigration status of anyone arrested which can lead to deportation. It also makes it a felony for U.S citizens to knowingly provide shelter, transportation or employment to illegal immigrants.
The above event is an example of federalism because as it is in the U.S Legal System, power is divided between the natitonal government and the various state governments. States have, as has been seen in the case of Oklahoma, their own legislative branch, and judicial branch. The states are empowered to pass, enforce, and interpret laws as has been observed. The federal government determines foregn policy, makes treaties, declare war, and control imports and exports. It has the sole authorityto print money. Most government responsibilitise, however, are shared.(Vicky 2013)
As can be seen from the foregoing paragraph, the above issue of immigration has been dealth with by the state of Oklahoma. The responsibilities that are shared betwwen the federal government and the states are taxation, business ragulation, environmental protection and civil rights. Issues to do with illegal immigrants as it is is a federal government responsibility because by illegal immigrants entering a state they have first and fore most entered or crossed the borders which is a function of the federal government to protect its borders from illegal entry hence making the states and the federal government at large safe.
From the way it looks, it appears the issue as it is is state controled because it appears the national government is unable to solve such a pressing issue hence the states are rushing in to fill the void. They have acted out of frustration at the federal government’s inability to address the issue.
A federal system divides authority between two levels, state and national. Any powers not specifically given to the federal government are reserved to the states. This are called enumerated powers. Dual federalism on the other hand is based on the relatively optimistic belief that a clear division between federal and state authority can, and does, exist. This theory states that authority between the two levels of U.S. government, national and state, could be treated equally, live together equally, and hold roughly equal authority. There is a reserved powers clause which sets a line between the two levels of U.S. government. Dual federalism therefore imagines that there is an obvious separation between state and federal duties. Therefore, for instance, since education isn’t mentioned in in the constitution, it becomes a state obligation under dual federalism, and the federal government will stear unlike with federalism.
The immigration policy in America is important in the control of foreigners who enter into the country and their period of stay together with the close supervision of the people as they do their activities. The Immigration law in the United States is quite sophisticated. The Immigration and Naturalization Act (INA) that further limits the number permanent immigrants to 675000 govern the immigration policy in the United States. The laws further provide for exception to the immigrants especially about their close family members. The congress plays a great part in immigration policy especially where it concentrates on developing the various laws that govern refugees and their admission to the country (Motomura, 2014).
The number of refugees to be taken into countries is deliberated by the immigration policy. Moreover, immigration about the US is based on the reconnecting families, intake of immigrants with potential skills that are profitable to the United States economy, increasing diversity and enhancing refugee protection. The reunification of various people especially by members who are either permanent residents or citizens in the United States occur about their settling with them in the United States. Some of the citizens who can be allowed into the country are various family members of the citizen or permanent resident. Such members may include spouses, children who are not yet married and parents of the United States people (Baglay & Nakache, 2014). Furthermore, there are limitations to how many family members or people can enter the United States. The criteria that the petitioners should meet is that they should be adult children together with being spouses of the US citizens. Other forms of immigration are employment based which may be temporary or permanent. Therefore, such people issue temporary or permanent visas to the people. Asylum seekers and refuges can also be allowed into the country under different conditions. Refugees and asylees are usually considered especially in dire circumstances where they are in great danger should they go back to their countries.
Students may choose a final paper topic of their choice, or one from any one of the topics/questions listed below:
- Discuss how employee training needs to evolve due to immigration and related cultural changes.
- In what ways has technology impacted the way(s) we train employees?
- How might employee training differ from one country to another on a global basis?
- How can managers assist employees with their career development?
- Discuss the future issues that will impact employee training both negatively and positively.
Students may make a recommendation for a topic not listed subject to the approval of the instructor.
Each paper will contain the following elements:
- A discussion of the issue(s) at hand.
- An explanation of specific rules and regulations relating to the concept (i.e. laws and/or policies).
- Provide an analysis of the situation (the analysis can include historical information leading to the current situation as the student sees it). What is your response to the content, either positive or negative? Defend your position. If multiple options/alternatives/positions are present and are being rejected you must also defend the reasons for rejecting an option.
- Draft a conclusion (give your thoughts and opinions about what changes may/should occur on the basis of current conditions and the research you have found).
Writing the Final Paper
The Final Paper:
- Must be eight double-spaced pages (not including title and reference pages) in length and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the approved APA style guide.
- Must include a cover page that includes:
- Student’s name
- Course name and number
- Title of paper
- Instructor’s name
- Date submitted
- Must include an introductory paragraph with a succinct thesis statement.
- Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
- Must conclude with a restatement of the thesis and a conclusion paragraph.
- Must use APA style as outlined in the approved APA style guide to document all sources.
- Must include, on the final page, a Reference Page that is completed according to APA style as outlined in the approved APA style guide.
- Must utilize a minimum of four academic references.
Immigration in the United States is a major issue of discussion. Immigration is the unofficial move into a different state or country for better prospect, or to escape violence and war at home. The U.S receives countless number of immigrants annually. These immigrants are from different countries, of different races and even speak different languages. Some of these immigrants are legal and documented, while some of them are illegal immigrants. It is these illegal immigrants who build the myths and misconceptions on immigrants. Illegal immigrants usually involve themselves in acts of crime such as drug and illegal weapon trafficking, theft, rape among others. They cost the host government a lot of money in finding them and deporting them.
Immigrations lead to increased wages for the African Americans in Pennsylvania with increase in their number (American Immigration Council). Legal immigrants have been able to further improve the economic state of Pennsylvania as they have been able to start their own successful businesses and in turn pay taxes to the government. Some of them even employ the Native Americans in their business, therefore, decreasing the rate of unemployment in the state (American Immigration Council). By taking their children to school, they allow them to be educated and work in well-paying jobs in future and at the same time improving the economy with the school fees paid.
Problems have arisen from immigration. African Americans feel like they are the most affected by immigrants, whose employment, they believe, has resulted in them receiving reduced wages. Rights of immigrants are not always respected even by the police. Some of the immigrants do not even know their rights and are often vulnerable to abuse. Another problem that immigrants face is the association of crime with immigration in Pennsylvania. This factor has been facilitated by the crimes committed by illegal immigrants (American Immigration Council). These crimes are often blamed on immigrants, irrespective of whether they are documented or undocumented immigrants. There is hope, however, for illegal immigrants, as reports have shown that there is reduced rate of crimes that has come about with increased immigration. More good news is seen with the increased number of New Americans allowed to vote, especially in areas like California. Immigration serves Pennsylvania and the rest of United States more positively than negatively.
Pennsylvania is a state in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. Immigration has been a subject of debate in Pennsylvania. It has led to cultural change and population growth in the state. Immigration in Pennsylvania, has, however, brought about many issues that have been subject to debate over the past few years (Singer and Audrey). These issues include the push over the rights for the immigrants, increased and unplanned population growth, conflicts between African-Americans and immigrants and association of crime with immigrants among others. However, immigration has more benefits than misfits to the United States such as increased wages, less crime rates among others (American Immigration Council). It is crucial that American citizens overlook the common myths about immigrants and treat them as their counterparts on this earth, trying to get by with life.
Immigration in Pennsylvania began in the 17th Century with the earliest coming in as indentured servants. It attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. In 1882 law was passed which restricted immigrants with mental problems, minors with company, and diseases, among others (Ancestry). Philadelphia has the fastest growing population of immigrants. They comprise 9% of the total population, standing at over 500,000 (American Immigration Council). The immigrant population grew by 113,000 between 2000 and 2006 (Ancestry). These immigrants are from Asia, the Caribbean, Africa and Europe, occupying 39%, 28%, 8%, and 23% respectively (Ancestry). Close to 60% of immigrants living in the city came after 1990.
Underemployment of Native Americans
Native American citizens of Pennsylvania feel like the immigrants are taking over their jobs. There is a big number of underemployment, unemployment and drop out of the labor force of the least skilled American workers, while the number of employed immigrants still keeps increasing (American Immigration Council). As a result, conflicts have risen, with the natives blaming their unemployment on the ever increasing number of immigrants in Pennsylvania. These conflicts are, however, wrongly formulated as reports have shown that immigrants do very well in their education and as a result, have access to well-paying jobs. Native Americans need to realize that they have to earn the positions they want to work in, just as the immigrants have.
African – Americans and immigrants
Common myths suggest that immigrants negatively impact African Americans in Pennsylvania. These myths arise from rumors that Latino immigrants and African Americans compete ruinously for the same jobs leading to low wages and increased unemployment rates for the African Americans (American Immigration Council). The truth of this, however, is that the two groups of people complement each other, other than being substitutes for the each other in the labor market. Latino immigrants facilitate higher wages for African Americans. The median and mean wages for African Americans increase by 3% for every 1% increase in the population of Latinos in Pennsylvania (American Immigration Council). This increase also leads to decrease in the number of poor African Americans. Black immigrants are also a source of tension and suspicion, elevated by the employment of black immigrants in professional jobs. Such conflicts between black immigrants and African Americans are what led to the formation of the Coalition of African communities in Philadelphia with the aim of strengthening the relationship between the two groups.
Immigration and crime
Immigration has often been linked with crime. President Donald Trump recently created the Office of Victims of Immigration Crime Engagement, only serving to demonize immigrants. Creation of this office will only lead to more crime and dehumanization of immigrants (American Immigration Council). It has been made a common belief that immigrants are part of the reason why crime occurs. Immigrants have been made the scapegoats when indeed it is they who are victims of violence and crime, especially women immigrants. Data shows that there is drop in the rate of crime in Pennsylvania with the increase in the rate of immigration. The same is echoed in national reports and findings.
There has been endless protests and cries for the rights of immigrants in Pennsylvania. In the years before, immigrants were not even allowed to own their own businesses. Now, however, they are entitled to more rights some of which include: Rights to Public benefits and other basic rights (ACLU). Public benefits programs consists of medicals programs, food stamps, and security. These immigrants’ rights are more than overlooked, as there have been cases of abuse of rights against the immigrants such as forceful arrest by police, denial of access to medical services among others (Community Legal Services). The American Civil Liberties Union of Pennsylvania however, allows immigrants to be able to know what their rights are in the streets, in their cars and even at home.
Majority of immigrants are legal and law abiding people who want to live in peace without disturbing the people or the local authorities in Pennsylvania. Their peaceful status and good nature is however soiled by illegal immigrants who pose a threat to security. Illegal immigrants are immigrants who have entered the country illegally. Illegal immigrants are the reason why immigrants are associated with crime (American Immigration Council). They influence the people’s negative thinking towards other law abiding immigrant. Reports show that the rate of illegal immigration is growing at a rate of 700, 000 annually (American Immigration Council). This only goes to show that the problem with illegal immigrants is yet to be solved, and innocent legal immigrants will continue to be scapegoats of crime in Pennsylvania. Mass deportation of these immigrants is costly to the local population.
Unsustainable Population Growth
There has been massive increase in the population Pennsylvania (Singer and Audrey). This massive growth is sometimes unsustainable for the government. Increase in population is facilitated by immigration (American Immigration Council). These immigrants are mostly illegal migrants who drain the budget. Population influx has also led to overcrowding in cities and towns in Pennsylvania, and the United States as a whole. Uncontrolled population growth results in increase in social crimes and violence in the towns.
Effect on countries of origin
When people move into the United State to find better prospects for the future, the country of origin is usually affected, as it loses its workers, especially the young ones. It loses the people who are highly trained who would have served the country very well. The families of the immigrant are sometimes left without care or protection (Singer and Audrey). Women and children are usually affected. As a result, relatives of these emigrants are left in a situation where they are forced to follow their own into the country or state where he/she has settled, leading to increased number of illegal immigrants.
Continued immigration of people from different and international countries puts Philadelphia at risk of a terrorist attack, as a country that’s an enemy to the United States might send one of their own to spy on the state and give information back. The state is placed in a vulnerable position as it my attacked at any time, and in any part of it. It is hard to identify who is a terrorist and who is not. A terrorist does not have to be an illegal immigrant; it might be a well-documented immigrant who has come to Pennsylvania to find work to act as an alibi for his evil intentions. These terrorist immigrants may even end up radicalizing other law abiding, peace loving legal immigrants into joining their workforce (Lindsay and Andrew 2). It is important for the government to stamp out these terrorist immigrants as soon as they are identified.The positive effects of Immigration are many and should not be overlooked. These benefits are economic, social and even political. They lead to positive growth of Pennsylvania and other states in the U.S., and are even more than the demerits of immigration.
The labor force growth of Philadelphia is attributed to the immigrants covering close to 75% of the workforce (American Immigration Council). Immigrants in Pennsylvania wield about $36.3 billion. Their businesses had receipts and sales of $14.8 billion in the last count. Immigrants have also been able to employ close to 73,000 people. It is clear that immigrants play an important role in the economic growth of Pennsylvania and the U.S as a whole, both as workers and as taxpayers (American Immigration Council). Unskilled immigrants do the work that American citizens would rather not do. These include small and dangerous work. This is not to say that immigrants do the small, unwanted jobs. Skilled immigrants are on demand in industries that required highly skilled professionals, such as scientists, doctors, and engineers.
Immigration allows for people from different countries and cultures to meet and share their different cultural experiences (American Immigration Council). People are able to overlook ethnicity and racism and live together in one culture that comprises of all the cultures put together. Immigrants and the natives are able to live together in harmony for the development of the state. Pennsylvania, for example, consists of immigrants from different countries and different races, who have all come together to li9ve in one place in peace, allowing each one of them to reach their respective goals.
New American citizens now have a say on who will lead them, as more and more immigrants are now eligible to vote. The immigrant communities are gaining more electoral power with every passing. In 2012, the number of New Americans eligible to vote was 18.1 million. This number was 11.8% of all registered voters that year (American Immigration Council). In places such as California and New York, new Americans constitute a large part of the registered voter.
Immigration in Pennsylvania has led to positive political, economic and social growth. It has allowed the state and other states in the U.S to grow and advance while other powerful countries in the world are declining as a result of not opening its doors to immigrants. Immigration, does, however, have its own demerits that should be well handle without harming the legal immigrants in place. People should try and learn more about immigration in order to put aside their insecurities which end up affecting innocent documented immigrants.
Explain whether enforcement of immigration laws should occur at the local, state, and federal level.
The enforcement of the immigration should be done at both federal and state and local level to increase efficiency in fighting illegal immigration (Hollifield et al., 2014). Being done at the state level will ensure that those immigrants in the different states are dealt with according to the federal law set in place. At the local state, the police should help in the enforcement of i mmigration by using the various training provided by the federal government to ensure that immigration is steeped and minimized extensively throughout the United States.
The state laws on immigration should not conflict with the federal government’s law and should ensure that they add more strength or make similar laws that enforce the immigration laws. A case in point is the state of Arizona which had four conflicting laws the preempted the federal immigration laws. Conflicting laws will bring confusion into the justice system. Therefore, it will be difficult for a state to use a certain law, which is countered by another law formed by the national government. For there to be harmony, the state laws should concur with the national government. Therefore merging and bolstering cooperating with the states, local and the federal government will improve the efficiency of dealing with the multiple immigrants in the various states since the federal government cannot be able to work effectively on the immigration issue alone. Eth use of the security agencies in conjunction with an added workforce in the states will help enforce the immigration laws and reduce further cases regarding immigration.
Explain at least one challenge related to enforcing the laws at the local level.
The challenge in enforcing immigration at the local level is quite a daunting task. There are many immigrants staying in the various states who have either entered illegally or absconded on deportation orders. Others are fugitive aliens who have outlived their stay and were more than 500.000. The challenge facing immigration at the state level is a limited workforce. A challenge at the local is the conflicting argument of using the police in enforcing immigration laws while their mandate is to protect the public. As such, they will have to concentrate on immigration more and thus the protection of the citizens will be second.
At the state, level the enforcement of the immigration, laws have not had an impact. Some of the states do not put much of their resources in combating immigration. There is thus a lack of political will in dealing with immigration issue at the state level. State government can have a great impact on immigration if they collaborate which the government agencies that deal with immigration. Also, its takes the local state government to come up with measures that will support the immigration reform agenda of the federal government. Some states have passed various laws that seek to provide a sanctuary to the immigrants, as such the local agents in the respective states don’t focus on dealing with immigration as they follow the don’t ask don’t tell rule on the status of immigration. As a result, the state has very limited cooperation with the federal government in enforcing the various laws. Some large states like New York, Boston, Baltimore, Chicago, San Francisco and Seattle to name a few have limited the enforcement of immigration federal laws by passing laws that limit enforcement of immigration in their states. Various groupings involving police chiefs have supported the ideas of not involving local agencies in enforcing immigration laws, as it would have an effect on policing.
Explain at least one challenge related to enforcing the laws at the state level.
Effectiveness of enforcement of immigration laws
The enforcement of immigration laws has had its face of challenges. The federal government has opted to increase partnership with the states in combating the immigration problem (Rosenblaum, 2011). In the past, the state battled the problem sing handedly with little or no help from the local agencies and the individual states. The ICE and the local and state enforcement agencies have entered into partnerships through the Illegal Immigrant Reform and Immigrant Reconciliation Act (IIRIRA) of 1996 (Varsanyi et al., 2012). The act elaborated on the various offenses that can lead to the deportation of illegal immigrants and the various penalties they face should they violate the law. The laws have reduced their rights and increase security at the border of US and Mexico.
The immigration and customs enforcement (ICE), which is part of the Department of Homeland Security, has enhanced the effectiveness of the various states and local agencies by offering training regarding immigration (Provine & Varsanyi, 2012). The trained helps the interested parties in identifying the various immigrants and removing them from the country. The various states have with this training been able to identify more than 130000 illegal immigrants that can be deported at any time as their cases are deliberated by the justice system (ICE, 2010). The states have effectively used the Criminal Alien Program to identify illegal immigrants in the various states and penitentiary facilities to ensure that they are deported as soon a possible. The ICE has greatly help the states and local enforcement agencies in dealing with immigrants within their localities and ensuring that they are dealt with according to the law.
Application of a Theoretical Model
The immigration policy of New Zealand is centered on the assumption that the macroeconomic effects of immigration may be substantially positive, with small negative impacts at worse. Nonetheless, both large and small macroeconomic effects are possible. On that account, the main objective of this paper is to investigate the macroeconomic effects of New Zealand’s immigration policy. Another objective is to determine the effect of immigration and other types of population growth on New Zealand’s housing market.
Upon review of studies, findings suggest that whereas immigration, at times, has had substantial net benefits, it also has negative impacts. In particular, over the last few decades the positive impact of immigration on productivity, per capita growth, mitigating aging of the population, and fiscal balance is uncertain. There is also evidence that suggests that immigration, along with other types of population growth has exerted pressure on the country’s housing sector, which fails to cater to the needs of the market. Attending to the infrastructure requirements of immigrants in an economy with a moderate level of national savings may also have diverted key resources from more productive economic activities, leading to negative macroeconomic effects. More needs to be done to examine the probable net benefits of increased immigration. This should be done as part of the strategy to hunt the cluster and scale impacts through increased population, or whether a decline in immigration could enable a lower exchange rate, lower interest rates, and growth that is more balanced.
B) Analysis and Evaluation of Policy
1.) Literature Review
Like other OECD nations, New Zealand has high rates of population inflow and outflow. In fact, there are some associations between the two; Since the start of the 1990s, the government has engaged in a policy to replace the New Zealanders that go to live abroad with immigrants. Substantial benefits were projected by enhancing the quality and number of individuals working within New Zealand’s institutions and an economy that had undergone a recent transformation.
Until the late 1980s, New Zealand used a “Country-of-origin” immigration framework which favored migrants from certain countries. The points framework that replaced this system in 1991 originally permitted anybody who earned or surpassed the target points to gain residency. There were no efforts to interweave the demands of the labor market with the skills of the migrants. From the mid-1990s, progressive changes were made to place more attention to labor demand. From 2001, the Cabinet has been approving a set target for the number of immigrants who gain residence status.
Over the past few decades, there have been extensive studies that seek to comprehend the effects of these policies. The results in New Zealand are in line with international proof implying that immigration has only had moderate effects on total growth per capita, living standards, and productivity. According to Hodgson and Poot (2010), immigration has had a positive contribution to economic outcomes in New Zealand. However, the authors are keen to pinpoint the negative economic effects of lower wages, enhanced unemployment, and net fiscal expenses. Regarding population outflow, Glass and Choy (2001) assert that migrants heading to Australia from New Zealand were largely non-skilled since there is a sufficiently common labor market between the two nations. For the rest of the globe, Glass and Choy (2001) highlighted a “brain exchange”, whereby both immigrants and emigrants seemingly more skilled than the New Zealanders who do not leave the country. Nonetheless, Manning and SriRamarantam (2010) found that the distribution of skill of individuals leaving New Zealand has transformed over time. They consider the increasing probability that individuals leaving New Zealand were highly skilled due to the increased demand of skilled workers globally, along with a higher percentage of highly skilled people among the New Zealand population. Even though migrants to Australia usually have an average level of skill, migrants to the rest of the world are typically university graduates.
Nickel (2007) states that an influx of migrants decreases the ratio of capital labor, decreases the real wage, and increases the return on capital and develops a net welfare benefit for the natives. The benefits realized by the owners of capital are larger than the losses encountered by the suppliers of labor. In the long-term, the increased return to capital facilitates investment. It also increases the real wage, the marginal product of capital. In addition, the capital-labour ratio will return to its initial levels under continuous returns. The natives do not benefit or lose, and the economy grows slightly bigger. Nickel (2007) asserts that in the long run, migrants may eternally decrease the equilibrium unemployment rate. This happens when the migrants make the labor market more dynamic and reduce the mismatch of skills, or if the migrants are more motivated, flexible and reliable suppliers of labor. In the short-term, Nickel (2007) states that increasing the population via increased migration will enhance both the aggregate supply and demand. If the impacts of demand are dominant, migration will probably lead to enhanced output in the short run and increase the pressures of inflation. If the impacts of supply are dominant, there will be smaller impacts on output and reduced inflationary pressures.
2.) Application of a Macroeconomic Model
GCE (Computable general equilibrium) models facilitate an economy-wide perspective, illustrating the multifaceted associations between industries and sectors, imports and exports, and consumption. CGE models are more superior than partial analyses of certain markets or two-sector models. The model leverages extensive data sets to examine how market forces come back to the economy to equilibrium after a shift in immigration, through a transformation in wages, price, consumption, and production. The economic impact of the numerous traits of immigrants (like language, country of origin, age, or skills) and different flows of immigrants can be analyzed.
Nana et al (2009) conducted simulations of the macroeconomic effect of enhanced immigration on the New Zealand economy utilizing the GCE model. Increasing the inflow of migrants by 20,000 per year increased the population of the country by 6.1% over a period of one and a half decades; the population in 2021 was determined to be around 4.81 million. Similar to the baseline, the yearly GDP growth increased to 3.6% from 3.1%. Over the entire period of simulation (15 years), the real GDP per capita increased by 1.5%. The increase in GDP per capita is due to the increased migrants since most of them move to New Zealand to work. It is assumed that capital will increase in response to the enhanced supply of labor to preserve the ratio of capital-labor. Both output and input prices will be lower in relation to the baseline; this reflects the increased supply. Decreased prices enhance the competitiveness of the country on an international scale. Nonetheless, increasing more labor to decrease wages is a strategy that is counterintuitive, especially for an economy that has been determined to be shallow on capital. Already, New Zealand has relatively low wages for an economy that is developed.
Effectiveness of New Zealand’s Immigration Policy
The preceding section has discussed the macroeconomic effects of migration. Macroeconomic effects are a key subset of the array of factors that should be regarded as a living standards structure, which would consider a broad range of economic impacts, along with environmental and social effects. Empirical evidence implies that the net impacts of New Zealand’s present immigration policy are small. Nonetheless, it is probable that much larger impacts could surface in the future due to the interaction of enhanced scale, diversity, and agglomeration. On the other hand, it is probable, although it is hard to determine empirically, that the immigration policy of New Zealand has already had large negative impacts on the country’s macroeconomic performance, and that these negative impacts could last in the long run. Overall, migration policy needs to take into account the full range of benefits and costs, offsets and interactions, and contain preconditions in other policy sectors that may need to be fulfilled of policy is to meet its goals.
The issue of illegal immigration is one of the greatest societal problems that the US continues to face. The country has committed significant resources into programs aimed at stopping the immigration. Even then, several challenges continue to make the programs ineffective. The challenges include the country’s porous boundary, especially in the south. Given that the country has a rather long international boundary; it is not easy to monitor its whole length always (Barkan, 2003). Many people continue to enter the country illegally and undetected. Another challenge is the poor economic prospects that human populations have in different nation-states globally. The prospects continue to motivate or push foreigners to migrate into the US, albeit unlawfully, to enhance their economic wellbeing. For instance, the recent worldwide economic meltdown saw quite high numbers of migrants move into the US illegally (Torre, 2009).
Besides the challenges defining unlawful immigration in the US, there are various ethical concerns characterizing it. One of the questions that many Americans share is whether or not migrating to a nation-state unlawfully is morally permissible. There is a common contention that it is morally allowable since for the typical immigrant, it is his or her only option for enhancing his or her economic or social wellbeing (Borjas, 1994). Another common contention is that it is morally allowable since those who do it only do so after failing to secure the US government’s permission to enter the country. Notably, those who come to the US unlawful usually have no reasonable chances of migrating lawfully. Those holding that it is morally impermissible usually assert that those who come to the country unlawful ultimately harm its interests, for instance via terrorist attacks (Torre, 2009).
One of the most contentious issues in the United States in the turn of the new millennium is the problem of the undocumented immigrants. Indeed, it has become an issue of national concern especially, in the last decade. It has on many occasions, sparked heated arguments about the impacts of the undocumented population on the economy of the country. According to Becerra, Androff, Ayon and Castillo (111) studies conducted around 2010 estimates that almost a third of the entire American population is made up of undocumented immigrants. The general perception is that such developments are not in the best interest of the nation. These debates rage on despite recent reports that indicate a substantial decrease in the influx rates in the last couple of years. On the contrary, the immigrant community plays a pivotal role in the U.S both socially and economically.
Ordinarily, most people who are against immigration argue that they – the immigrants – are a financial liability to the government of the United States (Becerra, Androff, Ayon and Castillo 111). The problem with this school of argument is that it does not provide reasonable support for its allegation. To the rational thinker, there may be an array of factors at play. For one, it could be out of sheer ignorance that one holds such opinions. Secondly, it could be due to most people’s unfounded hatred towards the immigrant community. Thirdly it could be the different response to the stiff competition for employment opportunities that the immigrants present in a unique fashion. According to the authors, such sentiments have led to the imposition of radical and exorbitant policies most of which come off as inhumane.
Additionally, this issue has featured importantly in the current presidential campaigns. Notably, the Republicans have been quite vocal about the dangers that the undocumented population poses to the economy of the U.S (Davis). Given its position as well as its economic aptitudes, the U.S is bound to attract relatively many immigrants. In my opinion, this is a blessing in disguise. The pros and cons of immigration to the U.S economy are incomparable. That is, I think the advantages would override the disadvantages. Outwardly, it seems to be an unfair deal; that the American government provides while the immigrants benefit. However, a closer look at the issue offers a different perspective. In reality, The U.S government stands to benefit a great deal from the additional labor provided by the immigrants.
The state of Arizona, for instance, is currently feeling the full effects of the loss of the immigrant labor (Davis). This happens now that the state has passed stringent anti-immigration legislations. Plantation owners lament the lack of laborers to help with field work. Consequently, they are compelled to respond to the crisis by developing million dollar machines to replace the lost human labor. The Arizona case is a perfect example of what would happen to the economy if the immigrants are made to leave. Personally, I believe the immigrants’ contribution to the economy is immense. Further pursuit of the anti-immigrant campaign would significantly diminish the current economic growth rates.
According to the Greater Austin Chamber of Commerce, the Hispanics are capable of transforming the American society’s outlook. It predicts that this feat may be achievable within the next four decades. This hypothesis hinges on the fact that the Hispanics population in America grows at an alarming rate. The Hispanic purchasing power was predicted to reach 1.5 million dollars by the year 2015 (Gallegos).The other ethnic groups may not be able to compete. This translates to an improve Latino market base. Naturally, the Latino are aggressive people. They practically fight for their space in the society and are currently a force to reckon within the American society. This fact has been brought to light by the controversial views the controversial views one presidential candidate has aired in the existing campaigns (Berger). Thus I can conclude that the Hispanic market does exist and that it has the purchasing power.
It is only a matter time before the Latino gets to assume their real position in the American society. Currently, the Hispanics are underrepresented politically. Studies show that about 25 million eligible Latino voters are not registered (Baumann). Considering their increasing purchasing power which is directly proportionate to their pulsating growth rate they might as well begin pushing for political recognition. Ideally, politics has more to do with financial muscle as well as power. Evidently, the immigrants have these requirements or at least will have them shortly. Surely the future looks promising for them. According to Olson, Hispanics make up only 4% of all appointments made for company board positions. This is not a real figure by all standards. The author blames these inconsequential numbers to the deficiency in operational or fiscal experience which is the same as purchasing power. Hence, I believe, the little number of Latinos in the board room is due to their little purchasing power.
It is evident that the immigrant factor could be just what the American economy needs to recover fully from the ravages of the recent recession. Attempts at reducing their ever growing numbers have further confirmed their importance. As their number increases so does other factors such as their purchasing power and political participation. The most logical solution for the government is to recognize their efforts and plan their proper integration into the American community so as to avoid conflict.
Immigration is the process of individuals moving from one place to the other. Immigration in this context means movement of individuals from their country of origin to a foreign country, United States of America (Cornelius, 2001). When examiningimmigration ethics, it is imperativethat the discussion is based on the acknowledgement of both the immigrants and the host country’s residents. Human conditions as well as the factors that promote immigration are complex and thus discussions relating to migration should address the welfares, agendas and apprehensions of all affected individuals in collective humanity.
Immigration brings about moral dilemmas that trigger tension between individuals as well as nations. The main immigration moral dilemma is Americans right to improved lives vs. the American government’s right to safeguard the American borders. This dilemma has two alternatives, opening the borders and allowing America to be a free country or intensifying efforts aimed at curbing illegal immigration.
According to utilitarian, the ethics of an action is dictated by the greatest good produced for the number of people. In this case, the action that would create the greatest good would be for the American government to open theUnited States borders and exploit the availability of cheap labor that comes with itin order to allow the economy to flourish (North, 2015). Distributive justice on the other hand concerns the equality of the decision-making processes, and may be discriminated with the fairness in which rights of resources are distributedas well as the fairness through which wrongs are punished. In the context of distributive justice, individuals should be allowed to freely move across the countries, furthermore, resources should be distributed equally among all individuals living in the United States regardless of their country of origin, immigrants or not (North, 2015).
Over the years, the United States has been known to welcome individuals from other regions of the world.Today, people can enter the United Statesthrough various means, air, water or land. Immigrants entering the country through air and water are mostly documented since those entry points are closely monitored.This has greatly contributed to reducing illegal immigrations. However, people who enter the United Statesvia land through the New Mexico, Texas, Arizona, and California borders are not easy to monitor, which has increased the number of illegal immigration (Cornelius, 2001). Present policies and prevalent attitudes have also increased the number of undocumented immigrations. Individuals immigrating into the United States through land go back to pre-colonial period but with time. Majority of such migrations tend to be undocumented and their ever-rising number is increasingly becoming an issue. This paper focuses on an ethical approach in examining the current United Statesimmigration state. Thisevaluation will use utilitarianism principles and justice ethical ideologies.
Utilitarian theory focuses on the amount of positive consequences created while justice principal focuses on the social system’sintegrity, which is dictated by the process of basic rights and responsibilitiesallocation (Epstein, 1979). These theories will be used to examine whether the current United States immigration policies, practices and believes create the greatest good for the majority of people and/or if they deliver justice to every member of the society, those who immigrate and those who do not.
Theoretical discussions of the ethics of the current immigration situation are still in its infancy. Philosophies that dictate the rights of potential immigrants to cross American borders, as well as the country’s rights to deny individuals the right of entry are yet to be fully developed and understood. Some people argue that the United States has the right to protect her boundaries from unwanted immigrants. Others argue that the individuals have the right to freely cross borders and thus the United States has no moral rightto close her borders to potential immigrants. Both these arguments are based on morality. One is based on absolute deontic right to deny entry while the other is based on absolute impermissibility of closing the United States borders. However, since they advocate for conflicting solutions, this brings about an ethical dilemma.
The immigration service was established in 1981 in the effort to control immigration. The immigration service formulates policies that govern immigration in the United States In 1920, the immigration policies that were in place mainly focused on regulating entry by restraining people from given nationalities, for example, the 1882 to 1952 Chinese exclusion act disallowed Chinese immigration (Cornelius, 2001). The policies waremodified in 1920 in order to enable them to regulate the increasing immigrantswho were straining the United States economy. The amended policiesassignedimmigration quotas that placed limits on the number of immigrants allowed from each country. This modified system regulated the number of immigrants entering and settling in the United States for over 40 years. In 1965, the immigration policies were yet again amended, lifting the country-centered quotas and replacing them with hemisphere- based quotas (North, 2015). The new system encouraged immigration but it also introduced concerns that some regions were favored over others (Epstein, 1979).
As years went by,United States immigration policies evolved and became more and more constricting. Immigration policies were originally designed to housethe needy individuals in the society for instance, people who escaped persecution in their countries of origin and individuals who were seeking a better life (North, 2015).Conversely, the current policies focus on preventing such people from immigrating into the United States Policies have transformed from protecting the less fortunate to preferring the privileged individuals in the society. The current policies make acquiring a residence or a working permit a lengthy and time consuming process. The requirements, cost, amount of time required and probability of the application being rejecteddiscourage potential immigrants from seeking those documents. These restrictions are mainly because the less fortunate are needy and thus tend to drain the country’s already depleted economy while the privileged have resources that can be exploited to improve the country’s economy.
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Organizational Impact on Immigration
- Legal and illegal immigration into the United States has been increasing over the years.
- The united States immigration system has not been quite restrictive since the year 1891
- Evidence can clearly be seen from how easily the terrorists committed the attacks on 9/11
- Interior security and enforcement could however be the change needed to curb the issue of immigration in America
Immigration impacts on human resource and budget
- The foreign born population in America has been on the rise in recent past. The foreign-born workers have been estimated to account for 11.5 percent of the entire workforce.
- It is estimated that the American tax payers have had to part with a cost of two hundred and thirty dollars every single year to cater for the immigrants.
Policy and politics impacts on immigration
- One of the policies that should be put in place is the restrict border laws
- Policies that will also ultimately affect the federal budget should also be put in place.
- The state should also come up with an immigration modernization act to control the population of the immigrants in the most civil way
- Government Accountability Office. Immigration Benefit Fraud, Focused Approach is Needed to Address Problems. GAO Report GAO-02-66. Washington, D.C.: GAO, 2002, http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d0266.pdf
- Nancy T. Kinney (2005). The Impact of Restrictive Immigration Policies on Political empowerment. Print
- Vernon M. Briggs (1999). Immigration Policy and Human Resource Development. Cornell University
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Immigration is referred to as people movement from their native country to another country with intention of settling in the foreign country either temporarily or permanently. People can migrate from their home country to another for a number of reasons that include seeking asylum, looking for jobs, and for business among other reason. They can thus get into another country as illegal or legal immigrants. In the regard, the migration ethics are complex. There are a number of perspectives regarding why people migrate, how they migrate, the effect migration has on sending, transit and receiving counties, and if nations should limit, discourage, or encourage migration (Parker, 2014). This paper focuses on leadership and ethics in immigration related issues.
Two Immigration Management Ethical Concerns
Ethical issues in immigration arise mostly while dealing with asylum seekers. America has rules regarding immigration and only legal immigration is encouraged. However, it may be hard for asylum seekers to have all the required documents and qualification to obtain the legal migration documents. Basically, such individuals can only be accepted in the country out of humanity. It would basically be regarded as unethical to refuse such immigrants on the basis of legality since they are forced out of their countries by circumstances. Ethical aspects of immigration are also focused on the aspect of equal employments right of the immigrants and the American country. Basically, the country provides asylum seekers with basic needs which include basic education; however, they do not have right to employment as the country citizens. The ethical issues surrounding immigration management is why they should be given the right to study in America but be denied the right to work in the country to improve their life. This is unethical. Moreover, immigrants are basically denied equal employment rights as compared to American citizens with equal qualification. They are normally paid less or offered lower position just because they are not American citizens and they are not protected by the law. This is quite unethical since, it appears like the country has two different labor laws, one for its citizens and the other for immigrants especially in matter regarding their payment (Parker, 2014).
Organization Structure Impact on Organization Ethics
Organization policy and culture plays a major role in determining the ethical stand of the organization. The rules that govern an organization highly determine the kind of behavior to be adopted by the workers in an organization. In addition, the form of leadership can highly influence the level of ethics in an organization. The agency such as the immigration agency which has hierarchical organization structure has most of its operations completed in departments without involving the high management in case there is no any complication. However, the management has the power to command the department to operate as they demand. In this regard, corruption at the top management can result to bypassing of laws to have their ways. Corruption can also take place at the department level since most decisions are made there. Either way, some immigrants who are not worthy and who might be a threat to the country may have their way despite of not being fully qualified due to high level of corruption (Aguila, 2011).
Some of challenges one can experience in such organizations (immigration public offices) is working ethically without being influenced by seniors to be involved in illegal acts. Normally, senior person of the organization have an influence on junior’s work and juniors are bound to subordinate. Thus, not obeying may demonstrate an aspect of insubordination and this subordination may push one to be involved in unethical practices. Sometimes it is hard to report such incidents since the seniors mostly do not leave any trail. Other challenges include effective communication, in and out of an organization especially when one is dealing with individuals from different cultural ground and thus different English language proficiency.
Self-Evaluation on Managerial Skills Level
Manager competencies based on the OPM study includes being sensitive to national concerns and agency policies, and organization representation and acting as a link to those that not part of the organization. Others include determining the goals of an organization and the procedures to accomplish them, allocating and obtaining essential resources to attain the purposes of an agency, using human resources effectively, and redirecting, evaluating, and monitoring the organization work. To accomplish this, a manager must have a number of skills which include technical competence, interpersonal sensitivity, and communication skills (Denhardt et al., 2013).
Based on personal evaluation, I have completely attained two of the three skills that I need to be a competent manager. These are the communication skills and technical competence. I have a good command in English language and I can comfortably use simple and complex English language perfectly. The good English command can be demonstrated in written and spoken language. I can comfortably use written English and employ all required writing rules which include structuring my language based on the targeted audience. I can also give good public speeches or briefing based on the occasion. I can also say that I have the technical competency since I have pursued the relevant course to acquire the required knowledge to work as a manager in any firm. Thus I have the skills and the knowledge required, though the level of experience is slightly low. Although I have enough knowledge on public relation, I know I do have low ability to control my emotions, especially irritation and anger in annoying situations. Thus, I do not consider myself to have good interpersonal sensitivity ability. To improve the interpersonal sensitivity skill and technical competency, I will consider getting an attachment in different organizations as manager assistance so as able to be exposed in corporate world. This will allow me to understand possible challenges and to apply knowledge into the real world. I will also consider being a leader in different team work including in social groups so as I may learn personal skills especially emotional control (Ciulla, 2003).
To overcome the previously stated challenges, the organization should develop a whistleblower to enable reporting of unethical incidents pushed to subordinates by their seniors when they are already taking place. This will assist in the elimination of unethical activities in an organization. This will help in improving the technical competency in the organization. Communication issue can be enhanced by encouraging the workers to study more languages to ensure that beside English, they can understand and communicate with other foreigners, especially asylum seekers, who do not have much time to work on the English language before traveling to America. This will improve both the communication skills and the interpersonal competency. The two main obstacles include the need for the management involvement in the development of whistleblower and the lack of enough time and passion to study other languages especially due to the fact that they are so many to be exhausted. To overcome such obstacles, the organization should consider acquiring open communication and ethical values as one of the organization policy. With this, it is easier to introducing a reporting mechanism for unethical matters. To enhance communication, the organization can consider hiring linguistics or individuals with extensive language and cultural knowledge in help desks positions of all their offices were immigrants have to directly interact with an officer to ensure effective communication. Translating software should also be adopted for written work (Ciulla, 2003).
Aguila, J. R. (2011). The role of ethics within the contemporary immigration debate. Teaching Ethics, 63-79.
Ciulla, J. B. (2003). Ethics and leadership effectiveness. Chapter 13. Retrieved from < http://www.ila-net.org/members/directory/downloads/antonakis-ciulla-13.pdf>
Denhardt, R., Denhardt, J., & Blanc, T. (2013). Public administration: An action oriented. Cengage Learning.
Parker, L. M. (2014). The ethics of migration and immigration: Key questions for policy makers. Retrieved from < http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/focusareas/global_ethics/migration.html>
This paper explores immigration patterns, and dwells intensively on global migration and US immigration. According to the assertions of Roza (2011), there has been a sporadic shift in in the remittances and global migration in the past few years despite the increase in the immigrant numbers as well the amounts of money they send back to their homes. It is worth noting that, throughout the entire history of global migration, the United State has had an immigration heritage that is worth celebrating. The only worry regarding this issue of immigration has been the uncertainty that the immigrants may initiate in terms of cultural, political and economic quarters (Roza, 2011).
Following increased globalization in the present era, it is inevitable that there would be increased global migration. One of the main factors contributing to increased global migration include, among others, foreign policy and economic decisions of the US such as the declaration of war on Iraq, which lead to the increase of immigration and migration (Alicea, 2004). Another factor leading to increased immigration into the US is the Free Trade Agreements (FTA). An appropriate example is the Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) and the North American Free Agreement (NAFTA) has affected nations like Mexico leading to increased numbers of political and economic refugees (Roza, 2011).
The United States is inclusive to immigrants. This is due to the existence of The National Immigration Law Center to defend, uphold and advance the rights and freedoms of immigrants together with their families (Alicea, 2004). Immigrants do have opportunities to access community policing, workers’ rights, driver’s licenses and higher education.
For the US, the positive aspects of immigration are that it provides cheap sources of labor, which in turn enables the immigrants to acquire improved standards of living (Roza, 2011). This, in turn, leads to the growth of the US economy. The negative aspects of immigration, is that there are usually inadequate job vacancies for American citizens; therefore, increased immigration fuels competition for the few available jobs (Roza, 2011).
In conclusion, one of the main factors contributing to increased global migration include, among others, foreign policy and economic decisions of the US. The United States is inclusive to immigrants. The positive aspect of immigration is that it provides cheap sources of labor for the US economy. The negative aspect of immigration is that it leads to increased competition for the few available job vacancies.
Alicea, M. (2004). Migration and immigration: a global view (a world view of social issues). New York. Greenwood.
Roza, G. (2011). Immigration and migration (The story of America). New York: Gareth Stevens Publishing.
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