Tag: Law Enforcement

Comparing Juvenile Diversion, Intervention, or Prevention Programs – Assignment Instructions

Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper comparing two juvenile diversion, intervention, or prevention programs operating in your city or state. Include the following in your paper:

  • How do these programs work to reduce juvenile crime?
  • What are the programs’ major goals, objectives, and core tenets?
  • How do community-based programs address issues related to juvenile gang violence?
  • What is the role of law enforcement in these programs?
  • Who are the key participants in these programs?
  • What services do they provide to juveniles?
  • Which of the two programs is more effective at reducing juvenile crime? Why?

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.

Problems Faced By The Law Enforcement Officers In Protecting The US Borders

Border security in the US is faced by a lot of challenges due to persistent threats of terrorism. Security at the border involves securing the port, the airport and the land borders. The border security has to be re-evaluated so as to address the ever unending threats.

There are several Problems Faced By The Law Enforcement Officers In Protecting The Borders. These include;

Protecting the areas where most people and goods pass is very challenging. These border lines cover miles of land thus posing a threat of illegal smuggling of goods and also offer easy entry to terrorists. The port is also facing the problem of container security. Drugs and illegal aliens are smuggled through the port borders. Over 42 million containers that enter the US every year pose this threat.(Tancredo, T. G. 2006).

The law enforcement section has put in place several measures to ensure that their borders are protected. These include involvement of several agencies such as the US Border Patrol and the National Guard among others. 700 miles of the border has also been fenced and 20,700border patrol agencies deployed. Several technologies are also being used such as the unattended ground sensors, Fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft among others to beef up the security. All cargos entering the port have also been subjected to screening so as to know the content of products entering the country through the port. Security at the airport has also been beefed up in that the Automated Targeting System has been installed to collect all information about the travelers including identity information, passport data and credit card numbers. These measures have helped a great deal in reducing the persistent cases of terrorism and smuggling of drugs. (Ackleson, J. 2005)

There are several measures that would help reduce the major problems at the borders if put in place. These include;

Inclusion of the community in border security programs can be very beneficial. Those communities near the fence must be included not only through provision of vehicles but also through funding.

The border agencies should also take serious measures on the people found guilty of entering the country illegally or those found to have smuggled goods or drugs into the country. (Bush, G.W. 2002)

Training capacities should be expanded to ensure border agents safety and increase their efficiency.

Mexico should also strengthen its relationship with Mexico, especially on the matter of free trade. This will help reduce the cases of illegal migration and thus the border security will be strengthened. (Bush, G.W. 2002)

Community Policing Concept – Introduction to Law Enforcement Paper

The concept of community policing has been defined differently with most scholars assuming a categorical style of definition in order to avoid the risk of generalization. According to the United States Department of Justice, community policing is law enforcement strategy where police officers largely engage the community in crime prevention and in maintenance of social order. Although the concept of community policing is defined in various ways, majority of scholars agree that it involves three philosophies. First, it is widely accepted that successful community policing is achieved through creation and reliance on effective community partnerships and other private-sector resources. Second, community policing requires careful application of problem-solving tactics. Third, effective implementation of community policing requires transformation of police organization and culture (Somervile, 2009).

According to Somervile (2009), for successful community policing to occur, citizens must be empowered to prevent problems that are believed to be the causes of crime. Therefore, law enforcement must maintain a mutual trust with members of a given community in order to obtain valuable information that can lead to crime prevention. In addition, through community partnerships, law enforcement can easily identify possible terrorist threats in the community before a terror attack is executed. Effective community policing entails timely identification of threats and vulnerabilities and proper sharing of information in case of attack (Yero et al., 2012).

The best way to minimize and avoid impacts of crimes identified in the community is through problem solving. During problem solving, law enforcement agencies assume that individuals should make decisions based on opportunities presented to them. Prior to identifying the most appropriate remedies for problems identified in the community, police officers must first manipulate the physical and social factors in the environment in order to eliminate things that influence people to engage in offensive behavior. Law enforcement organizations must be ready to transform their values, procedures and processed in order to carry out effective community policing. Specifically, law enforcement agencies must integrate procedures and policies of community policing into their systems. In addition, these agencies must incorporate community policing philosophy into their training programs, hiring practices, promotional strategies, and performance evaluation practices (Somervile, 2009).

Community policing is highly relevant in the modern society where criminals and now using advanced approaches to carry out offensive activities. There is therefore great need for nations to do their best to support community policing. The United States, for instance, has put in place huge a mounts of financial resources to support community policing. With the past two year, the national government put aside close to 18 billion dollars for the implementation of community policing. Part of this money is used to educate police officers on how community policing should be conducted (Yero et al., 2012). As Yero et al. (2012) points out, police officers must be taught on how to deal with terrorism threats considering the fact that the modern community is facing increasing cases of terrorism threats. Additionally, new community members should be trained on new strategies for securing their neighborhoods as an initial step towards effective community policing.

Ethical Dilemmas In Community-Oriented Policing – Assignment Instructions

With the advent of community policing, certain concerns have been expressed as to potential ethical dilemmas that community-oriented police officers may experience as a result of their having greater discretion and more public interaction than other officers within the department. Once you have finished revising, respond to the following in 1,000–1,250 additional words, and include your responses in your final Key Assignment Draft:

  • Describe some of the unique ethical problems that community police officers can pose.
  • Discuss how a change in police management styles can influence the police – community relationship.
  • What types of roles do contemporary police officers find themselves in given the shift toward community policing?
  • What services can be offered to citizens that will help improve crime prevention in a community? Explain.
    • What best practices can you foresee as being used to implement these additional community services? Explain.
    • Select 1 service, such as community watch, and explain how you would be able to improve it to prevent crime within a community.

Be specific in your recommendation, and support your arguments with academic and scholarly resources.

Evolution of Law Enforcement And Criminal Justice

Introduction to Law Enforcement

The field of law enforcement has twigs that keep an eye on a variety of jurisdictions, every with a similar rationale: to defend citizens and put into effect the laws approved by legislators at the government levels of federal, state, and local (Cole & Smith, 2004). Diverse categories of law enforcement mediators may take an attention in your activities, depending on wherever a person is at, and what a person is doing.

Local level is the mainly widespread and noticeable law enforcement, and its officials are the municipal police officers in place of villages, cities, and rural communities. The major dissimilarity flanked by these officers and those at the federal or state level is they are the preliminary enforcement frontage for every criminal law (Cole & Smith, 2004). With chiefs who get typically selected by the mayor, although on occasion designated for office, these officers’ labors get strengthened by a variety of hold up staffers, beginning from police officers to correspondents to jailers, who defend citizens and implement laws approved at the entire levels of government. Their actions are normally incomplete to the authority they get allocated to, as disagreed to officers at the federal and state level.

Nevertheless, frequently found in and designated by county electorates in nearly all American states, sheriffs and their second-in-command are habitually accountable for watching a part of the state and federal itineraries, on top of its unenclosed towns (Cole & Smith, 2004). These officers, like local police, frequently get themselves putting into effect state, local, or federal laws on the facade lines. Numerous states encompass state law enforcement officers, also, who normally get found along highways putting into effect state travel or civil laws. Officers in state prisons get well thought-out as putting into effect state laws in the imprisons of a state establishment.

The federal government makes use of a range of categories of law enforcement mediators, every putting into effect laws and rules recognized at the uppermost rank of the government. These comprise exceptional representatives and subordinate staff for agencies counting the Federal Bureau of Investigation (Cole & Smith, 2004). The federal officers don’t put into effect state or local laws, except would be pertinent to advise the right local or state powers once expect doings gets speckled. Federal prosecutors frequently organize the labors of agents from a number of agencies promptly to put up cases and put on trial in federal crimes.

At diverse levels of law enforcement, officers interrelate and share data and witness in a variety of cases. All levels of law get put into effect by officials at local, however the court of law that puts on trial and chastises suspected violators depends on the kind of regulation or rule that gets violated. Moreover, it is at  the local level a lot of local laws that get violated at the transgression level get handled at. A county circuit law court will put on trial even more solemn crimes, by means of state statutes. The federal crimes get handled at the federal court districts where in every district a prosecutor gets based there.

Ways Law Enforcement Might Use Technology To Track And Apprehend Cyber-Stalkers

Cyberstalking in general regards repeated and persistent trial by one individual, who is the stalker, to harass the other person, who is the victim. The action occurs using the Internet or any given open network. Cyber stalking gets mostly experienced on networked Personal Computers (PCs), but it can also extend to portable devices such as laptops, PDAs (Personal Data Assistants), mobile phones and devices that get connected to the internet(EBSCO, 1999).

Law enforcement agents require the modern knowledge and technologies to be able to cope with the current challenges of cyber stalking. The agents use higher techniques to be able to come up with the way of identifying the stalkers who are harassing and threatening other people on the internet.

The agents in chargeadvise the clients on how to go about it in thecase of any harassment or if one notices that someone is stalking them. If someone is cyber stalking a victim, then it will be more imperative for the victim to save all the evidence. Keeping the evidence means printing out the emails, saving screenshots and also not deleting any messages of the same.Keeping the evidence would ensure that it is easier to file a case against the stalker. If the person stalking uses their names or any other name openly, it is also important to save the name so as to make identifications easier. Again, victims should not use their email as stalkers may try to hack and tamper with their account(Ogilvie & Australian Institute of Criminology, 2000).

Everybody’s name can get found on the internet and therefore if someoneGoogles another persons name, it is possible to find all he pictures of a person that get used on the websites. Some of the imagesmayget used with ones consent while others without onesconsent. If one finds that some imagesget used without their consent, one is expected to contact the administrator. The message to the administrator addresses or rather requests the removal of the photo from the website.

By use of tracking services,the law enforcement agents are in a position to track the cyber stalker.The cyber stalker uses sites such as Google, email and other to stalk people and, therefore,making it easier. Use of the various websites involves the use of an IP address of the computer. The use of IP address enables one to view the location from where one is surfing.Therefore, it is easy to trace the stalkers.

Cyber-stalking displaysdiverse and unusual challenges in the attempt to enforcethe law.The challenges include the following;first, and foremost, the behavior patterns related with cyber-stalking are complex, changing, unpredictable, and difficult to identify, investigate,to reach and prevent. Some studies show that there is no standard stalker and a victim.The profiles will fully typify the parties involved(McQuade et al., 2012).

Secondly, the state of the internet of not providing any information on the internet supports the perpetrator, and it makes it even harder to identify the stalker. The same network is the only way the stalker can get identified. But if the same system does not provide a way of identifying them, it then becomes difficult for the law enforcement.

Thirdly, there is always need to preserve the privacy of the internet users. The internet providers do not allow for direct wire-tapping of channels of theinternet and do not uphold the needfor quality evidence under circumstances. The privacy with which the internet operates makes it very cumbersome to trace the cyber stalkers(McQuade et al., 2012).

Cyber stalking charges or penalties refer to the charges for the act using the internet in a non-orderly manner to stalk the victim. Cyberstalking alsostatutes in most cases classify cyber stalking to be misdemeanor offense . However; cyber stalking offences can get raised to a level of afelony. For example in Florida, a person who communicates a threat of bodily injury or communicates the threat to anyone under the age of 16, faces a third-degree felony and can even be incarcerated for ten years.

In some of the states, if the stalker combines the threat of some physical harm, it makes the range of the punishment to be even higher. The penalties identified above are enough to punish stalkers because; first, cyber-stalkers think that they are doing a minor thing, and they cannot get traced. Additionally, the cyberstalkers do so, within a very short period, and it then costs them extended periods evenup to their lifetime.


Honolulu Hawaii Law Enforcement Agency – G4S

Honolulu serves as the capital city of the state of Hawaii. Various law enforcement agencies are involved in the maintenance of law and order in the state of Hawaii. Like many other law enforcement agencies, there are various conditions that applicants need to meet before joining these agencies. This paper will examine the minimum requirement for individuals who desire to join the G4S, a leading private security organization in the world (Chagnon, Chesney-Lind & Johnson, 2016).The main duties of G4S law enforcement officers include gates monitoring, patrols, securing restricted areas, crowd control, and many other administrative activities (Miller, 2017). The G4S serves as a security provider to the United States government, private firms, commercial facilities, airports, hospitals, nuclear power plants and maning residential areas.

The G4S security agency offers competitive benefits, job security and better payment of the security personnel. This attracts many people who are willing to join the agency. To manage huge applications, the management of the agency has a well-devised mechanism of recruiting new officers at the entry level (Chagnon, Chesney-Lind & Johnson, 2016). The requirements are based on the duties and responsibilities of the officers. The entry requirement for the position of a law enforcement officer requires applicants to have the following.

  • Education: All the candidates at the entry level are required to have at least a high school diploma or any other college qualification that is equivalent. Having a diploma or equivalent ensures that the law enforcement officers have the formal education that will help them make informed decisions when executing their duties.
  • Driving license. It is mandatory for all applicants to possess current and approved driving licenses. The law enforcement officers encounter many cases that require them to be prepared in all spheres (Miller, 2017). The driving experience will also help the officers to respond to emergency situations with ease.
  • State-Required conditions: Successful applicants must pass the set state-training qualifications. The state-required training helps the agency to ensure that all applicants are vetted well and pass the qualifications for licensing.
  • First Aid Training: It is mandatory for all law enforcement officers to be trained on how to offers First Aid Services when their colleagues or members of the public are encountered with extreme situations or accidents. After completion of the training, the officers are being offered the Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) certification.
  • Basic military training: Successful applicants undergo a basic paramilitary training to ensure prepare them to respond to extreme cases. Protecting members of the public is the sole duty of all security officers. It is, therefore, important for them to train on how to protect themselves first. All applicants at the entry level undergo 6 weeks of paramilitary training (Chagnon, Chesney-Lind & Johnson, 2016).
  • Radio, Console Monitors, Telephone operations: Communication is critical in the coordination of operations within the law enforcement agencies. All the law enforcement officers are trained how to operate radio calls and other medium of communication.
  • Police Recruit Training: All successful applicants are subjected to a 12 weeks training of classroom instruction. The applicants are also supposed to undergo 6 weeks of in-service training. The training gives the law enforcement officers ability to cordially communicate with the public (Miller, 2017).

In conclusion, all law enforcement officers need to be professional and work within the state laws. It is, therefore, important for the state of Hawaii to set requirements that the applicants need to fulfill before they are enrolled as law enforcement officers.

Organizational Behavior in Law Enforcement – Case Study : Officer Robert Barton

The term group dynamics can be used in the definition of an interaction that takes place between who partake of a conversation between themselves within their group settings. A group dynamic does takes place any time there are more than two people who come together or make interactions with one another. The same thing does take place in the scenario that is given in the excerpt where Barton had to change his beliefs and behavior patterns to fit that of a police officer. At first, Barton had to move from a set-up where he had been brought up in his entire life where they lived in a small town with no much exposure to certain issues. He was then later assigned to work in a big metropolitan city where there were a lot of people with diverse backgrounds. His initial lifestyle was known to be quite different from the one had to live in the city. He had no otherwise but to conform to the type of lifestyle.

In most cases, group dynamics can be acquired or learned through making observations of what the other party does and them most probably repeat what one sees. For instance, one will always learn the groups’ dynamics through observing certain behavioral patterns and changes that occur in a group. When Barton left his home town to join the police force, he had to be taken through a training process together with his new teammates. Within the training facilities, there obviously were instructors like senior sergeants who took lead of the training process. Barton, together with his team mates had the obligation of following the instructions of the instructors. The instructions were most probably given through practical demonstrations and the rest had to follow on the practical shown to them.

Apart from that, the recruits were obviously divided into many groups where they were expected to have various types of conversations between themselves. For instance, the teams could have been given a task of coming up with a strategic plan of decreasing the level of crime within the city. In such a case, the teammates deliberate within themselves on the set procedures they can use in such a scenario. The conversation takes place between the members where they get a leader who steers the entire process. Moreover, in a group dynamic, there would always be that single person who seems non-interested in the activities of the group throughout such processes. In this case the person who might have seemed not bothered with the groups activities was Barton.

When he first got posted to a new team after training he found a sub culture of his new team that demanded all the officers to adopt the spirit de corps and solidarity. The officers primarily identified themselves as members of the thin blue line. Barton even though was a member of this group seemed to have been quite un-interested in such spirits and the solidarity thing. The primary objective of Officer Barton was just to become a good cop who performs his duties without caring so much about the solidarity issue of the other police officers. Moreover, he felt that his duty should just lie within preservation of peace and protecting the society around from criminal activities of the gangs. His dreams were however cut short since he found it impossible to operate with such type of mentality. The social status that he wanted to attain within the group, coupled with the reality on the streets forced him to adopt the norms of the teams he worked with to secure the streets.

In a group setting there is always that single person who will always strive to make sure that everyone feels welcome and comfortable within the group. At times such people assume such roles without even having a second thought about it when they are in a group setting. The same case applies for the case of Barton who wanted to ensure that all members of the society were treated equally irrespective of their social status in the society. For instance, he seemed unhappy with the sting operations that were conducted by his investigative team. The team could take a random patrol in the street and capture anyone that had no relation to gang activities. Additionally, the team was fond of conducting a number of illegal searches that were against the law, all in a bid to reduce the crime rates in the streets. On a number of occasions, they would also arrest the gang members, book them but later set them free without pressing charges. Barton seemed to have been quite unhappy with such moves since he wanted to maintain his principles despite what was expected from him as an officer.  Barton constantly struggled with his desire to be identified as the stand-up guy while at the same time his team needed him to conform to the norms of the team. Obviously he had to find a balance between the two and he eventually had to give in to the demands and the norms of the police force team.

A group that works together with the partnership of the members can remain strong and determined for a long period up to a period such cohesiveness becomes pathological. The cohesiveness of the team becomes weakened at the point where team members begin to create a rebellion. For instance, if a group is subjected to conducting certain operations that are contradictory to the law, some members will begin to feel disgruntled. Once it reaches such a point then the team members will begin to rebel against such activities of the team. It is normally said that a wrong does not become a right because many people are doing it. On the other hand, a right does not become a wrong simply because few people are conforming to it. It is therefore important that all the team members conform to the norms of the group without any form of deviations from the norms.

Police subcultures are always in existence in every police department, it is therefore quite impossible for new entrants to escape the cultures. It is normally expected that any new member who joins that team should be ready to conform to the subcultures so as to live to the objectives of such teams. For example, there are scenarios where police officers can find strong evidence against their relatives or friends who are engaged in criminal activities. In such cases, the officers may want to hide the criminal but the law does not allow that to happen.

In order to ensure that no one goes against the norms and values or subcultures of the police cultures, I would make such moves to be punishable by the department. Any officer who goes against the subcultures will therefore be bound to face punishment that can even amount to suspension from the service.