Tag: Manager

Issues Facing The Information Technology Manager In Constantly Expanding And Changing Information Technology Environment

The world has experienced an extensive growth of Information Technology as different organizations, institutions, and companies continuously adapt the new technology. This extensive use of information technology has come with different challenges that IT managers must handle to enhance effective use of IT technologies in their respective organizations. The level of challenges grows in an environment when IT is constantly expanding and changing. The IT managers in this environment play a significant role in managing risks associated to expanding and changing IT environment. Some of these risks include privacy, security, accuracy, control and ownership. This paper focuses on discussing issues facing IT managers in an environment where information technology is constantly expanding and changing.

Issues Facing IT Managers in a Constantly Changing and Expanding Environment

The growth and expansion of IT technology use has come with a number of problems. One of the main issues facing IT managers in a growing and changing IT environment is security. Information system security practices entail the application of both non-technical and technical measures to safeguard assets of an organization from different threats. Information systems are often exposed to different kinds of threats that can result to different forms of damages which may result to significant financial losses. System bleach can result to loss of data confidentiality, integrity and availability. This can highly influence the general business operations of the affected organizations. Lack of availability makes it hard for the organization to operate for the entire period when the system is unavailable. Compromising data confidentiality can results to unhealthy competition in the market, make it easy for the company to lose customers to the competitor with unauthorized access to company’s data. Integrity compromise can result to huge errors in different parts of operation, which interferes with accuracy and to some extent, it may impact the trust that customers have in an organization (Jouini, Rabai & Aissa, 2014).

Expansion of IT system comes hand in hand with great need to improve the security system to eliminate the system vulnerabilities which hackers can use to compromise the system. It is also important to note that hackers tend to advance their system security bleach knowledge and techniques as the IT system technology advances. This leaves IT managers with a great challenge of ensuring system security, especially in anexpanding or changing environment where network system need to be expanded. IT manager should thus test the system to ensure it has no security loopholes. Regular security system auditing will also be needed to be able to uncover any vulnerability that could be exploited. Development of a recovery system by creating backup system will also be necessary to protect the company’s data among other measures (Alnawaiseh, 2014).

Privacy is another major challenge facing IT managers in a changing and expanding IT environment. Most organizations are currently taking vital and private information on their customers storing them in their information systems for recording and enhancing proper care and services to their customers. This is especially seen in healthcare organizations, banks, and government organizations among other institutions. These organizations normally pledge ensuring total privacy for the customers data to ensure no unauthorized individuals or unconsented third party access these data (Kotz et al., 2016). The IT managers are thus required to enhance both internal and external security of the system to protect data privacy. Internal security is required to limit the database access rights to ensure that only authorized persons can access the database. Other measures may include data encryption to ensure any successful security bleach does not guarantee data manipulation or reading. Educating users on personal security measures such as password strength and secrecy need to logout individual account when not at workstation among other measures. This is not quite easy especially since the IT manager requires the collaboration of other workers to ensure total internal security of the system, and it may be quite challenging in a growing organization while new workers are introduced often and hence, constant training of the workers on internal IT system security will be needed (Ziegeldorf, Morchon& Wehrle, 2015).

Another major challenge facing IT managers is accuracy. Accuracy is normally determined by the efficiency of the system and also by the user’s proficiency in using the system. System error can be as a result of technical issues which can occur during system development, implementation or configuration. IT managers thus need to keep have updated information on the new systems that may be required in their organization, and technical skills in installation, configuration and testing of the system (Manson, 1986). They should also ensure that the organization workers are well trained to be able to effectively work with any new system. New workers should also be trained on the same. Ensuring accuracy can be quite challenging in a changing environment especially due to the need of involving all workers in the changing process. Change introduces new training demands and need for new skills to be able to handle the new system. Regular training will be required to ensure that the users are comfortable with any changes that are introduced in the organization.


IT managers have a great role of ensuring accuracy, security and privacy among other things in a growing or changing environment. This is not an easy task, especially in this era where cybercrimes are on the rise. Competitors and malicious hackers are always on the lookout to identify any security loophole that may make them to access information that can be of benefit to them, or that they can use against the system. IT managers are thus required to put extra effort in promoting system security and system operation efficiency, while ensuring system privacy, accuracy, integrity, confidentiality and availability.

BUS 6420 – Need for Sustainability Manager – Assignment And Sample Answer

Assignment Instructions – Need for Sustainability Manager

A Sustainability Manager provides a specific focus on the environmental and social concerns of the company. In this assignment you will explore the importance of this position and the incorporated responsibilities.

Review what happens next at Top Shelf from the Top Shelf Scenario :

Top Shelf has a fairly typical ratio of managers to employees. However, your team knows that having a dedicated staff to focus on sustainability has worked well at other companies. Research sustainable management. Identify and research companies that have a sustainability manager (SM) or a similar position. Select three companies for use in this assignment. At least one of the three selected companies should also be in the retail industry.

Prepare a report making a case for Top Shelf to hire an SM. Cover the following in your report:

  • Explain the role and importance of an SM within a company.
  • Analyze the approach of your selected three companies toward sustainable management.
  • Provide rationale for Top Shelf to have a management focus on sustainability.
  • Explain the specific responsibilities the SM will take up at Top Shelf and the benefits and costs associated with the hire.

Sample Answer –  Report on the Vitality of Hiring a Sustainability Manager (SM) at Top Shelf

Role and Importance of a Sustainability Manager within a Company  

We currently live in an era where the society is acutely aware of all activities carried out by humanity and how some of them may eventually affect the environment. It is for this very reason that prominent conglomerates the world over increasingly hire sustainability managers (SM) to fill their ranks. These individuals are integral in these modern organizations since they play a pivotal role in ensuring that the firms commit to an agenda that espouses posterity. Resources are scarce commodities, which is why sustainability managers (SMs) are at the forefront of ensuring that they are not depleted and, in the process, securing them for future generations (Andreas, 2011, p. 67). Moreover, companies that hire these professionals have an edge over their business rivals since they are now able to evaluate the economic viability of their undertakings. It is through this multifaceted role that all environmental standards are upheld, allowing the company to produce its consumer good without threatening a green future. Sustainable managers (SMs) are assets companies since they play an active role in formulating strategies that will ultimately reduce any possible ecological damage. They also play a crucial role in liaising with local authorities, agencies and other bodies related to the national government in an effort to promote ecological sustainability. General Electric Multinational Conglomerate Company, Siemens, and the retailer H&M have taken a keen interest in this approach and have made concerted efforts to hire sustainable managers (SM) as part of their management team.

An Evaluation of the Approaches Employed General Electric Co, Siemens, and H&M Toward Sustainable Management

Sustainable management has been adopted wholly by leading brands across the world that seeking to leave a lasting legacy with regard to a green future. General Electric, Siemens, and H&M have committed to this particular cause and have, for a while now, been leading voices in sustainable management. Siemens was one of the first business entities to embrace this move, particularly because it dabbled in the production of imaging machines and, in some cases, even power plants. The nature of the business that it engaged in meant that the companies had to first figure out a way of becoming more energy-efficient and in turn score high in Corporate Knight’s metric ranking. A typical approach adopted in this particular case involved the creation of infrastructure that was, in essence, environmentally friendly thus living up to their ideals. Additionally, the company also makes use of products such as air conditioning structures and green heating. Through joint initiatives, Siemens has been successful in bringing the society, like-minded politicians, and international organizations together to acknowledge the need for partnership at various levels for a better future.  On the other hand, General Electric takes its sustainability efforts a notch higher by aligning its business strategy in a way that it eventually ends up minimizing its environmental impact. These efforts are carried out while meeting societal needs and advancing the development of communities. Healthy-imagination and eco-imagination are examples of efforts that the firm has adopted, making sure that they are in line with the Environment, Health, and Safety (EHS) requirements. H&M adopts a more proactive approach when dealing with matters of sustainability. Their circular strategy aims to produce high-end pieces that also promote sustainability through the use of the organic material. It is noteworthy to acknowledge that these strategies were formulated by seasoned sustainability managers.

The rationale for Top Shelf Having a Management Team focused on Sustainability

From the aforementioned cases, it is fundamental for any well-meaning firm to make a concerted effort towards sustainability owing to the benefits that would accrue from a conscientious integration of this approach. A management team at Top Shelf that is focused on sustainability will provide the company with a competitive advantage that would go a long way in improving its image. Such employees, therefore, take a personal interest in ensuring that they raise the public’s awareness while introducing them to their sustainable habits. Productivity in the firm will also increase while the cost of production would reduce considerably (Hitchcock & Willard, 2015). This is because all employees will now pay close attention to efficient operation, all geared towards conserving the resources that are at their disposal. They are therefore better placed to comply with all relevant regulations in addition to attracting potential investors.

Responsibilities of a Sustainable Manager (SM) coupled with Costs and Benefits Associated with the Hire

A sustainable manager (SM) is at the forefront of ensuring that the company in question is steadily working towards staying green. This is done by developing action plans and policies that are to be adopted as the de facto modus operandi in all operational capacities. A sustainable manager (SM) is also responsible for disseminating information on the strategies that have been developed and an appropriate budget to fund such activities. Another key responsibility is ensuring that they keep track of the firm’s sustainability performance. Keeping track of these KPIs makes certain that the metrics are provided using a context-based system that reveals the sustainability efforts. The average annual salary for professionals filling this position hovers around $40,000 and $50,000 annually. With such an individual, the company is now assured of a firm environmental standing with an expert capable of analyzing and managing all sustainable plans.

B6021 Managerial Accounting – All Modules Assignments With Sample Answers

B6021 Module 3 Assignment 2 LASA 1 Cost and Decision-Making Analysis

Cheryl Montoya picked up the phone and called her boss, Wes Chan, Vice President of Marketing at Piedmont Fasteners Corporation.

Cheryl: “Wes, I’m not sure how to go about answering the questions that came up at the meeting with the President yesterday.”

Wes: “What’s the problem?”.

Cheryl: “The president wanted to know the break-even point for each of the company’s products, but I am having trouble figuring them out.”

Wes: “I’m sure you can handle it, Cheryl. And, by the way, I need your analysis on my desk tomorrow morning at 8:00 sharp in time for the follow-up meeting at 9:00.”

Piedmont Fasteners Corporation makes three different clothing fasteners at its manufacturing facility in North Carolina. Data concerning these products appear below:

Velcro Metal Nylon
Normal annual sales volume 100,000 units 200,000 units 400,000 units
Unit selling price $1.65 $1.50 $0.85
Variable cost per unit $1.25 $0.70 $0.25

Total fixed expenses are $400,000 per year.

All three products are sold in highly competitive markets, so the company is unable to raise its prices without losing unacceptably large numbers of customers. The company has a very effective lean production system, so there is no beginning or ending work in process or finished-goods inventories.

Using the module readings, the Argosy University online library resources, and the Internet, research break-even point and costing systems. Analyze the case based on your research and what you have learned so far in the course.

Respond to the following:

  • Calculate the company’s overall break-even point in total sales dollars. Explain your methodology (approximately 2 pages).
  • Of the total fixed costs of $400,000: $20,000 could be avoided if the Velcro product were dropped, $80,000 if the Metal product were dropped, and $60,000 if the Nylon product were dropped. The remaining fixed costs of $240,000 consist of common fixed costs such as administrative salaries and rent on the factory building that could be avoided only by going out of business entirely (approximately 2 pages):
    • Calculate the break-even point in units for each product. Explain your methodology.
    • Determine the overall profit of the company if the company sells exactly the break-even quantity of each product. Present your results.
  • Evaluate costing systems for this company. Explain if this company should be using a job-order or process-costing system to accumulate costs (1 page).

Be sure to include your calculations in Microsoft Excel format.

View  Cost and Decision-Making Analysis – Cheryl Montoya Case Study Sample Solution or order a unique a unique solution to this assignment at an affordable price

Three Discipline Areas A Modern Safety and Health Manager Have Basic Level of Competency

A modern safety and health manager has an obligation to create a positive safety culture in the organization for the achievement of safety and health of the people (Friend & Kohn, 2010). However, this is dependent on the manager’s basic competencies. The following are examples of some that they must possess:

  1. They must have knowledge of federal and governmental policies and rules with regard to health care. This is particularly important for the organization to act in act accordance with the set recommendations.
  2. They must have a basic knowledge in organizing and planning. Notably, part of the work of a modern safety and health manager is to organize the system to create a safe environment for all workers while reducing the risks(Stellman, 1998).
  3. Lastly, a modern day safety and health manager needs to possess analytical skills. This owes to their inevitable problem-solving tasks which require reviewing facts to solve complex issues that require analysis.

Within the course of practice, a safety and health manager is also fated to face various common problems and challenges. For instance, since their job description does not allow supervision of employees, they are expected to use their charisma to buy the attention of the company. Additionally, skepticism is an obstacle when a safety manager is working in an organization that has a poor regard for safety or one that lacks a safety culture(Rountree, 2001).

Communication’s Manager Interview Process And Questions

Assignment Instructions

Your organization will be hiring a “Communications Manager” with a newly designed role reporting to the CEO. Imagine that you are responsible for developing the interview format for the selection process. Use the job analysis and resources below to create a 4-5 page paper (excluding title and reference pages) that includes:

  • Discussion of the categories of interview questions you recommend
  • At least 15 specific interview questions
  • Your justification for recommending these questions
  • At least two questions that could be potentially illegal
  • The appropriate law(s) that would limit use of the potentially illegal questions
  • Job Analysis for Communications Manager Position:

The Communications Manager will have a lead role in a highly visible position, where he or she will interact with senior executives in the organization and community leaders outside of the organization. The job analysis for this position highlighted the following responsibilities and skills:

  • Create and oversee the organization’s public information and education programs.
  • Manage all external and internal communications.
  • Act as the organization’s media liaison and chief spokesperson.
  • Manage the flow of information pertaining to customer complaints.
  • Direct complaints to the appropriate staff for resolution.
  • Arrange media and customer service training classes to enhance employee

Sample Answer – Communication Manager Interview Process

A communication manager has the important task of ensuring that external and internal messages are managed efficiently to ensure effective communication especially of the different messages sent back and forth the organization and even internally takes place smoothly (Gatewood et al., 2011). It is, therefore, important to come up with various selection criteria and use interview questions that pinpoint the information needed from a qualified candidate for the position. Different categories regarding the questions to be asked in the interview will be deliberated upon and used in the selection process. Some of the classes of the interview questions will be credential verification queries. These questions will concentrate on the qualification spelled din the resume. The verification of the background and knowledge according to the resume qualifications will be done in the interview process. Work experiential questions will also be asked to determine whether the candidate has ever worked elsewhere especially in a position that is relevant to the one being advertised by the company. Questions dealing with experience are quite important since they help the company determine how well prepared one is for the job. Some candidates may have more experience than others may which gives them an edge since the company will not have to train them on some issues.

The behavioral category of questions will also be asked to gauge the judgment process of the candidate when given various tasks by the company about his past decisions. Also, competency questions will be part of the interview process that will help determine the problem solving and leadership capabilities of the candidate. Brainteaser question will follow to determine the mathematical mental ability especially in creatively coming up with a solution. Opinion questions are vital and will be asked during the interview to determine the thought processes of the candidate (Dressler, 2017). The categories will thus help the company to ensure that it examines the candidates in different areas to determine whether he or she is adept in the areas and qualification being sought by the corporation. The questions for the interview of the communication managers are as below:

  1. What is your background?
  2. Can you give us a brief history of your work in the corporate world?
  3. What makes you the right candidate for this job?
  4. What is your knowledge of the company’s products?
  5. How would you utilize social media for corporate communications?
  6. Give us a scenario where you dealt with a difficult externally party and how you managed to deal with the situation.
  7. Give us an example of when you successfully passed a message from the company and what ensured your success in the end?
  8. When coming up with a press conference what should you consider?
  9. How would you utilize employees in the company in terms of being brand ambassadors
  10. Do you have any experience in coming up with video conferences?
  11. If there was negative publicity due to an employee’s comment on the social media what action would you take.
  12. Do you have experience in training staff on various media?
  13. How would you manage vertical and horizontal communication in the company?
  14. How do you go about ensuring that the communicated messages reach the right persons?
  15. If a senior employee in the organization resigns because of various malpractices, how you would handle the communication within and without the company?

The above questions are important in ensuring that the company thoroughly knows the character of the person. Job qualifications do not wholly define a person since professional can write them on his behalf. Passing through the qualifications of the candidate on the resume is not enough to clearly show the potential of the person. Interviewing the person and getting information on his judgment and further his character is quite important (Ivancevich & Konopaske, 2013). The character of a person precedes him and therefore in using the different questions the panel can get to understand the person more clearly. The interview questions dwell on the background, experience, and character of the individual, which are important to the company in determining what type of person the candidate is and if he or she can qualify for the job. Furthermore, the questions are directed at various issues regarding the company’s communication functions and how the candidate will be able to handle and manager the daily communication tasks. Communication is an important task that may represent the company well if carried in the correct manner and therefore it is important to examine the person with the above questions to determine his or her skills and ensure that the right candidate is found. Questions that would be illegal would include:

  1. Which religion do you subscribe to?
  2. What is your national origin?

Issues dealing with race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, marital status and age among others are illegal when formulating interview questions. Such questions may only be legitimate if they are related to the position one is being interviewed for. When an employer thus asks questions regarding race among those that are considered illegal he will be going against the rights of the individual and thus discriminating him or her. There are various laws that deal with such illegal questions and prevent the employers from asking them unless it is appropriate. Federal law prohibits the discrimination of persons in the process of employment with regard to religion, disability, pregnancy, national origin or age. There are other local and state laws that further spell out what is illegal in interviewing of a person. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission enforces laws to prevent against discrimination of individuals in the hiring process. The Civil Rights Act formulated in 1964 is one such bill that prevents discrimination against individuals due to their gender national origin, race and color (Bringle, 2015). The pregnancy discrimination act further prevents individuals from discrimination due to being pregnant, or having complications arising from childbirth or pregnancy. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) of 1967 safeguards the rights of people who are forty years and older form discrimination in any employment undertaking (Barnes, 2016). Any retaliation if further dealt with in the law. The Americans with Disability ACT (ADA) of 1990 protects people with disabilities from discrimination against their state especially when they are qualified for the job being offered (Davis, 2015). ADA further protects individuals who have lodged complaints of discrimination especially if they were denied a chance at employment because of their disability. Companies in this regard have to know the various laws and ensure that they comply with them especially when carrying out recruitment and selection in their companies. Such laws are important because they prevent discrimination in different forms especially during the hiring process. The whole process will thus comply with the different laws and the candidate treated accordingly to prevent any complaints arising. The panel will thus be informed of the laws and reminded not to contravene them.

How Planning And Monitoring Helps Organisations, Managers And Individual Job-Holders To Achieve Results

Planning is an important process in strategic planning and helps to focus the efforts of the company in clearly defining outcomes and objectives of the strategic plan. Planning is vital in an organization’s progress since it helps in ensuring that the workforce in an organization understands the goals of the company and what should be done to ensure the company achieves its objectives, especially when involving ever employee in the planning of activities. Also, planning further ensures that the workforce operates in a concise direction and not carrying out activities in a loose way. Planning further helps the organizations discover beforehand how to meet their goals and the hindrances in the way of achieving their goals. Accountability is further enhanced, and the management together with the workforce carry out their tasks as required. Furthermore, planning helps the organization and its employees to marshal their resources in the best way to ensure that they achieve maximum results. Equipment, information, finance and people are thus used effectively to meet the organisation’s objectives. It further creates an environment where monitoring can be done to assess the progress of the organization periodically and further help in achieving the desired results.

Monitoring is very important in ensuring that the company follows through its strategic plan and thus does not deviate from the set goals of the organization. Monitoring has the advantage of directing a company towards achieving its results while at the same time looking at what the progress through the necessary information that is collected to help the company monitor its progress. Monitoring thus gives timely assessments at different intervals on how the company is progressing and whether it is achieving its goals. Teams are thus monitored and changes made wherever necessary to ensure that they are moving in the direction of the strategic plan. Monitoring further follows through the different tasks in the company by using performance measures to ensure employees are working as required. The planning and monitoring process thus helps the company organize its activities while at the same time monitoring the tasks to ensure that they are completed in the desired period and to change any deviations that may occur along the way. Monitoring is therefore quite important in ensuring that the company’s progress is assessed periodically and appropriate guidance and action were taken to ensure that the workforce is moving towards meeting the goals of the company.

Managers thus need to understand strategic plans and operational plans, which affect the various activities in their workstations. Since they manage, different employee’s managers should have a greater understanding of the plans to ensure that they effectively communicate the contents to their subordinates (Walston, 2014). Their subordinates will thus execute the different activities to ensure that they meet the specific objectives set in the strategic plan. Plans are quite important since they chart the way that the organization needs to follow to meet particular objectives.

ECO 550 Managerial Economics And Globalization – All Discussions With Sample Answers

ECO 55 Week 3 Discussion  – Managing in the Global Economy

Please respond to the following:

* From the scenario, assuming the absence of quantitative data, determine the qualitative techniques that could be used within this scenario. Now, assume you have acquired some time series data that would enable you to make short, medium, and long term forecasts. Ascertain the quantitative technique that will provide you with the most accurate forecast. Provide a rationale for your responses. Aside from maximizing profits, develop guidelines that list the key factors that managers should consider when deciding whether or not to outsource or integrate forwards or backwards. Determine the key factors that you believe to be the most influential. Provide a rationale for your response.

ECO 55 Week 4 Discussion – Production Economics

Please respond to the following:

From the scenario, determine the relevant costs for the expansion decision, and distinguish between the short run and the long run costs. Recommend the key decision-making criteria that Katrina’s Candies should use for expansion decisions in the short run and in the long run. Provide rationale for your response. From the e-Activity, recommend whether the company in question should or should not continue to produce the good or service. Provide a rationale for your response.

ECO 55 Week 5 Discussion – Applications of Cost Theory

Please respond to the following:

From the scenario, determine the appropriate type of market structure for the situation in question. Cite at least four (4) defining characteristics that have helped you reach this decision regarding the appropriateness of the chosen structure. Recommend two (2) kinds of pricing and output strategies that Katrina’s Candies should use to reach the goal of profit maximization. Suggest key modifications that Katrina’s Candies should make in order to maintain a competitive advantage when new entrants enter the market. Provide a rationale for your suggestions. Imagine that you are a manager of a chemical company. An accident has occurred in which chemicals leaked into the ground water nearby. The community is unaware of the accident. Compare the primary costs involved in cleaning up the water immediately (and thus confessing) versus hiding your culpability now and possibly paying more in the future. Predict the impact on profitability in both situations. Justify your response.

ECO 55 Week 9 Discussion – Government Regulations

Please respond to the following:

From the scenario, take a position as to whether government regulation is constraining or enabling in this situation, as it relates to the operational efficiency of the company. Speculate on the fundamental manner in which government regulation could impact the shareholders’ wealth and profitability. From the e-Activity, take a position on whether the banking industry needs more or less government regulation. Support your position with two (2) examples of the impact of regulation.

ECO 55 Week 10 Discussion- Long-Term Investment

Please respond to the following:

From the scenario, suggest one (1) method in which Herb could use a cost-benefit analysis to argue for or against an expansion. Create three (3) optimal decision rules for Katrina’s Candies (e.g.., whether to hire more staff or hire temporary workers to meet production schedules). Assess both the short-term and the long-term costs and benefits of obtaining a graduate degree. Support your decision to obtain a graduate degree with a cost-benefit analysis of your particular situation

How Managers Can Please Stakeholders While Still Remaining Ethical

Write a 2 page or more, double-spaced essay regarding: How can managers please stakeholders while remaining ethical? Answer the following questions related to your essay.

  • Explain the importance of ethical responsibility.
  • How do stakeholders impact decision-making?
  • How can a leader be profitable and ethical if the competition is not?
  • Give an example of a company that has been unethical and the consequences of that action. See: Eight Important Business Ethics Cases.
  • Give an example of a company that remained ethical and the consequences of that action.

Write in APA format. Include an introduction, body and conclusion. Cite consistently throughout your work in APA format.

Case Study – Coping with the New Manager

Cindy Smith is a supervisory training facilitator at the Barry Automotive Albion plant. The plant makes composite plastic components for the automotive industry. Plastic components are more durable and resisted dents and scratches better than components made of steel. The non unionized facility employs about 450 personnel. Eight years ago, Smith began as a second-shift entry-level worker in the modeling section. After a series of advancement, she was promoted to production supervisor and then to training facilitator, and she had been performing this function for about sixteen months. New employees were assigned to Smith’s section for orientation and training, usually lasting a week or more. Depending on the company’s needs, employees then were reassigned to a specific production department. In recent months, however, the high turnover rate-25 percent of new hires quit within six weeks of hire-coupled with requirements to produce a variety of high-quality products for individual customer specifications have led to a deterioration of morale.

Traditionally, the average car buyer waited 26 to 35 days from the time a custom order was placed at a dealership until the customer could drive the vehicle off the lot. However, during the past decade, some manufacturers had cut the time to build a car- from the moment the customer places an order at the dealership to the vehicle rolls off the assembly line-to five days. Not more than five days for travel was allotted from the plant to the dealership. Reducing the time to build a car to customer specifications, including color, engine type, and other options, had been an ongoing effort. As a supplier to the automotive industry, additional quality and production pressures were placed on the plant management team.

About one year earlier, Operations Manager George Patterson was replaced by Don May. Even though the plant often had missed delivery deadlines and labor costs as a percentage of product costs were escalating, Patterson had been content with the status of the plant . Patterson had the reputation of expecting department managers to correct problems after they occurred, and crisis management’ was the prevalent style. Don May, a former military officer, was expected to turn the place around. Under May’s direction, the culture of the plant seemed to change overnight. May immediately announced to all supervisors that he was not willing to accept the high rate of product rejects. May practiced management by wandering around (MBWA), and he met and talked with supervisors, group leaders, and facilitators one on one. Further, he met with small group of employees and listened to their concerns. Initially, May was positively received, but the situation soon deteriorated.

Shortly after assuming the position of operating manager, Don May informed all managers and supervisors that they were being placed on a salary-and-bonus system. He told them that their hard work was appreciated and would be rewarded. Yet, because of costly rework production delays and overtime for hourly employees, the bonus systems did not yield any tangible benefits. Among the supervisory complaints: You told us the new system would result in greater compensation, and it hasn’t. We’re making less than before. We’d be better off financially of we were hourly production workers!

Most supervisors now were working six days a week, ten to twelve hours a day. Employees and machinery were being stretched to the limit. Several supervisors had quit during the past month, and some took less-demanding plant jobs. Surviving supervisors often worked “double duty” in overseeing several production departments. On any given day, ten to twenty percent of employee production positions could be vacant. Cindy Smith and her only remaining employee (five were assigned to fill in for vacant supervisory positions and one was placed in the quality department) were directed by Don May to cut the normal one-week training time to a half day. The most recent customer quality audit was a disaster. There were rumors that some work would be transferred to other Barry plants or even to competitors.

To Cindy Smith, it was like someone had flipped a switch. Any supervisor who spoke out and didn’t agree with Don May fell from grace, and May put pressure on all who questioned what he was doing. Most supervisors were afraid to speak up. To Smith, supervisors appeared to be mindless robots going through the motion.Smith’s crowing blow came at a choir rehearsal in her church Wednesday night. Amy Richardson, a fellow choir member and a front-office secretary to Don May, told Smith, Mr. May told me that when he was meeting with and interviewing our supervisors he was actually getting the scoop on everyone. He took names and tucked them away. I even heard him tell Bill Arnold, Barry’s president, that he’d get rid of all malcontents. Cindy Smith felt betrayed.


  1. How would you evaluate Cindy Smith’s situation in terms of job satisfaction?
  2. Compare and contrast the management styles of George Patterson and Don May.
  3. What should Cindy Smith do? Why?
  4. Have you ever experienced a situation like the one described in this case? If so, how did you handle those problems?
  5. Using the Internet, find at least two sources that provide examples of how employees view managers who use their authority to an extreme.

As A Manager How Would You Enforce The Expectations Of An Organisation?

Enforcing the expectations of the organisation will mean coming up with rules and solutions to problems and conflicts that may occur if a person does follow the expectations needed of him by the company. Punishment will result in such conflicts where the employee doesn’t meet the expectations. Such expectations as being punctual, cooperating with others at their respective workstations and meeting their quotas for the day will be graded on each employee to determine whether they are helping the company meet the goals or not. Every employee will thus be given information on what is expected of them at the workplace. As such employees will be given information on how they are to conduct themselves in the workplace, their dress code, conducting themselves in the workforce and cooperation with other employees. Employees will thus be reviewed on the terms states to ensure that they are in tandem with the objectives of the company and if an employee is not working as expected he or she will be queried and appropriate action to taken to ensure that they are back on track. Employees who refuse to meet the expectations will be expected to either change or be sacked. Therefore the enforcement will dwell on ensuring that the employees are working effectively with others and assessments continuously done mostly on a weekly basis to ensure that they are performing as required.

Contract Manager’s Responsibilities

Contract managers perform various duties over the course of a contract. To begin with, they control variations to the contract in terms of change of policy, quality, quantity, price, timing and delivery. Variations in this case refer to the amendment of a contract which changes the original terms and conditions of the agreement. Contract managers are therefore required to ensure that a contract is not varied to the extent that it alters the services offered or the pricing and even the nature of goods and services offered (Shaik, 2014). A contract should only be varied in distinct circumstances, with the contractor and the acquiring entity coming into an agreement that is either written or oral.  A contract manager is expected to also ensure that a contract is not varied due to serious problems such as poor performance. Contract managers should know the real reason behind variation of a given contract. Contract managers also need to ensure that for the terms and conditions of a contract to vary, the involved parties must present parts of the original transaction.

Another role of a contract manager is to manage disputes. Human beings have different, conflicting ideas which get them into conflicts. A dispute is said to have occurred when the two parties are not able to agree on an aspect with regard to the contract. A control manager therefore, is expected to be rational and unbiased in order to contain such conflicts by identifying the root cause of the problem and then addressing it.  The manager should refer a conflict between both parties to the contract resolution mechanism that was agreed upon at the time of signing the contract (Shaik, 2014). Sound understanding of their responsibilities by both parties helps to reduce disagreements within the tenure of a contract. To avoid escalation of disagreements, a control manager should recognize a dispute at an early stage. Unresolved conflicts can greatly affect the contract and in a worse scenario leading to termination of a contract. A contract manager can employ various forms to resolve a dispute. Negotiation tactics, litigation, arbitration or mediation can be used to solve disagreements.

Management Functions used by Today’s Health Care Managers

Write a 350- to 700-word paper that defines the roles and application of management functions used by today’s health care managers. Address the following in your paper, based on this week’s readings:

  • The four major functions of management in a heath care setting
  • How these functions apply to managing others or even yourself in your current or previous job
  • The most important role for a health care manager and leader in the diversified health care industry
  • The most significant aspect related to health care management that you want to gain by taking this class
  • Cite at least three references, one of which may be your course textbook, to support your position.

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.

Challenge to Contemporary Human Resources Managers

Assignment Instructions

Determine a challenge to contemporary Human Resources managers that is either an area of common concern to all or of particular concern to an organization with which you are familiar. Analyze the issue, identifying the stakeholders, the current impact of the issue and potential resolution of the issue. Present your findings in a 5 page paper using APA style. This assignment will include at least three sources external to your text, preferably professional or academic journal articles found in the research databases available through the University library link found in the student portal. Quality sources can include academic and professional journals, newspapers and periodicals such as BusinessWeek and Fortune.  There is much valuable information available at the Society for Human Resource Management website at http://www.shrm.org.  Students are encouraged to join SHRM as student dues are minimal.

Congratulations! You have just become the safety manager for Podunk University. Your position is at the campus in Podunk, Colorado, and your predecessor left the job a year and a half ago

Congratulations! You have just become the safety manager for Podunk University. Your position is at the campus in Podunk, Colorado, and your predecessor left the job a year and a half ago. There has been nobody in the position during that interval. The commitment of the institution to safety is dubious at best, but you are looking forward to starting your new position and making a positive change.

After introducing yourself to the secretary you share with a half dozen other, more senior, people, you decide to focus on hazardous material and hazardous waste issues since you just completed a great college course on those topics. You tour the campus and discover that the following departments and programs are yours to deal with:

  •  The biology department has animal dissection, human dissection, a microbiology lab, and a medical laboratory education program that uses small quantities of a lot of chemicals.
  • The chemistry department has chemicals that have never been inventoried and a new forensics program (as in CSI, not in college debate).
  • The physics department has high-voltage equipment, lasers, and LEDs.
  • The English department has lots and lots of books and papers, as well as photocopiers.
  • The math department has lots of computers and whiteboards.
  • The automotive technology department has everything pertaining to auto repair, including solvents, asbestos brake linings, pneumatic tools, waste oil, and cutting and grinding tools.
  • The Massive Arena is one of the original buildings on campus and has a variety of interesting problems, including asbestos insulation, and the building is undergoing a massive renovation.

Respond to each of the following questions:

  1. Where do you start?
  2. Where should you focus your initial HazCom efforts? In what order do you tackle the rest of the departments?
  3. What are the HazCom issues in the automotive technology department?
  4. What are the hazardous waste issues in the automotive technology department?
  5. What are the HazCom issues in the chemistry department?
  6. What are the hazardous waste issues in the chemistry department?
  7. With the Massive Arena renovation, who are the people to whom you need to communicate hazards?
  8. What are your main concerns with the physics department?
  9. What are the hazardous material/waste spill response issues for the university, and how should you prepare for them?
  10. Is any HazCom training needed for the English and math departments?
  11. What are some resources for finding out how to solve the HazCom issues?
  12. You must choose technology or trainers to do the needed training. What are some issues to consider when selecting these?
  13. Due to budget cuts, you have to do the training yourself, and you will use PowerPoint. What are some considerations when developing your PowerPoint Presentation?
  14. How can you evaluate your training to ensure that it is accomplishing your goals?
  15. One of the chemistry professors working with some of the automotive technology faculty members, invents a new nonflammable compound that will render obsolete the need for solvents to degrease auto parts. She wants to market the stuff. What needs to be done before it can be marketed, and who should do it?
  16. The University decides to partner with the chemistry professor and market this new compound. Due to the lack of flammability, it is a great hit nationwide. They then decide to market it worldwide. What concerns need to be addressed?
  17. It turns out that this wonderful new compound makes a really great explosion when used in conjunction with another chemical. As the University is manufacturing the compound in large quantities and storing it on the grounds, what concerns do you now have? What experts should you consult?
  18. The biology department has been busy as well. The little microbiology lab is large now, and they are working with stronger pathogens. How would you determine the new hazard communication requirements and things that you should do beyond that minimum?

After a tough five years, you have the Podunk University campus running smoothly. Everybody is trained, and your successor will not have nearly as much of a challenge as you did.

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How Can A Sales Manager Determine The Differences The Reps Encounter In The Severity Of Competition In Each Territory?

Similarly, there are many parameters and techniques that sales managers can use do determine the severity of the completion. One technique is to determine the concentration level of the competitors in relation to the customers’ needs. This calculation enables the sales manager to determine the reach of each competitor in the market. Secondly, the sales manager needs to determine the potential consumers that have been exploited in order to instruct the sales team to explore these untapped areas (Mayer, & Greenberg, 2006). Thirdly, the sales manager should comprehensively understand the differentiation of the self-product and products of the competitor in order to create product segmentation. It is important for the sales manager to align the product of the company to match the needs of the customers.

More weight should be put on both qualitative and quantitative factors since they both contribute equally to the performance of the market. The number of new clients the sales person reported on daily basis as well as the quantity of the product sold per day are some of the indexes the sales manager can determine the territory a sales person covers (Mayer, & Greenberg, 2006). It is important to monitor the performance of each sales person in the field because they are the one that drive sales of the company and the company makes profits or losses through them.

Behavioral Differences Between Functional Managers and Project Managers

Functional managers are usually different from process managers in that they deal with the resources allocated to the various projects. They are highly talented and skilled people who are used when projects are to be done excellently and ensure the projects are finished as early as possible. They are in charge of acquiring skilled personnel and paying them in the end. Functional managers have to enquire of other resources especially people from process managers who may choose to either add or deny their request. As such, functional managers may be limited in certain areas like the request of more people and process managers manage them (Rosenau & Githens, 2011).

Process managers on the other hand are business manager who are structured in the process organization. The process managers usually deal with any issues that might arise in the process of doing the project and they do not control how the people involved in the project carry out their functions. The process managers usually do not have much control on the working group’s esepieaclly in the functional teams but may act as oversight manager’s esepieaclly when the work is not done properly. Process managers may further include more workers who may not as skilled as those in functional teams do. Such laborers can help on some tasks that do not need many skills and further lessen the time for the project to finish.

Process managers help ensure that the projects are worked out smoothly to ensure that they are finished early. The process managers can only change the sequence of events in the project but may not change the working schedules of the functional teams, as the functional managers are the one who dictate how the work is to be carried out. Both process managers and functional managers work together though in different areas with the process managers having more say on how the process is to be carried out but not how the employees should work (Gasik, 2011). Therefore, the process manager deal with authority especially in directing the sequence of events while the functional managers deal with the workers and finding the necessary skills.

Issues that Criminal Justice Managers Will Face in the Future


The United States criminal justice system has undergone many changes in the past centuries. For instance, the change in the American case law, offered new perspectives upon which the police could use deadly force. The growing technology, the increased media scrutiny and the increasing roles of civil society groups, will significantly affect the roles of the justice managers in future. The future justice managers will face a number of issues, such as ethical failures, police use of force, technology, media attention, ethnic, and race and community relations.

Excessive Use of Force and Police Brutality

One of the controversial attributes of the American criminal justice systems is the police misuse of power (Maguire & Radosh, 1996). There are numerous instances where the police are televised using excessive and brutal force on subdued suspects. These cases of police brutality, although they are rare, are common and continue to occur now. The cases of police brutality affect the American population from all ethnic backgrounds. According to (Hall, 2015), cases of police brutality have been on the increase. For instance in 2015, the deaths that arose from police brutality were higher than those reported the previous year. Most of the cases involve minors, unarmed individuals and those in police custody. These cases of police brutality and excessive use of force will recur in future.

Although the police are obliged to employ deadly force while carrying their duties, they are responsible for upholding law, respecting citizens and protecting lives (Olson, 2015). Regardless of whether the police are lawfully allowed to use lethal or deadly force, there is often a tendency for police officers to wrongfully use deadly force. For example, (Erez, 2002) reports cases where police officers wrongfully use deadly force in making arrests for domestic violence victims. Accordingly, the criminal justice managers are evaluating the strategies for reducing the use of excessive force and homicides that result from police brutality.

According to (Kania & Davis, 2011), the deaths that occur owing to police brutality is estimated to exceed those that occur due to lawful executions of convicts in the country. Almost all cases of police brutality are captured by media outlets, protests and often instigate the development of laws that govern changes in the training of police. The problem is exacerbated by the difficulties in measurement of excessive use of force by the police. It is inherent that such issues are of profound effect on the delivery of justice, which the criminal justice manager must tackle, as the issues will be felt in future.

The 1985 change in the case law, as asserted by (Kania & Davis, 2011) saw the alteration of the standards upon which the police officers would adopt deadly force while making arrests. The authors further assert the anticipation of the International Association of Police, of the future implications of use of deadly force by the police. Such changes are likely to arise in future and the criminal justice managers must anticipate such developments and embody progressiveness. As more future changes will arise in the police use of deadly force, the criminal justice managers will be faced with the issue of making relevant changes in the police training.

Moreover, public scrutiny shall increase in future and criminal justice managers must be adept in developing acceptable methods of handling issues such as protests. According to (Olson, 2015), there is a need for a nationwide review for the existing laws that govern the use of lethal force, policies and the police training practices. The criminal justice manager must show oversight and accountability, envision them and adopt them in the criminal justice system. The managers in anticipating the police use of lethal force must work in line with other justice agencies in developing laws that prohibit police use of lethal force, except in cases where there is imminent threat of death or serious injury.

Ethical Shortcomings

The criminal justice system serves four major ideals of promotion of secure communities, restoration of crime victims, deliverance of justice and promotion of noncriminal actions (DiIulio et al., 1993) and (Maguire & Radosh, 1996, p. 65). The authors further assert that justice is defined as the quality upon which individuals are treated according to their civic rights and the relevant conduct. However, (Kania & Davis, 2011) asserts that there are some instances that the criminal justice system officials are faced with scandals, which arise owing to their participation in immoral or corrupt activities. The author enlists the seven failures inherent in the justice system as the bias and favoritism, flawed personal life, deceit, abuse of power, pursuit of power for personal gains, neglect of duties and the denial of due process to the individuals involved in the criminal justice. These shortcomings present the challenges that the criminal justice system managers are likely to face in future.

The other aspect of ethical shortcomings is the issue of roles of correctional officers in the criminal justice system. The United States has the largest number of incarcerated individuals in the world. Many prisoners continue to be subjects of numerous ethical dilemmas while serving their prison terms on during their probation (Dolovich et al., 2006). Although the modern prisons in the United States have seen its transformation from the early perception of being brutal and constituting of uneducated officers, a number of ethical dilemmas are still inherent. According to (Restellini & Restellini, 2014) the prisons remain congested and minimal changes continue to be done, while the number of prisoners increase every year. This can lead to spread of diseases, causing ethical dilemmas such as infringement of individual prisoner rights to proper health.   The criminal justice manager must conduct his/her duties in an ethical manner, which avoids involvement in the seven categories of failures identified above (Kania & Davis, 2011). Most ethical shortcomings that affect the criminal justice officers have often involved one or two of the failures. As these issues are likely to be faced in future, the criminal justice manger must anticipate the occurrence of each of the failures.

Although these failures may be reduced or mitigated, the criminal justice manager has a duty to ensure that they do not occur. The reduction of criminal activities and promotion of noncriminal activities must not impede justice delivery. Therefore, owing to the growing pressure for delivery of justice and the increased scrutiny of the way justice officials carry their roles, the issues of ethical shortcomings are likely to face even greater public scrutiny in future, which calls good anticipations from the criminal justice managers.

Moreover, there is need for the criminal justice manager to anticipate the impact of increased prisoners and the required changes. Similarly, a progressive manager has to take into consideration the ethical dilemmas faced by the prisoners while serving their prison terms or during their probation. Police brutality in prison and unethical behaviors like colluding with prisoners serving their probation are inherent and such issues are bound to occur in future. Therefore, the criminal justice manager must plan on such issues and develop appropriate strategies to mitigate them. There is also the need for the criminal justice system manager to anticipate the increasing number of incarcerated individuals and develop appropriate policies to decongest the prisons.

Ethnic, Community Relations and Race

The criminal justice officials who participate in the impediment of due processes, display bias while performing their duties and those who abuse power, often create public dissatisfactions with the criminal justice systems. According to (Pollock, 2011), the community-police relations are dependent on the conduct of the police agencies. The author notes the little progress in the development of good relationships between the police and the community despite efforts by the justice agencies to develop programs to bolster the relations. Moreover, the author notes that the community oriented policing programs have been implemented, but there are still many questions about issues of race and ethnic. These inherent issues are likely to be faced by the criminal justice managers in future.

There is a clash between the criminal justice values, the laws of the United States and the community. According to (Thurman, & Zhao, 2004), sometimes the criminal justice agencies are posted to serve in the communities whose values do not align with those of the agency officers. In such cases, a misunderstanding often arises, placing the justice agencies officers, such as the police, in a dilemma. There is need for a criminal justice manager to stay abreast in order to address such issues. In confronting these future issues, the criminal justice manager must develop training for the police officers on meeting the demands of the minority people in order to foster understanding and effective communication. Similarly, the train must focus in minimizing the influence of cultural differences between the police officers and the communities they serve.

The community-police relations in the United States have been that of resentment. The justified and unjustified police forces towards the minority groups in the community have created a lack of trust between the minority groups and police agencies (Maguire & Radosh, 1996).  The minority groups often feel that they are a target of police use of force and this severely threatens the police-minority group’s relationships. Although community oriented policing has been developed to address the problem, there are still more issues that points to the gap in the culture of the police and the community (Thurman, & Zhao, 2004).  According to the authors, the difference in the police and community culture is the major cause of bias, unfair justice treatment and racial and ethnic discriminations. These kinds of relations will still be profound in future and the criminal justice managers must adopt proper strategies.

The presence of prejudice, bias and injustice requires the prompt and judicial response of the criminal justice manger (Thurman, & Zhao, 2004). While these community resentments towards the police will continue to be felt in the American communities, the criminal justice manager must anticipate and prepare for these challenges. The complexity of the challenge is evident due to the existence of the communities in flux. The cultural variations such as beliefs and value variations are some of the issues that remain rooted in the communities and are transferred from one generation to the other. Since it would be hard to attain community homogeneity, the only feasible solution is for the criminal justice system to change the approach that is currently in force. This calls for a progressive criminal justice manager, with greater anticipation for these future challenges.

Technology and Globalization

            Technology continues to develop and many people continue to adopt technology. The rapid growth and adoption of technology influences the administration of criminal justice at all levels (Holt, 2013). The modern criminal justice system has evolved and adopted various forms of technology. The use of technology has an effect of influencing the policies and the practices of the criminal justice systems. For example, the adoption of the telephone and automobiles increased police response and consequently changed the public calls for the service of the police. Therefore, technology has a profound impact of the delivery of justice. However, the question remains, “what will be the new technologies of 2030, 2040, and 2050?”

According to (Kania & Davis, 2011), the CompStat and the Geographic information Systems provided the criminal justice system in the United States with managerial and crime fighting equipment. The author further notes that technology keeps changing and improving, which will see the integration of new technological innovations into the criminal justice system. The technologies of 2040, 2050 and so on will be different from what is being used now.

The growth in technology in the future will have a great impact in crime fighting. Crime fighting and solving will be enhanced with the developments of radio frequency identification chips, DNA analysis, increased surveillance and biometrics. As common with sex offenders now in the country, the public and criminal justice officials will use an increasingly sophisticated intelligence databases. Similarly, interoperability between criminal justice official will be enhanced in future, allowing the officials to communicate directly with one another.

These changes in technology that are foreseen, calls for a criminal justice manager who has foresight. The criminal justice managers with foresight must be informed on the changing technologies, anticipate the new changes and integrate them into the new roles in the justice system. (Kania & Davis, 2011) points that highly progressive criminal justice managers are behind the adoption of technologies in the justice department in the United States. Similarly, a progressive criminal justice manger must think of ways of adopting and using technologies in the current and future criminal justice dispensation. Technology has a profound impact on the roles of the justice officials in many ways, which require adequate preparation by the criminal justice managers in order to prepare for these future issues.

The other most notable implication of developments in technological innovations is the widespread adoption and use of the information technology by the criminals. America continues to be the destination for many people around the world, who migrate into the country in search of better opportunities. The migration will continue to lead to growth of multicultural societies (Ritter, 2004). New global trends will be observed in the coming decades, where movement of people are likely to disrupt harmony, affecting criminal justice system in the United States and all parts of the world. Moreover, developments in the age-composition demographics and globalization will have profound effects on the criminal justice system in the country over the coming decades.

According to (Ritter, 2004), as the society becomes more reliant on information technology, the criminals find it easy to use information technology in their activities. Fraud, theft, moral offences, terrorism, kidnapping and extortions shall increase as technology advances. In addition to focusing on the adoption and implementation of technology in the criminal justice system, the criminal justice manger should prepare for the impact of such technologies on crime and prepare accordingly.

(Ritter, 2004) notes that as the society evolves criminals just as viruses evolve as people adopt new preventive measures. Moreover, the author notes that regardless of the coevolution in crime, the crime preventive measures will generally be categorized into altering the fundamental values of people, reduction of opportunities for crime and changing the motivation of people who commit the crimes. As the country approaches 2040, the demographics will alter substantially. The males aged 15-29 (who are prone to crime) will decrease as those who are aged over 30 increases. This is particularly true because the American population will constitute mainly of the aged population in the coming two decades. The impact of this is that more people will become victims or solutions to criminal activities. For example, the increase in the number of the elderly people will increase the number of victims to criminal activities. Alternatively, the increase in the number of elderly could lead to their use of their discretionary time to guide young people and report crimes.

These changes in demographics, technology, global trends and the coevolution of crimes will have significant impact on the criminal justice system in the United States. The criminal justice manager must anticipate the impact of the population growth and the evolution of crimes. A progressive criminal justice manager ought to adopt better technology within the criminal justice system in order to be in a better position to counter criminal activities. Moreover, the criminal justice manager must anticipate the global trends and initiate mechanisms for global initiatives, such as developing alliances with nonprofit organizations and academic institutions in other countries to carry out the evaluations of policing and sentencing in the criminal justice system.

Mass Media Attention

            It is impossible for a criminal justice manager to determine or predict when a case within their jurisdiction will grab the attention of the mass media. As the world evolves, so does the public scrutiny on the roles of the criminal justice and how such roles are carried out.  The scope of media attention varies with the type of crime and those who are involved in the crime. For instance, a serious crime is will receive a lot of media attention; similarly, a crime that involves a socially important people will attract a lot of media attention (Kania & Davis, 2011). A lot of media attention in case of crime, is likely to cause an onslaught on the criminal justice system. There is need for the criminal justice manager to be prepared any moment for media onslaught in case of a major crime. Moreover, he/she must be prepared to face crimes even in the smallest communities.

Although the criminal justice manager must be prepared for the increased media scrutiny, the manger must also envision the roles of the media and equally develop strategies for dealing with them. In most of the instances, the media care more about the stories and not helping the victims of crime. Therefore, it is important that as the manager anticipates the increased media attention, a preparation for stopping media invasion be made.

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How is Leadership Different from Management? – Managers Vs Leaders


“Anyone can become a manager but not everyone can become a leader.” Leadership and management are conceptions that have often been used indistinguishably. Management is defined as organizing and directing people, aiming to accomplishing the overall goal of the organization. Leadership on the other hand refers to the proficiency an individual who is best fit to influence people, maintain the culture of the organization. Leadership has always been deemed as been the facet of management (Predpall, 1994).

Managers retains; Leaders Develop.

Managers prefer retaining the system and structures, policies as well as procedures in an organization to the latter. They think inside the box thus not challenging the status quo.Leaders on the other hand are deemed as innovative creatures as they tend to question the status quo. They prefer to challenge it. Leaders think outside the box which isof more benefit to the companyas they focus on people by developing systems and structures that will be of an advantage(Fenton, 1990)

Managers Dominates; the Leaders Inspires

People follow leaders out of their own choice. Certain characteristics draw people to leaders. Leaders try to create a culture where people can learn from one another.Managers demand authority. These equates managers as been in charge thus giving no room for anyone who wants to question his authority.

Risk-taker Vs Risk-averse

Leaders are always comfortable taking risks as this makes them feel a sense of fulfillment from the gain or loss of a risk as leaders believe that from the success or the failure of the risk, they learn and develop. Managers on the other hand are usually reluctant to take risks for fear of not generating success. They prefer to maintain the status quo thus reducing any loss that may incur in damaging an organization.

Transformational Vs Transactional

Managers prefer to use transactional style as this enables they believe that by using disciplinary power and offering incentives, they will get employees motivated to perform.On the other hand, leaders use transformational leadership style as they believe that by incorporating team-building, motivation and collaboration among employees, this will place the organization at increasing their accomplishments as the employees are well catered for. Here, leaders focus on building relationships.

Role of Risk Manager in Heath Care Assignment And Sample Answer

Assignment Instructions

In order to be successful, a risk management plan must be communicated and applied throughout the organization.

  • Prepare a paper that examines the role of the risk manager in integrating the risk management program within the organization and ensuring compliance.
  • Evaluate challenges that a risk manager might confront in developing, communicating, and implementing a risk management program.

Include at least three references, of which one must be a scholarly article.

Sample Answer – Role of Risk Manager in Heath Care

In most organizations, there is an overwhelming expectation to conduct their operations with minimal exposure to risks or any forms of liabilities. In order for such organizations to remain successful in terms of avoiding or minimizing exposure to liabilities, they require practicing proper risk management procedure. There should be sufficient time for such organizations to establish structural and organizational policies, which can protect them from experiencing any form risk especially financial liabilities (Kolb & Schwartz, 2009). Even though it is not possible to completely eradicate financial liability risk, effective application of risk management procedures will bring the exposure down to acceptable levels. There are various traditional methods, which various organizations implement in order to practice fundamental risk management. They include; implementing protective policies and procedures to the organization, establishing form practices of employment, development of materials for training and board orientation, and acquiring insurance coverage (Kolb & Schwartz, 2009).

In modern times, efforts geared towards quality improvement and risk management in healthcare organizations do find it necessary to support patient safety (Youngberg, 2010). It is significant to note that a risk manager performs crucial roles in an organization. Some of these crucial roles include education, patient safety, loss prevention, and identification and analysis of risk (Youngberg, 2010). Risk manager should conduct an analysis of customer satisfaction and then initiate activities, which would improve performance in respect to the findings. He/she should, also, be active in conducting analyses to establish the root-cause of events. In this regard, he/she should design systems, which would assist in implementation of improvements (Kolb & Schwartz, 2009). He/she should engage in continuous identification of opportunities in order to sustain improvement. The risk manager should, also, perform consultative roles as far as various services and departments in the organization are concerned. Such consultative services are crucial for organizational compliance, accreditation and regulatory purposes. All these activities are significant for performance and quality improvement. The manager should, also, oversee programs, which aim at upgraded patient care outcomes (Kolb & Schwartz, 2009).

In line with the roles of a risk manager, risk identification as well as control should be put on the forefront (Okoroh & Gombera, 2006). These two aspects entail adverse event reporting as well as prevention of loss and reduction. The risk managers of the contemporary times should be on the fore front to ensure effective policy review, claims management and risk financing. Risk management should, also, entail compensation of workers, mandatory event reporting, accreditation compliance, regulatory and corporate compliance, security and safety, and patient relations (Okoroh & Gombera, 2006). Some of the overlapping roles of the risk manager include strategic planning, accreditation issues, board reports, patient education, addressing patient complaints, engaging in proactive assessment of risk, and performing root-cause analysis (Kolb & Schwartz, 2009). It is worth noting that charitable and nonprofit organizations can get exposure to risks through various areas. These areas include the misappropriation of physical assets, fundraising activities, investments, possible loss of charitable or nonprofit status, tax liabilities, misuse of funds, and fraud. Therefore, for risk managers to be effective in their roles, they should establish and implement effectual internal controls (Youngberg, 2010).

There are various challenges, which a risk manager may encounter during the development, communication and implementation of a risk management program. Following the current market interconnectedness and various other factors, it is significant to note that any form of risk can pop up anywhere in the world (Youngberg, 2010). This accumulates a lot of pressure of work for risk managers due to being uncertain of potential occurrences. Risk managers of today have to deal with the challenge of maintaining the reputation of their organizations. All organizations acknowledge the significance of this exercise especially during compliance or regulatory disputes. Therefore, challenges arise whenever they ensure reputational risk mitigation in all functional areas (Kolb & Schwartz, 2009). They, also, experience the challenge of global reach especially due to the Middle Eastern volatility and the expansion of upcoming markets in China, India, Brazil, and Russia (Okoroh & Gombera, 2006). There is the challenge of cultural change where risk managers have to deal with the introduction of a culture that is more risk enabled across a global organization. Another challenge, which the risk managers do face, is the compliance records. In most cases, accountability of the compliance records of an organization is the responsibility of the corporate counsel. This is mostly common on a global scale including the United States (Okoroh & Gombera, 2006).

In conclusion, most organizations have an overwhelming expectation to conduct their operations with minimal exposure to risks or any forms of liabilities. Even though it is not possible to completely eradicate financial liability risk, effective application of risk management procedures will bring the exposure down to acceptable levels. It is significant to note that a risk manager performs crucial roles in an organization (Youngberg, 2010). Some of these crucial roles include education, patient safety, loss prevention, and identification and analysis of risk. Some of the overlapping roles of the risk manager include strategic planning, accreditation issues, board reports, patient education, addressing patient complaints, engaging in proactive assessment of risk, and performing root-cause analysis. Risk managers of today have to deal with the challenge of maintaining the reputation of their organizations. They, also, experience the challenge of global reach especially due to the Middle Eastern volatility and the expansion of upcoming markets in China, India, Brazil, and Russia.

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Critical Review Of A Research Paper – Recruiting Project Managers


This critical review is on the following research paper “ Recruiting Project Managers: A Comparative Analysis of Competencies and Recruitment Signals from Job Advertisements ”. The study is about the competencies organizations use in Project Manager Job advertisements to recruit project managers. Organizations find it a challenge to recruit the ‘right’ project manager. Choosing the ‘right’ manager, results in achieving the project objectives.    The role of the project manager is critical in project management because the managers need to have a broad understanding of the different areas that require coordination. The final outcome of the project is dependent on the project manager and thus has an impact on project management  (Meredith & Mantel, 2006, p. 139).

Selecting a project manager is one of the crucial decisions required for any project. Organizations therefore need to know which signals to use in job advertisements in order to attract potential applicants for the position of the project manager. At the same time, these signals need to reflect the standards prescribed by project management professional bodies.   The objective of the study was to provide a systematic approach to understanding the use of project manager competencies from the job advertisements, academics, and standards provided by project management professional organizations.

The study was done by Dr. Kamrul Ahsan a senior lecturer in Victoria University, Melbourne; Marcus Ho from Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand; and Sabik Khan from Trust Bank Limited, Bangladesh. The study addresses the following research questions which are clearly stated. They include: One, what are the most frequently used competencies to attract potential project managers to organizations? Two, do the competencies sought by recruitment job advertisements reflect the competencies prescribed by project management literature and professional bodies? Finally whether there are differences regionally and between industries in the use of project management competencies to attract potential project managers.

Literature Review

The researchers reviewed relevant research studies and provided a rationale for the importance of the study. The literature review highlights the research gaps and provides reasons why the research was necessary. The literature review focused on the project management profession and the role of the project manager. It looked at what makes a competent project manager and the competency frameworks from project management literature. Finally it reviewed project management recruitment and job advertisements.

The last five decades has seen a growth in the use of project management across different industries. This has led to the development of project management as a profession just like other professions like law and engineering (Hodgson, 2002). This has led to the growth of project management professionals with the Project Management Institute (PMI) having over 3.3 million members with 400,000 of these having Professional Management Professional (PMP) credentials as of 2011.

Research studies indicate that even though the development of project – based organizations has received attention in theory and practice (Sydow, Lindkvist, & DeFillippi, 2004; Turner & Keegan, 1999; Turner & Keegan, 2001). There is little research that has been done on the role of the project manager.  The role of a project manager has changed from an administrator to a managerial and leadership role. This means that the project manager needs a different set of skills, capabilities and competencies hence the need for this study. The professionalization of project managers continues to remain diverse as an occupation and profession.

Research studies indicate that the types of projects and competencies of project managers vary in depth and are very broad (Muller turner). According to Muller $turner, there is a correlation between project management leadership competencies and the success of the project. The different types of projects also require different types of leadership style. The International Project Management Association (IPMA) and Project Management Institute (PMI) are the two major project management professional bodies. These organizations have developed various project management competency frameworks. The three dimensions of project management competencies are knowledge, performance and personal.

The literature also looked at the recruitment of project managers which is critical for an organization to attract and retain talented personnel. The critical role of the competencies of project managers to an organization is vital to the success of its projects because of the complexity of project work. The matching of the project manager to the requirements of the project and objective of the organization is vital. The research indicated a gap in linking the project management competencies to the project management professional body standards and the job advertisements in recruiting the ‘right’ project manager.


The study population is made up of project manager job advertisements on print and online media. Print media includes newspapers, professional magazines and journals. Online media includes online job boards, company career web pages and social media. The researchers chose online job boards because these were bigger and more detailed than those found in published print media. The online job advertisements provided a lot of content for analysis. They are easy to navigate, manage, and access the target job advertisements. They are also easy to categorize by country, industry, role and responsibilities. The size of the sample was 795 job advertisements which were analyzed using the 15 KSAs (Knowledge, Skills and Ability) developed from the literature review. The job advertisements were representative as they covered different industries from Australia and New Zealand.

Data Collection

The researchers justified their choice of data collection. The data on job advertisements for project managers was collected from online job boards. This is because online job boards provide more details on the job competencies and requirements than print media. Print media is restricted due to the limited space provided and it is also costly when the job advertisements use a big space.

The researchers described the format of their data collection tools. The first step the researchers followed was to create variables that would be the basis of the data collection. They then identified the most cited variables from the project management literature in regards to the competencies required of a project manager. This process identified 60 variables which were grouped under the 15 KSAs. The variables were tallied and ranked based on how frequent they appeared on the job advertisements.

The next step was to identify the job website, and the researchers chose ‘Seek’. This is the largest online job board in the Australian region, and hosts 60% of the Australian job sites. The researchers did not consider other job boards as many recruiters post the same jobs simultaneously.

There was evidence of a pilot study because before the researchers embarked on data collection they ensured that the KSA variables they would use covered the most sought-after project manager competencies. The pilot study involved the analysis of 40 job advertisements. The merging and grouping of the key variables was conducted through the literature review, content analysis from the 40 job advertisements, and group consensus among the researchers. The initial 60 variables were checked and amendments made where necessary. The pilot study was a success as the researchers’ added variables to the initial 60, and other variables were discarded in the process. This ensured a robust variable set for the study.

The strengths of the data collection process were that the researchers could identify the strength of the selected variables and adjust them accordingly before embarking on the major data collection. The weakness of the process was that it was time consuming as it was done manually without the use of any software. This process was painstaking, time consuming and laborious. The researchers used 795 jobs advertisements which were reduced to 762 after screening due to lack of content or duplication. This is what was tabulated for analysis.

Data Analysis

            The data was analyzed using content analysis which is a research technique that allows for inferences to be  made based on text an in consideration of the context it was written. It uses two integrated approaches; qualitative analysis for conceptual framework and quantitative to allow for measurability. The researchers used statistical analysis after identifying the final 762 job advertisements. The analysis was done according to job advertisements under country category, under industry category, and across industries and countries category. (Holzmann & Spiegler, 2010)

The data was in qualitative form before it was statistically analyzed. Each job advertisement was printed and marked with a reference number and filed under country and industry. The researchers used the initial 60 variables and scanned each advertisement for key words, phrases that fell under the predefined variables. Variables were placed in columns and job advertisements in rows. A binary code was used where ‘1’ was a positive response and ‘0’ was the alternate answer. Researchers also recorded demographics that included the name of the company, job titles, salary, benefits and project size.

Study Results

There is a section on the results and analysis which includes the study results. This section has different sub sections that give the results under different themes. These are; job advertisements under KSA classifications; sought-after KSAs across industries and countries’ KSAs under country category; and KSAs under project industry category. Under each sub section there is a report of the results.

The qualitative data was the final 762 job advertisements that were analyzed. There is no example of any of these job advertisements. The analysis of the quantitative data was through the use of tables and graphs for each sub section. There were five tables that represented; the top 15 most cited KSAs from literature; the top five KSAs from job advertisements; the top KSAs across industries and countries; a comparison between cited and sought-after KSAs; and the top five sought-after KSAs for the top five project industries. The results also included a graph indicating the project manager KSAs comparison for Australia and New Zealand. The second graph indicated the KSAs demanded in different project industries.

The results indicated that education under the knowledge category was the most cited competency at 28%. Communication was the most sought-after competency across all industries at 61.68%. From project literature leadership was the most frequently cited competency. For competencies under country category, Australian project management jobs looked for more KSAs in their advertisements than New Zealand. In addition Australians were more concerned about time and cost management than New Zealand. There were some differences in job requirements between the two countries. Under the project management industry category, most of the job advertisements were from 8 major industries with 52% from ICT and 25% from construction. Arts and media had the least job advertisements. Overall the most common competencies were communication and education.

Discussion and Conclusions

The researchers did not compare their findings to other research studied because this particular study was the only one of its kind in project management literature. The study provided answers to the three research questions set out at the beginning of the study. The most frequently used competencies to attract potential project managers to organizations were all skills based. These were communication, technical, stakeholder management and time and cost management. Under the knowledge category, the top two competencies were education background and project management certification. The ability category was the least emphasized in the job advertisements.

Similarities exist between the competencies sought-after by recruitment job advertisements ad those prescribed by project management literature and project management professional bodies. However, there are differences on the emphasis of competencies across industries and regions. Although the study indicates that communication is the most cited competency across all industries, the results indicate that the KSAs vary between industries. This means that the role of the project manager is different under each industry.

The limitation of the study includes the focus of the study on Australia and New Zealand. Differences may exist if the study included job advertisements from other regions such as the United States or Europe. The other limitation was that there was no similar study that had been carried out that would provide a comparison.

The researchers drew accurate conclusions based on the study finding.  The most significant finding was that attention is required on the variations in KSAs that exist across industries and regions as regards the role of the project manager. These differences can for the basis of a comprehensive understanding of project management.

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Recruiting and Staffing Plan – Amazon’s Customer Service Managers


The process of employee recruitment and staffing is a means by which firms find the right employees for its job opening (Calvasina, Calvasina & Calvasina, 2014). The process of recruitment takes place several times within a company’s life. However, this process is mostly extensive in cases where a business seeks to expand or undertake a new direction. Extensive planning is the first stage of the process follows by recruitment, interviews and staffing efforts. Amazon is an example of a company that implements the process of recruitment and selection in various occasions. Currently, the company has a plan to hire 7,000 employees for its operation in the United States. The outlined number includes that of Customer Service Managers employed on a full-time basis. Evidently, the company seeks to recruit 2,000 employees for its customer service department. This paper presents recruitment and staffing plan for Amazon’s Customer Service Managers. Despite having the brand as the main source of organization competitiveness, overlooking the process of staffing and recruitment means a massive decline in a company’s productivity.

Legal Landscape

            Interview questions, job postings, checking references and hiring decisions should be conducted in a way that they reduce any business risks. For instance, this includes refraining from asking discriminatory or unlawful questions as discouraged by the law. As is, employers are required to keep off any form of activities that they may suggest discrimination  based on ethnicity, race, gender, physical ability, marital status, sexual orientation or even religion. Failure to do so is an indication that the employer is going against the legal requirement as presented by the constitution and other legal legislation that calls for equal employment opportunities.

Recruitment Plan

According to Calvasina, Calvasina and Calvasina (2014), a recruitment plan refers to the process of finding and hiring the best candidates suited for a job opening within the organization. Recruitment is important as it assist an organization is widening its labor force hence increased productivity. The recruitment plan involves a series of steps. The first step is goals identification. Under this stage, the goals of the recruitment are identified such as attracting the most suitable candidates to fill the position of the Customer Service Managers. In addition, the goals of the pan in this case include  attracting candidates with high skills and promoting the company as one of the dynamic firms where people aspire to work. The second stage includes tools identification. In this case Amazon will focus on two major tools to find the right candidates for its job post. The first tool includes the use of online tools.  Calvasina, Calvasina and Calvasina (2014) shows that a large percentage of employees recruited in the current age are young individuals who are proficient and conversant when it comes to the usage of online tools. As a result, placing adverts about the job opening over the online platform is an effective way of finding the right candidate for the job in comparison to the use of traditional techniques. The use of word of mouth as a tool for recruiting the right candidates is also a commonality in this case. Incidentally, this is a way of having the employees recruit other potential employees that they feel are qualified for the job opening.

Selection Plan

Alter (2015) defines staffing as the process of overseeing, hiring and positioning employees in an organization. Staffing in important for Amazon as it ensures a general reduction on production costs. This is accrued to the fact that staffing assists in the appointment of the right candidate for a job opening at the right time in that no wastage and mistakes will be noticed within the company’s production efforts. Staffing also beneficial to Amazon as results in a promoted job satisfaction for the other employees available in the company. As is, the existing employees will not have to worry about cases of increased workforce with the right staff in place.

Assessments to be used

Cognitive ability tests will be used by Amazon in recruiting efficient Customer Service Managers. Incidentally, the test will measure the mental abilities of the respective candidates based on their customer service job requirement. This includes their reasoning capability as well as verbal and non-verbal skills of communication. With the measures, a general score is obtained to gauge the level of proficiency of the candidate based on their mental capacity. Integrity tests will also be utilized by Amazon as it will aid in ascertaining the candidates measure of experience and attitudes based on their level of dependability, trustworthiness and honesty (Alter, 2015).

Interviewing techniques

            The main interview techniques to be implemented in this case involve the use of open ended questions. This will required the candidates to engage in discussions based on the questions asked hence making it possible for the HR to ascertain the candidate level of expertise and skills for the Customer Service Manager job opening.

Interview Question

  1. How do you gather feedback from customers and transform them into actionable consideration?
  2. What are the most common challenges faced by a customer service manager?
  3. Identify one customer service policy that you have established and implemented in the past.
  4. How have you worked together with your team members to achieve a common organization goal?
  5. Which style of management do you prefer and why?


In summary, staffing and recruitment hold much importance as the company’s brand when it comes to productivity and competition. As a result, recruitment and staffing should be implemented by companies to identify the right candidates for a job opening hence improving on productivity and competition.

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How to Overcome Communication Barriers As A Manager

Introduction – Organization Behavior Skills

Communication is very essential in any organization. It highly enhances effective running of operations and other processes. It allows effective flow of information from the management to the workers in terms of instructions, notification, or warnings. In this regard, it is very important for any manager to ensure effective communication, which can highly be done by eliminating the communication barriers (Collins, 2001). There are different forms of communication barriers. The four main communication barriers include semantic barriers, physical barriers, personal barriers, and process barriers. This paper focuses on evaluating the four forms of communication barriers and identifying procedures, practices, tools or guidelines that a manager can employ to overcome these barriers.

Overcoming Communication Barriers

Communication barrier refers to anything which interferes with communication flow between the receiver and sender in communication. A manager should have the aptitude to recognize the communication barriers and establish a way of overcoming these barriers to ensure his or her roles is done ethically, legally, and effectively. The four main forms of communication barriers include semantic barriers, personal barriers, physical barriers, and process barriers. Personal barrier refers to personal prejudices or feelings that can affect communication. The feeling of anger, anxiety, lack of enough knowledge to the subject matter, poor listening ability, variation in the perception and psychological distance can highly affects how one interprets the message, or how one sends the message. To ensure effective communication, a manager needs to have a comprehensive understanding of the subject matter to be addressed. This can be enhanced by conducting enough research regarding the subject matter. The manager should also study the employees’ climate and state of mind, whether normal, happy, angry or disappointed. This will determine the tone of delivering the message to ensure that the manager is able to influence their reaction to the message positively. The manager should always speak clearly and slowly, and if the message is written the manager should always avoid jargon words. Simple language should always be used to ensure that the message is clearly understood as intended by the majorities. The manager is always required to be calm and composed while giving the message. He or she should not react while under any emotional state. In addition, he should ensure that the listener or the message receiver is also in a good state to receive the message without emotional influence (Golen, 1980).

Physical barriers refer to external forces which create adversarial effect on the process of communication. They include geographical distances which delays immediate feedback, noise which interfere with the message creating distortion, and also incorrect medium choice, which lies on the message nature. Others include poor lighting blocking nonverbal gestures, poor words choice and grammar in an email. To overcome physical barrier, the manager should ensure that physical meetings are done in a quiet, well light place to ensure that the receivers are not distracted by the environment nor hindered from listening from seeing the speaker. The manager should also consider using a platform while addressing a big crowed to ensure that he or she is clearly visible. The main form of communication preferred for business communication where geographical distance is involved is emailing. This eliminates possible communication noise that can distort the message and interfere with its understanding. In this case, the manager should ensure that the message is clearly written using simple, grammatically correct language. In case a phone call must be made for immediate feedback, video conferencing should be the most appropriate form of communication since it will give the communicators a chance to read other nonverbal communication gestures. This means, the manager will be required to select the best form of communication to overcome the geographical distance distractions and to maximize the understanding of the message and the feedback from both ends. To ensure efficiency, the manager should consider using different forms of communication to deliver the same message to overcome physical barriers especially where geographical distance is involved (Redding, 1972).

Semantic barrier can also be regarded as language barrier. It involves the employment of wrong words in a sentence, particularly based on the listeners’ understanding of the language used. This mostly happens if the speaker and the listener come from different professionals where certain words would mean different to them. It can also involve the employment of informal language which can change the original intended meaning or create a great misunderstanding. Semantic barrier can also be brought about by use of technical or jargon words with people of different education level of profession which can create a great confusion. To overcome sematic communication barriers, the manager should always understand the receiver ability to comprehend information. Simple, clear language should be used while addressing workers either via email, memo, or through verbal communication. The manager should always avoid jargon words that are not shared by all based on their professions. Normally, a manager is always involved in formal communication and thus, he or she should always ensure that the formal language is used all through. Abbreviations should be avoided to ensure clear understanding of the message. Also the manager should avoid the use of idioms and other phrases with hidden meanings to eliminate confusion or misinterpretation of the message. Vague language should also be avoided to enhance maximum understanding of the message without making any form of assumption. The manager should also avoid using symbols. Normally, an organization can have diverse population based on their culture, religion, and ways of life. In this regard, they may have different symbols with different meanings, or even similar symbols but with different meanings. In this regard, the manager should completely avoid using symbols since they can easily been misinterpreted by different people or create confusion regarding the actual intended meaning. In other words, symbols can be vague based on individuals (Collins, 2001).

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Project Manager Effectiveness in the productivity of the UK’s construction industry


In September 2014, construction industry in the UK recorded one of the fastest growth rates that had been sustained for well over seven months. In fact, the growth rate of about 64 percent was way above what many construction analysts and economists had projected. The boom in construction industry came about amid the concerns of the recession that had rocked the euro zone. As elucidated by Fewings (2013), residential construction facilitated the growth in many ways owing to the fact that demand for housing in the UK remains high. While many pundits presume that the growth reflects ‘return to normality’ within the construction industry, it is imperative to mention that labor productivity as well as effectiveness of project managers has been instrumental in spurring the surge within the industry.

Project manager’s effect on productivity within the construction industry

Project managers play a critical role in ensuring that their projects are completed within time by influencing the labor productivity. At the outset, the project managers have the responsibility of creating a productive management culture within the industry and organizations that they manage (Morton & Ross, 2008). Apparently, a culture where project managers assign projects to individuals without equipping them with the requisite tools and sufficient training could be counterproductive (Fewings, 2013). In such a culture, projects end up consuming huge amounts of resources without achieving the objectives (Dykstra, 2011). Project managers influence the productivity and effectiveness of the organizations by ensuring that the manage projects within a culture that motivates staff members through a competitive reward structure. This ensures that the strategic plan of the project is executed effectively. In addition, it is important to articulate that project managers are responsible for constant evaluation of the existing culture in order to align it with the productivity needs envisioned in the strategic plan.

According to Morton & Ross (2008), project managers influence the productivity of labor creating project teams and ensuring that the teams are effective. For a team to work effectively, there are various aspects of team management that are pertinent to project teams including the ability of the manager to become a team player. This ensures that project teams work together with a shared goal of and a mission to enhance the success of the project. While it sounds easy to work within a team to achieve a common purpose, some projects are usually complex and require immense knowledge and expertise especially from members of the team (Morton & Ross, 2008). The project manager therefore should be in a position bring up a team and train them to work cohesively.

Construction industry in the UK has faced rapid growth over the recent past due to the ability of the project managers to undertake implementation of management quality systems of the projects (Morton & Ross, 2008). Project managers ensure that the quality of the work delivered by all employees meet the internationally accepted quality standards (Fewings, 2013). The quality systems ensure that the customers’ needs are well understood and addressed. This is in addition to ensuring that there is a policy in place to ensure that management of projects meets organizational quality standards. The project managers ensure that the all project processes can adapt to all sizes of the projects both complex and simple projects and set up tools and templates that enhance effective documentation of the project (Dykstra, 2011). Due to the setting up of sufficient quality control systems, project managers have been linked to organization’s ability of meeting the needs of the customers who consequently get confidence in the projects. This improves the effectiveness of the projects.

Project managers also affect the effectiveness of productivity within the construction industry by ensuring that they consistently improve the level of project performance (Dykstra, 2011). This involves the preservation of output and delivering the project’s strategic plan in order to meet the ever-rising demand of the customers even when the pressure is extremely high. Apparently, assigning resources to emerging projects may put a strain on the resources and work balance since the resources should perform their regular roles and the assigned project. This might create tension within the workers who are required to meet the needs of their respective departments while at the same time ensuring that they perform the new tasks assigned to them (Morton & Ross, 2008). To achieve this, the project managers should be careful in resource allocation and ensure that they do not act as the impediments of project’s success but rather as the facilitators.

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Advocacy Strategies That Can Be Used to Create Change Workplace – Nurse Manager Skills Inventory

Assignment Instructions

Identify advocacy strategies that you can use to create change in your current workplace. Rate yourself using the results from the “Nurse Manager Skills Inventory”:

Write a reflection of 750-1,000 words in which you identify your strengths and weaknesses related to the four content areas below:

  • Personal and professional accountability
  • Career planning
  • Personal journey disciplines
  • Reflective practice reference behaviors/tenets

Discuss how you will use your current leadership skill set to advocate for change in your workplace.

Identify one personal goal for your leadership growth and discuss your implementation plan to achieve that goal.

Sample Answer – Nurse Manager Skills Inventory

Combining Nurse Leader with Advocacy Strategies That Can Be Used to Create Change in Workplace – Nurse Manager Inventory Tool

The Nurse Manager Inventory Tool is a device used to evaluate and asses Nurse Managers alongside three areas of skill and ability required from them, to e qualified in the field of nursing. The three areas are, managing the business, the leader within, and leading people. This tool is used by the supervisor and the individual nurse manager (Crenshaw, 2012). After the assessment, the two sit down and discuss the results and the difference in evaluation. The tool is highly effective and it has been recommended to be used in the nursing schools. Subsequent to doing a self evaluation, using the nurse manager inventory tool, I have come to the conclusion that I am in the competent category. My overall score is above 75 percent. I got an opportunity to evaluate and asses both my strength and my weaknesses, founded   on the inventory tool the results are intriguing, since I am now aware on the areas that I need to work on.

Rate yourself using the results from the “Nurse Manager Skills Inventory”

Starting from the managing the business skill section: Foundational thinking skills, Human resource management, and Performance improvement are my strong points, Technology and  financial management are the areas I have recognized as my weakest, and this are the areas I need to improve. Upon the assessment of the second domain, I got so intrigued because this is the area that my strengths prevail, leading the people domain includes: human resource leadership skill, relationship management and influencing behavior, diversity, and shared decision making. In addition, as I continued assessing myself founded on the inventory tool, I also recognized my strengths in the creating the leader within category.

This reveals that I also excel in this domain; personal and professional accountability, career planning, personal journey discipline and reflective practice reference behavior and tenets (Vitello-Cicciu, Weatherford, Gemme, Glass, & Seymour-Route, 2014). In summary, my self- evaluation test revealed that I am strong in the two domains; leading the people, and in the creating the leader within, on the flip side my weakness was revealed in, the managing the business domain particularly, technology and financial management. Reflecting on the four aspects of creating the leader within; personal and professional accountability, career planning, personal journey discipline, reflective practice behavior/tenets,  I have recognized that I have high leadership skills and also I am in the competent category, since my score is above 75 percent.

Discuss how you will use your current leadership skill set to advocate for change in your workplace.

I will utilize my leadership skills by, becoming a facilitator of change in my work place; I will empower others, to build a strong team work and be able to effect changes and improve patient outcomes and expectations. First I will become the change I want to see in my work place, since a significant number of staff nurses feel incapable in their jobs and are unable to operate separately, or even speak up, about concerns or suggestions. This feeling of powerlessness creates job discontent, stress and burnout, hence lead to unproductive nursing that compromise patient safety or the nurse’s responsibility as a patient advocate. In addition, I will implement communication strategies, where I will encourage practice of assertive communication among nurses instead of passive and aggressive conducts (Heifetz, Grashow, & Linsky,  2009).Finally, I will establish a supportive environment for my colleagues; expressing respect, concern, trust and confidence. This support environment will ensure, that every one gets involved, deal patiently with unexpected changes, and everyone becomes proactive rather than reactive.

Identify one personal goal for your leadership growth and discuss your implementation plan to achieve that goal.

The inventory tool has revealed my weakness in Technology and financial management. I have set improving my tech skills as goal, in order to deal with my weakness. In this era of Technology, everyone has become conversant with computers. For me to attain my goal I need first, to cultivate a desire to love the computer, since it’s something I lack, as this is a technical skill, I will have to create and dedicate my time to improve it. I have purposed to buy a technical book, teaching on computers every month, for three months (Thompson, Strickland, Gamble, & Zeng’an Gao, 2008).I also intend to join a computer club and associate myself with people that love technology; this will inspire to also love and improve my technology skills. Finally, I also plan joining a class where I can learn, and be able to interact with an experienced teacher, who will teach me and help me improve in my technology skills. Consequently, doing all this will help me achieve my goal, and as a result I will be to integrate into patients care process, use information systems to support business decisions, and be able to save and retrieve patients records.

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Managerial Approaches for Coordinating Organizational Personnel and Activities

Vertical Coordination

In an organization such as an acute care hospital, personnel and activities can be coordinated downwards or upwards, vertical coordination. The coordination depends on authority and happens between varied organizational levels. It is applied best where the persons coordinating the personnel or activities employ ample insights when executing staffing, controlling, influencing, organizing, and planning functions. To ensure that the coordination is effective, as well as efficient, organizations should be structured in line with management and employee collaboration. That is especially so because in the organizations, decisions, issues, and coordination processes flow vertically between the employees and the management in a structured manner.

The effectiveness, as well as efficiency, of vertical coordination of activities along with personnel is commonly hampered by its rigid structure. The structure inhibits the flow of communications between the management and the employees as well as between units or departments. The flow is not as organic, as well as easy, as in the horizontal coordination of the same activities long with personnel. As well, the effectiveness, as well as efficiency, is often limited dilution of information as it flows down the ranks. In some cases, particular information may be distorted or even lost. In such cases, those who receive the information are unable to decipher the original meaning intended by those giving out the information (Ravasan, Mansouri & Nabavi, 2015).

In most cases, there are delays in the flow of communications and processes, especially where the levels are many. As well, in most cases information is filtered out as it moves from management to other staff. That many make the staff become confused and frustrated, injuring their relationship with the management (Agarwal, 1986). In some cases of vertical organizations, senior staff may be averse to receiving information from own juniors.

To increase the effectiveness, as well as efficiency, of vertical coordination of activities along with personnel in organizations, they may require establishing ombudsperson offices. Notably, the concept on which the offices are founded was first employed in Swedish communities which required mechanisms through which junior employees could have their grievances against their seniors addressed devoid of the threat of being victimized. The offices help in investigating personnel, grievances, and complaints in organizations, smoothening upward coordination or communication.

Horizontal Coordination

The horizontal coordination of particular organizational activities along with personnel entails departments and personnel one level, collaborating to attain specific organizational objectives (Haynes, 2007). That type of coordination is particularly helpful where the activities along with personnel are interdependent (Ravasan, Mansouri & Nabavi, 2015). It is more efficient, as well as effective, than the other forms of coordination in organizations where departments and employees share given organizational levels. It allows for informal communication flows, which are particularly effective since there are not characterized or hindered by protocol requirements.

The horizontal coordination of particular organizational activities allows workers and departments to deliberate about work-related concerns on as-required basis as well. It is more effective, as well as efficient, than the vertical and diagonal activity and personnel coordination in cases where there is a need for maintaining the coordination and reviewing the activities allocated to particular subordinates. As well, it is more effective, as well as efficient, than the vertical and diagonal activity and personnel coordination in cases where there is need for lateral communications between peers who are interacting such as departmental managers.

Diagonal Coordination

In an organization such as an acute care hospital, the diagonal form of activity and personnel coordination is essential since varied departments and personnel may relay on specific departments or personnel to attain particular objectives. Diagonal coordination may be put in place where employees and departments at diverse levels are dependent on each other. For instance, in an acute care hospital, its business growth unit under the marketing department may have some of its functions tied to the functions of the accounting department. The business growth unit and the accounting department would have to coordinate their activities and staff diagonally to enhance the efficiency, as well as effectiveness, of their collaborative or complementary workings.

Diagonal coordination is more effective, as well as efficient, than the vertical and horizontal activity and personnel coordination in cases where employees and departments at diverse levels are dependent on each other. Diagonal coordination is more effective, as well as efficient, than the vertical and horizontal activity and personnel coordination in cases where given personnel and departments interact with others across own reporting relationship boundaries. Besides, diagonal coordination is more effective, as well as efficient, than the vertical and horizontal activity and personnel coordination in cases where crosswise forms of communication are critical and where horizontal, as well as vertical, hierarchical formations are yet to be established. Notably, diagonal activity and personnel coordination provides platforms for junior staff to interact rather informally with their seniors, leading to the enhancement of the morale of the junior staff. The junior staffs become increasingly dedicated to the organizations they serve.

In organizations that have formal organizational structures, there is a high likelihood of the imposition of stop-then-go data functions for determining who handles given data and what he or she does to it. Such functions are typified by delays. To avoid the delays, diagonal activity and personnel coordination is employed, heightening the efficacy, as well as effectiveness, of the processes for formulating the attendant decisions (Ravasan, Mansouri & Nabavi, 2015). Even then, the effectiveness, as well as efficacy, of diagonal activity and personnel coordination may be reduced by subordinate infringement fears among senior staff cadres. In some cases, the staff in the top cadres may resist complying with the suggestions given by those in the lower cadres especially when the suggested do not stem from wide-ranging consultations. In the diagonal coordination, external animosity, as well as internal anarchy, may arise from the absence of agreed-upon procedures.