Nursing theory serves as a framework to provisionally understand some part of the nursing world by identifying relevant occurrence that need groping (George, 1990). Nursing theory is the grouping, and the combination of reasons, theories, thoughts, and relations derived from nursing models and projects. For comprehending of theories, it is vital to know about the perception, theoretical framework, and other basics of the theory. These theories have a great impact on today’s nursing; they aid in nursing care, research, and learning. In this assignment, I am conferring the Watson’s Theory of Human Caring and Orem Theory, and I will compare and contrast the two theories.
Caring is the major concept of Watson’s Theory of Human caring; the theory illustrates caring as the moral and ethical ideal of nursing that has personal and humanistic qualities. Watson argues that human caring preserves human dignity, integrity, and relationships, this advance theory patient care by recognizing and appreciating the patient as a human being that has; mind, soul, and body. Watsons also argues that trust and a special bond between a nurse, and a patient created when the two mingle face to face (Faetibold, & Waton, 1995). The purpose of the nurse is to help the patient acquire a conviction of Concord, and balance within him, which creates; self-knowledge, self- admiration, and self- remedial. The theory defines a shift from; sickness, diagnosis, and treatment and focus on human caring, healing, and support of spiritual health.
Orem’s theory comprise of three theories; theory of self-care, the theory of self- care deficit, and the theory of nursing process. In the first theory; theory of self-care, Orem argues that every human being has the ability and responsibility to adjust, promote and maintain a personal health, and well-being all through life (Orem, & Taylor, 1986). The second theory; theory of self-care deficit, illustrates that every human being has a need for survival, and are capable of attaining it for health, and life, self-care deficit develops when individuals are not capable of attaining needs for survival. In the third theory; theory of nursing process, Orem argues that an action plan that connects self-care theory and self-care deficit need develop. Theory of nursing process ensures that needs of the two theories fulfilled. The theory divides into fundamental nursing science and nursing practice. Orem’s theory illustrates five ways that nurses can help their patients in enhancing self-care; serving others, guiding, teaching, supporting, and promoting personal development.
A plan on how the two theories are utilized and implemented
The planned used to utilize and implement the theories in nursing interprets as the same scientific approach used by nurses to ensure the quality of patient care. This plan breaks into five separate steps:
- Step 1: this step known as the assessment phase where a general nurse gathers information about the patient; spiritual, sociological, physiological, and psychological information about the patient is collected. The patient interacts with the nurse intensely as the nurse gathers the assessment data.
- Step 2: this step or stage known as the diagnosis stage, a nurse makes a judgment about an actual health problem with the patient. Several diagnoses for a single patient are sometimes carried out; it outlines the exact problem, and also outlines the risk of developing other health problems. In this step, patient’s readiness for treatment and health improvement is determined.
- Step 3: known as the planning stage, once the nurse, and the patient determines the ailment; a plan of action develops. The nurse in church places a priority on severe symptoms and high- risk factors.
- Step 4: referred as the implementing stage, in this stage the nurse follows through on the plan of action. The plan of action often varies with different patients and gives attention to the problem at the hand. The nurse monitors the patient for signs or any improvement while performing the medical duties; educating, instructing, referring, and contacting the patient for follow-ups.
- Step 5: Known as the evaluation stage, in this stage the nurse completes an evaluation to determine the patient’s wellness plan has achieved. The patient’s result termed as; patient’s condition alleviated, patient condition improved, patient condition declined; died, or discharged.
Similarities between Watson’s theory, and Orem’s theory
The two theories are in similar, in that, they both focus on the care of the patient, Watson theory of human caring, proposes human caring as the moral ideal of nursing, nurses participate in caring for the patient; to protect, enhance, and preserve humanity. The nurses assist patients in finding a balance and harmony in the ailment, pain, and help the patients to gain self-knowledge, self-control, and self- healing. Orem’s theory focuses on the supportive educative system; the patients require assistance and the care of the nurses (Orem, & Taylor, 1986). Orem categorizes care as supportive- educative system when nurses assist the patients to make decisions and take actions to achieve self-care requirements.
The two theories implemented in the in the home care nursing, both theories argue that care performed by the nurses, and also the patients (Faetibold, Michels, & Waton, 1996). The role of the nurse is to provide education and support that help the patient achieve the necessary capabilities to perform self-care that will result in self-knowledge, self-control, and self- healing. Watson’s theory is uncertain because of her vague and uncertain distinct terms. The terms used by Watson to describe caring, such as the; the spirit, the soul, and the mind, are biased to the individual and are not practical. Also in Orem’s theory, the perceptions discussed are not well definite and are not open to biased explanation; therefore it is challenging to apply the two theories.
Difference between Watson’s theory and Orem’s theory
Watson’s theory of caring is complex, many of the ideas involved, propose theoretical questions about the definitions of caring, morality, growing, healing, spirituality, and what is considered human (Faetibold, Michels, & Waton,1996). Watson’s theory offers a framework that embraces art, spirituality, science, and humanities, which are biased and abstract perceptions. While, Orem’s theory; is organized and well structured into three categories; self-care, self-care deficit, and the process of nursing, this theory is simple and practical.
Watson’s theory cannot be statically measured, according to Watson, for a patient to have a good relationship with their nurse, the patient taught transpersonal caring, Watson argues that the nurse must inspire feelings of faith and hope to the patient. These make the theory biased and abstract (Orem, & Taylor, 1986). On the flip side Orem’s theory is measurable, it is researched using qualitative, and quantitative research methods. Orem’s theory outlines structural foundation for many proofs based practices such as the process of nursing. This process evaluated by researching objective patient results, and statistics in care settings.
Incorporation of holistic and spiritual nursing
The two theories incorporate both holistic and spiritual nursing; the two theories focus on healing the whole person. Spiritual nursing focuses on; religion, faith, and hope as the distinct components of what define human communities, and allow individuals to evaluate their experiences. Holistic nursing also addresses the connection between the body, spirit, and the mind (Baldacchino, & Draper, 2001).The two nursing practices argue that all these aspects combine to create the person, to heal the person, the nurse’s focus on these aspects and how they affect the person’s health.
Other related theories
Watson’s theory and Orem’s theory known as grand theories; they are formed of concepts, and perceptions representing universal and multifaceted phenomenon (George, 1990). They signify the most conceptual level of development and address the extensive phenomena of concern. These theories do not guide to the formation of specific nursing interventions, but they provide a general structure for constructing broad, abstract perceptions. Other examples of grand theories are; humanistic model, Roy’s Adaptation Model for Nursing, Parse’s Human becoming Theory, and Erickson’s Modeling and Role.
Application of Grand Theories
Grand theories are applied and implemented in Holistic Nursing; holistic healing addresses the connection between the mind of, the spirit, the body, emotions, and the environment. All of these features unite to comprise a person, a holistic nurse put together these features with medicine to heal the person (George, 1990). Nurses use their experiences as the foundation for their care, incorporating the patient’s experiences, understanding, and knowledge with the social, cultural, and spiritual values to treat the whole person, and not only the sickness.
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