Tag: Nursing Theory

Most Critical Step of Concept Analysis in Theory development In Nursing

The framework of theories in nursing science created in a vibrant progression that occurs from practice and replicated through research, primarily through development and analysis of ideas and concepts.  Usually, science comprises of progress from common sense to valid assessment that is mostly not well defined and ineffectually executed (Shattel, 2004). Construction of a body of knowledge in a particular area depends on the clarity of a particular concept, but lack clarity results in less consistency in nursing science than the expected. The major dividing forces behind developing concepts of nursing are providing names and models for practice.

Consequently, a concept is defined as an ultimate mental construction detailed in line with an occurrence or a phenomenon that is necessary for construction of theories and research development. Additionally, concepts consist of theoretical aspects of veracity and, as a result, symbolize more than mental images and words as they capture the intricate nature of these attributes.  Further, concepts can also be recognized as abstract and cognitive illustrations of apparent reality incorporated through indirect or direct occurrences. For that reason, a concept must be integrated into a framework and join in a way that permits and offers meaning and application, and thus progresses information in a certain area.

Which step of concept analysis do you feel is most critical to theory development?

Determining defining attributes can be likened to signs and symptoms, and the most significant step that assists in distinguishing one concept from the other connected concept and elucidating its meaning. Also, there are three key defining attributes which identified the concept is overcoming:  the capability to understand or recognize a behavior, event, or situation exists and is adverse, unhealthy, or impending. Secondly, demonstrated willpower and readiness to change and overcome the situation, behavior, or event; a belief that efforts to modify and defeat the event, situation, or action will advance your life quality (Ramirez, 2007). Overcoming defined as an analytical method of beating a self-perceived difficult challenge, adversity, or circumstance, so as to live a happier and healthy life. Always, this step of concept analysis is the most critical in theory development.

Steps of concept analysis

Determine Defining Attributes

Consider and think of attributes as features or characteristics (Walker, & Avant, 2011). It is the first and most vital step of concept analysis.  However, this step is not strictly progressive, find out and take notes for different concept functions. For instance, look for attributes that appear and those that capture your attention.  Since your goal is to come up with various concepts that allow you distinguish different concepts.

Identify Model Cases

Recognize and identify a model case that will illustrate the concept, and include all the defining attributes. Always aim for a model example that clearly shows the concept, and without distracting the elements (Walker, & Avant, 2011). It is vital for a colleague to review your model case.

Identify Additional Cases

As you search and discover functions of your concept, and probable defining attributes, you will come across other additional cases and attributes of your concept that belong to contrary, related, illegitimate, borderline, or invented model cases (Walker, & Avant, 2011). Therefore, recognize that these are not your actual model case but rather additional cases

 Identify Antecedents and Consequences

Consider situations, contexts, events, or environments, which must exist before a concept can be present (Walker, & Avant, 2011). An antecedent always takes heralds a concept, and a defining attribute cannot be a forerunner of the target concept.

 Define Empirical Referents

It is the last step in concept analysis, which serves as means to establish the existence of a concept. It is done by measuring the defining attributes, although some of the defining attributes are more abstract and difficult to capture (Walker, & Avant, 2011). Consequently, when dealing with an abstract defining attributes, it is vital to use empirical referent, to measure and recognize the attribute.

Nursing As A Cycle Of Nursing Research, Practice, And Theory Explained

Experts describe nursing as a cycle of nursing research, practice, and theory. Experts also propose that entry into this cycle can be made from any point. Explain your agreement or disagreement with each statement.

Experts describe nursing as a cycle of nursing research, practice, and theory, with entry into this cycle from any point. I disagree with this statement. To begin with, research, practice, and theory leave out and exclude some ardently and significant and meaningful aspects and features, such as development and implementation of insights, reflection, and interaction with feedbacks from the patients. Additionally, it is significant and vital to note that entry into the cycle from any point is very catastrophic and disastrous. Consequently, no person should start to practice nursing without groundwork and preliminary training and research (Nursing Theories, 2013). Conversely, the suitable and proper place for the theory is before practice. However, as nurse continuous to grow in the field of nursing, learns and increases in knowledge and even becomes aware of other theories, which becomes more significant and meaningful and aligns with the increased knowledge.

Additionally, Nursing, like other practice in medicine, is to compound and intricate to be condensed and reduced to an applied field. The Nursing field entails that a nurse should attend to the changing and increased knowledge and also adapt to any changes from the practice and also and the responses from the patient. Hence, we can conclude by saying that, moving from theory to practice is convoluted and complex, and Vice- Versa.

Lastly, the thought and notion, that nursing is a continuous cycle of research, practice, and theory that can be entered at any point (Jaarsma, &, Daasen, 1993). Neglects, ignores, overlooks, and overshadows the fact that efficient and effective practice is reliant to firm, and wide-ranging fundamentals in theory and research, and thus theory and research are not easily converted into practice.

Caring According To Nursing Theories and Patients Lived Experiences

All patients are unique. Therefore, they experience various issues differently. Patients’ lived experiences refer to how a certain situation looks like from the patients’ perspective. It is vital for nurses to consider patients’ lived experiences to improve the quality of care they offer the patients. According to Rosemarie Rizzo Parse’s human becoming school of thought, humans are indivisible, unpredictable, everchanging. These conditions create a unique becoming. In addition, Parse claims that humans are the experts of their own health. Therefore, it is vital for nurses to consider the patients’ lived experienced when designing the care plans that would be used to treat the conditions facing the patient (Parker & Smith, 2015).

Jean Watson’s theory of human caring also acknowledges the importance of patients’ lived experiences. The theory claims that nursing values, knowledge, and practice of human caring are focused on the subjective inner healing processes and the experiences of an individual (Parker & Smith, 2015).  The theory acknowledges the importance of patients’ experiences in the healing process. Watson’s theory claims that nurses should use a unique caring-healing framework. The framework is referred to as carative factors. According to the theory, there are ten carative factors. These factors facilitate the healing process and the relationships that would not just affect the patient but also the nurse. The patient is the major focus of the carative factors. The factors put great emphasis on the patients’ lived experiences (Parker & Smith, 2015).

Anne Boykin and Savina O. Schoenhofer’s theory of nursing as caring assumes that all beings are caring. This has a significant impact on patient-nurse interactions. The caring nature of humans enables nurses to acknowledge the feelings of patients and develop caring plans that meet the needs of the patient. The theory asserts that nursing at its fullest sense does not occur if there is no loving relationship between the patient and the nurse. The loving relationship enables the patient and nurse to express self and recognize the other party as a caring person. The loving relationship enables the nurse to see past the emotions of the patient and “be with” the patient. This makes the nurse understand the patients’ lived experiences even better (Parker & Smith, 2015).

It is vital for nurses to ensure that they provide spiritual care to patients. Parse’s human becoming paradigm acknowledges that humans are everchanging. They move on with the possibilities of their hopes and dreams. This necessitates the nurse to provide spiritual care to the patient. Spiritual care is vital in the improvement of the patients’ quality of life. As such, it is vital in enabling the patients to change their health patterns, which ultimately helps in improving their well-being (Parker & Smith, 2015).

Jean Watson’s theory of human caring details the ten carative factors that are critical in nursing. Allowance for existential-phenomenological-spiritual forces is one of the carative factors. As such, the theory acknowledges the importance of spiritual care in improving the health outcomes of the patients (Parker & Smith, 2015).

Finally, Anne Boykin and Savina O. Schoenhofer’s theory of nursing as caring assumes that all humans are caring. The caring nature of nurses makes the nurse acknowledge the importance of spiritual care in healthcare plans. It enables the nurse to develop the “caring between,” which is ultimately vital in the improvement of the wellbeing of the patient (Parker & Smith, 2015).

Jean Watson’s theory of human caring aligns with my personal and professional values in practice. The theory acknowledges the fact that nursing is more than just a job. It is a life-giving and life receiving career that leads to perpetual growth and learning. As a nurse, one is highly fulfilled if the efforts to improve the wellbeing of a patient have a positive impact on the patient.

Watson’s Theory And Orem Theory – Comparing And Contrasting Nursing Theories

Nursing theory serves as a framework to provisionally understand some part of the nursing world by identifying relevant occurrence that need groping (George, 1990). Nursing theory is the grouping, and the combination of reasons, theories, thoughts, and relations derived from nursing models and projects. For comprehending of theories, it is vital to know about the perception, theoretical framework, and other basics of the theory. These theories have a great impact on today’s nursing; they aid in nursing care, research, and learning. In this assignment, I am conferring the Watson’s Theory of Human Caring and Orem Theory, and I will compare and contrast the two theories.

Watson’s Theory

Caring is the major concept of Watson’s Theory of Human caring; the theory illustrates caring as the moral and ethical ideal of nursing that has personal and humanistic qualities. Watson argues that human caring preserves human dignity, integrity, and relationships, this advance theory patient care by recognizing and appreciating the patient as a human being that has; mind, soul, and body. Watsons also argues that trust and a special bond between a nurse, and a patient created when the two mingle face to face (Faetibold, & Waton, 1995).  The purpose of the nurse is to help the patient acquire a conviction of Concord, and balance within him, which creates; self-knowledge, self- admiration, and self- remedial. The theory defines a shift from; sickness, diagnosis, and treatment and focus on human caring, healing, and support of spiritual health.

Orem’s theory

Orem’s theory comprise of three theories; theory of self-care, the theory of self- care deficit, and the theory of nursing process. In the first theory; theory of self-care, Orem argues that every human being has the ability and responsibility to adjust, promote and maintain a personal health, and well-being all through life (Orem, & Taylor, 1986). The second theory; theory of self-care deficit, illustrates that every human being has a need for survival, and are capable of attaining it for health, and life, self-care deficit develops when individuals are not capable of attaining needs for survival. In the third theory; theory of nursing process, Orem argues that an action plan that connects self-care theory and self-care deficit need develop. Theory of nursing process ensures that needs of the two theories fulfilled. The theory divides into fundamental nursing science and nursing practice. Orem’s theory illustrates five ways that nurses can help their patients in enhancing self-care; serving others, guiding, teaching, supporting, and promoting personal development.

A plan on how the two theories are utilized and implemented

The planned used to utilize and implement the theories in nursing interprets as the same scientific approach used by nurses to ensure the quality of patient care. This plan breaks into five separate steps:

  • Step 1: this step known as the assessment phase where a general nurse gathers information about the patient; spiritual, sociological, physiological, and psychological information about the patient is collected.  The patient interacts with the nurse intensely as the nurse gathers the assessment data.
  • Step 2: this step or stage known as the diagnosis stage, a nurse makes a judgment about an actual health problem with the patient.  Several diagnoses for a single patient are sometimes carried out; it outlines the exact problem, and also outlines the risk of developing other health problems.  In this step, patient’s readiness for treatment and health improvement is determined.
  • Step 3: known as the planning stage, once the nurse, and the patient determines the ailment; a plan of action develops. The nurse in church places a priority on severe symptoms and high- risk factors.
  • Step 4: referred as the implementing stage, in this stage the nurse follows through on the plan of action. The plan of action often varies with different patients and gives attention to the problem at the hand. The nurse monitors the patient for signs or any improvement while performing the medical duties; educating, instructing, referring, and contacting the patient for follow-ups.
  • Step 5: Known as the evaluation stage, in this stage the nurse completes an evaluation to determine the patient’s wellness plan has achieved. The patient’s result termed as; patient’s condition alleviated, patient condition improved, patient condition declined; died, or discharged.

Similarities between Watson’s theory, and Orem’s theory

The two theories are in similar, in that, they both focus on the care of the patient, Watson theory of human caring, proposes human caring as the moral ideal of nursing, nurses participate in caring for the patient; to protect, enhance, and preserve humanity. The nurses assist patients in finding a balance and harmony in the ailment, pain, and help the patients to gain self-knowledge, self-control, and self- healing. Orem’s theory focuses on the supportive educative system; the patients require assistance and the care of the nurses (Orem, & Taylor, 1986). Orem categorizes care as supportive- educative system when nurses assist the patients to make decisions and take actions to achieve self-care requirements.

The two theories implemented in the in the home care nursing, both theories argue that care performed by the nurses, and also the patients (Faetibold, Michels, & Waton, 1996). The role of the nurse is to provide education and support that help the patient achieve the necessary capabilities to perform self-care that will result in self-knowledge, self-control, and self- healing. Watson’s theory is uncertain because of her vague and uncertain distinct terms. The terms used by Watson to describe caring, such as the; the spirit, the soul, and the mind, are biased to the individual and are not practical. Also in Orem’s theory, the perceptions discussed are not well definite and are not open to biased explanation; therefore it is challenging to apply the two theories.

Difference between Watson’s theory and Orem’s theory

Watson’s theory of caring is complex, many of the ideas involved, propose theoretical questions about the definitions of caring, morality, growing, healing, spirituality, and what is considered human (Faetibold, Michels, & Waton,1996). Watson’s theory offers a framework that embraces art, spirituality, science, and humanities, which are biased and abstract perceptions. While, Orem’s theory; is organized and well structured into three categories; self-care, self-care deficit, and the process of nursing, this theory is simple and practical.

Watson’s theory cannot be statically measured, according to Watson, for a patient to have a good relationship with their nurse, the patient taught transpersonal caring, Watson argues that the nurse must inspire feelings of faith and hope to the patient. These make the theory biased and abstract (Orem, & Taylor, 1986). On the flip side Orem’s theory is measurable, it is researched using qualitative, and quantitative research methods.  Orem’s theory outlines structural foundation for many proofs based practices such as the process of nursing. This process evaluated by researching objective patient results, and statistics in care settings.

Incorporation of holistic and spiritual nursing

The two theories incorporate both holistic and spiritual nursing; the two theories focus on healing the whole person. Spiritual nursing focuses on; religion, faith, and hope as the distinct components of what define human communities, and allow individuals to evaluate their experiences. Holistic nursing also addresses the connection between the body, spirit, and the mind (Baldacchino, & Draper, 2001).The two nursing practices argue that all these aspects combine to create the person, to heal the person, the nurse’s focus on these aspects and how they affect the person’s health.

Other related theories

Watson’s theory and Orem’s theory known as grand theories; they are formed of concepts, and perceptions representing universal and multifaceted phenomenon (George, 1990). They signify the most conceptual level of development and address the extensive phenomena of concern. These theories do not guide to the formation of specific nursing interventions, but they provide a general structure for constructing broad, abstract perceptions. Other examples of grand theories are; humanistic model, Roy’s Adaptation Model for Nursing, Parse’s Human becoming Theory, and Erickson’s Modeling and Role.

Application of Grand Theories

Grand theories are applied and implemented in Holistic Nursing; holistic healing addresses the connection between the mind of, the spirit, the body, emotions, and the environment. All of these features unite to comprise a person, a holistic nurse put together these features with medicine to heal the person (George, 1990).  Nurses use their experiences as the foundation for their care, incorporating the patient’s experiences, understanding, and knowledge with the social, cultural, and spiritual values to treat the whole person, and not only the sickness.

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Self-Care Deficit Theory by Dorothea E. Orem – Nursing Theory Analysis Paper

Theory/Author Name and Background

This paper will focus on a Mid-Range Theory developed by Dorothea Orem known as Self-Care Deficit Theory. Dorothea Orem is one of the best known theorists in the field of nursing. She was born in 1914 in Baltimore, Maryland. During her entire life, Orem was greatly involved in service, practice, and nursing education (El-Kader, 2002). She received several professional awards and honorary awards as a result of her service and education in nursing. Orem served in several positions during her nursing career including administrator, staff, director, consultant, professor, and private duty. She also worked in operating rooms, pediatrics, surgical, emergency rooms and medical units (Tomey and Alligood, 2002).

Self-Care Deficit Theory was developed by Orem early in her career life and it was refined it before and after retirement. Development of the Self-Care Deficit Theory was mainly influenced by her life experiences. The three main factors that are believed to have caused much influence in the development of the theory include; nursing theory conferences, development of nursing curriculum, and experiences with women’s movement (Meleis, 1997). Between 1949 and 1957, Orem served at the Indiana State Board of Health, Division of Hospital and Institutional Services. As she continued to explore the field of nursing, Orem felt that is was necessary to upgrade the state of nursing in all hospitals in the state. This encouraged her to formulate her definition of nursing practice (El-Kader, 2002).

Orem moved to CUA School of Nursing in 1959 where she served as an assistant professor of nursing education and as an acting dean. It is from this institution where Orem began to develop her first concept of self-care (El-Kader, 2002). When working as a curriculum consultant in the Health Education and Welfare Department, Orem strived to upgrade the nursing training through curriculum development (Orem, 1959). In the same year, she published a book that addressed the concept of self-care. Ideas and opinions that Orem used to develop here Self-Care Deficit Theory were obtained from her intensive exposure to nurses and their efforts especially when she attended women’s movements and nursing theory conferences between 1949 and 1957 (Meleis, 1997).

Since Orem developed the Self-Care Deficit Theory, nurses, medical doctor and authors have increasingly borrowed ideas of the theory and health care workers have even tried to apply her ideas at their places of work. To date, there are several researches that have been carried out on Self-Care Deficit Theory. According to Bekel, Panfil, and Scupin (2005), Self-Care Deficit Theory is highly relevant for the future development of German Health Care System as far as care provision and management are concerned. These authors emphasize that proper understanding and application of the concepts of Self-Care Deficit Theory helps to increase autonomy of suffering patients as well as those of their families.

In 2006, Lima, Pereira, and Chianca conducted a study to investigate the importance of Self-Care Deficit Theory in the North America Nursing Diagnoses Association, (NANDA), classification. The authors concluded that Self-Care Deficit Theory allows all nursing diagnoses to be classified according to the NANDA. As Laferriere (1995), states, Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory is highly applicable in hospice nursing care. The author analyzes the relationship between the six concepts of Orem’s theory and hospice care and concludes that Self-Care theory is valuable to nurses as far as offering palliative care is concerned.

Orem’s initial phenomenon of concern centered on man’s need for self-care and continued self management in order to recover from disease, sustain health, and cope with the effects of a health problem (Orem, 1959). The main idea behind the development of Self-Care Deficit Theory was the great need to help human beings overcome limitations. Orem’s theory therefore designs a structure where the nurse is required to offer assistance to a client in order to help him or her maintain sufficient level of self-care. According to Orem, the extent of nursing care and intervention depends on the client’s ability to meet the needs of self-care (Orem, 1959).

Theory Description

Nursing theories are normally classified according to the anthropology or discipline from which they were generated. According to Meleis (1997), Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory is interactive in nature. Orem developed the theory following numerous interactions with successful nurses when she attended women’s movements and nursing theory conferences (Meleis, 1997). El-Kader (2002) points out that Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory uses inductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning is evident on the way Orem developed the various concepts of the theory. As Orem (1959), states, the concepts of Self-Care Deficit Theory were defined based on Orem’s experience in concrete nursing practice situations as well, as analysis of nursing care materials such as the nursing curriculum.

Apart from inductive reasoning, El-Kader (2002) explains that Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory was developed as a result of deductive reasoning. Orem read widely and utilized personal thoughts, ideas, and opinions to formulate her theory, indicating that there is an element of deduction in her work (Orem, 1959).  Over the years, the concepts and components have been changed as a result of varying interpretations.

There are seven major concepts of Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory namely; self-care, self-care agency, basic conditioning factors, therapeutic self-care demand, self-care deficit, nursing agency, and nursing system. Self-care refers to activities that individuals perform on their own in order to improve health and maintain life (Meleis, 1997). Self-care agency entails the power of human beings to engage in activities that promote well-being. Self-care agency is normally influenced by basic conditioning factors. Basic conditioning factors include health state, age, family system factors, health care system factors, socio-cultural orientation, environmental factors, patterns of living, resource availability, and resource adequacy (Meleis, 1997).

The other concept of Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory, therapeutic self-care demand, refers to the a collection of actions that must be performed for a certain period of time using relevant methods to meet the self-care needs of patients. Self-care deficit describes when self-care is really needed. Self-care is always necessary when a patient is incapable of performing actions that lead to sufficient self-care (Masters, 2011). Nursing agency as another concept of Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory refers to the attributes of trained nurses that enable them to know, act, and assist others to meet self-care demands by helping them to develop individual self-care agency. Lastly, nursing system refers to the result of relationship between the nurse and his or her client. A nursing system is created when the therapeutic self-care demands of the client exceed the self-care agency available, resulting into the need for a nursing intervention (Meleis, 1997).

Orem has defined the seven concepts of Self-Care Deficit theory both theoretically and operationally. This is evident in the manner in which she theoretically displays the meaning of self-care and operationally describes the relationship between the client and a trained nurse to enhance understanding (Meleis, 1997). Orem has demonstrated consistency in the definition of concepts and usage of other terms in the theory. For instance, the meanings of nursing, nurse, patient, and self-care do not change in the entire description of Self-Care Deficit Theory (Masters, 2011). Additionally, Orem has defined the terms and concepts explicitly, that helps to promote understanding of the seven concepts and the entire theory.

According to Meleis (1997), propositions refer to statements that define relationships among actions, situations, or events. The seven concepts of Self-Care Deficit Theory have got some relationships. For instance, basic conditioning factors such as developmental state, experiences, age, and socio-cultural backgrounds influence self-care agency and self-care (El-Kader, 2002). Again, skills required to promote self-care agency and self-care for patients are learned and recalled. This means that nurses require some form of training in order to effectively assist clients to perform activities that promote health and well-being (Masters, 2011).

Additionally, self-care agency and therapeutic self-care demand need to be balanced by self-care deficits. In other words, ability of a patient to perform self-care activities and the general therapeutic demands of that client will determine the degree of nursing that the client needs (Masters, 2011). Moreover, both nurses and patients work together to ensure that self-care needs are effectively met. Nurses are charged with the responsibility of assessing their clients’ abilities to perform activities that promote self-care. The nurses use the results of their assessments to select reliable and valid actions and processes that will help them in meeting self-care needs (Orem, 1959).

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Nursing Theory as Framework for Education – Dorothea Orem Self Care Theory

Nursing Theory as Framework for Education

If I was planning a new undergraduate nursing program, the nursing theory that I would incorporate into the curriculum would be:

Self-care Theory

The Dorothea Orem’s model of self-care focuses on the ability of every individual to perform self-care. The self-care theory encompasses the practice of activities which an individual initiates and performs on his/her own behalf in order to maintain health, life and well-being. Orem views health as a state characterized by wholeness of the developed human structures and of mental and bodily functioning. Incorporating the self-care theory in the curriculum would ensure that we acknowledge that individuals should self-reliant and should take responsibility of their own health and the health of others (Meleis, 2011, pp. 279). That is, individuals have the capacity to take care of themselves and even care for their dependents. Additionally, it is necessary for a person to have the knowledge of potential health problems in order to promote self-care behavior and that knowledge would be provided only and only if the self-care theory has its content deeply rooted in the curriculum.

Strategies for use of relevant nursing theories

Understanding of the nursing legal language

It is important for the nurses to know what is expected of them in order to ensure that they are in control of their profession and to be advocates for their patients. They need to read and understand the legal language for them to analyze how the language could affect their practice and conversely their patients. This strategy would ensure that the nurses are practicing within their expected scope and giving the best to their patients as a result of applying the relevant nursing theories.

Embracing a culture of nurse leader responsibility

The professional organizations and the nursing leaders become responsible for the creation of cultures that give support to the acts of courage in nursing. They should advocate for creating a healthful work environment which support moral courage by identifying the principles and elements for nurse leaders to integrate into the member organizations (Parker & Smith, 2010. pp. 328). Leaders who demonstrate courage exhibit expertise, competence, credibility, and visibility.

The strategies for use of theory as the basis for actions of advanced nursing practice in leadership and education would include:

First, there should be a heuristic framework that joins the respective nursing theoryto some specific state or an action which is desired or should be taken.

Secondly, the organization or the nursing leaders should articulate how to go form skeleton, within an anatomic analogy, to a physiological state that actually makes the change occur, and could include a number of different interventions (Mc Ewn& Wills, 2014, pp. 406).

 

 

 

 

 

Application of Nursing Theory to Administrative Practice Arena – Roy Theory

Application of Nursing Theory to Administrative Practice Arena

The selected theory in this case is Roy theory.  Roy seeks to employ this theory in nursing intervention. According to Roy an individual adapts to environment via four modes that include interdependence, role mastery, as well as physiologic needs as well as self-concept and processes.  According to the theory, the nursing goal is to help the patient to adapt to the health condition (disease) to be able to react to other stimuli. The patient is evaluated for negative or positive behaviors in four adaptive modes stated above (McEwen & Wills, 2014, p. 155).

Roy theory was created with patient care delivery in mind. It is directed toward patients care as persons. The model guides on how to assist a patient to adopt into the new condition and to accept it. This assist in the intervention techniques since it is easy to actively involve the patient in acquiring more knowledge on the condition, learning on the personal care to improve the situation and collaborating in all other medical interventions. After accepting the condition, it becomes easy to interact with the patient and understand the patient psychological needs and thus, making it easy to address these needs. All these interventions enhance patient care delivery (Swansburg & Swansburg, 2002, p. 228).

Roy model also contains the ability to be adapted in the practitioner management. In this regard an organization can use Roy model to enhance level of clinical practice or to build a management model. By accepting that a person is an adaptive system, organization can develop new policies and make the staffs accept them by showing them their importance. The management should then create a work environment that would stimulate the adaptation of these policies. Just like patients adapt to their situation and work to enhance their well-being, the model can be adopted to make staffs accept the new changes and they work toward fulfilling the new requirement to reduce or avoid conflicts with the management. This eventually changes to be the organization norm (Swansburg, 1996, p. 229).

 

Impact of Mid-Range Nursing Theory on Healthcare Organization

Impact of Transitional Nursing Theory on Healthcare Organization – Sample Paper 1

One of the mid-Range theories that can be applied in nursing leadership is transitional theory. Mid-range transition theory tries to attend and describe the interactions between patients and nurses, proposing that nurses are concerned with people’s experience as they go through transitions whenever well-being and health are the desired outcome (McEwen & Wills, 2014, p.236). Although the theory was created to address the relation between nurses and their patients, it can also be used to address the relation between leaders and followers. According to (Jblearing, n.a., p.59), the theory denotes a change in role abilities, exceptions, or relationships. Transitioning to a novel role refers to acquiring abilities, skills and knowledge, which may vary from the ones employed in a clinical role (Jblearing, n.a., p.56). It can be used to change any aspect of leadership in the organization which include the organization culture, division of work, interaction or collaboration among workers or different departments in the healthcare environment.

Transition can be based on the organization development were a certain transitional framework is employed to enhance successful transition. This can be either involve the employment of change to solve a leadership, systemic or operation procedure or operation that was previously used to a new one that is believed to be probable to produce the best outcome (Meleis, 2010, p. 56). Transition theory can be employed to introduce a new ways to enhance staff performance in an organization. This will involve the development of a model which will denote the current situation and the future anticipated situation. The nursing leaders will then develop a framework on how to change various aspects such as the organization culture, the organization communication system, information sharing, form of storing and retrieving patient information, interaction between health practitioners of different category to enhance the organization performs. This will eventually allow the organization to successful achieve their anticipated leadership objectives.

Adam’s Conceptual Model Nursing Theory Impact upon Healthcare Organization – Sample Paper 2

A mid-range theory in nursing is an approach to sociological theorizing focused on assimilating theory and empirical research. In the nursing field, several middle-range theories are required so as to cope with the entire phenomena contained in a conceptual model since each approach takes care of only some degree of the absolute reality covered by a theoretical model. Every conceptual model, therefore, is more fully spelled out by several middle-range theories.

Mid-range theories get applied in many instances in the field of nursing. In fact, they get applied by nurse leaders or nurse managers in dealing with administrative issues. In reality, all nurses are leaders who employ entrepreneurship, creative decision making, and life-long learning to produce a work environment that is cost-effective, efficient and committed to quality care.

An example of a mid-range theory that nurse leaders and nurse managers can use to deal with administrative issues is Adam’s conceptual model.   Adam came up with the theory, and he believes that a theory can get employed in more than one discipline. However, a conceptual model for a subject applies to that particular discipline (Fitzpatrick, & Whall, 2005). A conceptual model consists of beliefs,assumptions,and values,and other major units.

By this model, the goal of nursing for nurse managers and leaders is maintaining or restoring the client’s independence in the satisfaction of their fundamental needs. Each need has physiological, biological, and psychosocial aspects. The nurse supplements and complements the client’s knowledge, strength, and will. Resultantly, if this theory gets strictly employed, then crisis can be avoided especially when it comes to staff performance.

Application of Nursing Theory – Peplau’s Nurse Patient Relationship Theory in Advanced Clinical Practice

Application of Nursing Theory

Introduction

Nursing growth and development has highly been influenced by various developed nursing theories. These theories have facilitated evolution of nursing from nightingale period to now. They have highly enhanced the perfection of nursing care time after time. This paper will focus on Peplau’s nurse-patient relationship theory in advanced clinical practice. Based on Peplau nursing is therapeutic since it is an art of healing, helping a person who is need of healthcare or is sick. Nursing can be perceived as an interpersonal process since it involves relations between two or more persons with a common objective. This common goal in nursing offers the therapeutic process incentive where in the patient and nurse respect one another as persons, both of them growing and learning due to interaction. A person learns when he or she selects stimuli in the surrounding and then responds to the stimuli.

While developing the major concept of this theory, Peplau describes man as an organism which strives in its personal way to lower tension created by needs. In this regard, a client is a person with a felt need. She then describes health as a word symbol that refers to personality forward movement and other continuing human processes in the direction of community, creative, personal, constructive, and productive living (McEwen & Wills, 2014). In Hildegard Peplau views, nursing is an interpersonal, therapeutic, significant process. In this regard, therapeutic nurse-client relationship is referred to as a planned ad professional association between nurses and client which centers on the pattern, needs, problems, and feelings of a client. This relation contains four nursing components that include patient need, professional expertise, two persons that include the patient and nurse, as well as patient relationship. Nursing entails interaction between two or more persons sharing the same goal. This goal is attained via a number of steps that follow a progressive pattern that contains four phases that include resolution phase, identification phase explanation phase, and orientation phase (McEwen & Wills, 2014).

This paper will review various issues in a number of sections. This includes the description of the actual nursing issues that need to be resolved. The paper in this section discusses the quality of care problem faced by various healthcare organizations in the world. This section evaluates the literature contribution to the issue, and the highly impacted stakeholders. The paper evaluates the application of the selected nursing theory in the resolving of the identified healthcare issue. The paper finally gives a brief summary of the discussion.

Description of Issue or Concern

The main issue to be considered here is quality of care provided to the patients. The overall result to the care provided to the patient highly depend the information the clinical practitioners can get from the patient either through assessment process and also by the feedback obtained from the patients in the course of the care. This highly determines the approach the clinical officer can employ to enhance patient intervention and care. It also plays a great role in increasing patient care outcome in any medical organization and hence in the improvement of care. Improvement of the care quality is a part of the advance clinical practice. Advanced clinical practice involves the improvement of care to ensure more satisfying output. It focuses on constant improvement of patient care quality.

The nursing profession should care about quality of care since it determines the care efficiency, the organization reputation, and individual nurse job satisfaction. Nurses offer their care services to patients hoping to improve their life, to remove them from dependence stage to ensure that they are able to care for themselves. The chances of accomplishing their care goal highly depend on the quality of care they can be able to provide. This is determined by a number of factors that include the availability of the necessary facilities, individual nurse knowledge, and individual nurse ability to relate with the patient and to obtain all necessary information to enhance care. When a nurse is highly knowledgeable or skilled and works in a well-equipped healthcare, then a nurse has high ability to offer quality care to any patient. However, this can be undermined by the relationship between a nurse and a patient. A nurse has the role to initiate nurse-patient relationship. This relationship plays a great role in enhancing quality patient assessment and also in obtaining the feedback of the provided intervention measures.

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Borrowed Theories In Nursing – Discussion

Borrowed Theory

Nursing theory might be borrowed from different disciplines. Borrowed theory refers to as knowledge created from other disciplines and is adapted in nursing disciplines. Researchers in nursing have been employing theories and frameworks from other disciplines. These theories and frameworks have added to the nursing theory development. In addition, the value of shared or borrowed theory is that it permits nursing to validate, interpret, expand, and add it in the nursing conditions. The lack of substantive inclusive nursing theories has yielded to nursing borrowing theoretical research instruments, concepts, and assumptions from other disciplines that include education, anthropology, psychology, and sociology, and adopting propositions and concepts from other paradigms that include humanism, psychoanalysis, adaptation, and development (Sousa & Hayman, 2002, p.1).

Borrowed theory provides nursing with a chance to develop a foundation in which to create their unique nursing theories. Basically, nursing create unique theory through the extension of borrowed theory where researchers use borrowed theories to inquire into experiences and phenomena associated with nursing. The unique way in which nursing perceives all phenomena describes the limits and its inquiry nature and typifies its actions and distinctive perspective (Schunk, 2012, p.234). For instance, theories based on behavioral learning are borrowed from education theories. The education discipline provides the framework for learning which is borrowed and developed further to establish how learning can be employed in nursing. In this advancement, various learning aspects in nursing are regarded prior to the theory advancement. Thus, borrowed theory is regarded to play a major role in directing nursing researchers to establish the best research techniques to employ to base a certain theoretical situation in nursing McEwen  & Wills, 2014, p. 386).

Middle Range Nursing Theories and Evidence Based Practice

View-Point on Theory

Middle range theories are said to be useful in both practice and research. They help practice by enhancing the understanding of behavior of a client, proposing interventions, and offering probable explanations for the level of the interventions effectiveness. Evidence based practice refers to conscientious employment of the existing best evidence in decisions making regarding patient care. This demonstrates that middle range theories play a vital role in explaining the level of effectiveness of interventions an aspect that plays a great role in enhancing the selection of the best practice in the evidence based practice (McEwen & Wills, 2014, p. 217). This implies that middle range theories act as a step in enhancing effectiveness of evidence based practice since it aid in establishing the most effective practice among many by understanding effectiveness of different practices as analyzed by middle range theory. Thus, middle-range theories have a great role to play in effecting evidence based practice. A good example that can be used to demonstrate the relation between middle range theories and evidence based practice is the chronic sorrow middle-range theory. The theory provides a framework on how individual suffering from chronic sorrow for instance loss of a child should be handled (Smith & Parker, 2015, p. 358). The framework contains major concepts that should be applied in stages as intervention for such a condition. The intervention stage provides different approaches that should be employed to enhance collective care. This shows that even if one form of intervention will not work on a particular case, its poor results will be overshadowed by other interventions measures which are both internal and external. With this wide range of intervention, it would be easy for evidence based practice to be employed by selecting intervention measures that commonly work effectively to majority of clients. This middle-range theories can be said to be part of evidence based practice. They allow testing of various approaches which guide in the selection of the best practice (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2011, p. 323).

 

Patient Centered Approaches To Nursing -Historical Nursing Theory

Nursing development was invented by Nightngale who documented important notes about nursing. However it demonstrate positive growth 100 years after this documentation (Smith & Parker, 2010). During this period, one of the historical phase of nursing theory development that I consider to be very important is the patient-centered approaches to nursing. This theory was developed in 1960 by Faye Abdellah (McEwen & Wills, 2014). The phase is important because it assisted in demonstrating that nursing care should be unique to different individuals based. It introduced the concept of personalized care which focus on caring on each patient based on the patient condition. In my opinion, this is what introduced special care to different group of patients based on their form of suffering. Patient-centered nursing approaches have highly contributed to the development of various evidence based practices focus on a certain group of patients. For instance, it introduced the need to manage pain and to prioritize on pain management among cancer patients. It also resulted to the introduction to special nursing care given to elderly due to similarity in their needs for care. For instance, the need for safety and fall prevention for elderly patients.

This theory can also be said to have played a great role in the development of person-centered nursing: theory and practice developed recently in 2010 by Brendan (McEwen & Wills, 2014). In my opinion it is through patient-centered practice that Brendan noted that despite of suffering from the same conditions and experiencing similar symptoms, patients differs extensively and in this regard, some patient can respond to a certain form of care as compared to other based on their life experience and their current life situation. For instance, two patients may be suffering from colon cancer, but one may be having enough emotional, and economic support from friends and family than the other. The two can be provided similar care based on patient-centered theory, however, the patient experiencing financial problems may not respond to this care at a similar rate as compared to the other patient. The will and strength to fight for this patient may be low, and thus, this patient may need extra personalized care.

Application of Transcultural Nursing Theory

Application of Transcultural Nursing Theory

Paper instructions:
This assignment incorporates the knowledge, theory, research, population assessment, and reflection skills you have acquired to assess and apply Madeline Leininger’s transcultural nursing

theory to your chosen group. You will draw on your knowledge, experience, readings, and other material from this course and from MSN6002 to assess, evaluate, and apply this theory as the

framework for your course project.
The assignment is divided into three parts:
•    Part 1 is an overview of transcultural nursing theory, including the key points and characteristics of this theory.



•    Part 2 is review of the literature regarding transcultural nursing theory in practice.
•    Part 3 is an application of transcultural nursing theory to your chosen group and course project.
Part 1: Overview of Transcultural Nursing Theory
•    Discuss Leininger’s transcultural nursing theory. Frame your discussion around the idea that this theory will be the framework for your health care program plan for your chosen

population.
•    Define the key concepts, assumptions, and considerations inherent in the theory.
Part 2: Literature Review – Transcultural Nursing Theory in Practice
•    Review the use of Leininger’s transcultural nursing theory practice with diverse populations.
•    Provide an assessment of this theory in practice that includes at least three examples from the literature.
•    Identify and evaluate how others have used this theory in practice and whether you feel this was the best theory for the practice situation.
•    If this theory has been previously applied to your chosen population group, review and evaluate its effectiveness. State any key points you might consider using in your course project.
Part 3: Application of Transcultural Nursing Theory to your Chosen Population
•    Discuss how you would apply Leininger’s transcultural nursing theory to your chosen group and course project. Chosen group is Latinos/Hispanics in US
•    Describe how application of this theory in practice with this group will contribute to the design of a culturally competent health care program targeting a specific health care need

(identified in the Unit 6 assignment).
•    Include any concerns or questions you may have regarding the use of this theory in this practice setting.
•    Conclusion: conclude your paper with a summary of the key points in your paper.
•    References: include at least seven references, at least five of which come from peer-reviewed sources.

Nursing Theories Compare and Contrast Discussion Activity

Discussion Activity: Nightingale, Henderson, King, and Peplau ,provide us with theories that were well ahead of their times. These theories hold relevance to nursing today. Conceptual frameworks define nursing practice and continue to inform theorists today who have expanded on their theories. Because theorists have been so influential to nursing practice, it is imperative that we look closely at the relevance of their ideas to nursing practice today. Consider as you reflect on the readings how these theories inform you as you develop your role as a nursing leader.

  1. Select either Nightingale and Henderson or King and Peplau theories.
  2. Compare and contrast two primary elements of each selected pair of theorists.
  3. Provide examples for your selected pair related to your practice as an Emergency Room Nurse
  4. Discuss how your selected pair links nursing theory and spiritual care when planning interventions and suggesting resources for patient care.

Minimum 250 words. At least two references should come from outside scholarly references besides the course textbook. All references must follow proper APA citation and within last 10 years.