Tag: Organizational Change

Leading Organizational Change – Assignment And Sample Solution

Assignment Instructions

Purpose of Assignment

The purpose of this assignment is to provide an opportunity for the student to integrate and apply the individual and organizational leadership learning from this course by developing a plan for organizational change.

Assignment Steps

Review course assignments for Weeks 1-5, including the results of the Mastering Leadership Self-Assessment taken in Week 1.

Select an organizational change in your company or one you know.

Develop a 1,050-word analysis designing the action plan for you, as a leader, to address the organizational change.

Include the following, in any sequence you choose:

  • Identify the organizational change process steps you would take and prioritize the order in which you would take them.
  • Include both individual and organizational leadership actions.
  • Scholarly citations must be given to support your rationale and proposed actions.

Format your assignment consistent with APA guidelines.


Sample Solution – Adopting New Technology in an Organization


Change taking place in this case is transitional change involving the implementation of new technology. The company is adopting technology in dealing with the various work processes such as communication, billing and reporting. The new technology will involve an information system that will help in enhancing the work processes in the organization. The implementation of new technology borders on the change of dealing with business processes and aligning them with technology (Burnes, 2014). Technology as such will be embraced in the carrying out of various processes in the organization and training, and development sessions will be conducted to ensure the employees can deal with changes being implemented. Tasks and skills, in this case, are important and therefore training and preparing the workers on how to deal with and embrace the change is quite remarkable. Selection of systems of the new technological changes further has political inclinations and may be meddled with in the process. People may not readily accept the changes and may find ways to oppose it, and it is therefore important for efficient communication to be in place for the workforce especially about the information system. The organization, therefore, has to decide on systems and their approval through communicating effectively to the workforce and management.

The absorbing of the new technology in the workplace is another important issue. Users should be able to use the new technology quite efficiently. This will arise by the adoption of training and development procedures (Griffins, 2014). Employees are part of the organization and are an important part of the organization especially in executing the daily tasks that help keep the organization running smoothly. Their involvement in the change process is quite important. Not only will the management be involved in the use of the technology but also the employees. Therefore, it will be important to come up with various ways that will help in ensuring that the employees understand and know how to use the new technology.

The new technology will be designed and tested by the respective developers. The developers will work together with the management and staff to ensure that the adoption of the new technology takes place smoothly. The experts implementing the program for the company will implement it especially in accordance to the needs of the organization (Campbell, 2014). The development of the technology especially into the business processes will be done to ensure the new technology fits with the business activities of the company and processes of the organization. Testing the technology will be another important step in ensuring that it fits in with the organizational needs. The IT department will test the program to ensure that it is well adopted in the company. Any bugs found will be dealt with especially by informing the developers.

Investigation of new technology is important before setting it up in the organization. Technology has many benefits, which can improve a company’s performance, and it is important to ensure that the processes are correctly linked to the working activities to provide more efficiency. Identifying various issues and seeking a solution to them will help in ensuring that the change processes takes place smoothly in the organization. The plan will concentrate on dealing with the various businesses processes as much as possible to ensure that disruption to the business processes is minimal. Knowing the technology will give the company enough information that will help in preparing the workforce (Waddell, Cummings & Worley, 2007). The company, in this case, will consider the use of new technology and the effect it has on the workforce and its processes. Therefore, the new technology will follow the various needs that the organization needs to be improved and workers told what to do.

Training and launching will further be done to ensure that the workforce is ready to embrace the new technology. The implementation of the technology will take place to ensure that workers graph the usage of the different systems. The workers will learn through the different pieces of training on how to use the different systems. Launching of the new technology and offering training will further ensure that the employees are not surprised when the company changes the various businesses processes (Moran, 2015). The launch will ensure that the people, in this case, are part of the process as they will be involved in the execution of the new change. The employees will be trained on the skills they need to get and further shown on how the technology will aid them in improving on their daily tasks.  The trainers will have follow-up programs to ensure that each worker understands the use of the technology. The plan will further include the evaluation process to be carried out to ensure that the new technology is effective.

Having change agents in place is important for the implementation of the new technology. Change agents understand more about the technology and will help in guiding their respective departments towards adopting the change. The change agents will be told of the various processes and enlightened to ensure that they educate their fellow colleagues at the workplace to prevent any negatively that may arise due to the adoption of the new technology. Such people will further help in lessening any opposition and reduce the resistance to change (Stanford, 2015). There are many processes that need to be changed in the adoption of the new technology, and therefore it is important to ensure that the worker is taken along systematically to understand them. The collaboration of the worker in the process of introducing the new technology will be important.

Coming up with the new technology, in this case, concerns the adoption of new technology to carry out business processes like communicating and the changes that will affect each worker. Communicating the change process is further going to be used in ensuring that the workforce has more knowledge on the new technology. Since each has different learning styles, the training will follow the various needs to ensure that all workers understand the process easily (Roper et al., 2013). Different kinds of learning materials will show the staff the various ways on using the new technology. The workers, in this case, will have to deal with the various communication processes especially in ensuring that the process is wholly understood by the company. Improving communication channels from the management to the workforce will further help in creating a better environment and boosting the learning process.


The process of dealing with new technology in the workplace is quite challenging. New technology entails changes to work processes that employees have long gotten used to. Therefore, to come up with new technology will involve collaboration between the workforce and the IT department. Collaboration between the departments, developers, and the workforce is important in ensuring that more people understand its use. Dealing with the interface will mean the involvement of the employees together with their feedback to ensure that the system in place is effective and helps in improving the work processes of the organization. The teamwork processes that will ensure the effective working and adoption of the technology will be done through the various interactions with the software and by the IT department.

Eight Stages of Successful Large-Scale Organizational Change – Assignment And Answer

Sample Answer


Therefore being a change agent Top-Down company needs a lot of restructuring to ensure that the company fits the culture of Bottom-Up Company. The change agent in such a case will use bottom UP strategy in guiding the change process in Top-Down Company to a less bureaucratic company. The change agent will thus focus on creating more flexibility in the company while at the same time creating an atmosphere of goal directedness (Kotter & Cohen, 2012). As such, there will be a propensity to create an environment that will create great necessity of change in the Top-Down company.

Therefore for the change to occur it will be necessary for the company to take measures that will ensure that the employees are educated on the change to be made to ensure that they adopt to exchange process as soon as possible. The change process from a bureaucracy to a more flexible culture that is goal oriented will take some time but as s change agent it is important to consider the various processes to be changed in the company (Todnem, 2005). Therefore, to create a policy the company will have to follow the laid down procedures by Bottom-UP Company to ensure that the various changes made are in accordance with the laws and regulations governing businesses. The policies will be changed to include the different frameworks that are inclusive of the employees and that help the company to change from a bureaucratic organization to a more flexible company.

The eight stages of change in large-scale organizations help businesses pass through the change process in an effective manner. Increase urgency is the first step to bring out the need for change in people whereby they start stating their need for change (Schröter et al., 2005). In addition, the urgency for change focusses on decreasing anger, fear and complacency that hinders change from happening. The second step is building the guiding team. The right people should be acquired who have the necessary characteristics that will help the change process succeed. The team in such case need assistance to be trustworthy and have commitment to each other.

The third step is getting the vision right. It involves the facilitation over the traditional forms of analysis budgets and financial plans. A strong vision is important in directing the company towards succeeding in the change process.as such it involves assisting the guiding team to come up with strategies that are strong and that will help develop a strong vision. The fourth step is communications buy in. involves the conveying of heartfelt, credible and clear messages regarding the direction towards change. Such buy in involves the actions of people. The use of new technologies, deeds and words will help in overcoming distrust and further making communication channels clear. The step helps in preventing distrust and confusion.

The fifth step is to empower action. It involves the removal of barriers that stand in the way of those who want change. The taking of the barriers helps the people to view the change positively. The six step is to create short-term wins. Creating enough wins as quickly as possible to reduce skepticism, pessimism and cynism. Ensuring that all people in the organization in this case the Top-Down company see the successes. The seventh step is not to let up. The company in such an instance will focus on chasing after change and not giving up until the change is established. As such, the process will include passing through the difficulties and the easy times without jumping one stage for the other (Reicher, 2004). Therefore, it involves pursuing the vision until it manifests.

The final step is to make change stick. It involves making sure that people stick to the new ways that follow the changes in the structure and systems of the organization. As such, the company moves from its normal traditional mode of working to the new methods that merge with the vision of the company.

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The Kurt Lewin’s Change Model’s Organizational Change Stages

The Kurt Lewin’s Change Model, which Kurt Lewin formulated, entails three stages: the unfreezing stage, the changing stage and then the unfreezing stage. The model is rather simple and practical, especially in relation to the appreciation of change processes. By and large, the model views change processes as entailing the development of the notions that specific changes are required, then advancing towards the desired and new behaviors, and ultimately affirming, or cementing, the behaviors as desirable norms (Leonard & McGuire, 2007). To date, the model is used widely. It continues serving as the foundation form numerous contemporary change models.

According to the model, the foremost organizational change stage is unfreezing. Prior to a change’s implementation, it is taken as being unfrozen first. Since numerous stakeholders in an organization will resist given changes naturally, the aim in the course of the stage is to make the stakeholders aware of how the extant acceptability and status quos impede the organization from realizing new successes or efficiencies. Old organizational structures, people, processes, and thought processes ought to examined cautiously to maintain or even create competitive advantages for the organization.

The aims ought to be communicated to the stakeholders so that they become aware of the necessity for given changes and their imminent nature (Leonard & McGuire, 2007; Phillips & Gully, 2013). As well, the aims are communicated so that the stakeholders understand the logic informing the changes, and the expected benefits from the changes’ implementation. The more the stakeholders appreciate given changes, the more they view them as urgent and necessary and the more they welcome them.

The changing stage sets in after the stakeholders have accepted the changes as urgent and important. Notably, Lewin viewed changes as processes where given organizations ought to transit to new conditions or states. The changing, or moving, or transitioning, stage is typified by the changes’ implementation. In this stage, the changes are actualized. It is as well, the stage in which many stakeholders struggle with the emerging actualities. The stage is defined by marked fear and uncertainty, which make it the most challenging of the three stages to conquer. When the stage is underway, the stakeholders start learning, as well as adopting, new thought processes, organizational processes, and behaviors.

Stakeholders who are readied for the step adequately complete it easily. Accordingly, time, support, communication and education are essential for the stakeholders as they become increasingly aware of the changes. Notably, to ensure that the changes’ implementation succeeds, the changes ought to be planned, as well as executed, cautiously in the stage. When the stage is underway, the stakeholders ought to be told repeatedly the logic of the changes and the expected attendant benefits (Cummings & Worley, 2015).

The final Kurt Lewin’s Change Model stage is the refreezing stage. It entails the reinforcement, stabilization, or solidification, of the resulting states following given changes’ implementation. In the stage, the stakeholders accept and refreeze the people, offerings, aims or organizational processes or structures resulting from the changes’ implementation. They constitute the new status quos or norms. Lewin viewed the refreezing stage as being particularly critical to make certain that individuals do not fall back to their old thought processes or behaviors (Leonard & McGuire, 2007). During the refreezing stage, it is important that the changes are preserved, integrated into the corresponding organizational changes and maintained as desirable norms.

Managing Organizational Change – The Challenger and Columbia Shuttle Disasters Case Study


Organizational change refers to the process by which an organization modifies its activities in order to optimize performance as it strives to achieve the desired goal (Kotter and Cohen, 2002). According to Kotter,and Cohen (2002), organizational change is a very important aspect in modern organizations that are willing to meet market standards. Normally, organizations decide to implement change as a response towards a crisis situation or as a reaction to an increasingly changing environment. The success of organizational change depends on the ability of an organization to make necessary process adjustments, availability of resources, and efficient management capabilities (Palmer and Dunford, 2008). This paper analyzes organizational change management concept using The Challenger and Columbia Shuttle Disasters as the case study. The main issues addressed in the paper include images of managing change, types of change, challenges for change, resistance to change, implementing change, NASA vision and change, and sustaining change with reference to the case study.

Images of Managing Change

The nature of change outcomes are influenced by various images of managing change. According to Palmer, Dunford and Akin (2009), there are six different images of managing change that direct organizations towards a successful change. The six images of managing change include directing, navigating, caretaking, coaching, interpreting, and nurturing. As far as directing image is concerned, it is the responsibility of the change manager to ensure that the required change is achieved by directing the organization towards the right direction (Palmer and Dunford, 2008). In the given case, the required change has not been achieved because the change managers have failed to direct the organization towards the right direction. Navigating image requires an organization to identify those changes that could be achieved immediately as well as those that could take time. NASA’s managers are supposed to navigate towards outcomes and choose those changes that could be achieved with minimum resources (Palmer, Dunford and Akin, 2009).

Under the caretaking image, individual managers at NASA were supposed to take care of both internal and external forces in order to implement change successfully. As far as coaching image is concerned, the change managers at NASA have failed to shape the organization’s capabilities effectively which prevented them from building the right set of skills necessary to fulfill the desired change (Palmer and Dunford, 2008). Interpreting image and nurturing image require change managers to involve other organizational members for the change and facilitate organizational qualities that enhance quality change respectively, which NASA’s change managers have failed to do (Palmer, Dunford and Akin, 2009).

Types of change

According to Weick and Quinn (1999), managers can adopt several types of changes to assist the organization achieved the required change outcomes. Organizational change is classified into two broad types namely; evolutionary change and revolutionary change. Evolutionary change occurs gradually and intermittently and it is meant for continuous improvement. Examples of evolutionary change include management by objective, total quality management, and socio-technical systems theory. On the other hand, revolutionary change is occurs rapidly and dramatically and its purpose is to keep an organization operational. Examples of revolutionary change include innovation, reengineering and restructuring. In the case study, ‘The Challenger and Columbia Shuttle Disasters,’ the space shuttle Challenger has exploded after rising into the sky on January 28, 1986. Comprehensive investigations revealed that there were both physical and management-related causes of the disaster. The events of the given case study show that NASA requires both evolutionary and revolutionary types of change because it needs to make continuous improvements in its operations while at the same time keeping the organization operational (Palmer, Dunford and Akin, 2009).

Challenges for change

For a successful change to occur the leaders of an organization must be prepared to take care of both internal and external forces that are affecting change. This has become the major source of challenges for change (Kotter and Cohen, 2002). Leadership is always the first challenge for change because the leader must possess effective change management skills that will allow proper utilization of capital and capacity in order to achieve the set goals (Weick and Quinn, 1999). In the given case, it is evident that there was a problem with leadership at NASA which contributed to the lack of successful change implementation. The management-related cause of the Challenger disaster is a disagreement between Morton Thiokol and NASA engineers concerning the launch of the Challenger shuttle. Engineers from both NASA and Thiokol had requested for the suspension of the launch of the Challenger shuttle but their request was ignored by the organization’s leaders.

Another challenge for change is lack of focus that prevents the organization’s managers from effectively involving all members in the change process. Due to lack of focus, NASA’s leaders could not collaborate properly with the United States Defense Department in order to prevent similar disasters in future. According to Weick and Quinn (1999), lack of commitment is another challenge for change because it prevents an organization’s leaders from making choices that can lead to a successful change. Lack of commitment by NASA’s managers is demonstrated when they failed to consider opinions from other stakeholder of the organization.

Resistance to change

Resistance to change occurs when there are certain barriers that prevent a given change from being implemented. For example, resistance to change can occur when members of an organization lack willingness to support the proposed change (Kotter and Cohen, 2002). Another resistance to change is forcing members of an organization to support a desired change. Cultural issues can also prevent implementation of the desirable change. In the case study lack of change at NASA is associated with cultural barriers and lack of employee involvement. NASA’s organizational culture is to blame for the physical causes of both the Challenger and Columbia disasters. In addition, NASA’s managers failed to ensure that employee voices were heard (Palmer, Dunford and Akin, 2009).

Implementing change

Implementing change involves putting resource into action in order for the desired change to be realized. In order for a change to be effectively implemented, there must be proper communication between the organization’s management and employees (Van de Ven and Sun, 2011). In addition, managers of the organization must be able to foster a team culture. Again, an organization that wants to successfully implement change must identify and empower champions, provide feedback to the stakeholders of the organization, and provide positive reinforcement for all employees (Choi and Ruona, 2011).

Following the Challenger shuttle disaster, recommendations were made requiring NASA to restructure its management and put control measures in place to ensure shuttle safety in future. Two years later, NASA made an announcement that necessary changes have successfully been implemented and the Safety, Reliability, Management & Quality Assurance programs in the organization have been strengthened. Surprisingly, another space shuttle Columbia exploded as it is just about to land at Kennedy Space Center on February 1, 2003. According to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), the Columbia shuttle disaster has been caused by both physical and management-related factors, indicating that a successful change had not been implemented at NASA.

NASA vision and change

The vision of an organization plays a very significant role when it comes to change implementation. NASA’s vision is To reach for new heights and reveal the unknown so that what we do and learn will benefit all humankind.” The organization aspires to improve people’s lives by protecting the planet through qualified explorers. However, the organization does little to promote change as it works towards realization of its vision. The Challenger and Columbia shuttle disasters are associated with NASA’s failure to link its vision with the desired change.

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Organizational Change Using Kotter’s 8 Step Approach

Company Overview

Founded in 1898, The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company has remained one of the popular tire producers in North Carolina and in the United States as a whole. For more than 100 years now, The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company has maintained its global purpose of increasing the value of its brands for everyone. The company has a market-driven innovation, and it struggles to deliver the highest quality tires to its customers around the world (Goodyear Corporate, 2015). The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company has four major objectives including; to attract, develop, motivate and retain the best team of associates; to earn and build a long-term relationship with customers and business partners; to drive an organization that is effectively and efficiently aligned to its objectives; and to create a sustainable business model that operates according to legal and ethical requirements. The shared values that guide the operations of The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company include; quality, respect, integrity, honesty, wellness and safety, environmental sustainability, and a team-based culture. The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company has specified the leadership traits that the company’s leaders must possess and apply. The company requires all its leaders to build teams and talents, have effective problem-solving skills, possess effective communication skills, be able to make courageous decisions, and have the ability to deliver the desired results. Over the years, The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company has tried its best to achieve its mission, vision, and objectives. Currently, the company earns estimated annual revenue of more than 1 billion United States dollars (Goodyear Corporate, 2015).


Just recently, more than 10,000 employees walked out of the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Plant in Fayetteville, NC. The workers are resisting the demands for a huge salary cut for newly-recruited employees including the area managers, specialists, and front office personnel on up. Workers at the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Plant in Fayetteville, NC are also complaining of erosions of medical coverage, pensions, and working conditions. Those employees who are not in agreement with the pay-cuts are subjected to lay-offs (Futch, 2015). According to Futch (2015), the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Plant in Fayetteville, NC is now eliminating more than 30 salaried jobs from its workforce. However, the company has not issued formal announcements to its workers (Futch, 2015).

Over the years, the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Plant in Fayetteville, NC has been known for its good human resource practice of reviewing plant operations and making sure that its remains competitive while it continues to meet the needs of customers. In addition, the company frequently reviews staffing needs in order to meet business requirements (Bell and White, 2006). Currently, the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Plant in Fayetteville, NC employs approximately 2,400 workers and manufactures about 32,000 tires on a daily basis. The pay cut and layoff issues are likely to affect the company’s operations as some workers may choose to leave the company completely (Guerin, 2014). The fact that the company’s employees have not been informed officially bout the pay cuts and layoffs is an indication that there is a problem with communication throughout the plant. According to Bell and White (2006), layoffs and salary cuts are normally effected by companies either when certain positions are no longer needed or when there is a slow-down in the company.

Layoffs and salary cuts are stressful and painful experiences to both the employer and the employee (Guerin, 2014). What is currently happening at the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Plant in Fayetteville, NC indicates that the process of salary cuts and layoffs have not been carried out effectively by the company’s leaders. In addition, lack of effective communication between leaders and employees in the company is another source of tension throughout the plant (Futch, 2015). Whether there is a slow-down in the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Plant or the company feels that certain positions are no longer necessary, the company must change the manner in which it handles sensitive issues in the company and how it communicates important information to the workers in order to make the leaving workers feel contented and to boost morale of the remaining workers (Guerin, 2014).

Kotter’s 8 Step Approach

Following a comprehensive analysis of the problems at the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Plant in Fayetteville, NC, it is clear that the company should change the way it relates with its workers. Appropriate change requires creation of a good plan that can help the company to initiate the change, adapt to the change, control the change, and effect the change. The best change model that can assist the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Plant in Fayetteville, NC to make a long-term change is the Kotter’s 8-step change model.

In 1996, Kotter was concerned about what leaders do to transform their companies. After reviewing what was done by several leaders, Kotter’s decided to organize the whole process into a total of 8- steps. According to Kotter, for leaders to successfully bring about a meaningful change in their organizations, they must strive to change people’s behaviors by speaking to people’s feelings. In this regard, Kotter categorized the 8-steps to a successful change into three groups (Webster, 2015). The first group known as creating a climate for change involves the first three steps namely; increasing urgency, building and guiding team, and getting the right vision in that order. The second category known as engaging and enabling the organization involves step four, five, and six namely; communicate for buy-in, empower action, and creates short-term wins respectively. Kotter’s third category is referred to as implementing and sustaining change and it involves step seven and eight namely; do not let up and make it stick respectively (Webster, 2015).

Kotter’s first step towards managing change, known as creating or increasing urgency, is where companies strike the initial motivation to everyone in the company in order to get things moving. In the first step, the company should not only show people about the poor performance but it also needs to convince people that the existing problem is affecting the company negatively and that there is an urgent need for change (Webster, 2015). In order to spark the initial motivation towards change, The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company should involve all employees in developing scenarios to show what could happen if all employees left the company due to layoffs and salary cuts. Additionally, the company should examine opportunities that can be exploited to bring about a positive change. Leaders of the organization need to begin honest discussions with everyone in the company in order to convince them about the importance of eliminating certain positions considering the current status of the company. In case the leaders of the company fail to agree with employees, they should requests for support from the company’s stakeholders to help them strengthen their arguments (Petrescu, 2010).

In the second step towards change management, Kotter calls upon company leaders to convince everyone in the organization that indeed, a change is necessary. This step involves forming a powerful coalition with other people in the organization as a way of leading change. According to Kotter, for leaders to guide change effectively, they must first bring together a team or a coalition to assist with decision making. In this second step, leaders tend to unite the different opinions of every individual member of the team around the need for change. To effectively go through the second step, The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company needs to identify the most dedicated leaders and stakeholders in the organization. The company should the request for an emotional commitment from these people and then work together with them to create a functional team. Before moving to the third step, the company must remember to check the weak points of its team member and try to strengthen them to ensure that it has a god mix of people who can help in leading change (Webster, 2015).

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