Tag: Organizational Culture

Organizational Theory: The multiple Perspective on Organizational Culture

The Question To Be Answered:

‘What managers most often want to know about their organization’s culture is how to change it. Regardless of the perspective adopted, all organization culture researchers acknowledge that top managers are powerful members of an organization’s culture. And, because power grants them a disproportionate share of attention, their behavior becomes a role model for others, their words are carefully attended, and their directives are obeyed. But what is recommended to managers on the basis of culture theory differs markedly according to the perspectives adopted’ (Hatch and Cunliffe, 2013: 185).

Choose two of the four perspectives and discuss their different views on organisational culture and how their advice to managers who are seeking to influence organisational culture might be different.

  • The four perspectives are Modernism, Critical Theory, Symbolic Interpretive and Postmodernism.
  • I would pefer if focused on Modernism and Symbolic Interpretive.
  • Required word count 2000 words excluding the references.

Required readings (located on blackboard site):

  • Chapter 6 and pp 311-318 (Hatch and Cunliffe)
  • Fleming, P and Spicer, A. (2003) ‘Working at a cynical distance: Implications for power, subjectivity and resistance’
  • Wilson, F. (2014) ‘Chapter 11: Culture’ in Organisational Behaviour and Work, pp. 224-241.
  • Xu, Y., and Weller, P., Inside the World Bank, “The Staff and Their organizational Culture”, pp. 74-82.

Role Of The Leadership In The Innovative Culture Of An Organization

Leaders are greatly instrumental in driving the culture of a company innovatively. Leaders in this regard concentrate on unconscious messages, norms, values and unnoticeable behaviors of superiors and workers since they help in creating an organization’s culture, which may either enhance or decrease performance of workers (Martín-de Castro et al., 2013). Providing workers with free time at various intervals helps them greatly achieve new processes, products or technologies, which can help, enhance the activities in the organization. Leaders can further recognize employees how have made important contributions to the company while at the same time rewarding them for their efforts. Symbols can further be used by the leaders and may be in the form of acronyms, catchphrases, posters in the corridors, success stories and awards that will further help in boosting employee performance and their innovativeness at the workplace. As such new employees can be greatly impacted by the various symbols in the building, which will help them be more innovative and seek to achieve their best in their endeavors (Büschgens et al., 2013).

The role of the leadership in creating an innovative culture cannot be overlooked. If the leadership is not involved people, can stick to the status quo and operate averagely. Leaders therefore should set up various behavioral practices in the workplace that aim to challenge the workers in outperforming themselves and to focus on methods that increase productivity and encourage innovation in the organizational culture (Robbins et al., 2013). Leaders in this case should lead by example and further make frequent follow ups, which will, ensures that workers are on their toes to ensure perfection. Therefore, leaders are an important part of the company’s culture sand should ensure that they come up with various points that are thoughtful and that will help in developing an effective organization culture in the company.

Organizational Culture Concept – Assignment Instructions

For this final SLP, choose an organization that you currently work for or have worked for in the past.  You will be applying the concepts of organizational culture that you read about in the background materials to this organization.

Write a two to three page paper addressing the following issues:

  1. Describe how your organization rates on these cultural characteristics: detail-oriented, team-oriented, innovative, aggressive, outcome-oriented, and people-oriented.
  2. Discuss how strong the organizational culture is at your organization.  To what extent is the organization’s culture shared by employees and managers?
  3. What aspects of your organization’s culture do you think should be changed, and what steps would you recommend to change the culture?  Use concepts from Rao (2010) in forming your recommendations.

SLP Assignment Expectations

  • Answer the assignment questions directly
  • Stay focused on the precise assignment questions, don’t go off on tangents or devote a lot of space to summarizing general background materials
  • Make sure to use reliable and credible sources as your references. Articles published in established newspapers or business journals/magazines are preferred.  If you find articles on the internet, make sure it is from a credible source.

Ethics as a Component of Organizational Culture


Ethics is derived from the word the Greek word Ethos, which means character. Character in an organization is the decisions that employees or management have to make when under pressure especially when no one is looking at them. Character is not about how people behave, but in the context of an organization, it is part of organizational culture. It is a culture developed by a group of people that determines how they deal with problems both externally and internally. These people must adhere to a code of ethics which are standards of behavior that tell people how they ought to act, be they citizens, professionals, parents, family or friends (Bart, 2011).

A fire department has ethical rules which are behavioral guidelines on how all firemen are expected to conduct themselves. Firemen must promote an organizational culture of ethical integrity, high standards of professionalism, compassion, loyalty and honesty. Most fire departments have a code of ethics that includes the ethical rules or ethical conduct, medical code of ethics and an oath. The ethical rules define the Fire department’s values, moral duty and obligation of the firemen.

The following are some of the ethical rules that fire departments follow in their line of duty. Firemen must conduct themselves in a manner that creates respect for themselves as public servants. Fire fighters must always maintain public trust as they always have access to citizens’ homes and possessions while on the call of duty. Firemen are always in contact with the public, and should therefore show respect, courtesy and be impartial at all times. Firemen should not perform their duties while under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Firefighters will be expected to take an oath of service to show their commitment to providing high levels of customer service, and to place the safety and welfare of the public above everything else.

The ethical rules are reflected in the culture of the fire department through the respect of the profession. The citizens of any country hold the Fire department with very high esteem. Firemen are highly respected by the public because of the trust the public has entrusted in the firemen. This in turn leads to professional ethics and morality. The leadership of the fire department also reflects the culture of the department. The Fire Chief must lead by example by making ethical decisions. A fire department that is led by an ethical leader always leads to the success of that department. A fireman may make an ethical decision but fail the loyalty test when asked to do something unethical by the boss. Ethical leaders must ensure that they do not corrupt their legacy and whole organization by ensuring they do the right thing. Firefighters are faced with challenging situations everyday which test their character. Sometimes they must decide between loyalty and ethics, hence the importance of the ethical rules in a fire department (Bart, 2011).

The code of ethics reflects the culture of the fire department, and all members of the Fire services must adhere to it. It is referred to as the minimum standards and outlines the expected behavior and performance of the firefighters. The code of ethics also defines the way the firemen ought to act within the fire department. For example, it states that all firemen must be responsible for the actions and the consequences of the same. They must act in a professional manner exercising respect, competence and loyalty.     They must recognize that they serve due to public trust which requires honesty. The firemen must sign a code of ethics which becomes an acknowledgement of acceptance of their responsibility as firefighters.

The ethical rules of the fire department are not in conflict with my personal ethical rules because the ethical rules for firefighters are based on trust, honesty, integrity and team work. However, personal ethical rules may sometimes come into conflict with professional ethical rules. It is therefore important to understand the difference between personal ethical rules and professional ethical rules. For example, a judge is required to follow the law while exercising judgments on various cases. A judge may give the death penalty while following the law, but this may be in conflict if his personal ethics are against the death penalty. A doctor may prescribe the morning after pill professionally, but personally may be against it as he views it as terminating a life (Dion, 1996).

The easiest way to reduce the conflict between professional and personal ethical rules is that a person must always follow their professional code of ethics when acting in a professional capacity, even though it conflicts their personal ethical rules. In the case of ethical rules of firefighters, their ethical rules are first and foremost based on public trust. The public trust firefighters to come into their homes to save them irrespective of their possessions. Personal ethics are broad in nature, as every human being will want to be treated with respect and therefore will treat others with respect. People value honesty and courtesy on a personal level whether it is among friends or family members. In this respect, the ethical rules in the fire department are not in conflict with personal ethical rules (Dion, 1996).

The ethical rules for the fire departments are reinforced by particular expectations or behaviors reflected in the fire department culture. The ethical rules of the fire department are based on public trust and respect for the profession. The national firefighter code of ethics is a document that was developed for all fire service organizations regardless of size, type or position. It outlines the standards of behavior required of firefighters, and is designed in an effort to maintain the high level of respect the profession wishes to achieve. It is based on the expectations of the fire department. The code of ethics encourages all fire service organizations to support the standards in order to maintain a consistent organizational culture among all fire departments. The national firefighter code of ethics distinguishes the firefighter’s profession from other professions, and at the same time removes any behaviors that might compromise it in future. It is the minimum standards of expected behaviors of firefighters. It acts as a guide for all fire departments towards high levels of ethics and integrity.

In conclusion, the ethical rules in the fire department are reflected in the organizational cultures of all fire service organizations. The national firefighter code of ethics is based on particular expectations and behaviors reflected in the fire department culture. The ethical rules creates a legacy for all fire service organizations and ensure that all firefighters who leave the fire department, leave it in a better condition than they found it. Ethics is a component of organizational culture based on ethical integrity, professionalism, loyalty and honesty.

Starbucks Organizational Culture and Key Leadership and Management Traits Used to Execute the Business Strategy.

Starbucks Corporation was started way back in the year 1971 when it began as a single shop that primarily focused specifically on coffee in Washington. When the corporation was started, one of the aims during that time was to ensure that it maintained the traditions of the society. Additionally, the corporation aimed at providing one of the best quality coffees to its esteemed customers. The organization would then be able to create a sense a connection with its customers. One of the goals that it has managed to achieve is the combination of both innovation and tradition. Most organizations have failed in the past due to their inability to create a balance between the two (Michael, 1996). Moreover, much of the success that the company enjoys has been as a result of their vision and mission statements that promote the spirit of one-person. Additionally, the statements encourage the spirit of one cup as well as one neighborhood amongst its customers. Such statements have in the past played significant roles in encouraging the customers to live in peace as a single community full of love for one another.

The success that the organization enjoys currently has seen it row beyond the American borders where it currently exists in more than sixty countries. It is estimated that the company currently has nearly eighteen thousands stores across the world (Arthur, 2004). All that success started from a very humble beginning of only one store. What the then CEO had in mind played a significant role in determining the direction taken by the organization. When the CEO Howard Shultz went to Europe, he liked what he saw in Italy and he was determined to carry the traditional coffee bars from Europe back to the United Sates.  His visions were eventually put in to reality thereby enabling the organization to grow worldly to not only become a coffee meeting point but a venue for businessmen to discuss their business ventures. The culture of one neighborhood is being fostered through the business deals that are constantly created and signed into action at the organizations premises. Additionally, a majority of college and university students meet at the joints to have a coffee as they either finish their assignments or just having fun while enjoying their coffee.

Since the organization has been so adamant in creating an environment and cohesion among the community members, the stores have since become points for families to hang out. A number of friends also frequent the starbucks stores to enjoy their time together as they enjoy the welcoming environments. The organization has also ensured that it creates beautiful environment scenarios that are very attractive so that their customers can enjoy such scenarios as they sip their cup of coffee. That kind of thought and innovation has also enabled the organization to achieve a competitive advantage over its rival businesses around that area. That is actually one of the reasons that the company is still in stiff competition with ther rival companies in the same industry.

The management at the organization has consistently played a role in ensuring that the company encourages the development of its culture of effective management to ensure it stays top of its game. Additionally, there is the culture of development and the constant introduction of new products into the market so that they offer their customers a wide variety of products for them to pick from. Additionally, the high standards and level of innovation at the company has played significant role in ensuring that the company remain ahead of their rivals. One of the difficulties that other companies face is coming up with new strategies and innovations to take over the industry by a storm. Starbucks has famously been known for its dark blend roast that a majority of the customers enjoy. Additionally, the organization has been able to host another 40% of coffee drinkers who enjoy the lighter blend. Such are the strategies that the company uses to attract and retain their customers.

The mission and vision statement of the corporation has over the years played a role in the success of the organization. First, the mission statement has always been used to explain the reason of the existence of the company and the aims it has in serving its esteemed stakeholders (Bart and Baetz, 1998). The stakeholders in this case refer to the customers, the employees and the investors who fund the organization. All the stakeholders therefore remain intact and loyal to the organization because they know that the organization has something good for them in store. Since the statement echoes the values of the firm, the stakeholders find it relevant to stick by those values since they also share in the same.

The vision statement on the other hand relays the message of what the corporation expects to do and create in a future period. Such a statement keeps the stakeholders focused since they know what the future holds for them. When the future seems bright, then everyone involved will work extremely hard to achieve that success.

The management of the organization has always ensured that it maintains its strong relations with the suppliers and the vendors since they too form part of the company’s success. The suppliers include te farmers who grow the beans that the company constantly uses for making coffee. Additionally, there are the bakeries that are normally prompt when it comes to the preparation of the company’s food.  Finally, there is the company that manufactures the cups that are used by the institution. All the above mentioned suppliers all enjoy a cordial relation with the starbucks organization. Since the management knows the value of each supplier to the organization, all of them are subjected to a free and fair procurement process. It is through that process that the suppliers get scrutinized and evaluated for their competencies. The procurement process involves and requires participation from a number of departments such as the procurement operations and the product development departments. It is normally considered important for the mentioned departments to be involved in the process. The reason for such a move is to enable the entire organization to be aware of the entire supply chain and how it works from the beginning to the end (Sarah and Ranjay, 2002). Additionally, such moves also enables the organization understand how such process may affect the totality of operations at the institution. The suppliers are also evaluated on their production capacities so that only those that can meet the required production capacities are given the tender. Moreover, those that can effectively and competitively package and conduct distribution of the company’s products are awarded the tenders.   The only companies that are capable of getting partnership deals with starbucks are those that can prove that they are able to grow and keep up with the pace at starbucks (Sarah and Ranjay, 2002). If for instance a company fails to keep up with the production capacity required, then most definitely it will be dropped out at some point.

Starbucks, just like any other company in the world has a vision of becoming one of the most stable and sustainable business units across the globe. In order to do so, the company has constantly come up strategies and innovation processes to create a number of coffee varieties that match the needs of the customers. Moreover, the organization has ensured that it partners with the suppliers with whom they have long term business contracts (Arthur, 2004). Such long-term contracts play a role in ensuring that the prices are not only monitored but also put under close control. The organizations management teams have also invested heavily on their vendors whom they train effectively. It therefore remains the responsibility of the top management to retain such vendors since losing them can be as costly as losing any of their employees. The experience and determination of the vendors do play a role in the overall success of the company. If for instance the institution loses out on their vendors then that would mean that it also loses out on both the time and money it spent on training those vendors. Such loses can be very costly in the long run if they are not taken into consideration within the appropriate timings. The vendors and the suppliers also stand to benefit from such partnerships because of the notion that products from starbucks are of a very high standard. Long term commitments to the suppliers also help in building the reputation of the suppliers, thereby attracting more business.

Comparing Southwest Airlines and Koch Industries Organizational Culture

Organizational Culture

A collection of policies, values, attitudes, and beliefs that constitutes everything an organization does is known an organizational culture. Even though some of these values and policies may directly be observable, it may be difficult to identify those measures that assist an organization to manage its culture effectively (Bauer and Erdogan, 2011). According to Bauer and Erdogan (2011), there are seven different dimensions of organizational culture profile and they include, innovative, aggressive, outcome-oriented, stable, people-oriented, team-oriented, and detail-oriented cultures. This paper analyzes the organizational cultures of Southwest Airlines and Koch Industries based in the above dimensions of organizational culture profiles. The paper also describes the cultural challenges that may arise from the purchase of Southwest Airlines by Koch Industries, as well as actions that may be taken to overcome such challenges.

According to Klein (2011), organizations should always create cultures that will enable them to achieve success. Southwest Airlines, one of the best air travel companies in the United States, encourages deep respect for both employees and stakeholders for the common interest of the organization. The company has a team-oriented culture in which practices and principles that encourage collaboration among employees are implemented. Companies with a team-oriented culture emphasize on cooperation among workers (Bauer and Erdogan, 2011). Southwest Airlines strives to maintain its team-oriented culture through extensive employee training to make all of its workers capable of providing the necessary support to one another (Klein, 2011).

Additionally, South West Airlines ensures that all its employees work as a team as it ensures team’s success through skill intact skill development. At Southwest Airlines, workers are allowed to participate in daily meetings that take place in the morning and in the afternoon (Klein, 2011). During these meetings, the workers find time to interact and collaborate with one another, identify the main sources of the problems affecting them, and determine the best actions that can be taken to solve these problems. Southwest Airlines believes that the best way in which it can maintain its team-oriented culture is by recruiting highly competent employees. For his reason, the company uses a selection system where it only hires team players and turns away applicants who do not fit into its team-oriented culture (Klein, 2011).

Furthermore, Southwest Airlines motivates its workers through rewards and by providing them with better services to ensure that employees remain satisfies and committed. As Bauer and Erdogan (2011), emphasizes, team-oriented organizations encourage positive relationships between managers and employees. At Southwest Airlines, all employees have positive relationships with their managers. The team-oriented culture at Southwest Airlines demonstrates that the company strongly encourages socialization and humor which make the company a ‘fun’ place to work (Bird, 2011).

Koch Industries is known for its good performance which is largely associated with its detail-oriented culture. According to Bauer and Erdogan (2011), companies with detail-oriented culture lay much emphasis on precision and pay great attention to detail. Detail-oriented culture gives organizations a competitive advantage in the market because it assists them to differentiate themselves from competitors. Basically, detail-oriented companies focus on those activities that will enable them to perform well n the market (Whatley, 2013). Koch Industries keeps records of all customer requests and strive to produce the exact items that clients have requested for. The company seeks to provide better services that will keep customers returning to the company.

The Arkansa Teacher Retirement System’s executive director, George Hopkins, describes Koch Industries as a company which is very detail-oriented and that leaves nothing for granted. He also states that Koch Industries ensures that is answers all questions addressed by customers which enables it to make huge returns. According to Dissecting the Kochtopus (2014), by paying a clear attention to detail, a company manages to attract many customers and even ensures their repeat visits. Koch’s detail-oriented culture assists the company to focus on market-based management which emphasizes on revenue growth and performance (Whatley, 2013).

Organizational culture plays a very important role during mergers and acquisitions because the hiring company must be able to understand the culture of the company it intends to purchase (Klein, 2011). In addition, the acquiring company must identify the potential challenges that are likely to emerge from the merger as well as the actions that can be taken to overcome such challenges. Suppose Koch Industries decides to purchase Southwest Airlines, the two companies will face numerous challenges associated with human resource practices due to the differences in their cultures. Koch Industries will need employees who are detail-oriented while workers from Southwest Airlines will want to work in an organization that encourages teamwork and that motivates its workers.

One of the biggest challenges that Koch Industries may face with the merger is the problem of redundant positions as some job positions at Southwest Airlines may be unnecessary for the merger. The best action that the two companies can take to avoid conflicts from occurring among their employees is sitting together and agreeing on how employees of Southwest Airlines will be absorbed into Koch’s system. This will ensure that no employee of Southwest Airlines is left without any roles to perform following the merger (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin and Cardy, 2007).

According to Klein (2011), companies must always hire workers who fit with the culture of the organization and who are willing to perform those activities that will enable the company to advance. Another challenge that may emerge if Koch Industries decides to purchase Southwest Airlines is that, Southwest Airlines employees may have difficulties fitting into the culture of Koch Industries. This is because employees from Southwest Airlines may not receive the training and advancement opportunities from Koch Industries being that they are used to this culture at their organization. In order to overcome this challenge, Koch Industries must make the necessary adjustments and provide options for training and motivating workers and for encouraging employees from both companies to work as a team. Additionally, Koch Industries must be ready to involve Southwest Airlines workers in decision-making through daily meetings (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin and Cardy, 2007).

If Koch Industries decides to purchase Southwest Airlines, it will also face the challenge of making employees from Southwest Airlines remain detail-oriented. Since workers from Southwest Airlines are used to working in an environment where they are allowed to have ‘fun’ they will find it difficult to fit in a new environment where they will be required to pay attention to precision and detail. In order to overcome this challenge, Koch Industries need to conduct a fresh assessment of Southwest Airlines to determine whether they pay attention to detail. In order to achieve this, Koch Industries need to craft interview questions that will enable it to hire the best candidates. The company should use the questions to conduct a comprehensive interview to ensure that it hires employees who match its culture (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin and Cardy, 2007).

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Characteristics of Organizational Culture

Characteristics of organizational culture

Emphasis on outcome

Organization that places weight on the results, but not on how they attain the results, give lots of focus on this value of organizational culture. An organization that instructs its sales force to get sales orders by doing all that it takes would place a high value and emphasize on the outcome characteristics.


Organizations that are high centred on the team spirit in executing their business rather than the individual way places focus on the teamwork organizational culture (Pettigrew & Fenton 2000). Individuals in this kind of organizations tend to develop a positive relationship with the mangers and co-workers.


This feature of organizational culture dictates whether the group members are expected to show assertiveness or to be easy-going when dealing with other organizations they are competitors in the marketplace. The culture of aggressiveness as adopted by specific organizations make the organizations to place a high value on being very competitive in the market and outdoing the rest of the competitors.

Concern on the people

As argued by MacCarthaigh (2008), organizations that shows an organization culture of giving lots of emphasis on the people recognize a great deal of significance on the course of decision making and the effects of such decisions on the people in the organization. Such organization places lots of emphasis on treating their employees with dignity and respect.

The stability characteristics

Organizations with the culture of ensuring their operational stability tend to be rule-oriented, bureaucratic, and predictable in nature (Murray, 2006, p. 60-62). These organizations naturally provide predictable and consistent levels of output and operates best in market conditions that are relatively not changing.

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CEO and Organizational Culture Profile Research Paper 

Choose one (1) of the following organizations to research: Google, Zappos, Southwest, Hewlett Packard, Xerox, W.L. Gore, DuPont, or Procter & Gamble. Use a variety of resources (company Website, newspaper, company blogs, etc.) to research the culture of the selected organization. Note: Use Question 6 as your conclusion. An abstract is not necessary for this assignment.

Write a five to six (5-6) page CEO and organizational culture profile research paper in which you:

1. Provide a brief (one [1] paragraph) description of the organization you chose to research.

2. Examine the culture of the selected organization.

3. Explain how you determined that the selected organization showed the signs of the culture that you have identified.

4. Determine the factors that caused the organization to embody this particular culture.

5. Determine what type of leader would be best suited for this organization. Support your position.

6. Imagine that there is a decline in the demand of product(s) or services supplied by the selected organization. Determine what the change in culture would need to be in response to this situation.

7. Use at least five (5) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

 Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.

 Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

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Role Leadership Plays in Shaping Organizational Culture

Objective : Develop comprehensive scholarly analysis of the role leadership plays in shaping an organizational culture

Recent research stated that companies with an established organizational culture that includes strong capabilities for change, commitment to innovation and a high level of trust have a significant advantage when attempting to adopt a strategy of broad-based corporate sustainability (Eccles, Perkins, & Serafeim, 2013). Yet an Ethics Resource Center (2012) survey found that 42% of respondents felt their organizations exhibited signs of a weak ethics culture with a low degree of trust and transparency. Organizational leaders should have a strong incentive to identify and address any disparities that exist between their organization’s current culture and a productive healthy one.

They must understand the impact they can have as leaders in facilitating an organizational culture, determining the necessary steps to build that culture, and taking the necessary action to create a healthy organizational culture.

To prepare:

•Reflect on all you have learned about leadership and leadership theory throughout this course. Begin searching for scholarly references about the relationship between leadership and organizational culture.

Reflect on the leadership characteristics and skills that are useful in promoting a healthy organizational culture.

Also,consider the leadership styles that promote a healthy organizational culture. Think about the impact on organizational culture of how a leader responds to specificsituations, such as crises. Reflect on how a leader might use power to promote a healthy organizational culture and how a leader can promote ethics in a healthy organization.

The “To prepare” is intended to aid in your reflection upon how the various leadership theories and other topics throughout the course relate to organizational culture. However, you are free to analyze other facets of the relationship between leadership and organizational culture.

Submit an 8-page comprehensive scholarly analysis of the role leadership plays in shaping an organizational culture.

Your paper must contain ten scholarly resources. These can be a combination of the Learning Resources used throughout this course and new scholarly resources. Your paper should adhere to the APA Course Paper Template found in the Walden University Online Writing Center. The link is located in this Module’s Learning Resources.