Tag: Police

Misconducts in Policing, Their Causal Factors and Strategies Used to Prevent Such Occurrences

The police occupy a special position in societal hierarchy. In essence, they are considered the vanguards of law and order, with people looking up to them as enforcers of law. With this unique opportunity comes power and authority which is meant to aid them in carrying out their mandate. The general expectation amongst most people is that members of law enforcing agencies are honest individuals with impeccable records of integrity, but nothing could be further from the truth. Over the years, news outlets have been awash with claims of so-called “dirty cops” among members of the force, sparking heated debates about police misconduct. In truth, cases of police engaging in inappropriate or even illegal actions are a reality that society now has to contend with. It is vital to acknowledge that police officers are also human beings, which means there are times when they would fall short of the oath they took. Governments across the world have recommended the formation of policing authorities to monitor their actions at any given time to ensure that they operate within the confines of the law (Prenzler, 2009). Nevertheless, police miscount still remains an existential problem with more cases being reported involving offers who even have the audacity to obstruct the course of justice. Such cases have come to light with the advent of new technology and social media platforms where, for instance, videos of police brutality are shared. The purpose of this essay is to discuss misconducts in policing, their causal factors and strategies used to prevent such occurrences.

One of the most common types of misconduct in policing is corruption among members of the law enforcement agencies. The general expectation is that police officers are an honest ilk of individuals who strive hard to ensure that they uphold the rule of law while carrying out their duty. However, this is not always the case as there are reports of officers who openly accept bribes to let suspects lose or turn a blind eye to illegal activities taking place right under their noses. Prostitution rings, drug trafficking cartels and racketeering syndicates base their survival on a group of corrupt police officers who let these illegal activities take place (Prenzler, 2009). In other instances, police officers go as far as befriending mobsters who earn a living by extorting individuals conducting honest enterprises for a share of the loot. These activities have now permeated the police force with high ranking officers being directly implicated. Most of these officials are highly protected, making it increasingly difficult to prosecute them since other officer are usually not ready to testify against them before a court of law. The result is a continuation of these illegal activities and vices that are left to continue undisturbed by police officers. Such misconduct deals a blow to concerted efforts towards the War on Drugs and human trafficking. Moreover, this type of misconduct can also be carried out by police in an effort to bribe law makers and have their way. These bribes are meant to shoot down bills meant to curtail their powers or in investigating their activities at any given moment.

Racial profiling serves as a common type of police misconduct. Law enforcement agencies in the United States have over the years been blamed for soaring cases of racial profiling. Neighborhoods predominantly filled with minority communities, such as African Americans, Latino and Hispanics, are routinely patrolled by police units for evidence of illegal activities. The results of this type of police presence are regular stop and search routines that are often the subject of much debate since they focus on minority groups. African Americans or Latino citizens in the United States are four times more likely to be stopped by police with the intention of making inquiries in comparison to their white counterparts (Reiner, 2010).  Members of the police force have been accused of systematically targeting these individuals and even going as far as providing false evidence. Lying under oath and before a court of law is a criminal offence, even though some police officers who would go ahead and do the same. The result of such actions is the mass incarceration of individuals from a specific demography, which is further exacerbated by a high recidivism rate (Roberson, n.d.). In other cases, victims of police misconduct are not lucky enough to walk away from such confrontations with their lives. The brutal killing of Rodney King, Mike Brown, Alton Sterling and Tryvonn Martin are just but a few examples of the horrendous consequences that police brutality can have on individuals. All were innocent unarmed black youth gunned down and are classic cases of racial profiling as a type of police misconduct.

Even the police misconduct menace, the Federal government has succeeded in making necessary arrangements to avoid such eventualities. One of the most common measure that has been implemented in the United States is a body and dashboard camera for each police officer and squad car. Each incident is recorded in real time and the video feed transferred to precinct headquarters for assessment. The result has been a significant reduction in the number of police misconduct cases, which is a positive step towards stamping it out completely. Events leading to a supposed fatal shootout are in investigated and videos evidence used to corroborate accusations of racial profiling. Moreover, the formation of independent oversight authorities is a strategy aimed at policing the police. One of their primary objectives is dealing with cases involving police officers accused of conducting illegal activities and abetting criminal gangs. The Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) is at the center of such activities and has been known to investigate corruption cases involving members of the police force (Harris, 2010). By following bank account transactions and unexplained payments, suspected officers are usually put to task to explain this source of extra income. As it turns out, many are unable to provide convincing evidence which goes to prove speculations about their culpability.  Moreover, police officers are required to create a case log of all calls that come in, which is vital in filing reports.  These reports are then routinely assessed for any loopholes that may indicate cases of police misconduct.

In conclusion, misconduct in policing is now a reality with a wide array of manifestations. Police officers have been found guilty of corruption, providing false evidence, paying lawmakers, racial profiling and use of excessive force. Nevertheless, the silver lining in these types of occurrences is that they have led to measures such as independent oversight and the wearing of body cameras to check police excesses. It is such steps that will ultimately lead to a society devoid of police misconduct.

Police Department Consent Decree/Agreement – Assignment Instructions

Case Study: Police Department Consent Decree/Agreement

You are assigned to the Research and Development Unit of the Virtual Police Department. The Unit Director asked you to prepare a presentation for the Chief on U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) consent decrees and agreements. It seems one of the Chief’s close professional colleagues is now subject to such an agreement. The Chief wants to be sure he has done everything possible to avoid finding the Virtual Police Department in a similar predicament. The format of the presentation is quite simple. Using a selected city that is currently under (or recently been under) a DOJ consent decree/agreement as reference, provide the Chief with direction on how to avoid being subject to DOJ oversight.

Review the document, “Addressing Police Misconduct Laws Enforced by the Department of Justice

Select one of the following as your subject case study police department:

  1. The Oakland (California) Police Department http://www2.oaklandnet.com/government/o/OPD/DOWD004998 and https://oaklandnorth.net/2011/12/20/twelve-years-after-the-riders-a-long-legal-process-is-reaching-its-final-stage/
  2. The Seattle (Washington) Police Department https://www.justice.gov/crt/investigation-documents
  3. The Baltimore (Maryland) Police Department https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/justice-department-reaches-agreement-city-baltimore-reform-police-department-s

Research: Starting with the link provided, continue your research on the basis for and actions attentive to the subject consent decree/agreement, Review all of the pertinent documents, articles, websites, etc. until you feel you have a thorough understanding sufficient to respond to the Assignment questions.

Assignment

  1. Briefly describe the situation(s) and/or event(s) that led up to DOJ oversight in the form of a consent decree/agreement (no more than 20% of the paper)
  2. Briefly outline the provisions of the consent decree/agreement. What actions is the department required to take? What changes is the department required to make?(no more than 20% of the paper)
  3. Connect the provisions of the consent decree/agreement to the initiating causes.
  4. Describe in detail what the Virtual Police Department needs to do in order to avoid following in the footsteps of the subject police department or otherwise find itself subject to DOJ oversight in he form of a consent decree/agreement (no less than 40% of the paper)

View a sample solution to this assignment based on Baltimore Police Department Consent Decree or order a unique solution to this assignment at an affordable price.

 

Corruption in Los Angeles Police Department – Ethics and Morality in Criminal Justice System

Introduction

Criminal justice system is one of the most important governmental systems in the country. It is involved in the reinforcement of the law in the country, and hence determining the general harmony in the operation of other governmental agencies, public and private institutions, and all citizens in a country. Police officers are the primary actors in the enforcement of the law. Their efficiency in doing this is highly determined by a number of factors, with individual morality and institutional ethical values playing the main role in determining their behavior and conduct.Morals and ethics associate to what can be considered to be wrong or right conduct. The two phrases are mostly applied interchangeably, though they are different. Morality denotes individual’s personal principles about what is wrong and what is right.  Ethics on the other hand denotes rules given by an exterior source for instance religious principles, or workplace code of conduct (Caplan, 1983). This paper evaluates an ethical event that takes place among some police officers and how it is influenced by various factors that include culture, history, politics and Moral courage.

Selected Event

The selected event in this case is corruption in a police department featuring Los Angeles police department. Los Angeles police department has maintained corruption legacy for a considerable time period. This has been undermining the officers’ ability to enforce law effectively (Caplan, 1983). By being corrupt, police officers become the law breakers rather than the protector of the law. They undermine the honor of their colleagues and of the region they are supposed to protect. Corruption normally happens when officers receives money gift or any other form of incentives to allow criminals to continue with their activities without being arrested.

The gifts and incentives are taken as criminal protection fees. This arrangement happens mostly with drugs traffickers and gangs criminal operations (Winton, 2016). Other cases of corruption are seen in the traffic where motorists give money to avoid arrest or issuing of traffic ticket. The police in return act by directing them on the routes they can use to pass without being stopped. They therefore manage to continue with their operations comfortably under the protection of the law enforcement officers that are required to stop them. This goes against the police duty and against their moral duty of upholding the law, and being devoted in the protection of the citizens and their country. It also goes against individual morality.

Drug use affects life of youths and other users negatively. Promoting drug trafficking for personal gains is immoral. Anyone who embraces morality should not support such acts. The act of supporting crimes for the sakes of personal gain is against the police code of conduct.  Normally in such cases, the involved police officers tend to be strict on the drug users, while they collaborate with the drugs traffickers. The frequently arrested individuals include young males and females from minority groups who are most likely to be involved in drug use. These drug users are mostly poor people living in the streets or with low life; school dropouts, unemployed, and young children experiencing family problems.

Conclusion Based on the Research

Unethical behaviors are very costly to the justice system. They are highly responsible of the broken trust between the public and the law enforcement agency. The public lose faith in the law enforcement agency and start seeing them as criminal and more dangerous to them. They stop running to them for protection and instead, they tend to avoid them for they are not reliable. Unethical practices in criminal justice system also reduce the system efficiency (Chappell, &Piquero, 2004). In this case, the police department will not ever manage to fight drug trafficking, drug use, and gang activities due to internal sabotage.

The problem of police corruption especially in Los Angeles has been there for a long time; in the early to mid-90s. It was initially associated with top officials in the system especially chief police officers and mayors of the city, before it progressed down to the general police officers.  One of the most commonly used theories to explain police corruption situation poor police payment, poor work condition, or the presence of some kind of unethical people who are bound to be involved in criminal behaviors (Domanick, 1998). The latter can be explained by the theory of rotten eggs where corruption is said to be the work of some immoral, dishonest police officers. The involvement of police officers in corruption especially in the US is also explained by the application of criminal law to enhance morality. Inability to enforce laws controlling moral standards enhances corruption since they provide unlawful organizations with a financial attentiveness in undermining the enforcement of the law.

Mayor Richard J. Riordan acknowledged there being corruption in the Los Angeles police department and called for the right measures in fight it. He specifically recognized that this act has cast a dark shadow over the city police department. This happened during graduation ceremony at a police Academy in 1999.  His courage played a great part in initiating reforms in Los Angeles police department (The New York Times, 1999). Nevertheless, the matter was not that easy. The corruption network in the department included senior individuals who tried to use their influence to undermine the process of the reforms. Many involved persons tried to use their power to acquire immunity, and this made it hard to discipline police officers in the low lane.

Police Corruption – Resource Research and Review

Introduction

The research topic is police corruption. This entails a form of misconduct that is done by the law enforcers or the police who are supposed to protect and not to abuse their powers. It can involve a single police or a number of them can conspire to partake in corruption. The corruption can be as a result of taking bribes, flouting, selective enforcement, and other forms. This study analyses four research studies that introduces the research project.

Punch, M. (2013). Police corruption: exploring police deviance and crime. Routledge.

This book argues that the police system and corruption is inseparable. Corruption is referred to as numerous issues that cover divergent and criminal practices in policing that shifts over a period of time. The book is more on institutional failure as compared to individual failure. However, the book concludes by offering reforms in the police sector in UK, USA and Netherlands.

Gounev, P., & Ruggiero, V. (2012).Corruption and organized crime in Europe: illegal partnerships. Routledge.

This book analysesthree key areas that investigates on the association between organized crime and corruption. The three main areas include criminal markets, public bodies, and the private sector in Europe. It covers topics such as disappearance of victims, corruption and the criminal marketplace, the politics of crime in Greece, corruption and organized crime in flux in Bulgaria and other topic that are useful for this study.

The most distinctive reason why the book is selected as a top referral in criminology is the experience that the authors have in this topic. It is written by international experts and it also touches a number of countries such as France, Italy, Bulgaria, UK, Spain, Russia, and Greece. So the analysis is not only rich in content but it represents a true and fair view of the subject in different countries.

Walker, S., & Katz, C. M. (2012).Police in America.McGraw-Hill.

This study provides a complete introduction to the basics of policing in the US. It offers an up-to-date and balanced overview of the police and their main work in safeguarding and securing the nation and its citizens. It also talks about the challenges they encounter in a quest to perform their duties. Also, the book explore on the innovations that have been existing in policing and the entire justice system.

The best thing about using this book is that it offers well-timed articles and excerpts. It also provides statistics that assists in presenting a comprehensive and contemporary overview of the real meaning of being a police officer in America. The use of statistical data ensures that the data given is not only accurate but represent the real issues on the ground. Further, the book provides headlines on recent and past issues that have brought controversy in the past and how they were solved.

Mattes, R. (2016). Good news and bad: public perceptions of crime, corruption and government. South African Crime Quarterly, (18).

The article provides an objective analysis of crime and police and the efforts that the government is placing to ensure that crime is reduced.  The analysis is based on anassessment of Afrobarometer and Idasasurveys that were conducted in South Africa. The performance of the police is seen to improve over a period of time. Also, more than half of the citizens in South Africa believe that the police are involved in corruption cases that make it problematic to get assistance freely from the police making them to pay bribes to get help.

This study gives an overview of the police system in Africa. It seeks to balance the early analysis that has a bias in Europe and America. It is interesting to know that the police corruption is globally and most citizens shares same beliefs about the system. The news media and opposition are always at the forefront in ensuring that corruption reduces.

Conclusion

Corruption is a vice that has made numerous citizens to suffer. Worse of it is when it is done by police officers who are supposed to protect the citizens. Corruption is not only about soliciting for bribes but it involves a number of other issues. The issue of police corruption is an impediment to justice. This study has analyzed four articles that are necessary for the research study.

You can order a plagiarism free and high quality  Resource Research and Review paper at an affordable price. 

Use of Force by Police – A Personal View

The use of force, i.e., when force should be used and in what manner, by law enforcement is constantly an issue for debate. With that, explain your view on the use of force by police. As part of the response give a situation (real or hypothetical) that illustrates your view.

Sample Answer 1

Late in 1974 this student was the recipient of considerable criticism by his new peers and immediate supervisor for an incident where lethal force was not deployed by the author. He was
a recent police academy graduate and only beginning to be enculturated into the police culture, working the midnight shift for a sheriff’s department that served the large unincorporated metropolitan area surrounding a city in Arizona.

I was first to arrive at a reported domestic violence event in a mobile home park known for repeated violent disturbances. Upon arriving and walking the thirty or so yards to the mobile home where loud yelling could be heard, I was confronted by a young man of about fifteen years of age holding a large kitchen knife who began moving toward me in an aggressive and clearly threatening manner. I was then a twenty two year old officer with less than a month of solo duty after my final phase of supervised field training. With revolver drawn the officer retreated backwards and attempted to verbally interact with the young man. After about ten seconds, he stopped his forward movement, dropped the knife, and began crying hysterically. He was taken into custody without any resistance. The emotional event had to do with the young man’s intoxicated father physically abusing his mother and the young man cutting the father in front of the mobile home just as this officer was arriving at the scene. This was before the advent of portable radios and department policy dictated solo response to intercede prior to the often long time frame of any back-up officer.

The young man was emotionally over stimulated and irrational. Nobody died. But the prevailing peer review was that the rookie cop should have held his ground and shot the young man. I have never regretted my decision that night, but I have second guessed it and analyzed it over and over. I could have tripped while retreating backwards. The young man could have suddenly accelerated and attacked with the large knife causing significant injury even before I might have made appropriate target acquisition and fired. There are a lot of maybe’s and could haves but again, nobody died and if we use teleological ethics to analyze the circumstance and look at the outcome or consequences (Peak, Stitt, and Glensor 1998, 21), it would appear everybody came out of it intact and with the appropriate end result or all’s well that ends well.

At those precise few moments of tension however, the young man’s action viewed from within the system of deontological ethics (Peak, et. al. 1998, 21) would judge him harshly as his temporary intent was to harm anyone perceived as a threat. He should have been shot to prevent potential harm. Ten seconds changed the nature of both the intent and the ultimate outcome.

The International Association of Chiefs of Police report that of 40 million police contacts only 776,000 or 1.95 reported actual use of police force or the perceived threat of a use of force (IACP. 2008, 7). This figure is far smaller than the public perception as created by popular media and art forms. However when the public can witness apparent police abuse of their authority. As in the case of the Rodney King incident (LAPD, 2012) to use force in the course of their mission it creates a state of both fear and mistrust of police.

I believe strongly with the National Institute of Justice’s simple and succinct model policy (NIJ, 2012) where they state “Police officers should use only the amount of force necessary to control an incident, effect an arrest, or protect themselves or others from harm or death.” That said the word necessary is open to considerable interpretation as indicated in my personal experience so many years ago. Additionally, it is subject to variable of perception such as vantage point of observation, knowledge or information known by the applicator of force and perhaps not to the observer, past experience, and cultural influences as to what is considered normative or appropriate. Those from my own peer group who arrived in time to observe from the safe vantage point of their patrol cars had a perception that I under reacted. Had I used my weapon I believe the kid’s family would have had a different perception of the incident regardless of any legal outcome.

Sample Answer 2

The use of force is always at the center of the stage when it come to the civil rights of people. It is always easy to point out the faults of the officer when you don’t have the whole story and you can look at it from the safety of your home or from behind your desk. Now you take those people from their safe areas and put them in the same scenario and then the ideas turn and they now realize what we realize, IF I DON’T GET THIS UNDER CONTROL I COULD BE KILLED!

Granted with common sense, there are those who use excessive force and do things that tarnish the badge, but on the most part it was the fear of the unknown and the thought of death that caused them to exceed what should have been done. I know this because I have been there as I am sure many have.
My own personal short story; I was a new deputy working the night shift alone in a single man car. I was dispatched to man abusing the 911 calling system. I arrived on scene, at which time he started to walk away. I made contact with him and in my investigation had probable cause to arrest the subject. The subject was taller and had 70 pounds on me, I weighed 150 at the time. The subject was cooperative until I placed him against the wall to pat him down. He pushed off and turned to kick me in the face and did just that, laying my face wide open. With blood running into my eyes and mouth I instinctively grabbed for him, I was a state runner up wrestler as this all comes into play later, I then locked him up and started to punch him. Mind the fact I can’t see, I continued to punch him, 3 times total, until he went to the ground and I was able to handcuff him. My back up arrived several minutes later and they assisted him into the back of the car. During that time the other deputy stated we need to get him to the hospital as he had lost his eye due to my hitting him.
I know there are you out there already questioning my actions or criticizing me on what occurred, but I tell you the only thing in my mind at the time was I will not die like this and I went into an adrenaline rage to do what I need to win. I had no malice towards this man and would never wish to inflict that kind of damage, but I was not going to die either.
Needless to say by the act of his family, who was not there, I went through an Internal Investigation, had to go to court and was sued for my excessive use of force on this poor innocent man.
Luckily for me the man was an honest one, but he had been a corrections officer for several years and had been fired for killing an inmate. He had admitted to abusing the 911 system as well as the methamphetamine he had, but what shocked most of the people was the fact he stated he did not think I could handle myself and he was going to kill me. Years ago he was arrested by deputies for his part in the killing of an inmate years ago. He stated he felt betrayed and wanted to get back at us, police as a whole. The charges were dropped against me at that time, but only because he was honest and he felt he needed to redeem himself as the people were convicting me without knowing all of the details, I guess just as they may have done with him.
As officers we enforce social order through the legitimized use of force. The use of force describes the amount of effort required by police to compel compliance by an unwilling subject. Every officer knows this because we have to read it all the time and we are asked it constantly in court. As per the policies of most agencies the levels of force police use include basic verbal and physical restraint, less-lethal force and lethal force. Police officers should use only the amount of force necessary to control an incident, effect an arrest, or protect themselves or others from harm or death. Most officers receive guidance or policies from their individual agencies, but I have yet to see a universal set of rules to govern when officers can use force and how much.
The level of force an officer uses will vary based on the situation, which are based on many factors that are occurring in seconds as it unfolds. With that said I am very apprehensive in throwing judgment until I know the whole story. Granted there are instances of excessive force that are not justified, as in the video, and
those officers need to be dealt with and removed from the profession, but I feel everything needs to be known before inflicting punishment.

Reasons Police Officers Engage in Misconduct – Discussion

What are some of the fundamental reasons we see police officers engage in misconduct? Why are these ethical violations so serious and how do they impact their relationship with the community? Fully explain and support your answer.

Sample Answer 1

With deference to the rare occasions where an individual deliberately goes into law enforcement as a mole on behalf of an criminal enterprise, as popularized by such popular media as the film The Departed (2007), few if any young police officers graduating from their respective academies say “Wow, I can’t wait to use by authority for personal gain and to hurt others!” Police misconduct does occur however; misuse of physical force, taking bribes from criminals, theft, even drug dealing have been documented repeatedly and all of these personally observed or vicariously dealt with by this student. All of these acts contribute to a public perception of police that can have a debilitating effect on trust upon which police work is ultimately based on. If no one trusts the police, the police will become ineffective and unable to conduct their activities in support of the public good.

Police psychologist Kevin Gilmartin (2001, 445) believes that repeated exposure to physiologically elevated states combined with “a bombardment of violence, unappreciativeness, and negativity…” create a condition of continued stress that promotes negative behavior including a propensity toward unethical behavior. He believes that the conditioning of the physical reactive systems centered in the hypothalamus helps to create a “pathological interpersonal and impersonal mode of interacting…” (Gilmartin, 2001, 446). This biological contributor to behavior in the student’s opinion is probably not the one and only factor that leads any individual’s drift into aberrant behavior but Gilmartin believes it plays a significant role in the dysfunction he has witnessed and treated as a psychologist specializing almost exclusively on police officers and the police culture since 1976, including police official misconduct.

This additional dimension offered by Gilmartin runs counter to the traditional view of police administrators that corruption was “…a reflection of the moral defects of individual police officer” (Klockars, Kutnjak, Harver, and Haberfeld, 2000, 1). Gilmartin rejects the traditional “bad apple” view and offers an alternative view that focuses on the stresses of the police experience that is a variable that contributes to the outcome of police misbehavior. The views of Gilmartin are more in line with and perhaps supportive of what Klockars et, al (2000, 2) refer to as contemporary approaches that attempt to use the context of four organizational and occupational dimensions which can be over-simplified to include the organizational culture and peer pressures inherent in the police experience. The dimensions are: organizational rules, prevention and control mechanisms, the code (reference to the lack of enthusiasm officers have for reporting fellow officer misconduct), and public expectations.

This broader approach to understanding is more dimensional and frankly requires more thought and work by police administrators to incorporate into the management and administrative efforts of their agencies. It removes the simple excuse of blaming the misconduct on the moral lapse of an individual and requires the organization look into itself to ascertain how organizational influences or the environment, played a role in either permitting encouraging, or even hiding misconduct. Klockars et. al. (2000, 10) attempt to survey the “ characteristics of a police agency’s culture…” offers a more concrete insight into the organization and how an administrator can address the underlying issues that promote or encourage misbehavior.

Sample Answer 2

Police misconduct is that of any action, on duty or off, by a person entrusted with police powers, which would violate such trust to an extreme that would cause those who entrusted the officer with said powers to reasonably question whether continuing that trust would expose the public safety to risk. (Packman, 2009)
With that being said most law enforcement professionals are good, ethical, and caring people who want to help the community. Regardless of the overused cliché, many officers do in fact enter law enforcement because they want to make a positive difference in their communities and help people and make a difference.
Most police have strong, positive moral values and work diligently every day, in many cases at great personal risk to bring dangerous criminals to justice. Doing this provides most officers with a sense of personal satisfaction and self-worth. Most officers do not and in most cases cannot engage in unethical conduct unless they can somehow justify to themselves the morality of their actions, which is almost impossible to a legitimate police officer.

Some of the reasons police officers may engage in unethical behavior or justify what they have done, say in a use of force instance, would be to blame the victim, the denial of victim and dehumanization. They are dirt bags and deserved what they got therefore no guilt in the use of force that was used on the people involved. Police who use these tactics can argue or justify these thoughts of the criminals dealt with because they rationalize they are not a victim and no real harm has been done.
We all know that no one really thinks of a drug dealer, prostitute, thief, or a sexual predator as a real victim, right? These people prey on victims constantly and who would ever think they could be a real victim themselves as they probably brought it upon themselves and deserved it, i.e. Karma. This also reduces their personal responsibility for behaving in ways that they know are wrong. (Fitch, 2014)Law enforcement professionals understand their work environment may be less than ideal at best and life threatening at worst. Within seconds officers must solve problems that have taken days, months, or sometimes years to develop. Within this kind of environment excellence is a need. A single bad incident in the law enforcement community can have lasting effects, which are felt throughout the nation.
I feel some of the cause in the lack of integrity in American police officers is the lack of holding them to a higher standard. Leadership that allows for mediocre officers to exist and stay in the department rather than demanding the highest level of conduct or letting them go will give way for misconduct to occur. Keeping the leaders accountable for their actions and the actions of those around them will prevent them from compromising their integrity. It is as simple as just doing the right thing and acting ethically. This solidifies the officers standing in the community and it allows them to occupy the moral high ground and to always exercise moral leadership in the community, which helps the officer stay in good standing legally and professionally.

America As The Policeman Of The World – Essay Instructions

This last assignment explores America’s international role in recent decades. By the mid-20th century, the United States had become the dominant force in international relations. Some have argued that the United States’ military functions as the world’s “police.” This assignment covers the manner in which this shift occurred and the consequences the United States faces as a result of its status as “policeman of the world.” One can identify early steps this direction well before World War II, but in this paper focus on the period from the 1940s to the present. Take one of the positions as suggested below, draw from the sources listed, and present a paper with specific examples and arguments to demonstrate the validity of your position.

Possible position—in each case you can take the pro or con position:

  1. The American “policing” role developed because of the Cold War, but it became primarily a means for protecting and assisting economic interests for itself and its allies as illustrated by recent events as well as earlier ones.
  2. The American “policing” role has been exercised primarily to protect vulnerable peoples and regions from powerful oppressors or from regional chaos, as illustrated by recent events as well as earlier ones.
  3. The American “policing” role has had noble intentions and ultimate success during the Cold War, but in fighting terror it has gotten off track with some severe consequences.
  4. A position you develop on this issue with the approval of your instructor.

After giving general consideration to your readings and your research, select one of the positions above as your position—your thesis. (Sometimes after doing more thorough research, you might choose the reverse position. This happens with critical thinking and inquiry. Your final paper might end up taking a different position than you originally envisioned.) Organize your paper as follows, handling these issues:

  1. The position you choose (from the list above)—or something close to it—will be the thesis statement in your opening paragraph.
  2. To support your position, use four specific examples from different decades between 1950 and the present. (At least one example must be from the last ten years).
  3. Explain why the opposing view is weak in comparison to yours.
  4. Consider your life today: In what way does the history you have shown shape or impact issues in your workplace or desired profession? (This might be unclear at first since it is foreign policy. But, super-power status does inevitably provide advantages in a global economy.)

Length:

The paper should be 600-to-850 words in length. This normally means 2-to-3 pages for the body of the paper. (The title page and References page do not count in these calculations.) Double-space between lines. Format instructions are below.

Police Defectiveness In Constitutional Due Process

Police Defectiveness

In a typical state, the police department should be a law enforcement agency responsible for providing security, besides promoting peace within the community and amongst its citizens. However, research shows that the department has, over the course of history, and at one time, remained unsatisfactory and substandard. The shortcomings and weaknesses have affected key areas like civil rights, constitutional due process, abuse of discretion, corruption, use of deadly force and police brutality, and police-community relations. In this paper, will chew over the constitutional due process as the main area regarding the history of the police department and stipulate how and when the police can go out of order in their duties.

Constitutional Due Process

Also considered as a substantive due process,it is a principle of constitutional law that allows courts to protect specific rights that are viewed fundamentally from government interference. Due process clauses of both the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution are main sources of court’s authority for such protection. These clauses prohibit state and federal governments from depriving any citizen of “life, liberty, or property, without the application of law processes” (Gaines et al., 2001, p.90).As such, the due process clause prohibits the government from acting unfairly or arbitrarily. The government should never rely on impulse and individual judgment in the decision-making process. Rather, it must stay confined within the boundaries of reason and law.

So as to understand the due process, one must consider the substantive due process and the procedural due process. In line with procedural due process, the law must be carried out in a fair and orderly method. Certain procedures have to be followed when administering or executing a law to avoid the violation of an individual’s freedom. These procedures, nevertheless, cannot be of useful use if the laws are not reasonable themselves. Accordingly, the substantive due process takes effect to ensure that the laws are reasonable. It requires that the laws made by the legislature must be reasonable and reflective of public interests.

The police have broad powers to exercise their duties. However, it is evident that the constitution, clearly, places limits on how far they can exercise their powers. The police department has, in its history, occasionally surpassed these limits. For example, the videotaped beating of a motorist Rodney King, in Los Angeles, and other cases in New York illustrated that police have gone too far in enforcing the law(Palumbo et al., 1992). Most of the cases witnessed or reported in the past are an abuse of civil rights laws where the police used false arrest, malicious prosecution, excessive force, or even failed to intervene and protect individuals from constitutional violations by other officers.

In defense, victims of police defectiveness and deficiency regarding theconstitutional due process can rely upon Section 1983 statute, which is intended to curb oppressive conduct by government and private individuals in vigilante groups like the Ku Klux Klan.

Roles of the Community Members in Promoting Good Police-Community Relations

Effective police-community relations cannot be improved by the police department alone; the members of the community also have roles to play in it.

Effective communication

The members of the community have to ensure that they communicate to the police about the rising problems in the region without any fear of the police or any kind of intimidations. They are also mandated to make regular follow ups concerning how the problems they raised to the police are being solved and the manner in which the cases are addresses (Williams, 2015).

Establishing active rosters and volunteers

Maintaining a continuous interest and participation of members of a community in neighborhood meetings with the police is one of the challenges that are hindering effective community and police relations. The police department has continuity in terms of delivering their services to the community but the members of the community are volunteers and they have to sacrifice and commit their spare time so as to be able to attend the community meetings. Due to tough economic times, many people resolve to working on more than one job, therefore they will lack the time for attending such meetings (Peak & Glensor, 2011). These events are therefore left for the elderly in the community, who might have retired, and they might not be vocal enough to address the real issues affecting the community. The other challenge is looking for volunteers, the community members have to ensure that they have volunteers who are willing to support the community in solving the existing problems, and that all communities are well represented, including the minority groups.

Identification and utilization of community assets

The members of the community can decide to survey on all the resources available in the community that can act as an added advantage in solving the problems facing the community. These could be financial and technical resources or the presence of personnel expertise like police officers. This process of developing records of assets in the community promotes unity in the community and enables members to know more about each other while at the same time learning from the different contributions made by the experts (Miller & Brasswell, 2014). The idea of mapping resources will also assist in starting negotiations with the police and the public about the available resources, what can be attained and the obligations needed.

Roles of The Police in Promoting Good Police-Community Relations

 Incorporating transparency and accountability

It is the sole responsibility of the police department to make communities safe through the prevention of criminal activities and effective enforcement of the laws in place. They are mandated to exercise openness and transparency when dealing with members of the community and in describing crime eradication efforts. The authority of fighting crimes comes with the responsibility of respecting the rights of the members of the community, since the task can be effectively accomplished with the collaborations and support from the community. The police- community relations can be compromised if the police fail to respect the rights of the people in the region (Miller & Brasswell, 2014). Those who are found engaging in any kind of misconducts that violates the laws have to be held accountable irrespective of their positions in the government, academic backgrounds or religious status. This will promote fairness and equity in implementation of policies that prevent crimes and avoid any cases of civil unrests.

The lack of accountability and transparency by the police when rendering their services to the community can lead to distrust in the police departments. Police departments always have proved to be incompetent in handling misconduct complaints. Therefore, the Chief of Police should provide clear information to the public on how police officers should be held accountable for their misconduct while offering their services to the community. Apart from recounting the investigative and corrective measures, the police have to demonstrate in ways that assure the community that those individuals who fail to follow the rules provided in the department and the state laws are disciplined correctly (Gorman, 2011). The police department should also work proactively by educating the members of the community on accountability systems and what to expect from an investigation process conducted by the police. The community also has to be consulted on how they want to be governed and protected by the police, since the idea of consulting them with the aim of getting information concerning a crime case only can easily demotivate them from doing so the next time a similar incidence occurs.

Educational exchanges

The Chief of Police should create openings for educational interactions between the police and members of the community. An example is that of police departments hosting members of the public, with the aim of giving opportunities to understand clearly the various aspects pertaining the roles and responsibilities of police officers (Rebecca, 2014). During this process, the police offer educational advice to the community on the benefits of peaceful and harmonious coexistence in the community.

Creating citizen’s police academies

These are mainly meant to educate the members of the community about effective policing. It is a positive development in a community because it provides insights about police policies, trainings and specified tactics that can be used in handling crimes and other related events. The Chief of Police encourages the use of citizen police academies with the intention of providing an elaborated view of policing and the barriers that hinder police officers from successfully rendering their services to the communities. In this process, the police officers teach in the classes, with the assistance of professional trainers for specific sessions that need professional advice (Peak & Glensor, 2011). They also offer opportunities for the community members to see the various works done by the police departments, through the enlightenments on subjects like investigations of narcotics and other vices.

Since the trainings do not involve lectures only, the members of the community can get the opportunities for the practical trainings on matters including fingerprinting, use of firearms, precision path driving, defensive tactics, criminal investigations and processes in the crime scenes. Other beneficial interactions include field trips to other police related facilities like detention centers, special probing units, crime laboratories and crisis communication centers (Perez & Normore, 2014). The communities upon learning about effective policing and the roles of the police departments, they will develop positive attitude towards the police, the tendencies of fear of police will be reduced, and this will eventually lead to better police- community relations.

Regular meetings

In order to promote the harmonious coexistences in the community, the Chief of Police should ensure that there are regular meetings in the neighborhood between the community members and the police. This will allow the community to point out their problems to the police, and on the other hand the police will get to understand the community better and come up with better solutions that will address the problems (Peak & Glensor, 2011). The community will also be engaged in a constructive and meaningful way, through the identification and prioritization of issues that bother the community, monitoring of changes in the needs of the community, and helping in solving of problems before they get out of control. The meetings also provides an effective means of communication between members of the public and the police, encouraging contributions from all members without any form of discriminations, promoting a sense of partnerships and collaborations in both parties.

Maintaining regular communications

The interaction between the police and the community can be enhanced through the regular meetings organized at the community levels. But there has to be other channels of communications that will encourage the community members to feel free when approaching the police with other issues that are not of emergency or crime related concerns. This might benefit the minority groups, like the immigrants in the community, who might not be at ease in raising issues publicly at the formal meetings. Apart from maintaining effective communications, the police officers should strive to make follow ups concerning the matters raised between the meetings and ensure that problems are solved in the right manner (Miller & Brasswell, 2014). The other modes of communications that can be used include conducting surveys on the satisfactions of the methods of policing used in the community, the use of internet with interactive websites and web conferencing targeting the communities, through video links, and providing information in languages that can be understood by the communities served by the police officers.

Policies and technologies that benefits the community

The Chief of Police has to organize special forums in which policies, strategies or technologies that are of concern to the community are discussed. The police officers may be using certain strategies which are of utmost importance to the members of the community, but without the awareness of such strategies by the community, it can lead to the whole process backfiring or the affected members resisting to accept the new changes in their environments. Therefore, before implementing new policies in the community, community forums should be organized so as to provide necessary information to the residents in that region (Williams, 2015). The residents should be given opportunities to express their opinions with regard to the technologies, strategies or policies to be enacted. For example, if the police department decides to purchase new kinds of weapons that will be used in reducing crime rates in a community, it should organize forums with the community and explain the reasons behind the idea, how the weapon will be used by the police officers, and why they chose it to be used in that specific community. The new weapon should be used by the police upon the acceptance by the members of the community.

Police-Community Relations

In the early days, before the emergence of police departments, it was the sole responsibility of all able bodied people to watch over the community at night, which contributed to effective community policing at the times. The members of the night watch would raise an alarm in the event that there was a crisis or intruders in the community. But due to the developments in the early 20th century, like the rise of more efficient means of transport, it promoted the idea of police officers not living in the same places in which they guarded (Rebecca, 2014). This eventually led to the breakdown of the existing good community and police relations, and contributing to the rise of poor relations.

Causes of poor police- community relations

In order to come up with effective strategies to build positive community relations between the police and the community, it is important to identify some of the causes of the poor relations between both parties. The police departments have difficulties in interacting with the communities they serve because of various reasons. Many of these reasons are associated with the fact that police departments have contrasting opinions about the community, poor communications, and different concerns about the nature of social control in an unrestricted society. The other fact is that the police deal with the community in different levels, either individually, as a group or organization, or under political influences (Braga et all, 2014). There is always peaceful coexistence between the police and the community if the law enforcement agencies represent the interests of the communities in which they serve. But there is discontent and civil unrest if the police are out of sync with the required opinions.

It is also evident that different communities view the police differently, and that they have varying thinking of the precedence and purposes of the law implementation and criminal justice. Some of the major contributions to the poor police-community relations include poor cooperation, discriminations against one’s race, color, one’s status in the society, the fear of the police, violence and high rates of corruption among the staff in the police department. The other factors include the socialization by the parents to their children about the negative police habits which lead to distrust and fear of the police by the growing generations. It also leads to hostilities by the communities towards the police officers (Miller & Brasswell, 2014). Adding on that is the decreased confidence in the services offered by the police officers. Reduced community and police interactions can easily lead to one developing negative attitudes towards each other, for example, the police might not trust the information provided by the citizens concerning increased crime rates, or the citizens might not trust the services provided by the police while trying to solve the problems.

The presence of bad, corrupt and violent police officers in the department might lead to the assumption that all police officers are not competent and do not follow the law while performing their duties. Other issues include the fact that some veteran officers or other officials in the government would rather not deal with a specific community because of their minority status. This is evident in Courtelaney Pass case, whereby a white councilman responds to the sergeant policeman about how he would not care of what happens to the immigrants in that state just because they were not eligible to vote (Peak & Glensor, 2011). The other contributing factor is that the police and the residents have dissimilar perspectives on the causes of crimes and how they can be solved.

Importance of police-community relations

Existence of good relations between the police and the community enables the community to have a clear and better understanding of the concerns of the public, especially those concerning crimes. The citizens on the other hand will be more willing to report any crime incidents to the police, provide necessary information to the law enforcement agencies that can be used as foundations for solving the crimes, they will be willing to act as witnesses and participate in jury trials. This will encourage the police officers to be more proactive in trying to prevent crimes and minimize the impacts that could be caused by the crimes (Gorman, 2011). It also averts the notion by the general public that the services offered by the police are just the mechanisms for collection of intelligence from the community and not for providing security and safety.

In situations where there is poor police and community relations, the police lack basic understanding of the problems existing in the community, more so on those communities that experience high crime rates , poverty and homelessness. The communities on the other hand view the police as forces that provide them with more harm than good. Under such circumstances, the police officers provide a reactive response to the problems in the community. This situation is evident in Courtelaney Pass, elaborated in the disappearance of Kayla, and the response provided by the police was not in any way pleasing and not in accordance to the law it was not documented. The investigations about the cause of her death were not better as well (Rebecca, 2014). This shows that the existing relations between the community and the police were very poor.

Solutions to improve the poor police –community relations

The many factors that contributed to the rise of poor police and community relations prompted the police department to institute reforms in the sector. One of the most appropriate solutions is the integration of human relations movement into law implementation. This emphasized that the police act beyond their required responsibilities of enforcing the law and interact constructively with the communities they serve.

Police Discretion And The Various Control Mechanisms In Place

This paper explains police discretion and the various control mechanisms in place. Police discretion basically means the ability of police officers to make decisions based on the doctrines of courses of the actions.   It entails the powers given to police officers that enable them to make judgments based on their own thinking and reasoning of the issues at hand, it enables the police to choose on whether they should apply the provided police procedures or give warnings to an individual for violating the laws of the state (Bronnit & Stenning, 2011). It is an important aspect concerning criminal justice, and has raised dilemma between enforcement of laws to the latter and the spirit of the law. During their trainings, police officers are provided with different scenarios showing what they will expect while performing their duties, but since the provided situations are not exhaustive, the police always encounter different situations that need their personal decisions to solve the problems.

Another factor that forces the police to use discretion is when the laws are being amended, forcing the police to use discretion in the meantime, while waiting for the amendments of the laws. Other options are when the provided laws are ambiguous forcing the officers to disregard the interpretations of the laws and make use of their own reasoning capacities. The discretions are always used by the police when they are presented with many options and are left with choosing the best options with regard to the condition and situations at hand (Bronnit & Stenning, 2011). It however important to note that police officers are mandated to use discretion as the last options available, and it is bound by various norms like professionalism, social, legal and moral standards. Other police departments limit the use of discretion or try to eliminate it by all means.

Origin of police discretion

In earlier days, nobody knew the existence of police discretion, when police offices came across a violation of the law, they had no other options but to arrest the offenders or make citations. Prosecutors would then take legal action on the cases to the final limit of the law, while judges handed fixed sentences that were same to all the offenders irrespective of the nature and condition of the crimes. This was because of the fact that discretion was illegal at the time in the criminal justice systems (Glowatski, 2013). The use of discretion came into existence in 1956, as a result of police departments appreciating that police work was at times tough, and police officers would encounter situations that required them to use their own judgments to solve situations at hand. It was also discovered that the use of discretion by the police officers provided a source of motivation and job satisfaction. It also helped in creating more efficiency in the criminal justice systems.

Common incidents where police discretion is used

Police discretion can be used in different circumstances, and that each situation has different application of discretion. One of them is solving disputes concerning domestic violence where there is no obvious evidence of physical abuse. Therefore the police officers might be forced to use their own judgments in solving the disputes. Another example is that of traffic violations, other people speed accidentally and the police officers may decide to give other people warnings as long as they give an assurance that they will not repeat the same mistake again (Schulenberg, 2015). Police officers also have to use their own discretions in determining if some crimes have some elements of hate in them, which the police have to judge using the characters of the perpetrators of the crime. Other cases involves crimes committed by people with mental problems, the police might be forced to either drop the investigations process or give lighter punishments given to the offenders.

Variables of discretion

Police discretion can be categorized in several factors; the first one is offenders’ variables, which entails those aspects linked directly to the offender, like age, gender and health status. These aspects may lead to the police officers sympathizing with the offender and instead offer advises on importance of following the provided laws, an example can be that of a very elderly person driving on the wrong side of the road (Bronitt & Stenning, 2011). The other category is the situational variables, which includes factors like the nature of the offence, properties involved in the crime, how the investigations were conducted and initiated by who and the seriousness of the crime committed. The presence of witnesses or the media when an offence was committed also influences the aspect of police discretion.

The other category is systems variables, which includes all the factors in the systems of a given society that have to be considered by the police before deciding to use discretion. For example, the police may be lenient to the offenders when the courts become congested, and may be strict to the offenders when the state needs to collect more revenues from charging fines to the offenders (Bronitt & Stenning, 2011). The other fact is that, communities with more resources may promote the aspect of the police using other options of punishments like imposing fines than the underprivileged communities. This will on other hand influence the use of discretions by the police.

The other influence to police discretion is organizational variables, which include policies in the police departments and their organizational cultures. The policies have written guidelines on the limits of discretion powers by the police officers. It provides accountabilities and transparency in the department since it provides documentations on the conducts of the officers concerning discretion (DeAngelo & McCannon, 2015). The final category is environmental variables, which is explained from the sense that different communities have different policies for running and managing the regions. For example, a region might have tough regulation concerning speed limits while others do not consider that as serious offences. This will influence the manner in which the police officers will use discretion.

Negative impacts of police discretion

The negative impacts arise due to the abuse of the powers of discretion by the police officers. Since police officers are trained to use their discretions in accordance to the perceived statistics, it can lead to incidences of racial profiling. This is explained form the fact some communities or people from a specific race are always perceived of having high probabilities of committing crimes in the society. This is illegal but since it is mostly used as discretion, it is difficult to provide the evidences in court (Legrand & Bronitt, 2012). It has been recorded in many incidences that, discretion has led to partialities when handling people from different backgrounds. It has also encouraged the vice of corruption in the society, this is explained from the fact the offenders may develop the habit of committing an offence and are not arrested by the police because they have developed ways of bribing the police officers.

Sometimes, the police officers lack the knowledge of the consequences of their actions when handling discretion. Police discretion, like the application of excessive force to the offenders might lead to abuse of the discretion powers and cause death or injuries to those affected during the process. The other point is that the decision made by the police may be driven by irrational and personal factors, which may not be guided by morals and ethics, and may finally end up causing more harm than good to those involved in the process. The other aspect is that the police officers might view a given crime from different perspectives, according their individual attributes and cultural backgrounds (Slothower, 2014). Others might view a certain crime as normal and not that serious hence giving the offenders simple warning instead of severe punishments. Police officers supporting racism might take advantage of discretion powers and arrest crime offenders on the basis of their ethnicities and not considering other factors.

Positive impacts of the use of police discretion

Good implementation and use of police discretion by the police officers promotes a positive image of the police department. It promotes good police- community relations hence ensuring that there is effective communications and interactions between the police and the communities in which the police officers serve. This aspect helps to reduce the rates of crimes in the society since the members of the community will be willing to give out any essential information that might assist the police in reducing crimes (Glowatski, 2013). It also allows the police officers to treat people in a humane manner, by giving the offender warnings upon the assurances that they will not repeat the offences again. The other essential impact is that the discretion promotes the formation of policies and goals that are realistic in a given society. This is explained from the sense that police officers sometimes encounter situations that need the application of personal judgments in solving problems in the community.

For efficiency to be achieved in the criminal justice systems, the principle of police discretion has to be fully utilized. This is because of the fact that, if the police officers were mandated to strictly follow the provided laws to the end, the court systems will be presented with too many cases which might lead to decreased delivery of the services offered by the judges and magistrates due to the overwhelming number of cases (Schulenberg, 2015). Discretion also promotes autonomy in the society since both the police and the community are not limited to the provisions in the written laws only. It is also a form of motivations to the police officers and can contribute to one having satisfaction in one’s roles and responsibilities, since they are allowed to exercise the powers as provided by the law.

Controlling police discretion

There is no maximum control of discretion in a given society since it is an inevitable aspect in the criminal justice systems. Maximum control of discretion means that the police officers are required to adhere to the provided laws to the latter in all the situations they encounter. This will lead to poor relations between the police and the communities they serve, making it more difficult for the police to work under such environments. However, specific problems requiring the use of discretions will necessitate the application of some control mechanisms like internal and external control mechanisms, legal controls and controls by the courts and citizens.

Internal control mechanisms

The police department should be able to come up with policies and laws that are aimed at limiting the use of discretion by the police officers. It should also ensure that officers are supervised to ascertain that they are not misusing the privileges of discretion powers. There should be policies and measures in place that regulate the use of excessive force when handling crimes in the society. This will reduce the number of innocent people killed while the police are using excess force and powers in reducing crimes (Bronitt & Stenning, 2011). The police departments should provide adequate trainings to the police officers, since for one to be able to make ethical and moral discretion, they have to get enough knowledge and understandings concerning the consequences of the discretions. Therefore, the police officers should be well educated and have enough legal knowledge.

Legal controls

Through the provision of legislations, like the use of zero tolerance law, there is a reduction on the use of discretion by the police. The laws are formed to target areas that are prone to police discretions like domestic violence, traffic offences and firearms crimes. Laws that guide domestic disputes that do not seem to have elements of violence require that the spouses separate for some time till their tempers cool down and help them make informed choices. This reduces the chances of police officers using their own opinions in solving the disputes (DeAngelo & McCannon, 2015). The police officers should have adequate legal knowledge that will assist them in making quick decisions that are moral and ethical when solving problems in the community. Therefore their intelligence have to be tested and approved by the police department since they have high level of authorities and can have impacts on the lives of other people in the community. Since police officers use their own judgments in discretion, it can be influenced by many factors like level of education and mental health. It has been noted that there is less use of excessive force and discretion among the educated police officers compared to the less educated.

Control by the courts

The police officers should not be allowed to use discretion in a manner that invokes the criminal law. This is enhanced by ensuring that police officers operate in atmospheres that encourages and guides them to invoke neutrally all criminal laws within the boundaries of full enforcements (Bronitt & Stenning, 2011). The courts should invoke such laws that are deemed to allow excessive use of force and misuse of the powers of discretion by the police officers. Tagging on that, police officers found guilty of any misconduct have to be held accountable of their deeds in a responsible and transparent manner. It should render fair trials and judgments to all the officers violating the laws irrespective of their ranks in the police departments.

Control by the citizens

Through community policing, the police officers should be able to work closely with the members of the community to identify and solve crime and other related problems in the community. With the good-community relations, the members of the community will be able to report any criminal cases to the police, and the police on the other hand will react proactively to the problems raised in the community (Legrand & Bronitt, 2012). This will reduce the level of criminal offences in the community and the chances of police officers using discretion. The members of the community have the responsibility of reporting the conducts of the police officers who serve them, with the aim of ensuring that they are using the powers of discretion as required of them.

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Job Description – Miami Police Department.

Assignment Instructions

  1. Find and select a position offered at 1 of the organizations that you researched for the Phase 2 Discussion Board task.
  2. Identify the required or hard skills for the position.
  3. Be sure to list the skills you need to acquire as you continue your education and work toward your career goals.

Here is what we have researched and done, you can incorporate this as you work on your paper.

The name of the organization: Miami Police Department

The mission of the organization: Make Miami a city provides an environment where all people can live, work, and visit without any fear.

Career options within the organization.

One can become a police officer who trains other police officers, detective, patrol officer, and transit and railroad officers.

Three aspects of the organization that align with my goals.

Miami Police Department strives to improve communication between the police and citizens. It encourages police officers to join civic groups. Therefore, joining the department would enable me become an active member of the society.

The Miami Police Department builds partnerships with businesses and residential communities to detect and recommend various measures that they may take to improve the quality of life in their neighborhoods. Therefore, joining the department would enable me improve the quality of life in different locations within the city.

My goal as a police officer is to provide my services to all people equality regardless of their economic status or background. Miami Police Department emphasizes the trait. In fact, it is one of their core values.

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Militarization Of Urban Police Forces As A Social Problem

The militarization of police is the revolutionizing of law enforcement departments so that police officers can use military tactics and equipment. Such equipment includes the use of assault rifles, flash-bag grenades, armored personnel carriers and submachine guns, sniper rifles, grenade launchers, Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams (Balko, 2013). According to descriptions in criminal justice studies, the militarization of law enforcement units leads to civilian police patterning themselves around the tenets of the military model.

Observers have taken note of the increasing militarization of policing of protests in the previous years. Ever since the 1970s, riot police squads have fired at protestors using guns with plastic bullets. Also, tears gas, developed in 1919, has widely been used against protestors especially in the 2000s. The use of tear gas is prohibited by various international treaties which many countries have signed yet its use in law enforcement for non-combat situations is permitted (Wood, 2014). Due to this, there have been rising concerns on the militarization of the police on by both ends of the political continuum. Various groups continue to voice their criticisms of the practice as police departments speak in favor of the militarization.

A case in the point of the militarization of police departments as a concern is the shooting of Michael Brown in Missouri. According to commentators, many Americans who watched the rigorous aftermath unfold met head on with pictures of what could have been similar to a war zone. Police garbed in military gear and pointed assault rifles to citizens. It has since reinvigorated a public debate on the differences between the police and the military. Many agree that such militarization represents a worrying mutation of police power from the usual peace-keeping role to another of pacification.

In the past, primarily when the London Metropolitan Police was formed, police only carried a nightstick and were unarmed. Their authority was mainly expressed through their uniformed presence. In the US, police also took low-level weapons although guns were specifically used.  There was an enormous difference between the police and the military in terms of the weaponry. Nonetheless, the weapons that the police carry currently have been questioned due to their known use in the army as well.

As such, militarization has been regarded as a social problem. A social issue is defined as a condition in which some people in a community perceive as undesirable. It is agreeable that some situations such as murders and traffic deaths are social problems. Surprisingly, the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson Missouri may as well as fall in this category. Other situations state of affairs brought about by the militarization of law enforcement department belong to this category and so, generally, the militarization of police is a social problem.

As a result, Citizens and civil activist groups continually blame the system and individuals who led to the initiation of the militarization of police departments. In these accusations, two approaches could be used to counter this social problem namely; System-Blame Approach and the Person-Blame Approach.

The system-blame approach is the postulation that social issues are the results of conditions around a person (Lindblom & Cohen, 1979). According to this system, it would be believed that the whole police department would be to blame. It could even mean that the department of defense is to blame for allowing police officers to acquire assault rifles and military equipment and tactics. In short, with this approach, the social militarization problem would never lead to a particular person taking the culpability, and this means that we cannot find a specific solution to the problem. Instead, would only end up consuming more time finding the person to take the responsibility.

On the other hand, the person-blame approach would rest on the assumption that the social problem could have resulted from the pathologies of individuals (Truzzi & Springer, 1976). In this manner, there would be no blames for the whole system. As an alternative, sparticular individuals who were starting place of the problem would have to be pinpointed. For example, the leaders of law enforcement could be held accountable since they were the absolute controllers and regulators of policing. Initially, they had the choice of choosing among different choices of countering riots and insecurity while at the same time minding about civilians. the second approach can, therefore, offer solutions to the nationwide trend of police militarization.

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What did Miranda V Arizona ultimately decide and how did it impact police questioning

Paper instructions:

What did Miranda V Arizona ultimately decide and how did it impact police questioning? What is the role of the current public safety exception in terms of Miranda and it’s use? Be sure to include specific discussions to the original cases and subsequent cases that support when Miranda applies in public safety cases.

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How Databases, Technology, Polices Affect Administration of Justice

The Legal Landscape

The technology evolution directly impacts the manner the criminal justice system works at important levels. An extensive range of technology are implemented in justice system support. This include weapons, telephony, automobiles, computers, and database management software. The technology implementation and adoption also directly shapes the justice system practices and policies. For instance, in the early 1900s, the modern transportation and communications technologies development increased the police response capability and modified citizens call services. Cellular and computers technologies have increased communications, information sharing, and data processing capacity across and within agencies. The increasing social dependence on computer-mediated and internet communication have guided law enforcement to create tools to investigate online crimes. Therefore technology plays an essential role in the justice system (Holt, 2013).

Technology advancement has also made it easy to make criminal investigation and bring those responsible into justices. For instance, the development of technology to permit fingerprints reading and DNA typing has highly enabled the justice system to identify the actual culprits in the crime scene. DNA garments are collected on the site of crime or on the tools that were used to commit the crime. This can include blood, body tissues, or sperms and they are matched with those of the suspects and results report is generated. A similar procedure is used to confirm the presence of a suspect or involvement of a suspect in a crime scene where fingerprints collected in the scene of crime or in crime weapon, or stolen goods are matched with those of the suspect and results generated.

Other social science technology advancement has highly facilitated in judicial decision making regarding the fate of an offender based on the offender’s state of mind. For instance computer model to evaluate rate of recidivism has highly facilitated the decision of whether to release an offender after correction or not. The three technologies which include molecular biology, information science and social science have played a great part in transforming criminal justice system operations and eased the process of decisions making in the system (Princeton, 1988).  The criminal justice databases are used to store previous information regarding a case. This include the DNA analysis results, criminal fingerprints, criminal images, and criminal records of an individual among other things. It may also store information such as legal judgment and laws and policies employed to pass this judgment based on the provided evidence.

Policy making in the criminal justice system started long before the revolution period and since then, their impact has been felt for long in the justice system of America. Policy making in criminal justice is as a result of a changing vertical and horizontal decision making power. Decisions are made by policy makers in a dynamic process whereby different factors impact what, when, and how decisions are made and policy to be instituted in that particular case. Policy is created on an incremental manner and it is developed on two stages the initial stage being wide policy parameters establishment and policy parameters translation to policy programs. Policy are made as a result of the political and moral forces confluence which permits an action to take place (Miller, 1973).  Policies play a great role in determining how criminal justice system should handle different situation in their normal operations. The change of policy and the amendments of the United States constitution have also influenced the operation the US justice system. In most cases, the changes and amendments have limited the workability of the justice system of the country (Garrison, 2009).

There are a number of policies that have been imposed in the country which have a great impact in the criminal justice system. For instance, the introduction of the privacy act which was created to protect the electronic accounts privacy limits the accessibility of these accounts to different agencies and define the procedure to handle such information. However, the criminal justice authority is exempted from some policy restrictions when doing investigation on cyber related crimes. It also limit sharing of personal information among agencies. However, it allows sharing of this information for security purposes and thus making it easy for the criminal justice system to do their investigation. Others such as gun control laws which gives restrictions to the use, manufacturing, modification, sale, possession and transfer of  firearms makes it easy for the criminal justice system to investigate crimes related with firearms and shooting.

The USA PATRIOT Act which was established to fight terrorism makes it everybody’s role to fight terrorism and thus making it easy for the criminal justice system to obtain information from other agencies and the entire public. Others include the three strike law which allows the judiciary to increase criminal sentence of individuals who have been convicted of serious crimes for two or more times previously. This prevent the criminal system from being nagged by one person from now and them and make them focus to other crimes or criminals (Garrison, 2009). Megan law is another law used to reduce cases of recidivism. It involves the registration of sex offenders and thus, reducing resources that could be used to reconvicting a former corrected offender. Other useful policies include lie detector used to identify witnesses giving false statement, truth in sentencing law, domestic violence laws, truth in sentencing laws and inmate classification systems among others.

Communication Barriers Between Police And Community

Keeping in mind that communication includes verbal and non-verbal communication such as body language and that communication barriers can exist between the police and the public, how can police officers reduce communication barriers with their community?

Write a 2 page paper. Address the following in your paper:

  • Barriers that exist between the police and the community they serve.
  • What can police officers do to reduce communication barriers? Provide examples.

 

Support your answers.
Include a title page and 3-5 references. Only one reference can be from the internet (not Wikipedia). The other references must be from the  Library. Please adhere to the American Psychological Association (APA) 6th edition, 2nd printing when writing and submitting papers. Papers should be grammatically correct.

Standards for Police Search and Seizure

A police officer is a person entitled  to enforce the laws, make the arrests and investigate crimes as being mandated to do as police officer. In most cases, their prime role also entails working in partnership with the communities, social workers, schools, business individuals whom the always serve by maintaining order, protecting the members of the public and their property and more so, reduces the members anxiety of crime. The officers are take through training ranging to using technology to combat the common organize crimes, in addition, they also provide advice  to those who have been affected by crime

Although the members of public have freedom of privacy from government intrusion, however, there are the existing limits when police search is warranted, in this case,they may enter premise if they believe beyond doubt  especially if there is signs of breach of peace or an offence is likely to be committed and if necessary (Jordan,1998), they may enter immediately since they are empowered to prevent any physical injury they will do search if they are in hot pursuit of suspect who may run into an apartment,

However, there are searches that is not warranted by any justice system where the police does their search without the consent of a person, for instance, a police might resolve use frisk search as a way of checking dangerous equipments or drugs. Normally, frisk searches are ordinary searches but must be done with decorum, a police officer who is authorized must conduct in a way that provides reasonable privacy for the person searched. During this exercise, an officer who enters a n apartment and perform strip search to members of the family without consent of the person is infringing the rights of the victim. Doing this to parents and children without private room poses psychological problems to the members of the e family.

According to Barnacle (1992), Drugs raise more interest especially to woman as they forced to undergo search among those imprisoned. They are being harassed to an extent that they are told to remove clothes one at a time until they remain naked, on the other hand men are  told to spread their legs , bend and all sort of abuses. This practice leave those victims in  a situation of pervasive harassment. Most  often, the members of the public will have doubt on the police force because of lack of trust hence  resulting  to poor coordination in combating crime.

Woman are the most affected this necessitate the need for institutional change for the police unit. Most of the police officers abuse power resulting to sexual assault. This raises the needs for the victims to resist and complain about the unwarranted search and seizure. The American law has played  significant role in regulating the police from the misconduct by restraining them until the chief source of legal officer gives a warrant of arrest to the victim who declines to appear in court

The action of seizure of the property might hinder the  criminal justice in  anumber of ways when the police  have searched  or seized someone ,it requires some justification or  enough information so that it can show the  evidence was probably found in place  of search. One issue that arise in supreme court concerning the  evidence might be interfered because of  biases to defeat justice to another  party, since police were relied on information ,this ends up affecting the  resolution  in seeking justice.

Informants are sometimes citizens who call into police stations  for useful information but others sometimes have different agenda, though this could be useful tips to police ,some pose to have hidden agenda especially if there is hatred between the neighbors who maybe don’t wish good to each other, such controversial scenario ends up lacking the precise direction. The informants may have been bribed  to stage-manage the search of causing embarrassment, in most cases, the identity of this people is anonymous hence poses challenge in legal systems ,this makes supreme court to come up with procedures and restrictions governing the process of search and seizure by the police (Bland and Quinton,2000).

In general, the public are more satisfied with police when they feel they have treated them politely and fairly and the response they give reasonable facts. they will both side focus on making better  use of searches  while reducing the  impacts to the community, it should be used in the right way and targeted on strong grounds  for suspicion and maximizing the use of  intelligence about the local crime problems

Challenges Related to Use of Force By Police Officers

The use of force in the police department remains a prevailing concern in USA United (States& United States, 1982). Due to this, the use of deadly force has led to cases between police and suspected offenders going all the way to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court as a result has altered laws that encircle this arena owing to the decisions made.

Under section 42 of the US constitution 1983, citizens sought and continue to seek civil damages. Not only that, decisions made by the Supreme Court have completely configured the existing criminal statutes and law enforcing protocols.

The police department has formerly found several challenges in the US Supreme Court following its involvement in cases which are linked to use of force against suspected offenders. The officers directly involved were found to have violated the fourth amendment or the policies governing the arrests.

Taking a case involving the use of deadly force, a Tennessee police officer was involved in excessive use of force in 1985 where they responded to a scene of burglary. The officer intercepted the suspected offender who was a juvenile by ordering him to stop running. However, the juvenile on disobeying the police order got shot by the officer which led to his death at the hospital later on.

The event finally led to the landmark case of 1985 which involved the Tennessee and Garner (105 s. ct. 1694) where the Supreme Court reviewed the facts that prevailed. The court ruled that the use of force by police on nonviolent and unarmed felony suspects violated the fourth amendment.

The fourth amendment guarantees US citizens against unreasonable seizure(Ederheimer&Fridell, 2005). The US Supreme Court therefore termed the laws of many states as unconstitutional because of the use of deadly force in such cases. The states involved ended up following the legal directive given by the Supreme Court. Policies governing use of force in apprehension of nonviolent fleeing felony suspects changed from then on.

From the Tennessee case, the state law changed, with the state guiding on the use of deadly force. The law also branched into several statutes which were based on fleeing felon sections. Consequently, more law enforcement agencies ended up developing.

In my opinion, I agree and fully support the Supreme Court’s ruling and legal guidance since it is necessary to both protect the lives of the officers involved and the suspects too. The use of deadly force on nonviolent an unarmed suspects only makes the matters worse. It makes the situation look as if the police officer involved is already subjecting the suspect to retribution.

However, in some special situations, it might be appropriate for police to use force or deadly force on a suspect. For example, if an officer appears in a scene of criminal activity of disorderly conduct and identifies themselves as police but then the unarmed suspect attacks the police officer, the scene may end up requiring the use of deadly force. The attacker may overpower the officer for instance, forcing the officer under the circumstance to pull their gun and shoot the suspect.

As seen from such an incidence, it is also essential to protect the life of the police officer involved as well as the people present at the scene of criminal activity. Law enforcement agencies dictate that there are several instances that the police can use force on suspected offenders. Firstly, if the suspect has the capability and ability to cause bodily harm, secondly, if the suspect has the capacity to kill any officer in the scene and lastly, if the suspect has the opportunity to cause bodily harm to the officers involved. It will then see to it that the use of deadly force by police is executed in the fairest manner.

Defining Police Ethics

Introduction

The inclusion of ethics in policing environment started gaining momentum in the recent years following frequent occurrences of corruption and police brutality, which began appearing all over the courtroom and in the media. In fact commentators from different quarters agree that police culture, the police institution, and styles of policing are the three essential issues that define the role that ethics requires playing in policing. In defining police ethics, this paper will discuss the nature of the work of police, police culture, police discretion, basic roles of a police officer, and the relevance of ethics in law enforcement. In the general sense, citizens look at the police as the people who are charged with the responsibility of controlling crimes. This, however, is not supposed to be the correct case. This is because the original English conception regarding the function of police force required the police to gain the goodwill of citizens in the course of their policing duties (Perez & Moore, 2012). In regard to police ethics, it was only a few years ago when this phrase (police ethics) used to sound as a joke to most Americans. Police officers through their subculture dynamics used to portray an image that made them appear as uneducated, unintelligent, and untrained incompetents to the public. The general consideration was that the police were agents of the government who, on a regular basis, could break the principles that they proponed, and could abuse their own power.

It is significant to understand that ethical behavior encompass a system of principles and values that qualify as professional standards based on truthfulness and honesty. Therefore, police ethics requires displaying an ethical mind-set that entails allegiance, courage and integrity. Based on this consideration, it is should be clear that police departments can strengthen their relationships with the communities through training police officers based on three essential concepts: racial reconciliation, bias reduction, and procedural justice (MacVean & Neyroud, 2012). Proper effective implementation of these concepts can result into an environment that can support the partnerships that the police have with their citizens. There is a common tendency among law enforcement agency administrators to assume that all officers possess strong personal ethics so that those who may be lacking sufficient moral judgment may acquire it through interaction with the rest of the police within the agency. The unfortunate part of police ethics is attributed to the cultural dynamics of the kind of work that police do. These cultural dynamics impede the capacity of police officers to develop the expected set of beliefs and values. However, in order to have ethics institutionalized among police officers, serious consideration should be given to establishment of a well-organized framework to comprise an essential part of the training program for police ethics.

Nature of the Work of Police

As mentioned earlier in this paper, various commentators from various quarters hold different views with respect to the nature of policing in the society without forgetting its ethical base. There is a substantial need that the police behavior is modeled so that it can be embraced as a powerful tool for influencing their conduct in every organization. Ethical police agencies are the kinds that encourage their officers to model the desired ethical behavior and promote them based on ethical behavior consideration.  For this reasons various researchers have found it necessary to develop policing models in order to determine the kind of function that police require performing in the society duties (Delattre & Bores, 2011). These models include the social peacekeeper, the social enforcer, the emergency operator, and the crime fighter.

  •             Social peacekeeper model emphasizes adoption of a wider definition of policing where it requires it appearing as a public service as opposed to crime fighting. In the view of Delattre and Bores (2011), there is an irreconcilable tension between the law enforcement role by the police and the simultaneous protection of the citizens. Therefore, there is need for ensuring that officers obtain effective training that can enable them to exercise their discretionary powers in a considerable manner. Effective training, also, provides them with the freedom of choosing their appropriate styles of policing and, therefore, enable them observe ethics in their duties. Besides, it is essential to ensure ethical policing through recruitment of officers whose integrity levels are desirable. In regard to social peacekeeper model, there is need for proper internal police controls to sanction minor acts that can easily influence the police to engage in major deals of corruption.
  •             The social enforcer model requires police officers to embrace coercion as an integral aspect of their work (Delattre & Bores, 2011). This model encompasses the view that police address many problems on a daily basis whose solution may demand their occasional incorporation of force. Social enforcer; however, has received a lot of criticism for encouraging police to incorporate force without considering that other members of the community such as school teachers and parents can, also, use force.
  •             The emergency operator, on the other hand, views policing as role similar to that one played by other emergency personnel such as firefighters and ambulance operators. In this case, therefore, police provide emergency aid by ensuring that there is a clear way for other professionals like social workers who ensure that more practical problem-solving services are availed to the people (Delattre & Bores, 2011). In this case, emphasis is placed on policing as a mission that should involve dealing with people as opposed to crime fighting. These; however, does not imply that competence regarding crime control has to be overlooked.
  •             The crime fighter model requires regarding community as the friendly people that deserve police protection, and criminals as enemies of the police. This implies that police officer should regard their role from a punitive perspective, which may include handling suspects in a manner that guilty people deserve (Delattre & Bores, 2011). In this regard, media plays a significant role in the representation of police as crime fighters. This happens commonly, either through reality programming or police dramas. All these media representations are significant for promoting police images as protectors of society and fighters against evil.

Police Culture

There is a standing expectation that individuals working within an institution execute their roles as defined by the procedures, regulations, and rules of that particular institution. Their interpersonal relationships together with these roles construct an institutional structure.    Other aspects such as values, attitudes and institutional norms are instrumental in defining the institutional culture. In this regard, various commentators have made attempts in analyzing the various aspects that constitute the culture of police institutions. According to the arguments of Conroy (2011), policing derives its driving force from the interaction of occupational culture with politics, laws, policies, and regulations of the institution. Regarding utilization of force, police institutional culture requires the police to engage appropriate physical force or even deadly force against criminals who deserve it. It should be considered that deception and lying are essential parts of the function of the police. Besides, as part of police institutional culture, police officers require being loyal, and should protect each other even when they engage in actions of misconduct.

Police Discretion

The law allows the police to have the power to deny citizens their right of freedom by arresting them. The law, also, guarantees them the right to apply force in the course of their policing duties, and involve lethal force in deserving situations. This implies that the police possess great legal authority, which should be exercised exclusively in protecting the public as well as enforcing the law (Frank & Liederbach, 2014). Besides the authority guaranteed by the law, police are, also accorded another form of authority based on the role that the police require playing in carrying out their policing responsibilities, police officers should have the capacity to exercise high levels of discretion. They have wide spheres of freedom within which they should make decisions and act based on the situation at hand. For instance, based on their judgment, police officers can decide whether or not making an arrest is suitable in a given situation. Besides, they have the discretion to use the amount of force they found appropriate during a confrontation. Various commentators; however, have raised arguments regarding limitation of such police discretion in order to allow ethical standards and police department regulations to circumscribe police discretion. However, according to the assertions of (Frank & Liederbach, 2014), there have been some cases of some police utilizing their authority as well as their broad discretionary powers to engage in acts of misconduct.

Ethics and Codes of Ethics

It is significant for professions to have codes of ethics as they are essential tools for standard regulation in regard to protection of clients as well as the public. It is essential for all police officers to be familiar with ethical responsibilities that their positions demand and should constantly endeavor to satisfy the highest expectation of professional policing (Delattre & Bores, 2011). It is essential for law enforcement officers to refer to the available ethical mandates for clear counsel and advice to perform their duties satisfactorily. In most cases, the oath of office prepares the foundation for instillation of ethical behavior. Most agencies codify the practices, which they expect to embrace and those that should be avoided by officers. This is significant for providing guidance in regard to ethical decision making. There are specific provisions within the code of ethics of a policing agency that encourage protection of people’s lives and property. The same provisions, also, specify the significance of avoidance of bias and embracing the badge as representation of public trust. This means that besides preparation of police officers to enforce the law, the code of ethics, also, requires them to follow it. Therefore, they are supposed to demonstrate the right examples of behavior to the public.

The basic roles of a police officer

The law entrusts a police officer with the authority to act as a government’s official representative. The statute confers the duties that the police should perform and the power they should exercise. In this case, therefore, ensuring everyone’s rights to justice, equality and liberty; maintain the peace; protecting the innocent; protecting people’s property and lives; and serving the community are the basic responsibilities that a police officer requires fulfilling (MacVean & Neyroud, 2012).

Use of Force

According to the ethics and codes of ethics, police officers are not supposed to employ force or violence inappropriately. They should; however employ reasonable force in the course of their duty in all circumstances. Basically, force should only be employed as the last option after persuasion, negotiation and discussion have been rendered to be ineffective or inappropriate (Frank & Liederbach, 2014). Furthermore, in the event that employment of force is unavailable, all police officers are prohibited from engaging in any inhuman, degrading or cruel treatment of any individual. However, the incorporation of force has, for a long time, been a contentious issue as far as policing is concerned. This is because the ability of the police to be coercive defines the very core of their policing role. The law gives the police the authority to apply reasonable force, which should only be employed as the last resort. Although there is general approval of the police entitlement to use force, the aspects that constitute unnecessary or excessive force remain uncertain.

Police Ethics

Police ethics, as compared to business or medical ethics, is still relatively underdeveloped. There are several reasons attributed to this scenario and as Perez and Moore (2012) assert, the main reasons are the existing misunderstanding of the significance of police ethics and the paramilitary philosophy kind of policing. In regard to the existing misunderstanding of police ethics, there are some practitioners who believe that the presence of the law requires replacing the need for police ethics. Their perspective is that the police officers are the strict representative of the law and, therefore, require doing their work according to the law. The same proponents of this perspective, also, claim that the police should not be allowed to exercise discretion. This claim; however, has not been considered because there are situations of ethical or moral dilemma in which laws have proved to have little significance. All officers operating in all areas of practice (law enforcement, business, medical, etc.) should consider that their first responsibility is to differentiate, in every situation, between what ethics demands and what law demands. They should, also, understand the danger of being defrocked, prosecuted, sued or jailed. It is, therefore, essential for all officers to think beyond the law and embrace ethical consideration.

Second, regarding the paramilitary philosophy form of policing, it should be clear that police officers do not act on their own; instead, the executors’ role is assigned to them by their supervisors. The fact that they should never question orders from their supervisors implies that there is limited room for moral deliberations (Perez & Moore, 2012). Therefore, obedience is the fundamental virtue that police require observing within this framework. The significance of police ethics; however, has gained wide acceptance following the general approval of police discretion as an integral part of the work of police and the emergence of problem solving policing and community policing. It is because of this reason that police ethics is included in all aspects of police training. Recent developments in police ethics indicate that only the police officers who have undergone satisfactory education and training can have the capacity to respond to ethical and moral dilemmas that they may encounter in their profession. Having the ability to solve such dilemmas in a satisfactory manner indicates that a police officer can benefit the community by performing his duties in a professional manner. Therefore, it is essential for police officers to embrace appropriate canons of ethical conduct besides embracing the significance of ethical decision making and moral reasoning.

 

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Effects of Stress on Police Force

A lot has been spoken about the effects of stress on the lives of police officers. Look at the lives of at least two police officers from the police station in your community and analyze the effects of stress on the police officers. Using the South University Online Library or the Internet, research and analyze why police officers have high levels of suicide, alcoholism, and divorce rates. In a 2- to 3-page Microsoft Word document, create a report that includes answers to the following:

  • There are organizations and groups available to the police to deal with stress. Compile information about ten such organizations. Analyze at least two such organizations or groups from your community in great detail.
  • There have been many cases especially between 2011 and 2012, in which officers have lost their lives in the line of duty. Analyze at least three cases from this period in great detail.
  • How does the loss of life in the line of duty impact the stress levels of a particular agency where a police officer lost his or her life? Analyze two recent cases from your state.

Corruption Practices of Police and Correctional Systems

Police misconduct is a common problem in most parts of the United States. Police are involved in a number of brutal acts toward citizens, especially young black Americans. There have been cases of police shooting to unarmed young black men. Video footage have also shown police harassing women during traffic stop, confronting  street man and beating him brutally despite of him having no weapon among other cases. Brutality has also been reported in the correctional system whereby officers in charge of the collection center are reported to use unnecessary force to punish prisoners, which including beating them up for simple mistakes as not being on time. Some are also given unhealthy punishments which can affect their well-being. In all this, most police have been found to focus on minority communities when employing unnecessary force where blacks are highly targeted. Despite of physical abuse, police are also involved in issues of disrespect, ridicule, sarcasm, name calling to citizens during their patrol or traffic stops. Unnecessary stops and search have also been reported especially among the black Americans community. Police officers have also been found to collaborate with a number of criminals by receiving protection fee and directing them on the police missions against them. This has highly affected the police operation in fighting a number of crimes in different regions.

Officers in the correction department have also been associated with profane and obscene language. They are said to use religious connotations such as goddamn or hell, excretory functions that include piss or shit, and sexual functions such as prick or fuck. Being professional trained officers they are not required to use offensive words to individuals who they are supposed to be improving. Other common misconducts in the prisons include sexual involvement of a police officer with the inmate. This is a very serious offence that makes it hard for the police officer to work effectively with the inmates.

Recommendation to counter police and Correction System Corrupt Practices

  • Police officers have a responsibility of maintaining peace and order in the society. However, they do not have any right to mishandle any suspect of citizen at any point. Most states have already defined a code of conduct to govern police officers; however, the federal government should consider defining a national code of conduct that should guide the police officers especially on issues regarding the magnitude of the force to be used while handling individuals while armed and while not armed (Barnhart, 2010).
  • Police officer found to be against the law in any way, either by mishandling citizens or supporting criminals should face the law just like all other criminals.
  • Racial discrimination in policing should also be considered an offense and equivalent legal measures should be taken to any officer who demonstrates the aspects of racial discrimination in their operation.
  • The correction system should also come up with a code of conduct defining police officers behavior while dealing with inmates. This should include restriction on the language used, professional relation between officers and inmates, and use of violence and other brutal acts.
  • All officers should be trained on communication skills and the professional language they should use at their respective area of operation.
  • The correction system should be streamline to fit its definition, more constructive programs should be introduced to enhance reshaping of inmates without use of force.
  • The police department should consider defining motivational techniques to ensure that police do their work in the right manner and with high level of dedication.
  • Close supervision of officers on duty should be employed in both police and in the correction system so as to ensure those involved in scandalous activities are punished accordingly (Bayley & Perito, 2011).

Outline

  • Introduction to the problem
  • Research background
  • Research Finding
  • Possible recommendation

Controlling Police Through Litigation

Litigation is the action of a court system to enforce and protect a particular right. This has been used in the former years so as to set things right between the police and the community.Particularly, it has been used to eliminate ambiguity and provide consistency in the general departmental conduct of police. Police subdivisions usually draft and instigate strategies and procedures as universally-guiding principles. These policies and principles are aimed at outlaying directives that’s should be followed by staff and police officers depending with the situations and cases at hand. Such rules are backed up by the forces of law and are even reflected upon when juries are resolving on police misconduct or conduct. Employee actions are also considered in this bracket and may undergo scrutiny in legal cases. As a rule, these issues and policies involving communities are put in place so as to enforce lawful and consistent police action.

Failure to embody such regulations may pose serious adverse actions which may further invoke severe reactions from the public. It can place police on legal liability which could normally be a “legal irony”. Section 1983 as quoted by Michael Layman, dictates that police officers are prohibited from violating the rights of any citizen regardless of their social status. The section is used as instrument for safeguarding the rights of an individual against any kind of police malpractice. More particularly, a person can use this section to sue another person who has violated their civil rights. However, some rudiments are determinantsof the applicability of section 1983. The first foundation is that the violator of this section must be specifically a “person”. A bigger entity therefore, such as a whole police department or a state agency cannot be a subject to accountability under the edict. Secondly, the accountable “person” must have been operating under the influence of legal authority when the denunciated infringement took place.A police officer who beats a suspect illegally while making an arrest would therefore be acting under such authority, making him to be subjected to liability.

The use of illegal force by police is therefore a violation of the rights of an individual depending with the circumstances. The use of force as stated by the international association of chiefs of police is the amount of force called for when compelling an unwilling subject(IACP, 2001). In regard to this, excessive force is deemed a misconduct(Alpert et al, 2004). Apart from these, vicarious liability is placed upon police departments and municipalities in consideration of the reasons of the service of the crown, independence of functions for masters and damages done when police officers were enforcing the law. Act 1983 has outlined on what happens when torts are committed by police officers and how the above mentioned vicarious liability elements are dealt with.

Nevertheless, police officers on duty are entitled to “official immunity” as a gesture of protecting them from exaggerated claims by accusers. It applies for state laws claims that may be brought upon them. Not only that, police departments and municipal employers are entitled to vicarious immunity for their corresponding officers’ conduct. Official state law states this in abid to protect its police force. Such immunities are of various types. The first classification is made on the pillars of acts, omissions and decisions made within the scope of their official duties. Secondly, the immunity from acts, omissions or decisions that are discretionary and lastly, those that are not made in a reckless manner. Police are also protected by their ability to sue back in special circumstances. They can sue on such situations when they sustain injury and when their rights are violated too. In these two ways, both the public and police respect each other legally. For the good of all, litigation appears to be the best form of police control.

Policemen of the World Final Paper With Sample Answer

Policemen of the World Final Paper Assignment Instructions

You have already developed a thesis statement and developed an outline in which you explored two (2) real-life international incidents from the past five (5) years involving the United States involving the United States as a world power. Now you will develop the final paper in which you explore your main points in detail.

Write a three to five (3-5) page paper in which you:

  1. Introduce your paper with your previously crafted thesis statement. Identify two to three (2-3) international events from the past five years that can be traced back to a foreign policy created after the Civil War.
  2. Discuss three (3) aspects of US history since 1865 that have led to the USA’s rise as a world super power policeman.
  3.  Identify three to five (3-5) international incidents since World War II where America has taken on a policing role.
  4. Determine three to five (3-5) driving forces that fueled international policy decisions involving the international incidents you outlined previously. (Consider treaties, exit strategies, elections, wars, etc.)
  5. Use at least three (3) academic references besides or in addition to the textbook.
  6. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions. Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Analyze the rise of the United States to a world “superpower” and how that status has shaped its internal developments in recent decades.
  • Recognize the major turning points in American history since the Civil War.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in contemporary U.S. history. Write clearly and concisely about contemporary U.S. history using proper writing mechanics.

 

Policemen of the World Final Paper Sample Answer

 

Introduction

For a very long time, the US military has been assisting various situations around the world. This is because of the decision made by the government to protect their citizen no matter their location in the world. Instead of comprising of individual states, the United States of America joined forces to create a superior army, proving that it is now a united and indivisible nation. Protecting its citizens who are abroad has led to the U.S sending its army to work together with the army of other countries in certain situations. This paper champions the thesis that although the U.S is commonly criticized  for being referred to as the world power, it has been engaged in a series of overseas military activities that are important across borders.

International Events From The Past Five Years That Can Be Traced Back To A Foreign Policy Created After The Civil War

America’s foreign policy is enabling the country to have a large impact on the world today. The foreign policy keeps on changing from time to time. The presidents who are responsible for influencing the formation of these policies in the present have already come to accept the fact that U.S is a member of the world community that cannot benefit in any way by ignoring the importance of alliances and getting along.

One of the International events that can be traced back to a foreign policy created after the civil war is the killing of Osama bin Laden. After taking office, president Obama gave an order to the CIA to direct more of their assigned resources to the hunting of Osama bin Laden. Once located, the president chose to overrule advice given by many of his generals to bomb his compound, and instead he opted for the U.S special Forces to carry out the task. This boldness in hunting and killing bin Laden reflects the counter-terror policy passed by Obama. Due to this policy, the U.S army plays major roles in various attacks against terrorists around the world (Heitmeyer, 2011). For instance, the increased use of drone strikes as a way of attacking the al Qaeda targets in Pakistan has turned out effective. The al Qaeda capacity has been reduced significantly.

Another international event is the attack against Al-Shabaab in Somalia using the drones. The Al-Shabaab is also a group of militias who are carrying out terrorist activities against many countries and citizens of the world. For this reason, a drone was set to strike a small village whereby most of the top leaders of the group were camped.

Aspects Of US History Since 1865 That Have Led To The USA’S Rise As A World Super Power Policeman

There are certain aspects of the US history since 1865 that have greatly contributed to the rise of the country as a world super power policeman. First, by becoming the world’s greatest economy at 1865 and achieving a 50% level of world production at the end of World War II, the country managed to start its rise (Heitmeyer, 2011). Having the largest economy gave this country a lot of power over other countries. It is what enables it to have more resources to use in worldwide activities. Second, this country gained great respect when it chose to extend its existing opposition to imperialism in the Western Hemisphere to other regions of the world (Schlesinger, 2004). This was one of its first actions in matters relating to other countries. In late 19th century, America reacted bitterly to the revival of the European imperialism. In the 1900 Open Door Note, the same opposition was extended in China (Schlesinger, 2004). This was not the end of it, as in 1918 and 1941 more oppositions created by the USA were subjected in Europe, Wilson’s 14 Points and in S/SE Asia and Africa (Schlesinger, 2004). Lastly, this country started participating fully in the destruction of powers in the World Wars, division in Cold War, and the stagnation under communism.

International Incidents Since World War II Where America Has Taken On A Policing Role

            First, America took on a policing role when it got involved in Iran politics at the time of the White Revolution by supporting Reza Pahlavi. Second, the country was at the forefront of the 2003 rescuing mission of Iraq citizens when the country was suffering from mass killings conducted by Saddam Hussein (Schlesinger, 2004). Third, the country played an essential role in Libya and Egypt back in 2013 when it sent its troops there on a mission of peace restoration (In Hehir & In Murray, 2013).

 

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Policemen of the World Thesis and Outline With Sample Answer

After the Civil War and by the mid-20th century, the United States had become the dominant force in international relations. Some have argued that the United States’ military functions as the world’s “police.” This assignment covers the manner in which this shift occurred and the consequences the United States faces as a result of its status as “policemen of the world.” Using the Internet, research two (2) real-life international incidents from the past five (5) years in which:

  • The U.S. used military action abroad.
  • Controversy existed within the American public regarding U.S. involvement.
  • Controversy existed within the country or countries affected by U.S. involvement.

For the first part of this assignment you will create a thesis statement. A thesis statement is usually a single sentence somewhere in your first paragraph that presents your main idea to the reader. The body of the essay organizes the material you gather and present in support of your main idea. Keep in mind that a thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. (Note: Please consult the Purdue OWL Website with tips on how to construct a proper thesis; the website can be found at:https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/01/

Part 1

1. Write a thesis statement that is one to two (1-2) sentences long in which you:

  1. State your opinion on the significance of the two (2) real-life international incidents that you have researched. Justify your response.

Part 2

2. Write a one to two (1-2) page outline in which you:

  1. Determine two to three (2-3) international events from the past five years that can be traced back to a foreign policy created after the Civil War.
  2. List three(3) aspects of US history since 1865 that has led to the US’s rise as a world super power policeman.
  3. List three to five (3-5) international incidents since World War II where America has taken on a policing role.
  4. List three to five (3-5) driving forces that fueled international policy decisions involving the international incidents you outlined previously. (Consider treaties, exit strategies, elections, wars, etc.)
  5. Use at least three (3) quality references. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not quality as academic resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

SAMPLE ANSWER

Policemen of the world

In the past years, the US Military has been brought up as the ‘world cops’. This has raised some feedbacks and upshots from different leaders, countries and even the US citizens themselves. So, why is the US military repeatedly referred to as the world police?

To begin with, the US military has undergone numerous changes and modifications in its recent history. Some are just but a number of initiatives by the government to improve the efficiency while some are direct consequences of past mistakes and complications suffered either in the military or the US as a nation. The civil war for examplechipped in greatly in defining the modern state of affairs in the military. At the outset, the wars lasting-effects led to the obliteration of slavery and redefining America as comprising of a united and indivisible nation preferably than the previously existing separate states. This in turn led to the whole America joining forces to come up with one superior armywhich subsists to this day.

As a superpower sustaining a large military, the US has always volunteered in international unions and peace operations in an effort to aid and keep good international relations. Similarly, it has continued to protect its citizens living abroad, and as a result, the government has often found itself entangled in abroad military actions. In the recent time for example, it performed a military intervention In Libya (Operation Odyssey Dawn) in a coalition with UN to enforce the Security Council resolution of 1973.

It also recently in 2014, attempted to rescue James Foley and the other hostages held by the ISIL. Air strikes were carried out on the ISIL camp in Syria and although the mission was unsuccessful, some ISIL militants were killed. Other large operations that has led to the US military being called the world police are the operation Neptune spear that led to the killing of Osama bin laden and air strikes on Somalia in an effort to kill al-Shabaab militants (Halevi, 2011). These and many more military strategies have and may continue to be the pillars of the US military being called the world police in a modern world where peace is a jewel.

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