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Police related academic resources e.g research papers, article summaries, essays, assignment instructions and sample solutions, sample dissertations , research proposals e.t.c.

Police Department Consent Decree/Agreement – Assignment Instructions

Case Study: Police Department Consent Decree/Agreement

You are assigned to the Research and Development Unit of the Virtual Police Department. The Unit Director asked you to prepare a presentation for the Chief on U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) consent decrees and agreements. It seems one of the Chief’s close professional colleagues is now subject to such an agreement. The Chief wants to be sure he has done everything possible to avoid finding the Virtual Police Department in a similar predicament. The format of the presentation is quite simple. Using a selected city that is currently under (or recently been under) a DOJ consent decree/agreement as reference, provide the Chief with direction on how to avoid being subject to DOJ oversight.

Review the document, “Addressing Police Misconduct Laws Enforced by the Department of Justice

Select one of the following as your subject case study police department:

  1. The Oakland (California) Police Department http://www2.oaklandnet.com/government/o/OPD/DOWD004998 and https://oaklandnorth.net/2011/12/20/twelve-years-after-the-riders-a-long-legal-process-is-reaching-its-final-stage/
  2. The Seattle (Washington) Police Department https://www.justice.gov/crt/investigation-documents
  3. The Baltimore (Maryland) Police Department https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/justice-department-reaches-agreement-city-baltimore-reform-police-department-s

Research: Starting with the link provided, continue your research on the basis for and actions attentive to the subject consent decree/agreement, Review all of the pertinent documents, articles, websites, etc. until you feel you have a thorough understanding sufficient to respond to the Assignment questions.

Assignment

  1. Briefly describe the situation(s) and/or event(s) that led up to DOJ oversight in the form of a consent decree/agreement (no more than 20% of the paper)
  2. Briefly outline the provisions of the consent decree/agreement. What actions is the department required to take? What changes is the department required to make?(no more than 20% of the paper)
  3. Connect the provisions of the consent decree/agreement to the initiating causes.
  4. Describe in detail what the Virtual Police Department needs to do in order to avoid following in the footsteps of the subject police department or otherwise find itself subject to DOJ oversight in he form of a consent decree/agreement (no less than 40% of the paper)

View a sample solution to this assignment based on Baltimore Police Department Consent Decree or order a unique solution to this assignment at an affordable price.

 

Corruption in Los Angeles Police Department – Ethics and Morality in Criminal Justice System

Introduction

Criminal justice system is one of the most important governmental systems in the country. It is involved in the reinforcement of the law in the country, and hence determining the general harmony in the operation of other governmental agencies, public and private institutions, and all citizens in a country. Police officers are the primary actors in the enforcement of the law. Their efficiency in doing this is highly determined by a number of factors, with individual morality and institutional ethical values playing the main role in determining their behavior and conduct.Morals and ethics associate to what can be considered to be wrong or right conduct. The two phrases are mostly applied interchangeably, though they are different. Morality denotes individual’s personal principles about what is wrong and what is right.  Ethics on the other hand denotes rules given by an exterior source for instance religious principles, or workplace code of conduct (Caplan, 1983). This paper evaluates an ethical event that takes place among some police officers and how it is influenced by various factors that include culture, history, politics and Moral courage.

Selected Event

The selected event in this case is corruption in a police department featuring Los Angeles police department. Los Angeles police department has maintained corruption legacy for a considerable time period. This has been undermining the officers’ ability to enforce law effectively (Caplan, 1983). By being corrupt, police officers become the law breakers rather than the protector of the law. They undermine the honor of their colleagues and of the region they are supposed to protect. Corruption normally happens when officers receives money gift or any other form of incentives to allow criminals to continue with their activities without being arrested.

The gifts and incentives are taken as criminal protection fees. This arrangement happens mostly with drugs traffickers and gangs criminal operations (Winton, 2016). Other cases of corruption are seen in the traffic where motorists give money to avoid arrest or issuing of traffic ticket. The police in return act by directing them on the routes they can use to pass without being stopped. They therefore manage to continue with their operations comfortably under the protection of the law enforcement officers that are required to stop them. This goes against the police duty and against their moral duty of upholding the law, and being devoted in the protection of the citizens and their country. It also goes against individual morality.

Drug use affects life of youths and other users negatively. Promoting drug trafficking for personal gains is immoral. Anyone who embraces morality should not support such acts. The act of supporting crimes for the sakes of personal gain is against the police code of conduct.  Normally in such cases, the involved police officers tend to be strict on the drug users, while they collaborate with the drugs traffickers. The frequently arrested individuals include young males and females from minority groups who are most likely to be involved in drug use. These drug users are mostly poor people living in the streets or with low life; school dropouts, unemployed, and young children experiencing family problems.

Conclusion Based on the Research

Unethical behaviors are very costly to the justice system. They are highly responsible of the broken trust between the public and the law enforcement agency. The public lose faith in the law enforcement agency and start seeing them as criminal and more dangerous to them. They stop running to them for protection and instead, they tend to avoid them for they are not reliable. Unethical practices in criminal justice system also reduce the system efficiency (Chappell, &Piquero, 2004). In this case, the police department will not ever manage to fight drug trafficking, drug use, and gang activities due to internal sabotage.

The problem of police corruption especially in Los Angeles has been there for a long time; in the early to mid-90s. It was initially associated with top officials in the system especially chief police officers and mayors of the city, before it progressed down to the general police officers.  One of the most commonly used theories to explain police corruption situation poor police payment, poor work condition, or the presence of some kind of unethical people who are bound to be involved in criminal behaviors (Domanick, 1998). The latter can be explained by the theory of rotten eggs where corruption is said to be the work of some immoral, dishonest police officers. The involvement of police officers in corruption especially in the US is also explained by the application of criminal law to enhance morality. Inability to enforce laws controlling moral standards enhances corruption since they provide unlawful organizations with a financial attentiveness in undermining the enforcement of the law.

Mayor Richard J. Riordan acknowledged there being corruption in the Los Angeles police department and called for the right measures in fight it. He specifically recognized that this act has cast a dark shadow over the city police department. This happened during graduation ceremony at a police Academy in 1999.  His courage played a great part in initiating reforms in Los Angeles police department (The New York Times, 1999). Nevertheless, the matter was not that easy. The corruption network in the department included senior individuals who tried to use their influence to undermine the process of the reforms. Many involved persons tried to use their power to acquire immunity, and this made it hard to discipline police officers in the low lane.

Police Corruption – Resource Research and Review

Introduction

The research topic is police corruption. This entails a form of misconduct that is done by the law enforcers or the police who are supposed to protect and not to abuse their powers. It can involve a single police or a number of them can conspire to partake in corruption. The corruption can be as a result of taking bribes, flouting, selective enforcement, and other forms. This study analyses four research studies that introduces the research project.

Punch, M. (2013). Police corruption: exploring police deviance and crime. Routledge.

This book argues that the police system and corruption is inseparable. Corruption is referred to as numerous issues that cover divergent and criminal practices in policing that shifts over a period of time. The book is more on institutional failure as compared to individual failure. However, the book concludes by offering reforms in the police sector in UK, USA and Netherlands.

Gounev, P., & Ruggiero, V. (2012).Corruption and organized crime in Europe: illegal partnerships. Routledge.

This book analysesthree key areas that investigates on the association between organized crime and corruption. The three main areas include criminal markets, public bodies, and the private sector in Europe. It covers topics such as disappearance of victims, corruption and the criminal marketplace, the politics of crime in Greece, corruption and organized crime in flux in Bulgaria and other topic that are useful for this study.

The most distinctive reason why the book is selected as a top referral in criminology is the experience that the authors have in this topic. It is written by international experts and it also touches a number of countries such as France, Italy, Bulgaria, UK, Spain, Russia, and Greece. So the analysis is not only rich in content but it represents a true and fair view of the subject in different countries.

Walker, S., & Katz, C. M. (2012).Police in America.McGraw-Hill.

This study provides a complete introduction to the basics of policing in the US. It offers an up-to-date and balanced overview of the police and their main work in safeguarding and securing the nation and its citizens. It also talks about the challenges they encounter in a quest to perform their duties. Also, the book explore on the innovations that have been existing in policing and the entire justice system.

The best thing about using this book is that it offers well-timed articles and excerpts. It also provides statistics that assists in presenting a comprehensive and contemporary overview of the real meaning of being a police officer in America. The use of statistical data ensures that the data given is not only accurate but represent the real issues on the ground. Further, the book provides headlines on recent and past issues that have brought controversy in the past and how they were solved.

Mattes, R. (2016). Good news and bad: public perceptions of crime, corruption and government. South African Crime Quarterly, (18).

The article provides an objective analysis of crime and police and the efforts that the government is placing to ensure that crime is reduced.  The analysis is based on anassessment of Afrobarometer and Idasasurveys that were conducted in South Africa. The performance of the police is seen to improve over a period of time. Also, more than half of the citizens in South Africa believe that the police are involved in corruption cases that make it problematic to get assistance freely from the police making them to pay bribes to get help.

This study gives an overview of the police system in Africa. It seeks to balance the early analysis that has a bias in Europe and America. It is interesting to know that the police corruption is globally and most citizens shares same beliefs about the system. The news media and opposition are always at the forefront in ensuring that corruption reduces.

Conclusion

Corruption is a vice that has made numerous citizens to suffer. Worse of it is when it is done by police officers who are supposed to protect the citizens. Corruption is not only about soliciting for bribes but it involves a number of other issues. The issue of police corruption is an impediment to justice. This study has analyzed four articles that are necessary for the research study.

You can order a plagiarism free and high quality  Resource Research and Review paper at an affordable price. 

Use of Force by Police – A Personal View

The use of force, i.e., when force should be used and in what manner, by law enforcement is constantly an issue for debate. With that, explain your view on the use of force by police. As part of the response give a situation (real or hypothetical) that illustrates your view.

Sample Answer 1

Late in 1974 this student was the recipient of considerable criticism by his new peers and immediate supervisor for an incident where lethal force was not deployed by the author. He was
a recent police academy graduate and only beginning to be enculturated into the police culture, working the midnight shift for a sheriff’s department that served the large unincorporated metropolitan area surrounding a city in Arizona.

I was first to arrive at a reported domestic violence event in a mobile home park known for repeated violent disturbances. Upon arriving and walking the thirty or so yards to the mobile home where loud yelling could be heard, I was confronted by a young man of about fifteen years of age holding a large kitchen knife who began moving toward me in an aggressive and clearly threatening manner. I was then a twenty two year old officer with less than a month of solo duty after my final phase of supervised field training. With revolver drawn the officer retreated backwards and attempted to verbally interact with the young man. After about ten seconds, he stopped his forward movement, dropped the knife, and began crying hysterically. He was taken into custody without any resistance. The emotional event had to do with the young man’s intoxicated father physically abusing his mother and the young man cutting the father in front of the mobile home just as this officer was arriving at the scene. This was before the advent of portable radios and department policy dictated solo response to intercede prior to the often long time frame of any back-up officer.

The young man was emotionally over stimulated and irrational. Nobody died. But the prevailing peer review was that the rookie cop should have held his ground and shot the young man. I have never regretted my decision that night, but I have second guessed it and analyzed it over and over. I could have tripped while retreating backwards. The young man could have suddenly accelerated and attacked with the large knife causing significant injury even before I might have made appropriate target acquisition and fired. There are a lot of maybe’s and could haves but again, nobody died and if we use teleological ethics to analyze the circumstance and look at the outcome or consequences (Peak, Stitt, and Glensor 1998, 21), it would appear everybody came out of it intact and with the appropriate end result or all’s well that ends well.

At those precise few moments of tension however, the young man’s action viewed from within the system of deontological ethics (Peak, et. al. 1998, 21) would judge him harshly as his temporary intent was to harm anyone perceived as a threat. He should have been shot to prevent potential harm. Ten seconds changed the nature of both the intent and the ultimate outcome.

The International Association of Chiefs of Police report that of 40 million police contacts only 776,000 or 1.95 reported actual use of police force or the perceived threat of a use of force (IACP. 2008, 7). This figure is far smaller than the public perception as created by popular media and art forms. However when the public can witness apparent police abuse of their authority. As in the case of the Rodney King incident (LAPD, 2012) to use force in the course of their mission it creates a state of both fear and mistrust of police.

I believe strongly with the National Institute of Justice’s simple and succinct model policy (NIJ, 2012) where they state “Police officers should use only the amount of force necessary to control an incident, effect an arrest, or protect themselves or others from harm or death.” That said the word necessary is open to considerable interpretation as indicated in my personal experience so many years ago. Additionally, it is subject to variable of perception such as vantage point of observation, knowledge or information known by the applicator of force and perhaps not to the observer, past experience, and cultural influences as to what is considered normative or appropriate. Those from my own peer group who arrived in time to observe from the safe vantage point of their patrol cars had a perception that I under reacted. Had I used my weapon I believe the kid’s family would have had a different perception of the incident regardless of any legal outcome.

Sample Answer 2

The use of force is always at the center of the stage when it come to the civil rights of people. It is always easy to point out the faults of the officer when you don’t have the whole story and you can look at it from the safety of your home or from behind your desk. Now you take those people from their safe areas and put them in the same scenario and then the ideas turn and they now realize what we realize, IF I DON’T GET THIS UNDER CONTROL I COULD BE KILLED!

Granted with common sense, there are those who use excessive force and do things that tarnish the badge, but on the most part it was the fear of the unknown and the thought of death that caused them to exceed what should have been done. I know this because I have been there as I am sure many have.
My own personal short story; I was a new deputy working the night shift alone in a single man car. I was dispatched to man abusing the 911 calling system. I arrived on scene, at which time he started to walk away. I made contact with him and in my investigation had probable cause to arrest the subject. The subject was taller and had 70 pounds on me, I weighed 150 at the time. The subject was cooperative until I placed him against the wall to pat him down. He pushed off and turned to kick me in the face and did just that, laying my face wide open. With blood running into my eyes and mouth I instinctively grabbed for him, I was a state runner up wrestler as this all comes into play later, I then locked him up and started to punch him. Mind the fact I can’t see, I continued to punch him, 3 times total, until he went to the ground and I was able to handcuff him. My back up arrived several minutes later and they assisted him into the back of the car. During that time the other deputy stated we need to get him to the hospital as he had lost his eye due to my hitting him.
I know there are you out there already questioning my actions or criticizing me on what occurred, but I tell you the only thing in my mind at the time was I will not die like this and I went into an adrenaline rage to do what I need to win. I had no malice towards this man and would never wish to inflict that kind of damage, but I was not going to die either.
Needless to say by the act of his family, who was not there, I went through an Internal Investigation, had to go to court and was sued for my excessive use of force on this poor innocent man.
Luckily for me the man was an honest one, but he had been a corrections officer for several years and had been fired for killing an inmate. He had admitted to abusing the 911 system as well as the methamphetamine he had, but what shocked most of the people was the fact he stated he did not think I could handle myself and he was going to kill me. Years ago he was arrested by deputies for his part in the killing of an inmate years ago. He stated he felt betrayed and wanted to get back at us, police as a whole. The charges were dropped against me at that time, but only because he was honest and he felt he needed to redeem himself as the people were convicting me without knowing all of the details, I guess just as they may have done with him.
As officers we enforce social order through the legitimized use of force. The use of force describes the amount of effort required by police to compel compliance by an unwilling subject. Every officer knows this because we have to read it all the time and we are asked it constantly in court. As per the policies of most agencies the levels of force police use include basic verbal and physical restraint, less-lethal force and lethal force. Police officers should use only the amount of force necessary to control an incident, effect an arrest, or protect themselves or others from harm or death. Most officers receive guidance or policies from their individual agencies, but I have yet to see a universal set of rules to govern when officers can use force and how much.
The level of force an officer uses will vary based on the situation, which are based on many factors that are occurring in seconds as it unfolds. With that said I am very apprehensive in throwing judgment until I know the whole story. Granted there are instances of excessive force that are not justified, as in the video, and
those officers need to be dealt with and removed from the profession, but I feel everything needs to be known before inflicting punishment.

Reasons Police Officers Engage in Misconduct – Discussion

What are some of the fundamental reasons we see police officers engage in misconduct? Why are these ethical violations so serious and how do they impact their relationship with the community? Fully explain and support your answer.

Sample Answer 1

With deference to the rare occasions where an individual deliberately goes into law enforcement as a mole on behalf of an criminal enterprise, as popularized by such popular media as the film The Departed (2007), few if any young police officers graduating from their respective academies say “Wow, I can’t wait to use by authority for personal gain and to hurt others!” Police misconduct does occur however; misuse of physical force, taking bribes from criminals, theft, even drug dealing have been documented repeatedly and all of these personally observed or vicariously dealt with by this student. All of these acts contribute to a public perception of police that can have a debilitating effect on trust upon which police work is ultimately based on. If no one trusts the police, the police will become ineffective and unable to conduct their activities in support of the public good.

Police psychologist Kevin Gilmartin (2001, 445) believes that repeated exposure to physiologically elevated states combined with “a bombardment of violence, unappreciativeness, and negativity…” create a condition of continued stress that promotes negative behavior including a propensity toward unethical behavior. He believes that the conditioning of the physical reactive systems centered in the hypothalamus helps to create a “pathological interpersonal and impersonal mode of interacting…” (Gilmartin, 2001, 446). This biological contributor to behavior in the student’s opinion is probably not the one and only factor that leads any individual’s drift into aberrant behavior but Gilmartin believes it plays a significant role in the dysfunction he has witnessed and treated as a psychologist specializing almost exclusively on police officers and the police culture since 1976, including police official misconduct.

This additional dimension offered by Gilmartin runs counter to the traditional view of police administrators that corruption was “…a reflection of the moral defects of individual police officer” (Klockars, Kutnjak, Harver, and Haberfeld, 2000, 1). Gilmartin rejects the traditional “bad apple” view and offers an alternative view that focuses on the stresses of the police experience that is a variable that contributes to the outcome of police misbehavior. The views of Gilmartin are more in line with and perhaps supportive of what Klockars et, al (2000, 2) refer to as contemporary approaches that attempt to use the context of four organizational and occupational dimensions which can be over-simplified to include the organizational culture and peer pressures inherent in the police experience. The dimensions are: organizational rules, prevention and control mechanisms, the code (reference to the lack of enthusiasm officers have for reporting fellow officer misconduct), and public expectations.

This broader approach to understanding is more dimensional and frankly requires more thought and work by police administrators to incorporate into the management and administrative efforts of their agencies. It removes the simple excuse of blaming the misconduct on the moral lapse of an individual and requires the organization look into itself to ascertain how organizational influences or the environment, played a role in either permitting encouraging, or even hiding misconduct. Klockars et. al. (2000, 10) attempt to survey the “ characteristics of a police agency’s culture…” offers a more concrete insight into the organization and how an administrator can address the underlying issues that promote or encourage misbehavior.

Sample Answer 2

Police misconduct is that of any action, on duty or off, by a person entrusted with police powers, which would violate such trust to an extreme that would cause those who entrusted the officer with said powers to reasonably question whether continuing that trust would expose the public safety to risk. (Packman, 2009)
With that being said most law enforcement professionals are good, ethical, and caring people who want to help the community. Regardless of the overused cliché, many officers do in fact enter law enforcement because they want to make a positive difference in their communities and help people and make a difference.
Most police have strong, positive moral values and work diligently every day, in many cases at great personal risk to bring dangerous criminals to justice. Doing this provides most officers with a sense of personal satisfaction and self-worth. Most officers do not and in most cases cannot engage in unethical conduct unless they can somehow justify to themselves the morality of their actions, which is almost impossible to a legitimate police officer.

Some of the reasons police officers may engage in unethical behavior or justify what they have done, say in a use of force instance, would be to blame the victim, the denial of victim and dehumanization. They are dirt bags and deserved what they got therefore no guilt in the use of force that was used on the people involved. Police who use these tactics can argue or justify these thoughts of the criminals dealt with because they rationalize they are not a victim and no real harm has been done.
We all know that no one really thinks of a drug dealer, prostitute, thief, or a sexual predator as a real victim, right? These people prey on victims constantly and who would ever think they could be a real victim themselves as they probably brought it upon themselves and deserved it, i.e. Karma. This also reduces their personal responsibility for behaving in ways that they know are wrong. (Fitch, 2014)Law enforcement professionals understand their work environment may be less than ideal at best and life threatening at worst. Within seconds officers must solve problems that have taken days, months, or sometimes years to develop. Within this kind of environment excellence is a need. A single bad incident in the law enforcement community can have lasting effects, which are felt throughout the nation.
I feel some of the cause in the lack of integrity in American police officers is the lack of holding them to a higher standard. Leadership that allows for mediocre officers to exist and stay in the department rather than demanding the highest level of conduct or letting them go will give way for misconduct to occur. Keeping the leaders accountable for their actions and the actions of those around them will prevent them from compromising their integrity. It is as simple as just doing the right thing and acting ethically. This solidifies the officers standing in the community and it allows them to occupy the moral high ground and to always exercise moral leadership in the community, which helps the officer stay in good standing legally and professionally.

America As The Policeman Of The World – Essay Instructions

This last assignment explores America’s international role in recent decades. By the mid-20th century, the United States had become the dominant force in international relations. Some have argued that the United States’ military functions as the world’s “police.” This assignment covers the manner in which this shift occurred and the consequences the United States faces as a result of its status as “policeman of the world.” One can identify early steps this direction well before World War II, but in this paper focus on the period from the 1940s to the present. Take one of the positions as suggested below, draw from the sources listed, and present a paper with specific examples and arguments to demonstrate the validity of your position.

Possible position—in each case you can take the pro or con position:

  1. The American “policing” role developed because of the Cold War, but it became primarily a means for protecting and assisting economic interests for itself and its allies as illustrated by recent events as well as earlier ones.
  2. The American “policing” role has been exercised primarily to protect vulnerable peoples and regions from powerful oppressors or from regional chaos, as illustrated by recent events as well as earlier ones.
  3. The American “policing” role has had noble intentions and ultimate success during the Cold War, but in fighting terror it has gotten off track with some severe consequences.
  4. A position you develop on this issue with the approval of your instructor.

After giving general consideration to your readings and your research, select one of the positions above as your position—your thesis. (Sometimes after doing more thorough research, you might choose the reverse position. This happens with critical thinking and inquiry. Your final paper might end up taking a different position than you originally envisioned.) Organize your paper as follows, handling these issues:

  1. The position you choose (from the list above)—or something close to it—will be the thesis statement in your opening paragraph.
  2. To support your position, use four specific examples from different decades between 1950 and the present. (At least one example must be from the last ten years).
  3. Explain why the opposing view is weak in comparison to yours.
  4. Consider your life today: In what way does the history you have shown shape or impact issues in your workplace or desired profession? (This might be unclear at first since it is foreign policy. But, super-power status does inevitably provide advantages in a global economy.)

Length:

The paper should be 600-to-850 words in length. This normally means 2-to-3 pages for the body of the paper. (The title page and References page do not count in these calculations.) Double-space between lines. Format instructions are below.

Various Aspects of Police Operations – Assignment And A Sample Solution

Write a 1,050 to 1,400 word paper describing the various aspects of police operations. Address the following key aspects of policing activities and operations:

  • Dangers of policing
  • Less than lethal weapons
  • Technology used in policing
  • Issues of Homeland Security and law enforcement relationships
  • Future of policing

Properly format your paper according to APA standards w/ REFERENCES/CITATIONS

Police Defectiveness In Constitutional Due Process

Police Defectiveness

In a typical state, the police department should be a law enforcement agency responsible for providing security, besides promoting peace within the community and amongst its citizens. However, research shows that the department has, over the course of history, and at one time, remained unsatisfactory and substandard. The shortcomings and weaknesses have affected key areas like civil rights, constitutional due process, abuse of discretion, corruption, use of deadly force and police brutality, and police-community relations. In this paper, will chew over the constitutional due process as the main area regarding the history of the police department and stipulate how and when the police can go out of order in their duties.

Constitutional Due Process

Also considered as a substantive due process,it is a principle of constitutional law that allows courts to protect specific rights that are viewed fundamentally from government interference. Due process clauses of both the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution are main sources of court’s authority for such protection. These clauses prohibit state and federal governments from depriving any citizen of “life, liberty, or property, without the application of law processes” (Gaines et al., 2001, p.90).As such, the due process clause prohibits the government from acting unfairly or arbitrarily. The government should never rely on impulse and individual judgment in the decision-making process. Rather, it must stay confined within the boundaries of reason and law.

So as to understand the due process, one must consider the substantive due process and the procedural due process. In line with procedural due process, the law must be carried out in a fair and orderly method. Certain procedures have to be followed when administering or executing a law to avoid the violation of an individual’s freedom. These procedures, nevertheless, cannot be of useful use if the laws are not reasonable themselves. Accordingly, the substantive due process takes effect to ensure that the laws are reasonable. It requires that the laws made by the legislature must be reasonable and reflective of public interests.

The police have broad powers to exercise their duties. However, it is evident that the constitution, clearly, places limits on how far they can exercise their powers. The police department has, in its history, occasionally surpassed these limits. For example, the videotaped beating of a motorist Rodney King, in Los Angeles, and other cases in New York illustrated that police have gone too far in enforcing the law(Palumbo et al., 1992). Most of the cases witnessed or reported in the past are an abuse of civil rights laws where the police used false arrest, malicious prosecution, excessive force, or even failed to intervene and protect individuals from constitutional violations by other officers.

In defense, victims of police defectiveness and deficiency regarding theconstitutional due process can rely upon Section 1983 statute, which is intended to curb oppressive conduct by government and private individuals in vigilante groups like the Ku Klux Klan.

Nassau and Suffolk County police departments.

For this case read the article below concerning the Nassau and Suffolk County police departments. These departments seem to have a problem and some think it is with the way they assign officers to the night shift. After you have read the article, answer the question below in a 3-4 page paper.

Assuming the unions would let you, how would you implement a change to these policies to minimize conflict and maximize officer acceptance?

A Few Bad Cops, or a Problem With the System?

Police Culture in the United States – Assignment And A Sample Solution

Policing Culture Paper: Write a 1,050 to 1,400 word paper describing police culture in the united states. Include the following in your paper:

  • Analyze police culture, including the significance of stress in policing
  • Analyze the culture for women and ethnic minorities in policing and how they can achieve equality in law enforcement
  • Describe the internal and external mechanisms that control police discretion