Tag: Project Management

CIS 8010 Information System Project management All Assignments With Sample Answers

CIS 8010 Assignment 5 Instructions

This assignment is continuing from the (previous) assignment 3 and your task is to write a report to the CIO on the following aspects. Following on from the previous assignment, the CIO was comfortable with what has been proposed by you (in the first assignment) and would like to see three key elements be investigated and reported further in this assignment.

  1.  A comprehensive implementation plan of the cutting edge wireless technology infrastructure for the organization, highlighting potential risks and how these risks can be mitigated. This is a simple report, fully researched and developed with supporting arguments sourced from credible journals. This component should be validated through a plagiarism software and evidence that this has been done should be provided.
  2. An implementation plan detailing time, cost and resource schedules. This is a project management document and you must fully demonstrate your skills in presenting a project management plan.
  3. A document on various assumptions made and justifications for such assumptions. If you have introduced any slack, you must provide details on the same. These three key elements have to be packaged into a single PDF file and submitted via the EASE system.


Final Research Paper – Project Management And How It Relates To Project Management Maturity Model

Research Paper Instructions

This final research paper must demonstrate the understanding of new learning in the field of project management and how it relates to the Project Management Maturity Model.  This is an assignment with a length of 10- to 15- pages (not including title and reference pages) that should integrate the reading, multi-media and class discussion boards.  It is mandatory to have research from the classroom text, as well as at least 4 sources from the internet or online library to support your views.  A minimum of 2 of these sources must be from the Online Library.

Consider the validity of your resources carefully before using them in academic papers.  It is recommended to use examples from your professional experience where possible, or build from your learning in the discussion boards.  Use at least one project you have been a team member or a project manager as an example to discuss each of the following topics:

  • The definition of the Project Management Maturity Model and how organizations can increase their overall productivity using the model.
  • The importance of organizational strategy and how project management needs to link to objectives to achieve results.
  • Project communication methods including who the stakeholders are and why they are important to the project manager.
  • The use of project quality, including earned value analysis, and examples of successful and troubled projects.
  • A conclusion to describe how the probability of success can be found with an organization that is able to reach maturity in terms of project management.

Project Management Final Research Paper Instructions

Final Paper

The final six to eight page paper must demonstrate understanding of new learning in the field of project management. It is mandatory to have research from the classroom text, as well as five sources from the internet or online library to support your views. It is recommended to use examples from your professional experience where possible, or build from your learning in the discussion boards. (Suggestion: use at least one project of which you have been either a team member or a project manager as an example to describe the topics below):
The following topics must be reviewed in order for the paper to be complete:

  • Define project management and explain its importance to the business world.
  • Explain project life-cycle management and the benefits of project management to an organization.
  • Explain the concepts of planning in the project life-cycle and how research and critical thinking is mandatory in planning.
  • Explain project organizations and the importance of leadership and sponsorship.
  • Explain project team building, including techniques of successful team building.
  • Explain how to create a work breakdown structure and how a project manager breaks down the overall project into packages.
  • Explain the need for project management software in large integrated programs and the benefits to the overall project management organization.

Writing the Final Paper

The Final Paper:

  • Must be six to eight double-spaced pages in length and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the approved APA style guide.
  • Must include a cover page that includes:
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Title of paper
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • Must include an introductory paragraph with a succinct thesis statement.
  • Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
  • Must conclude with a restatement of the thesis and a conclusion paragraph.
  • Must use APA style as outlined in the approved APA style guide to document all sources.
  • Must include, on the final page, a Reference Page that is completed according to APA style as outlined in the approved APA style guide.

GM591 Strategic Project Management Essay

Strategic Project Management

Project management is a critical tool instrumental in the growth and development of an organization or a business. Projects are developed and executed with a purpose to implement change. A project without strategy is merely a collusion of efforts resulting into confusion in a given set up of management. Strategy as we understand it focuses on choices; these choices are integrated together with an aim of improving a situation either by increasing efficiency or gaining a comparative advantage in a certain aspect.

In application, organization objectives are determinants of project selection and methods to incorporate. Objectives are merely the basis for project activities; they should be evaluated using the SMART approach. SMART stands for S-specific: they should be clearly stated having a specific outcome identified, M-measurable: every outcome should correspond with the success criteria, A-achievable: in utilizing time, resources and technology they should result to the desired quality, R-realistic: sensible with a flow of activities towards a set goal, T-timely: ought to be planned and executed in a given period of time (Rosenau, & Githens, 2011).

A project goal becomes a moving target due to its importance in improving performance. In today’s modern world traditional project management has scored very dismal this is part of the need for professionals in this field to wake up and think of new methods that tie strategy to outcome assuring advancement as competition has become a norm and to exist one has to adapt, conventional annual planning cycles and poor selection of projects that run down without adding value to a business have become outdated.

Project organization is a reflection of organization strategies. How a project is organized is informed by the mechanisms or blueprint that holds together a firm, better still projects are purposed to develop sustainable advantages or a superior edge against competitors. For instance, when an organization is experiencing hurdles in achieving its current strategy then pursuit of new goals and projects could be the answer (Norrie, & Walker, 2004).

Ambitious strategies are achieved by effective organization strategies. A highly competent project management guarantees success in fulfilling objectives. Managers play a role in reporting, work plan development and decision making, a good manager is eager to contribute to the project and work hand in hand with sponsors this is observed in board meetings where they act as secretaries.  A project sponsor is useful as he/she provides an oversight of the whole project, with time sponsors have had to assume a role of delegating to determine success of a project. A sponsor ought to chair a project committee or board as a senior with deep knowledge and insight.  Oftentimes projects have seniors who are responsible for every action and decision making.

As far as policies and procedures are concerned the field has and is still experiences a wide range of techniques and policies as many as the number of projects. To explain this we take a look at banks, most of bank project policies and procedures are tied to the operational policies, operational policies ensure that projects are appropriately packaged economically, financially and socially. In recent times sustainability has paid a courtesy call that organization are keen on addressing by designing policies that ensure environmental preservation (U.S.A, 2005). In industrial sectors firms are developing techniques and formulating policies that allow for least pollution and low energy consumption. Companies such as Kohl’s and STAPLES get their energy from renewable resources solar and wind are some of techniques used for low cost production. Policies and procedures continue to fine tune project management by designing an outcome with a benefit criterion.

Every project intends to successfully overcome the triple constraint. Triple constraint includes three elements these are; quality or scope, resources (cost) and schedule with is time. In application, all the tree factors must be balanced as failure to mismanage or misallocate one translates to a problematic management that may inhibit success (Norrie, & Walker, 2004).  Foremost a project manager ought to know how to prioritise the triple constraint, priority is to understand what a client wants this is done by communication with the client to discern what is important to them. Consequently, it is easier to determine what scope and resources to employ for a stipulated time to achieve the goal.

Communication is key in a project success thus it should be done accordingly. Fortunately this activity has become easier through making use project 2010. By using Ms project 2010 one can deliver information faster to a small unit or in a large organization through networking, Ms 2010 professional has a user friendly interface and is loaded with features that ease communication, data manipulation, planning and transfer of data both in two way mode. All the above will help one to have a good communication but one ought to know his/her audience, be in a team of right people and timing is important to have the seniors at their best, address the solutions of the organization through the project communication (Johannessen, & Olsen, 2011)

Conclusively, strategy alone is not enough as it is only a plan or an idea in writing it is given life when it manifests into a project. Strategic projects are therefore employing calculated efforts tailor made by an organization objectives to achieve a desired outcome or goal.


Cleland, D. I., & Ireland, L. R. (1999). Project management: strategic design and implementation (Vol. 4). Singapore: McGraw-Hill.

Norrie, J., & Walker, D. (2004). A balanced scorecard approach to project management leadership. Project Management Journal, 35(4), 47-56.

Johannessen, J. A., & Olsen, B. (2011). Projects as communicating systems: Creating a culture of innovation and performance. International Journal of Information Management, 31(1), 30-37.

Rosenau, M. D., & Githens, G. D. (2011). Successful project management: a step-by-step approach with practical examples. John Wiley & Sons.

United States. Division of the Federal Register, United States. Federal Register Division, United States. (2005). The Code of Federal Regulations of the United States of America. Oklahoma, U.S. Government Printing Office

Course Summary for a Desired Program to Enhance Project Management Skills In An Organization

The skills that a project manager possesses can either make a project successful or become a failure depending on their application of the skills they have in their management work, they achieve this through adequate utilization of available resources and proper time management. There are several factors that should be considered in order to enhance project management skills;

  1. Have effective communication skills- A project manager should be a good communicator consecutively encouraging the knowledge of the project to all stakeholders. He/ she is able to differentiate issues which are of more importance and discuss it with all stakeholders , these helps them to know what is expected of them throughout the life cycle of the project being carried out. The flow of information in an organization is vital and the manager should therefore be able to establish how it should be relayed and to what levels (Perce, 1998).Some of the information should not be communicated to a client and in circumstances where it should, and then the manager must be able to pass it on taking in to consideration the effects it could have on the overall success.
  2. A project manager should be highly organized and a good multi-tasker. They are entrusted with a great responsibility within the project and should be able to handle many tasks at the same time, paying attention not to prioritize some projects more than others in which case they many allocate resources inefficiently (Perce, 1998). As many tasks as they may be conducting on daily basis, they should be product- oriented in managing the projects. Lack of organization can lead to failure of the project.
  3. Be a leader and take charge of the project. Projects need to be led in a manner that builds harmony to generate credible relationships with key stakeholders and ensure alignment to the project objectives and emanate the assurance necessary to hold all participants in the project accountable (Brown, 2000). They should be able to demonstrate that the project has a future and that the result will be achieved at the end.
  4. Possess good negotiating skills, the manager should make the people to understand what it is that they are dealing with for the team to make individual efforts and accomplish the ultimate desired goals of the project(Brown, 2000). A lot time will be invested in making the negotiations to enhance the relationships and figuring out of the interests of stakeholders so that the project can move forward in the right direction. This will save time and hence resource utilization. Sometimes not being in the knowhow of negotiations may spoil achievement of the project set objectives and strategies, therefore the skills that the manager displays may affect the project positively or negatively.
  5. Be a problem-solver by being capable of recognizing them as soon as they start appearing. Certainly, in there will be times when problems and obstacles arise that involve immediate solutions this involves paying attention to details no matter how small or big the problem is this will ensure that the impacts likely or caused by the problem are addressed in time thus ensuring that proper measures are put in place(Perce, 1998). This is enhanced by knowledge which is invested technologically and good managerial skills about areas of their jurisdiction.

Project Management Maturity Model

A Project Management Maturity Model is formal tool that is meant to measure the maturity of an organizations project management (Crawford, 2014). Once the initial level of maturity has been identified as well as the areas of improvement have been identified, this model provides a road map which outlines the steps that need to be taken to help towards project management maturity performance improvement and advancement. It comprises of five levels. The first is the common language. This is the part where the organization makes a recognition of the fundamental principles of project management. This is the first step of project management which all projects need to go through.  The second step is the common process. This is the stage where the organization is able to use project management as well as develop the processes and the methodologies to support its effective use (Crawford, 2014). The behavioral expectations of the organizational personnel are at this point necessary for the methodology to be executed repetitively.  Singular methodology is the third step. It is at this level that the maturity of the organization is able to recognize that process control and synergism can be achieved best through the development of a singular methodology rather than by the use of multiple methodologies.  Most companies that are at this stage are committed totally to the project management project.

The fourth level is benchmarking. This is the level where the organization uses benchmarking to compare other professional projects with theirs so as to know where to make improvements.  Continuous improvement is the last stage where the organization looks at the information it collected during benchmarking and implements the changes that are necessary to make improvements (Crawford, 2014).

Art Project Management – Evaluation Phase

The evaluation phase serves as an important indicator in art organizational operations as it is here where the precise determination of its relative success is measured using parameters set earlier. Event planning benefits from the evaluation phase in the form of additional interventions geared towards the achieving the set objectives while aiding in decision making. Moreover, it is through evaluation that art and culture leaders gain insight into the goals that a particular program seeks to achieve and subsequently serve as a backdrop for a reflection into areas that require specific focus. It also informs those participating on the progress made thus far and whether the project is in line with the objectives. Project managers need to acknowledge its role in a continuous process that lasts throughout the operations. Moreover, the evaluation also crucial in assessing the level of community engagement in the project as it is these members who are meant to benefit most. Experts view community collaboration as vital to the cause as they develop a sense of ownership for the project which is a crucial factor in determining whether it will thrive (Brindle & DeVereaux, 2011). In this essay, I will focus on the method and roles of evaluation in the context of collaboration, participation and community engagement while using it as a measure of success coupled with factors that can be improved.

The methods used in evaluation often entail the use of quantitative, qualitative data or a combination of both. It is possible to use these techniques independently, but a combination of both provides the best results. In the case of the quantitative approach, the information is gathered observation, questionnaires or an appraisal of existing databases. In reality, this data is instrumental in measuring the extent of implementation about the number of persons who actively took part in the project (Brindle & DeVereaux, 2011). The samples collected are a representation of the community’s attitude and level of participation. On the other hand, the qualitative method seeks to interrogate the value that was added to the community, all individuals who took part and the timeline of events. Case studies and focus groups provide this data which is then received through an analysis phase for interpretation (Heagney, 2012). It enables the project leaders to explain the reasons behind the level of community engagement recorded through observing a wide range of complex issues that affect a specific group. These groups aid their facilitators by providing ideas on how best involve individuals from that particular locality in the project using contextual data. A combination of both methods is also a frequent phenomenon as it deals with an assortment of issues that might be affecting the implementation process.

Through evaluation, it is possible to assess the level of community participation through the data that has been collected. It is this information that will allow the major players to find the cause of the recorded level in a bid to seal all the loopholes and ensure all the objectives are met. The problems experienced throughout the implementation of the proposal among members of the community are spelled out and new measures introduced to correct these anomalies. Furthermore, an evaluation process can enable areas where the staff needs additional training resources that will allow them to bring the local community on board in participating fully in the project. The managers of the art project provide the information gathered to various stakeholders in the community who can aid in involving more of community members in the project. The need for additional funding can also be established during this stage as it is these resources that will determine a community’s level of collaboration.

A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge – Critical Analysis Essay


This essay analyses the BOK (Body of Knowledge) captured in the “A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge” treatise put together by the Project Management Institute (1996) critically. The institute projects the treatise as persisting with the custom of distinction in the management of projects. It projects the treatise and the BOK it bears as advancing the custom, or tradition, with an easy-to-appreciate and easy-to-implement standard, enhanced consistency as well as improved clarification. When one goes through the BOK, he or she gets the picture that project management, as a practice, has a standard language defining it, especially in the areas of project initiation, project planning, project execution, project monitoring, project control, and project closure. By and large, the book mirrors the knowledge, as well as collaboration, of serving project managers. As well, the book provides the project management essentials as they relate to varied projects. Particularly, the essay examines the treatise’s claim of the existence of universally agreed project management standards, including the treatise, and the claim that project management is a distinct profession critically.

Main Body

Project Management Standards

The Project Management Institute (1996) asserts that “A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge” constitutes a standard for use by project management practitioners, or professionals. The institute claims that as the treatise, as a standard, guides the general project management BOK. Notably, the institute concedes that there is no single write-up or document containing all the BOK. The ones in already existence leave out some of the BOK unpublished, and merely appreciate it as constituting best norms and practices in the project management field. As well, the ones already in existence do not capture the whole of the BOK since it keeps on evolving and growing every succeeding day. The institute claims that as a standard, the treatise does not guide project management on how to execute given tasks or describe particular project management methodologies. Rather, it is a standard for guiding project management practitioners in developing other standards and own methodologies (Project Management Institute, 1996). Crawford, Pollack and England (2007) and Sanjuan and Froese (2013) concur with the institute that the treatise is among the standards for guiding project management practitioners in developing other standards and own methodologies.

The claim by the Project Management Institute (1996) that the “A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge” is not a PMP examination specification or standard is somewhat confusing, especially if viewed in the light of the institute’s claim that the treatise is a standard guiding the general project management BOK. One is persuaded to think that the treatise is a PMP examination specification or standard, albeit minor, since the book covers about seven tenths of the content covered by the examination. One would think that the book is a PMP examination specification or standard as well as a CAPM examination specification or standard. The CAPM covers students’ appreciation of the book exclusively according to the Project Management Institute (1996).

By and large, Crawford, Pollack and England (2007), the Project Management Institute (1996), and Sanjuan and Froese (2013) project the book as a guide to the extensive project management BOK. They project it as providing the practitioners and students with entry-points to additional project management information. As well, as noted earlier, they project it as one of the numerous standards for creating unique methodologies, practices, techniques, and protocols in particular project management-related organisations and practices. The institute indicates that for best results, the book, as a standard, should be used together with other frameworks and standards that it has developed over time, including the Practice Standard for Work Breakdown Structures, the Standard for Program Management, and the Project Manager Competency Development Framework. As well, the institute indicates that for best results, the book, as a standard, should be used together with other frameworks and standards developed by other bodies, including scholarly organisations and professional organisations.

Even then, even as the Project Management Institute (1996) concedes that “A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge”, as a standard, can be supplemented by other standards, it asserts that the book is the most dependable and most universally agreed-upon standard in project management. Notably, the institute’s thinking that the book is most dependable and most universally agreed-upon standard in project management appears motivated by its appreciation of the book as having a unique purpose and scope. Notably, a project is defined by its “scope and resources” (Project Management Institute, 2016, par.2). Crawford, Pollack and England (2007) and Sanjuan and Froese (2013) come about as disagreeing that there is any single standard that ought to be deemed, or considered, superior to the others. They appear to attach comparable weights to all the standards guiding project management practices.

Eskerod and Huemann (2013) appear to suggest that the weight ascribed to any of the standards should be based on the consideration of its inclusion of varied stakeholder management approaches and sustainable development practices rather than the standards’ purposes and scopes as suggested by the Project Management Institute (1996). According to Eskerod and Huemann (2013), most of the present standards, including “A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge” treat varied stakeholder management approaches and sustainable development practices superficially. Rather, the standards should ideally commit the management of stakeholders to sustainable development contexts. Standards that accommodate approaches for managing stakeholders are seen as more ideal than the ones focused on ensuring that the stakeholders comply with the extant project requirements according to Eskerod and Huemann (2013).

Sanjuan and Froese (2013) hold that the best project management standards and practices lack in the “typical construction projects” (Sanjuan & Froese, 2013, p.91). That position contradicts the one held by the Project Management Institute (1996): that all the characteristic projects are defined by the standard typified by the book. One may conclude from the position put forth by Sanjuan and Froese (2013) that in some projects, the standard typified by the book may be inapplicable or even unacceptable, regardless of its being projected by the institute as the most dependable and most universally agreed-upon standard in project management owing to its unique purpose and scope.

Probably, it is not used in some projects where it may be taken as not accommodating approaches for managing stakeholders as suggested by Eskerod and Huemann (2013). Sanjuan and Froese (2013) appear to hold that several of the standards are welcome in projects, including the “A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge” standard, Prince2, ISO 9000, and the IPMA Competence Baseline. Possibly, the last three are among those seen as capable of supplementing the first one by the institute. Crawford, Pollack and England (2007) appear to suggest that none of the standards should be deemed superior to the others since different nations opt for particular standards for the management of projects.

Is Project Management a Distinct Profession?

The Project Management Institute (1996) presents project management as being a distinct profession. It “began to emerge as a distinct profession in the mid-20th century” (Project Management Institute, 2016, par.9). According to the institute, there are numerous project managers pursuing the profession: executing varied project management roles and responsibilities. Even then, there are many non-professionals executing the roles and responsibilities as well. The institute and Dion (2013) present project management as a distinct profession with clearly cutout roles and responsibilities. Clearly, many organisations that represent practitioners of project management, including the International Project Management Association, the Association for Project Management, and the Project Management Institute view it as being a profession. When one goes over “A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge”, he or she is likely to question whether or not project management is a distinct profession same as teaching, medicine, law, or engineering.

While the Project Management Institute (1996) presents project management as being a distinct profession, the Veatch (2011) and Smith (2011) appreciate it as being a process. They opine that it is not a profession since it is not defined by the control and definition of a related, specific, abstruse, complicated, cagey, esoteric, and unique BOK. The general BOK related to project management is seen as general: with methodologies, tools, and techniques that are comparable to the ones used in general management.

Veatch (2011) and Bates (1998) suggest that project managers can raise their professional image by appreciating that project management is a process and that the process is application-specific or context-specific, meaning that generic project management certifications are by and large worthless where they are not adapted for particular applications. When one reads the article by Smith (2011), he or she begins thinking that even if project management was taken as being a profession, it would remain an evolving one, a process as practitioners move from given expertise and responsibility areas to others. According to Smith (2011), all professionals are on a transformation journey.

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Selling Executives on Project Management Case Study Questions With Sample Answers

Read the Chapter 10 Case titled “Selling Executives on Project Management.” Write a one to two (1-2) page paper in which you:

  1. Analyze the fundamental reasons why the executives in the case refused to listen to their own employees but were willing to listen to a consultant. Discuss the main reasons why the executives still seemed apprehensive even after the consultant’s presentation.
  2. Imagine that you are the consultant from the case study. Speculate on three (3) strategies that you could employ to get the executives to understand your point of view and thus support your project management recommendations.
  3. Use at least three (3) quality references. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not quality as academic resources. Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Analyze the role of executive management in the life of a project.
  • Apply the project manager’s critical skills, in terms of project leadership, team building, time management, conflict management, and effective communication with executive sponsors, peers, team members, and project clients.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in project management.
  • Write clearly and concisely about project management using proper writing mechanics.

IT 301 : Project Management Course – What I Have Learnt

I have really learnt a lot in this class, not only about the concepts of project management but also about risk management. I intend to use the knowledge that I have acquired in this class to better manage future projects and to improve the capabilities of anyone else who may want to manage projects in future. First, I have learnt that in order to better manage a project, one must ensure that he properly understands the principles behind Crosby’s, Deming’s, and Juran’s philosophies of quality management. Although Juran’s approach was the most interesting to me, I think one should look at the project as a whole and decide on the best philosophy that if applied, will give the best results. Personally, I think the success nature of the project determines the type of philosophy that should be applied, and that there is not a single philosophy that fits in every project.

Additionally, by being in this class, I had an opportunity to learn the nine essential knowledge areas for project management. These knowledge areas include risk management, scope management, integration management, cost management, time management, communications management, human resources management, quality management, and procurement management. Under all these knowledge areas, detailed approach on how to accomplish functions of project management have been explained. The knowledge acquired in this class with respect to the nine areas of project management have moulded me to be an all round student who can easily manage both present and future projects. I will also use this knowledge to guide others on how they can achieve success when managing their projects.

Another thing that I have learnt so far in this class is the process followed in project risk management as well as the main purpose of conducting project risk management. According to Stackpole (2008), project risk management is conducted to reduce the probability of occurrence of a negative event and to increase the probability of occurrence of a positive event. In addition, I have been able to learn some of the obstacles that may prevent effective management of a project’s risks. For instance, some of the team members may impede project risk management because they tend to think that they do not have risks at a time when risks actually exist. If such issues are not solved on time, the probability of occurrence of negative events might be high (Stackpole, 2008).

The other thing that I was able to learn in this class is the role played by effective leadership in project management. During the entire session, I enjoyed being in the company of good leaders who helped me to understand the importance of creating a balance between different styles of leadership. I now understand why it was important for me to become part of this class because by being there, I have learnt how to use others’ leadership experiences to my advantage. I now know the main areas that need adjustments when I go back to the field to manage my own projects. Currently, I can look at project’s costs and risks objectively and determine the types of changes that are necessary to ensure the success of every project both in the short run and in the long run. Moreover, I now understand that I should remain open-minded when handling any project in order to achieve maximum success out of it.

MN601 Network Project Management – Developing a Well-Researched Project Planning Document

The purpose of this assignment is to develop a well-researched project planning document based on the overall parameters of a networking related project, establish an appropriate project management plan, and quality environment required to complete the chosen project. Furthermore, analyse project issues, conduct post-project review (i.e., lessons learned) and make recommendations for improvements for future projects. In this assessment task, you will present a proposal for the major project assignment as a team of 3-4 members. Proposal template is available on Moodle.

The project must be selected from the networking or the telecommunication area.
The project duration should not be less than 12 Months. Before starting, seek approval for the proposed project from your laboratory tutor. Address all stages of Project Management as outlined in the unit. A suitable project management software (e.g. MS Project 2010) must be used.

Assignment Description

The project report should include all phases of a project life cycle, i.e. Initiating, Planning, Executing and Closing. Project Management Plan helps the management team to maintain a constant focus towards delivering the project in accordance with the customer needs and expectations.
The development of such a plan begins with the business case (refined from the Project Charter), project objectives and goals, success criteria, scope, high-level schedule, stakeholder expectations, communication plan, benefits and costs, governance and resourcing, management approach, risk management plan, and potential ethical issues. The project documents ensure a consistent understanding of the project, help to set expectations, and identify resources necessary to move the project to the next level of detailed planning. Every project must be delivered in a manner that captures the user’s trust and confidence in the chosen projects ability to effectively and efficiently deliver quality services/products. In order to ensure project success, it is imperative that good project management principles are used early in the planning stages. As the project becomes more defined, the Project Management Plan becomes the tool by which the project is managed effectively.

Students should include all aspects of the project as if they were the Project Manager and it is a requirement of the subject that they include the use of software (e.g. Microsoft Project). Students are expected to show evidence of self-directed reading and research using credible resources including, but not limited to their prescribed text. The assignment will be marked on the basis of depth of analysis, research, references and integration of all aspects of project management.
Assessment will be on the basis of the realistic nature of the project and how well it is presented. You should present the final document in a form that would be consistent with the details of your chosen project, and written in Business English in a report format. Make sure that the timeline, the budget and the quality of the work is realistic, justifiable and sufficiently attractive to win a tender for a real project.


Form a team of 3-4 members and work co-operatively to complete the chosen project. The project report must cover at least the following aspects:

  •  A clear outline of the project including title, start and end date, goals and objectives, etc.
  •  Project requirements (both functional and non-functional)
  • Project team members (title, skills/expertise, not names!)
  • Project plan, including: o Project scope
    • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
    • Estimated time-line o Resource needs
    • Gantt Chart and Network Diagram
    • Estimated cost
    • Quality plan o Stakeholder analysis
    • Communications plan o Risks management plan
    • Ethical issues analysis
    • Project deployment plan
  • Crash the total project duration by 2 weeks.
  • Use software (e.g. Microsoft Project) to complete WBS, allocate time and resources, apply cost, and prepare Gantt chart and Network Diagram.
  • Project Signoff (on a separate page)
  • Post project review and recommendations Submission guidelines:
  • The report should have a consistent, professional, and well-organized appearance. Create the report (Minimum 1800 Words) showing extensive use of MS Project.

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Importance of Inter-Personal, Communication and Leadership Skills in Project Management

Project management is the second stage of labor management, which involves outlining the whole work to be carried out, calculating the cost, creating a schedule, and seeing all the required resources. It is progressively becoming an essential component in every organization. It is mainly because many businesses through the deployment of projects gain a competitive advantage in the business field. However, due to the high costs linked to challenging projects, project management has taken in organizational operations; leaders seek to identify the factors that influence project performance. Seemingly, this increases the need for a project manager with competent interpersonal and communication skills as well as leadership competencies. This paper seeks to explain why interpersonal and communication skills in addition to leadership skills are essential for the project management.

Relationship Building and Team Work

Strong relationships and teamwork in an organization are important. According to Alam et al., (2010), the role of a project manager is to develop an environment of active participation by involving project stakeholders at all levels in the planning, formation, and execution of projects. Managers should build healthy relationships by showing being interest in people personal life. Also, they should develop a good sense of community within the project team. Teamwork is paramount in the project management because it will promote interaction among members doing different tasks for a common goal (Stagnaro & Piotrowksi, 2013). Furthermore, if a project manager can create a relationship with their group, which motivates, empowers and supports them, everyone will work towards achieving the same organizational goal. For this to happen, Ng & Walker, (2008) study brought out the quality managers must exhibit- adeptness, benevolence, and unity. Accordingly, people with excellent interpersonal skills build trust and cooperation as they motivate and lead and thus become successful managers. Thus, healthy relationships should be created so as to enhance the success of a company. Additionally, effective leadership, excellent interpersonal and communication skills are vital when building relationships in project management

Conflict Management

Project management involves a natural propensity for conflicts. According to Alam et al., (2010) conflicts are expected to arise because of the following: budget and schedule constraints and the power and political processes that come into play as project cross functional boundaries. Considering these complex relationships in projects, if the project managers know how to communicate efficaciously with their members to find common ground, so as to avoid time wasting disputes. The role of a project manager is broader than the sole management of project processes. But additionally to dispute resolution (Alam et al., 2010).The practice of keeping an open, regular and accurate means of communication with all levels of project staff is vital to ensuring the smooth flow of instructions from the customer to factory floor (Alam et al., 2010).Therefore, managing a project successfully without unresolved conflicts requires interpersonal and communication skills as well as excellent leadership skills.


Communication is fundamental during project management to avoid conflicts that ravage the teams’ relationship. Being a project manager requires efficient communication, interpersonal and leadership skills.

Xemba Translations Case Study – It Project Management

Risk Evaluation Table (Sherif, 2006).

            Risk Description Impact Chances of Occurrence Degree of Impact Initial action to be Taken Responsible Team Members Strategies for prevention and mitigation
Geographical Risks: This is the risk imposed by the physical appearance of the land where the connection will be effected A landscape characteristic by hills and valleys may demand more towers or equipment than anticipated due to signal interference The chances of occurrence are high about 50% especially if the project will cover the entire country Irregular land will interfere with the signal coverage and increase interference grating a demand for more towers in those regions than in even land Engineers would be required to survey the entire landscape where the expansion would be needed to ensure to identify its nature before budgeting Site Engineers The project manager needs to consider the nature of the land while making calculation rather than just using the size of the area to be covered.
Infrastructure Risk: The cellular towers require power supply among other things. The company may need to employ towers in region where the electrical infrastructure had not reached This will limit the coverage area despite of the company’s plan and need to expand it. Else it will add the company the cost of laying down the electrical infrastructure. The chances of occurrence are high especially if the company is targeting rural areas the chance is about 40% This will limit the expansion the company is aspiring to do or increase its budget since it will have to lay electrical infrastructure first before developing the telecommunication infrastructure Engineers will require to survey the region and evaluate electricity infrastructure placement after which the actual tower positioning will be done Site Engineers The best way to mitigate this is by trying to focus on working with region where power can easily be accessed to minimize chances of new installation.
Complexity risk: the project may be complicated by a number of factors that include landscape, power requirements and technological requirements, and laboratory testing results Occurrence of many more aspects to be considered will interfere with the budget and scope and the time of completion The chances of occurring is high about 50% Complexity will make it hard to approximate the actual project cost and also interfere with site engineering since apart from the actual aspect that need to be considered more will have to be considered for instance a good tower location based on power availability may not be good based on the soil test results. Through field survey will be required to have general information on other infrastructures, landscape and soil test results before budgeting Site Engineers and Soil science team This can only be limited by having all information required about the area of development based on physical land appearance, level of development based on infrastructure and the laboratory results for all test before choosing the technology to use and budgeting
Environmental risks: Developing cellular network is an outdoor activity that is highly influenced by the weather changes and subjected destruction incase harsh weather condition for instance hurricanes The weather condition can influence the project completion since construction cannot continue in harsh weather condition. In addition harsh unpredictable weather crisis can result to destruction of equipment and thus interfering with the budget The chances of happening are highly determined by when the project will be carried out however the average chances for this risk is 30% The impact can be great if this takes place. In case of change of weather, the major impact will be delay in the project completion which will also influence the project budget. However in case of harsh destructive weather condition, the destruction can be very extreme adding to the cost of the project The project manager need to understand the weather pattern of the region before setting the project development period to avoid possible crisis Project manager and his team This can be minimized by scheduling the project to take place during summer or during the dry season where the project is unlikely to be interfered by rains, storms, or ice among other conditions.
Suppliers Risk: the cost and availability of the equipment required to complete the project is highly determined by the suppliers Lack of all the required equipment or getting them at increased cost after a new supply may interfere with project completion time as well as the budget The chances are minimal about 20% The impact may be high in case the suppliers are not able to provide what is needed within budget and on time. It can read to major delays or interfere with the project budget negatively Market analysis should be done before the project dates are set to establish the availability of the required materials and their cost and quality Project manager, contractors and the fund coordinator The best way to mitigate this risk is by identifying the technology to be used, the materials to be required. A thorough market survey should then be conducted and the best suppliers for all products identified. Back up suppliers should also be identified in case the first one fails


Measuring Project Performance

To measure the project performance I will use the project schedule, budget and assessment engineers report. An efficient project needs to observe time, cost and the scope. In this regard, if each process is effectively completed within the set time and within the set budget then the project performance would be rated as excellent. However, if there are delays, or overflow in the budget, they there would be an indication of something wrong in the budget. Assurance of the engineers through their weekly reports on the efficiency and quality will also play a major role in evaluating the project success (Sherif, 2006).

The project is already going on; however, the risk analysis had to be redone. In this case there is a high likelihood that the project has not been given the right approach since the initial stages of the project are highly guided by this analysis. The meeting is there to evaluate if there are any delays that have taken place. In this regard, every participants will be required to report on their progress and this will be compared to the schedule to evaluate if there individuals out of track, experiencing unreported problem or who are behind the schedule.

The three problems that would affect the project include lack of proper risks analysis and application of mitigation techniques when implementing the project plan. Another problem is poor communication among the team members, as well as the team members and the management group. The final problem project contractors moving from one stage to another without engineers’ supervision or authorization.

To cover come these problems, each team leader will receive a sheet of the new risk analysis report with direction on how to mitigate risk where the risks involving his or her operation will be highlighted and guidance provided on how to handle the situation. Communication structure will also be provided and the team leaders will be provided with means of communicating to the management, contractors or engineers instantly even when in the field. Good working environment will be enhanced to ensure free communication. All official communication through emails or reports will have to be replied within 12 hours failure to which a follow up will be done. The contractors will have to coordinate with engineers to enhance quality work. The engineer visitations will be included in the scope schedule to ensure that contractor knows when to expect engineers and when to wait for directives (Desmond, 2010).


Telecommunication expansion is a complex project which is faced by a number of risks which include geographic risks, infrastructure risks, complexity risks, environmental risks and suppliers’ risks. Some of these risks can be very expensive to handle since they mostly ass to the project budget. Geographical risks create signal interferences and thus demanding the employment of more repeaters than it could have been necessary. Infrastructure risk pushes the company to find ways to power towers that are located in regions where there are no electricity infrastructures and thus adding to project time and budget, complexity risk refers to other aspect that influence the project such as the soil nature which may make the company forego a better tower position based on infrastructure to a less favorable position. Being an outdoor activity, the project is also faced by environmental risk that can be caused by harsh weather, which can cause delay or even the destruction of already constructed part. Finally, suppliers’ product availability and cost variation is another possible risk. In this regard, the project management and the entire team must be very keen in their implementation process to ensure that all these risks are minimized.

Based on the above analysis it would be recommended that the project manager address each team that is likely to be affected by the identified risk separately and provide them with measures to minimize risks. Good communication, effective supervision and a high level of collaboration among all participants will highly assist in identification of possible arising risk and also in implementation of mitigation process for currently identified risks. Project will also be required to take adequate time in the analysis stage which will serve a great deal in avoiding most of possible risks. Although the project is already in the process, an evaluation of how much attention had been given in the initial set off will be evaluated to ensure that effective measures were employed to avoid future issues. In this regard, I would consider that each team leader should provide a report of everything that has been happening, the analysis done before the set up and the initial risk analysis report so as to determine the way forward and to ascertain whether the approach given will be very effective for the effective completion of the project.

Establishing A Project Management Office And Measuring the Return-On-Investment

As a company executive, how would you determine if there is a need to establish a project office? If it is determined that there is a need, how do you measure the return-on-investment as a result of the implementation of the PMO?

A project management office (PMO) can come in handy particularly when they are many projects within the department that are uncoordinated. Setting up the office may arise especially if one department has taken on many projects and has difficulty in completing them. Setting up departmental PMOs will help in assisting the department in focusing on urgent issues related to the projects like handling resources and the various expenses together with keeping up with the timelines associated with the project (Artto et al., 2011). As such, the Project Management Office will cooperate with the management to analyze the various projects and their priorities and focus on how resources should be used in meeting the project’s objectives.

Secondly, Setting up a PMO can result due to shifting focus on the main idea or an important project in the organization. Companies usually focus on the projects that give them more money as compared to others. Such projects often take a long time and use more resources. Therefore, the companies usually have to wait for some time before they can gain from the project. The projects use much capital and thus, may strain resources to other projects, but the project provides the company with substantial gains if finished. Since the projects take a lot of time regarding the use of resources and capital in the organization consistent organization and structuring of the projects over time should be done with care to ensure that the goals of the projects are followed to the end (Larson & Gray, 2011). Some projects usually employ the use of a project management office to help in finishing key projects that would assist the company grow or create more job opportunities in the company.  In such a case, a PMO will help in ensuring that the projects are finished successfully and on time. The PMO be to temporary in this case just to oversee the completion of a particular project.

Thirdly, another need for the setting up of Project Management Office is in the case of a significant change that is to happen in the organization particularly when the plan is to enter a new market. The company may be introducing a new product in the market or doing mergers with other businesses. Such steps require that the firm takes appropriate measures, which include execution, organization, and careful planning which the organization may not carry out successful without setting up a specific office to focus on the business venture in place (Kerzner, 2013). Coming up with a PMO will help the company strategically deal with the different business projects in the organization.  The office will help in dealing with various projects throughout the organization while prioritizing them and focusing on finishing them on time. Changes are thus implemented throughout the organization from a central office, which is the PMO. Such an office will focus its efforts in finishing the tasks at hand thus ensuring their completion in the required timeframe. Therefore, the office solely focuses on the completion of the task without interference from other organizational duties.

Fourthly, increasing administrative on project managers from the necessity of setting up a PMO. Administrative tasks in such cases may take more time that the project manager would have used in overseeing other urgent or important tasks (Aubry et al., 2009). The Project Management Office, in this case, will help the project managers by clearing them from some administrative tasks while they concentrate on other areas of the projects that need improvement or resources. The need of PMO arises when there are too many administrative tasks that the project manager carries. Such tasks may hinder the proficient working of the project manager especially when they take much of his time at the expense of other tasks that he needs to oversee regarding the project (Meredith et al., 2016). As a result, the project managers are given support in administrative tasks especially functions that include drafting reports on costs to accounting, sorting paperwork and filing it among many other duties.

It is important that the increasing burden caused by the administrative tasks be reduced to give the project manager more time and space to concentrate on the project and ensure that the project is executed as planned (Wysocki, 2009). Some project managers may have problems dealing with various software like Microsoft Project. Such difficulties in handling software may cause the project to delay. The PMO will thus provide a solution to the challenges faced by the project managers by training them and giving them other resources that will help them in finishing the projects. Such offices, therefore, advantage the project manager in that they help in ensuring that they are proficient in their duties and thus perform better.

Measuring the return on investment of a project management office will involve looking at the various functions of the PMO. One is in the supporting of project manager in their administrative tasks, which saves a lot of time and energy on the part of the project managers and enables the projects to be finished on time (Heagney, 2012). Thus, time as s resource is saved and workers who were needed are quickly acquired which means that the project is completed on time to the advantage of the company and the client. The return on investment can thus be measured on the successful completion of projects, which would have taken long if the office was not set up especially for critical projects that would have been terminated as a result. Return on investment can usually be measured on how costs have been saved by the implementation of the PMO.

Such costs can be saved by the Project Management Office especially actions that involve removal of resource vacuums and projects that are redundant. As such, projects that are not beneficial to the company are done away with, and only those that are potentially successfully are left ridding the company of using resources on projects that will disadvantage the company in the end. Resource allocation is more efficient since the PMO determine the various that need the resources especially critical and urgent projects (Jones, 2010). The office further helps the organization in avoiding repetitive mistakes that have led to increased expenses. As such, the PMO helps the organization save on time and contributes to the efficient use of resources thus ensuring that expenses are minimized significantly. As such, the office helps to align all project functions to the strategic goals of the organization while making sure that the resources are managed and used effectively, and the various investments are used appropriately to meet the company’s goal.

How Adopting Management Structures and Initiatives Impact Project Management

Concurrent Engineering

Concurrent engineering involves the integration of the development process associated with the product. Concurrent engineering consists of team values about sharing trust and cooperation whereby the various people through a consensus while further involving multiple pointers in different project life cycle stages reach decision-making. Concurrent engineering, therefore, has various processes that include software, facilities, multidisciplinary teams and various processes (Heagney, 2012). In using concurrent engineering, more people are involved, and solutions are reached at with the majority to ensure that the best possible approach is employed in the execution of projects in place.

Total Quality Management

Total quality management involves a structured and comprehensive approach to management with the aim of enhancing the quality of services and commodities with information gathered from feedback to the company’s services. The quality improvement in the organization is more or less different from various organizations though it has to conform to the ISO 9000 standards. The quality management according to TQM usually focuses on the customer’s view of the product or services. TQM concentrates mostly on various categories, which include act, check, do and plan. The planning stage involves the definition of the problems in the organization (Ika, 2009). The doing stage involves the implementation of the solution and coming up with mechanisms that can measure the efficiency of the solution implemented. Checking involves examining the data before and after carrying out various solutions. The acting stage involves the informing the people of the different variation about the changes that have been made in the company to align it with its goals.

Therefore, if the feedback from eh customers is positive, it has an affirmative impact on the business and, therefore, makes the organizational activities more marketable.  Total quality management, therefore, plays a great role in ensuring that the company carries out its mandate as effectively as possible.


Empowering of team members in project management is crucial to ensuring that the people are prepared for the various activities associated with the project. Empowering an employee boosts confidence and courage to make sure that the employees are better placed to carry out their work with more independence while at the same time being accountable for their actions. Empowerment usually creates a flat structure in the organization and brings on board many players who are well skilled in their work and thus can make concrete and efficient decisions towards the work processes and further increase efficiency in the organization (Stevenson & Sum, 2009). Empowerment, therefore, helps more teamwork in project management and enhances the process of decision making giving the project manager more options to deal with other issues that are more urgent while living some of the decision making to other team members.

Self-Directed Work for Teams

Self-directed teams are important to any project. They are team members who have different skills and are combined work towards a particular task with little or no supervision at all. The team has to come up with a working structure and ensure that it can complete the task assigned to at in particular period. The team is usually formed to do more than one task, and therefore, the composition and the way the members coordinate with each other determines how the team will perform. Therefore, the team directs its effort without much involvement of the management in performing various tasks and in ensuring that the what is require of the team is done appropriately and timely.

As is the case with most teams it is important for the team members to work together to ensure that that the team succeeds. In such a group, the various team members usually have to work towards solving the various problems associated with the tasks being done (Andersen & Grude, 2009). The organization often helps the self-directed teams in providing them with guidance and the mission statement to align their activities with the organization. Therefore, self-directed teams in project management are important as they help in ensuring that groups are formed to perform specific functions that are to be directed towards meeting the objectives and goals of the company.

Life Cycle Costing

Life cycle costing usually uses economic analysis regarding the various expenses associated with the business that including maintenance, operations and building costs in a particular period (Farr, 2011). Utility costs are thus calculated over time to ensure how the various escalation rates and their relations to the rise of utility costs.  It tends to forecast on the future expected costs that are expressed using the dollars values at present while using a discounting rate.  Life cycle costing helps in coming up with forecasted costs for the project lifecycle to ensure that the management has an idea of the various additional costs that may be needed for the project and to come up with estimates that will help in planning on whether more resources are needed in the different life cycles of the project.

What is Polarization of Communications In Project Management

Polarization deals with the communication where people who had been neutral all choose sides and continue to be extreme in the viewpoints while at the same time holding their positions and moving further part whereby they take very different viewpoints that show many oppositions between them. The people in this do not agree on any point as they continue to hold that their viewpoints are the ones that are right (Cooke et al., 2011). Such is polarization and it brings disunity and total conflict, which can divide teams and hamper progress of any work. Teams need to agree to work together or change to accommodate one another.

Polarization thus moves two parties apart because of the continual extremity in their opposing viewpoints. The communication does not become polarized at first but follows a process as mentioned above. When they were natural and moved to choosing sides they still could have been reconciled easily. However, as they continue to oppose each other and further develop extreme viewpoints the conflict between them increases up to the level that they disagree completely. Someone in the polarized state views the other as enemy who does not deserve honor. As such, both sides are segregated.

Read Also Importance of Inter-Personal, Communication and Leadership Skills in Project Management

The common causes of polarized communication are hidden agendas against a specific person or group, using generalization and stereotypes, lack of confidence, dysfunctional responses, criticism, emotional distraction, and personal agenda among many others. Such issues can cause one to lose focus of the matter at hand and concentrate on the person. Such focus on a person instead of the issue leads to argument and disagreement, which leads to wastage of time, energy, and resources since the meeting would have led to a solution to the various issues affecting a project. Such issues cause people to take sides for the wrong reason and dampen any hope of dealing specifically with issues of importance.

To ensure that polarization does not take place among team members it is important to ensure that the discussion of any issue does not turn into personal attacks. The meeting should thus focus on the agenda at hand and any person who deviates from the normal will have to be returned to the issue at hand (Heldman, 2011). The lessening of generalization in the meeting and any stereotyping as a result will help prevent polarization in the meeting and among the different team members. Situational focus of the issue at hand should always be stressed to prevent other issues that are not only hurting the progress of the meeting but also wasting time, which is an important resource for any project. Team members should be brought together to work in unity and any issue that can lead to conflict be nipped in the bud before it escalates out of hand. Project managers are central people in managing conflicts and should ensure that they maintain a neutral standpoint in any discussion and ensure that the agenda at hand is the point of focus by the team members.

MGT646 – Project Management Questions And Answers

Using the project life cycle develops a matrix showing when various sources of conflict occur.

The project life cycles have four elements that include initiation, planning, execution and closure. Project management involves many activities associated with the project which are usually are linked due to the use of the available resources. Therefore, the various activities are done in accordance with the availability of the resources (Gido& Clements, 2014). Some resources are critical while others are not. Some projects may be urgent while others can wait. Therefore, the critical resources are usually employed over urgent issues that may occur. Such urgent issues may affect other areas of the project especially if the activities are delayed. The critical resources may not be available when needed especially when other projects are using them.

Therefore, a company may be handling more than one project at a time since conflicts may occur in the distribution of resources. The structure in the organization may create conflicts due to the sharing of resources. The various managers may thus conflict especially in staffing of projects in cases where there is a delay in one project, which leads to delayed allocation of personnel for other projects(Mir &Pinnington, 2014). Various conflicts envisioned in project manage are usually associated with the resources available for the different projects that the company has to undertake.

The conflicts causes are related tolabor resources, personality clashes, scheduling, administrative procedures, priorities, costs, capital expenditures, facilities, trade-offs and technical opinions (Binder, 2007). Therefore, in a matrix organization, many conflicts arise due to the structure of the organization. Moreover, many decision makers in place determine the allocation of resources. Team members are mostly on the receiving end especially if they lack personnel because they are allocated elsewhere.

Describe the communications process in place on your project or in your organization.

Most of communication that takes place in the organization involves the managers and the leadership in the organization, together with the subordinates. Therefore, the communication channels are differently carried out through the various people in the organization. The communicating channels can be either horizontal or vertical (Kliem, 2008). The horizontal communication is usually between team members while the vertical communication is between the managers and the employees or team members.

For any project to succeed communication, management should be enhanced. Communication is important in any project as it helps to pass out information from one level of leadership to another in the organization. The different levels of leadership and the team members have to communicate through various communications to ensure that the project is clearly understood by project managers and the team members (Herzog, 2015). The project managers should thus give clear information on their needs to ensure that mishaps do not happen. The communication process usually moves from the leaders to the subordinates especially through the managers to ensure that they get the necessary information regarding the activities carried out by each group of workers.

The communication process usually ensures that there is flow of critical information that will help in necessitating the smooth flow of activities in the organization especially among different managers and their workforce (Taylor & Dow, 2013). The communication process in place has three major sections. A sender of the message transmits it to the receiver through a particular channel. The message consists of an idea that has been developed by the sender. The recipient receives the messages and has to decode it to discover its meaning. Decoding and encoding takes place to ensure that the interpretation of the message is done accurately. The message and its interpretationsare done contextually. Encoding of the message involves coming up with the message while decoding the message involves understanding or interpreting the message.

Therefore, the manager in the organization may either use writing or oral methods to ensure that the message reaches the intended audience. Therefore, the managers can be the senders or receivers of the information. The senders can be the leadership and managers in the organization while recipients can be managers and subordinates. Nonverbalcommunication is another effective communication that is used by the managers in the organization. The nonverbal forms of communication involve action, gestures, facial and physical appearance.

At present most of the communication in the organization is done through emails and phone calls to alert the recipients on various projects in place. Furthermore, the message being sent should be clear and concise. The clarity of the message will help in ensuring that the workers receive the information and do accordingly as instructed (Pritchard, 2014). Any project being managed is dependent on the communication coming from the different parties. It is therefore important that the sender of the message communicate in a manner that is understood by the recipient to ensure that effective communication takes place.

Oral communication take place most of the time in the organization. Oral communication is one of the most effective forms of communication since it brings out points clearly that would not have been understood by the intended people. The company usually trains and encourages the people to be active listeners. The managers in the organization usually providefeedback to the workers to ensure that they are on the right track and thus performing their tasks efficiently.

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Projects and Project Management as Vehicles To accomplish Organization’s Strategic Goals

 KAPLAN UNIVERSITY – GM591: Strategic Project Selection and Initiation

Executive Summary

This focus paper gives an insight of the project management aspect of the successful completion of the Golden Gate Bridge. The GM591: Strategic Project Selection and Initiation portion provides analyses of the project selected on the basis of the coherence in the organizational objectives, strategies, goals and the final project outcome. The paper further highlights on the adequacy of the project procedures, techniques and policies. Other aspects of the project like the selection of the project manager and sponsor are looked into versus the success story of this engineering construction. Moreover, other elements in relation to the planning and performance standards like, cost, risk, time are also scrutinized.

Introduction/ background/ discussion

The 1933 – 1937 construction of the Golden Gate Bridge was an outstanding engineering work in the history of America. The Analysis of the project’s cause and course is one with interesting facts as this focus paper highlights in its findings.For about forty years the idea for a bridge spanning the Golden Gate remained unpursued. The bridge would connect San Francisco to Marin County and facilitate the development of north San Francisco.

Mapping organizational objectives to theproject outcomes

The Golden Gate Bridge was objectively built for no other purpose than to serve the automobiles driver. It was built to ease traffic that was being experienced as the ferry system, having been used in San Francisco since 1850 was hugely strained because of the expansion of the automobile ownership throughout the 1920s (Zinkova, 2010).The city dwellers moved to the suburbs, that is, the side of San Francisco Bay as they purchased automobiles. The suburbanites depended on the ferry system to get to the city. The traffic at the ferry terminals was too heavy and this became the objective on which the necessity for building of a bridge across the “Golden Gate.” When the bridge was finally put into use its objective was achieved as no more congestion and the traffic opened up.

Project’s reflection on the organizational strategies.

The project organization did not reflect the organizational strategy in terms of cost. This is because the team and engineers behind this construction budgeted for $30.1 million at the time of the project’s approval. This never came to be the case as the project’s costs turned out to be $36.7 million, thereby resulting to a cost overrun of 22%.

Structurally, the Golden Gate Bridge’s project organization never failed its formulators and implementers. This is evident when the 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake shook San Francisco Bay for about 15 seconds but never cause any significant damage to the bridge. The project’s organization was formulated to meet the organizational strategy of sustaining the winds of up to 96km/hr and strong ocean current sweep(Zinkova, 2010).

Proper selection of project sponsor and project manager.

On the aspect of project manager, Joseph Strauss took the lead of other engineers on this particular project. This selection of the individual to take this position was never a question but the engineer to propel the groundbreaking and the entire construction of the bridge to the later was a courageous step. This is because the underlying factors with respect to the proposal on the Golden Gate Bridge construction was quiet of risk than an open success showing project (Zuehlke, 2010).Strauss had to take the risk as many experts never believed of the possibility of building such a long bridge under such difficult circumstances. For instance, the strong currents and heavy winds on the site of the bridge made construction dangerous.

On the other hand, the selection of project sponsor was a unique one as there was little state or federal money used in the building of the bridge (Barter, 2001). Most of the financing on the project came from the bonds which the Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District sold. Even though the project was being undertaken in the midst of the Great Depression, the voters in the six counties of the district in 1930 approved a $35 million bond issue which required them to put their businesses, homes and farms as collateral.

Adequacy of project procedures, policies and techniques

The Golden Gate Bridge project was successfully completed in time. The incorporation of the risk factors like the tide, fog, earthquake and winds in the framework of the bridge’s construction was a major boost the success of such an engineering work.

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